WorldWideScience

Sample records for response global regulation

  1. Global SUMO proteome responses guide gene regulation, mRNA biogenesis, and plant stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eMazur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO is a key regulator of abiotic stress, disease resistance and development in plants. The identification of >350 plant SUMO targets has revealed many processes modulated by SUMO and potential consequences of SUMO on its targets. Importantly, highly related proteins are SUMO-modified in plants, yeast, and metazoans. Overlapping SUMO targets include heat-shock proteins, transcription regulators, histones, histone-modifying enzymes, proteins involved in DNA damage repair, but also proteins involved in mRNA biogenesis and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Proteomics studies indicate key roles for SUMO in gene repression by controlling histone (deacetylation activity at genomic loci. The responsible heavily sumoylated transcriptional repressor complexes are recruited by EAR (Ethylene-responsive element binding factor [ERF]-associated Amphiphilic Repression-motif containing transcription factors in plants. These transcription factors are not necessarily themselves a SUMO target. Conversely, SUMO acetylation prevents binding of downstream partners by preventing binding of SIMs (SUMO-interaction peptide motifs presents in these partners, while SUMO acetylation has emerged as mechanism to recruit specifically bromodomains; bromodomain are generally linked with gene activation. These findings strengthen the idea of a bidirectional sumo-/acetylation switch in gene regulation. Quantitative proteomics has highlighted that global sumoylation provides a dynamic response to protein damage involving SUMO chain-mediated protein degradation, but also SUMO E3 ligase-dependent transcription of HSP (Heat-shock protein genes. With these insights in SUMO function and novel technical advancements, we can now study SUMO dynamics in responses to (abiotic stress in plants.

  2. Checkpoint Kinases Regulate a Global Network of Transcription Factors in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Jaehnig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage activates checkpoint kinases that induce several downstream events, including widespread changes in transcription. However, the specific connections between the checkpoint kinases and downstream transcription factors (TFs are not well understood. Here, we integrate kinase mutant expression profiles, transcriptional regulatory interactions, and phosphoproteomics to map kinases and downstream TFs to transcriptional regulatory networks. Specifically, we investigate the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Chk1, Rad53, and Dun1 in the transcriptional response to DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate. The result is a global kinase-TF regulatory network in which Mec1 and Tel1 signal through Rad53 to synergistically regulate the expression of more than 600 genes. This network involves at least nine TFs, many of which have Rad53-dependent phosphorylation sites, as regulators of checkpoint-kinase-dependent genes. We also identify a major DNA damage-induced transcriptional network that regulates stress response genes independently of the checkpoint kinases.

  3. Global SUMO proteome responses guide gene regulation, mRNA biogenesis, and plant stress responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Mazur; H.A. van den Burg

    2012-01-01

    Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) is a key regulator of abiotic stress, disease resistance, and development in plants. The identification of >350 plant SUMO targets has revealed many processes modulated by SUMO and potential consequences of SUMO on its targets. Importantly, highly related protein

  4. Enhancing Social Responsibility within Global Supply Chains: Is Legal Regulation the Optimal Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Peterková

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. First, this paper examines the voluntary (ethical v. mandatory (legal basis of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Second, it examines the relationship between CSR, law and business ethics. Third, it tries to answer the question if there is a need for a hard[2] legal regulation of CSR within international supply relationships or if ethical norms, e.g. expressed in the form of self-regulation, may better serve the purpose. And finally, it suggests possible ways for the future development of suitable regulatory methods for enhancing social standards within international supply chains. The questions are approached solely from the perspectives of legal theory and socio-legal analysis.

  5. Global regulation of gene expression in response to cysteine availability in Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gaelle

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine has a crucial role in cellular physiology and its synthesis is tightly controlled due to its reactivity. However, little is known about the sulfur metabolism and its regulation in clostridia compared with other firmicutes. In Clostridium perfringens, the two-component system, VirR/VirS, controls the expression of the ubiG operon involved in methionine to cysteine conversion in addition to the expression of several toxin genes. The existence of links between the C. perfringens virulence regulon and sulfur metabolism prompted us to analyze this metabolism in more detail. Results We first performed a tentative reconstruction of sulfur metabolism in C. perfringens and correlated these data with the growth of strain 13 in the presence of various sulfur sources. Surprisingly, C. perfringens can convert cysteine to methionine by an atypical still uncharacterized pathway. We further compared the expression profiles of strain 13 after growth in the presence of cystine or homocysteine that corresponds to conditions of cysteine depletion. Among the 177 genes differentially expressed, we found genes involved in sulfur metabolism and controlled by premature termination of transcription via a cysteine specific T-box system (cysK-cysE, cysP1 and cysP2 or an S-box riboswitch (metK and metT. We also showed that the ubiG operon was submitted to a triple regulation by cysteine availability via a T-box system, by the VirR/VirS system via the VR-RNA and by the VirX regulatory RNA. In addition, we found that expression of pfoA (theta-toxin, nagL (one of the five genes encoding hyaluronidases and genes involved in the maintenance of cell redox status was differentially expressed in response to cysteine availability. Finally, we showed that the expression of genes involved in [Fe-S] clusters biogenesis and of the ldh gene encoding the lactate dehydrogenase was induced during cysteine limitation. Conclusion Several key functions for the

  6. Global regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus in response to nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jennifer C; Perchuk, Barrett S; Laub, Michael T; Gober, James W

    2010-02-01

    In a developmental strategy designed to efficiently exploit and colonize sparse oligotrophic environments, Caulobacter crescentus cells divide asymmetrically, yielding a motile swarmer cell and a sessile stalked cell. After a relatively fixed time period under typical culture conditions, the swarmer cell differentiates into a replicative stalked cell. Since differentiation into the stalked cell type is irreversible, it is likely that environmental factors such as the availability of essential nutrients would influence the timing of the decision to abandon motility and adopt a sessile lifestyle. We measured two different parameters in nutrient-limited chemostat cultures, biomass concentration and the ratio of nonstalked to stalked cells, over a range of flow rates and found that nitrogen limitation significantly extended the swarmer cell life span. The transcriptional profiling experiments described here generate the first comprehensive picture of the global regulatory strategies used by an oligotroph when confronted with an environment where key macronutrients are sparse. The pattern of regulated gene expression in nitrogen- and carbon-limited cells shares some features in common with most copiotrophic organisms, but critical differences suggest that Caulobacter, and perhaps other oligotrophs, have evolved regulatory strategies to deal distinctly with their natural environments. We hypothesize that nitrogen limitation extends the swarmer cell lifetime by delaying the onset of a sequence of differentiation events, which when initiated by the correct combination of external environmental cues, sets the swarmer cell on a path to differentiate into a stalked cell within a fixed time period.

  7. Regulators of coastal wetland methane production and responses to simulated global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmella Vizza; William E. West; Stuart E. Jones; Julia A. Hart; Gary A. Lamberti

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4) emissions to the atmosphere, which vary along salinity and productivity gradients. Global change has the potential to reshape these gradients and therefore alter future contributions of wetlands to the global CH4 budget. Our study examined CH4...

  8. PIRACY REGULATION AND THE FILIPINO’S HISTORICAL RESPONSE TO GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando B. Tolentino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the racial discourse of Moros and Moro-profiling by the state in piracy—sea piracy in olden times and media piracy in contemporary times. Moro piracy becomes a local cosmopolitanism in the Philippines’ attempt to integrate in various eras of global capitalism. From the analysis of media piracy, the Moro “dibidi” (pirated DVD seller becomes the body that mediates between the Filipinos’ middle-class fantasy of a branded lifestyle and the reality that most Filipinos do not have full access to global consumerism. Using a cultural studies framework, the essay draws a connection between seemingly unlinked events and sources, allowing for a historical and social dialog, past and present, to mix, creating junctures for sites of dialog and critique.

  9. Genomic Regulation of the Response of an Agroecosystem to Elements of Global Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLucia, Evan, H.

    2011-06-03

    This document outlines some of the major accomplishments from this project: (1) New tools for analyzing and visualizing microarray data from soybean gene expression experiments; (2) Physiological, biochemical, and gene array evidence that acclimation of carbon metabolism to elevated CO{sub 2} is governed in significant part by changes in gene expression associated with respiratory metabolism; (3) Increased carbon assimilation in soybeans grown at elevated CO{sub 2} altered pools of carbohydrates and transcripts that control growth and expansion of young leaves; (4) Growth at elevated CO{sub 2} increases the abundance of transcripts controlling cell wall polysaccharide synthesis but not transcripts controlling lignin synthesis; (5) The total antioxidant capacity of soybeans varies among cultivars and in response to atmospheric change; (6) Accelerated leaf senescence at elevated O{sub 3} coincides with reduced abundance of transcripts controlling protein synthesis; (7) Growth under elevated CO{sub 2} increases the susceptibility of soybean to insect herbivores by increasing insect lifespan and fecundity through altered leaf chemistry and by defeating molecular induction of plant defenses; (8) Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} alters flavonoid metabolism in soybean; (9) Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3} conferred resistance to soybean mosaic virus by cross inducing defense- and stress-related signaling pathways; and (10) Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} accelerates decomposition by changing chemical and biotic properties of the soil.

  10. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent KD, 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations.

  11. Global genomic profiling reveals an extensive p53-regulated autophagy program contributing to key p53 responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Spano Mello, Stephano; Bieging, Kathryn T.; Jiang, Dadi; Dusek, Rachel L.; Brady, Colleen A.; Sidow, Arend; Attardi, Laura D

    2013-01-01

    To gain new insights into p53 biology, Kenzelmann Broz et al. used high-throughput sequencing to analyze global p53 transcriptional networks in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts in response to DNA damage. This approach identified autophagy genes as direct p53 target genes. p53-induced autophagy was important for both p53-dependent apoptosis and transformation suppression by p53. These data highlight an intimate connection between p53 and autophagy and suggest that autophagy contributes to p53-...

  12. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli - Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production.

  13. Arabidopsis plastid AMOS1/EGY1 integrates abscisic acid signaling to regulate global gene expression response to ammonium stress

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2012-10-12

    Ammonium (NH4 +) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH4 + toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH4 +. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH4 + stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH4 +, 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/ EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH4 +-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH4 +-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH4 + stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH4 + hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH4 +-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of the presence of high NH4 + levels. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Dental hygiene regulation: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P M

    2008-08-01

    Occupational regulation of health personnel is important to professional associations and their members, the public that relies on their services and the regulatory agencies responsible for their conduct. There is increasing interest in ensuring that dental hygiene regulation fosters the continuing evolution of the profession and its contribution to oral health. The keynote address for the 2007 Regulatory Forum on Dental Hygiene, this paper discusses the rationale for and issues pertaining to occupational regulation, outlines the evolvement of dental hygiene and identifies regulatory options for the profession. Professional regulation exists to ensure public safety, health and welfare. However, negative political-economic side effects coupled with environmental pressures have resulted in increased scrutiny for health professionals. One such profession is dental hygiene. Its evolution has been dramatic, in particular over the past few decades, as illustrated by its rapidly increasing numbers and broader distribution globally, gradual shift to the baccalaureate as the entry-level educational requirement and increase in postgraduate programs and expanding scope of practice and increased professional autonomy. Regulatory changes have been more gradual. Regulation is mandatory for the vast majority of dental hygienists. Of the options available, the practice act - the most rigorous type, is predominant. Globally, regulation tends to be administered directly by the government (n = 9 countries) more so than indirectly through a dental board (n = 4) or self-regulation (n = 3). Whether regulated directly or indirectly, dental hygienists increasingly are seeking a greater role in shaping their professional future. Self-regulation, its responsibilities, misperceptions and challenges, is examined as an option.

  15. Global companies and the private regulation of global labor standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.; Mikler, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyzes what contribution the private regulation of global labor standards makes to the global governance of labor standards. It discusses the role that global companies play in creating, applying, governing, or resisting this private standard-setting effort, and the major indicators

  16. Post-translational serine/threonine phosphorylation and lysine acetylation: a novel regulatory aspect of the global nitrogen response regulator GlnR in S. coelicolor M145.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Amin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil-dwelling Streptomyces bacteria such as S. coelicolor have to constantly adapt to the nitrogen (N availability in their habitat. Thus, strict transcriptional and post-translational control of the N-assimilation is fundamental for survival of this species. GlnR is a global response regulator that controls transcription of the genes related to the N-assimilation in S. coelicolor and other members of the Actinomycetales. GlnR represents an atypical orphan response regulator that is not activated by the phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate residue (Asp 50. We have applied transcriptional analysis, LC-MS/MS analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs to understand the regulation of GlnR in S. coelicolor M145. The expression of glnR and GlnR-target genes was revisited under four different N-defined conditions and a complex N-rich condition. Although, the expression of selected GlnR-target genes was strongly responsive to changing N-concentrations, the glnR expression itself was independent of the N-availability. Using LC-MS/MSanalysis we demonstrated that GlnR was post-translationally modified. The post-translational modifications of GlnR comprise phosphorylation of the serine/threonine residues and acetylation of lysine residues. In the complex N-rich medium GlnR was phosphorylated on six serine/ threonine residues and acetylated on one lysine residue. Under defined N-excess conditions only two phosphorylated residues were detected whereas under defined N-limiting conditions no phosphorylation was observed. GlnR phosphorylation is thus clearly correlated with N-rich conditions. Furthermore, GlnR was acetylated on four lysine residues independently of the N-concentration in the defined media and on only one lysine residue in the complex N-rich medium. Using EMSAs we demonstrated that phosphorylation inhibited the binding of GlnR to its targets genes, whereas acetylation had little influence on the formation of GlnR-DNA complex

  17. The Borrelia burgdorferi RelA/SpoT Homolog and Stringent Response Regulate Survival in the Tick Vector and Global Gene Expression during Starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drecktrah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the Lyme disease bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi traverses its enzootic cycle, alternating between a tick vector and a vertebrate host, the spirochete must adapt and persist in the tick midgut under prolonged nutrient stress between blood meals. In this study, we examined the role of the stringent response in tick persistence and in regulation of gene expression during nutrient limitation. Nutritionally starving B. burgdorferi in vitro increased the levels of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp, collectively referred to as (pppGpp, products of the bifunctional synthetase/hydrolase RelBbu (RelA/SpoT homolog. Conversely, returning B. burgdorferi to a nutrient-rich medium decreased (pppGpp levels. B. burgdorferi survival in ticks between the larval and nymph blood meals, and during starvation in vitro, was dependent on RelBbu. Furthermore, normal morphological conversion from a flat-wave shape to a condensed round body (RB form during starvation was dependent on RelBbu; relBbu mutants more frequently formed RBs, but their membranes were compromised. By differential RNA sequencing analyses, we found that RelBbu regulates an extensive transcriptome, both dependent and independent of nutrient stress. The RelBbu regulon includes the glp operon, which is important for glycerol utilization and persistence in the tick, virulence factors and the late phage operon of the 32-kb circular plasmid (cp32 family. In summary, our data suggest that RelBbu globally modulates transcription in response to nutrient stress by increasing (pppGpp levels to facilitate B. burgdorferi persistence in the tick.

  18. Corporate Governance and Global Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela M Salvioni

    2003-01-01

    The application of proper governance principles demands a clear focus on sustainable growth as the basis for risk minimization in order to ensure long-term company success. In other words, a company’s effectiveness implies the assumption of a global responsibility concept based on strict compliance with the law, the creation of constructive relationships with all of society and respect for the environment. Of course, this does not mean losing sight of the importance of creating value and adeq...

  19. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-07-01

    Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. International volunteerism and global responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badlani, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    To review the current status of volunteerism in the field of urology as a global responsibility, a PubMed search was done with keywords: international volunteer, urology, global health, international resident education. Furthermore, internet search using Google and Bing as search engines for the same key words was done. Websites of multinational urological organizations was researched for available information. Expert opinions of key individuals in the arena were obtained. There is a paucity of published literature as to the efforts and outcomes of volunteerism in Urology; most of the information is related to the fistula repair outcomes in medical literature. There is credible information on the impact on resident training in the field of dentistry, general surgery, orthopedics and plastic surgery. The desire to volunteer is demonstrated in a survey of urologists, the delivery of volunteer missions is fragmented, the outcomes or impact of these efforts is less well documented. There is a need to create pathways to harness the desire of urologists to volunteer. Simultaneously, the effort to establish ethical standards and guidelines for surgical care in LMIC countries by visiting doctors is important. There is a tremendous opportunity for resident education in this arena, as demonstrated by the ACGME approved path in general surgery.

  1. Achieving global perfect homeostasis through transporter regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient homeostasis—the maintenance of relatively constant internal nutrient concentrations in fluctuating external environments—is essential to the survival of most organisms. Transcriptional regulation of plasma membrane transporters by internal nutrient concentrations is typically assumed to be the main mechanism by which homeostasis is achieved. While this mechanism is homeostatic we show that it does not achieve global perfect homeostasis—a condition where internal nutrient concentrations are completely independent of external nutrient concentrations for all external nutrient concentrations. We show that the criterion for global perfect homeostasis is that transporter levels must be inversely proportional to net nutrient flux into the cell and that downregulation of active transporters (activity-dependent regulation) is a simple and biologically plausible mechanism that meets this criterion. Activity-dependent transporter regulation creates a trade-off between robustness and efficiency, i.e., the system's ability to withstand perturbation in external nutrients and the transporter production rate needed to maintain homeostasis. Additionally, we show that a system that utilizes both activity-dependent transporter downregulation and regulation of transporter synthesis by internal nutrient levels can create a system that mitigates the shortcomings of each of the individual mechanisms. This analysis highlights the utility of activity-dependent regulation in achieving homeostasis and calls for a re-examination of the mechanisms of regulation of other homeostatic systems. PMID:28414718

  2. Inactivation of the global regulator LaeA in Monascus ruber results in a species-dependent response in sporulation and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingpei; Cai, Li; Shao, Yanchun; Zhou, Youxiang; Li, Mu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear regulator LaeA has been proven to globally govern fungal development and secondary metabolism, but its function may be species-dependent, even though its amino acid sequences are well conserved in numerous fungi. Herein we identified the LaeA in Monascus ruber M7 (MrLaeA), and verified its role to mediate growth, sporulation and secondary metabolism. Results showed that the radial growth rate of the selected MrlaeA knock-out mutant (MrΔlaeA-22) was significantly faster than that of the parental strain M. ruber M7, and growth was accompanied by the formation of an abnormal colony phenotype with more abundant aerial hyphae. Interestingly, conidia production of the MrΔlaeA-22 strain was about thrice that of M. ruber M7, but ascospores were not observed in the MrΔlaeA-22 strain. Additionally, compared to M. ruber M7, MrΔlaeA-22 exhibited drastically reduced production of multiple secondary metabolites, especially those of the six well-known Monascus pigments and citrinin. Simultaneously, the selected MrlaeA complementation strain (MrΔlaeA::laeA-45) nearly recovered the capacity for sporulation and secondary metabolism observed in the parental strain. These results demonstrate that MrLaeA regulates not only secondary metabolism, but also asexual and sexual differentiation in M. ruber, but some of its regulation appears to differ from other fungi.

  3. Global regulation of virulence and the stress response by CsrA in the highly adapted human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, F.M.; Loughlin, M.F.; Fainberg, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    -induced transcriptional responses of napA and ahpC, the acid induction of napA, cagA, vacA, the urease operon, and fur, as well as the heat shock responses of napA, groESL and hspR. Although the level of napA transcript was higher in the csrA mutant, its stability was similar in the wild-type and mutant strains, and less...... NapA protein was produced in the mutant strain. Finally, H. pylori strains deficient in the production of CsrA were significantly attenuated for virulence in a mouse model of infection. This work provides evidence that CsrA has a broad role in regulating the physiology of H. pylori in response...

  4. Arbitrage and Competition in Global Financial Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where...... institutions’ excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...... their standards solely to attract businesses and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.; Coast, J.

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibil...

  6. Chokepoints global private regulation on the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Tusikov, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    In January 2012, millions participated in the now-infamous "Internet blackout" against the Stop Online Piracy Act, protesting the power it would have given intellectual property holders over the Internet. However, while SOPA's withdrawal was heralded as a victory for an open Internet, a small group of corporations, tacitly backed by the US and other governments, have implemented much of SOPA via a series of secret, handshake agreements. Drawing on extensive interviews, Natasha Tusikov details the emergence of a global regime in which large Internet firms act as regulators for powerful intellec

  7. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Otavio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR of the World Health Organization (WHO. The current HR(2005 contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005 call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010.

  8. Global Challenges and Local Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following......: The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism. Although...... and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained...

  9. Rooting depths regulate the global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Fan, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem productivity and evapotranspiration fluxes are fundamental regulators of the global carbon and water cycles. Where and how much plants grow is largely determined by atmospheric conditions and soil water availability. It is the reliance of ecosystems on soil water that links their fate tightly to precipitation and groundwater reach. Here, we explore the controls on plant root uptake imposed by climate at the large scale and by groundwater accessibility at the local drainage scale, aiming to untangle the spatial and temporal global patterns of rain-fed and groundwater-fed ecosystems. To this end, we use observed atmospheric and productivity conditions to model the seasonal evolution of root uptake and soil moisture profiles and their coupling to the water table, with a global groundwater-soil-vegetation framework at the 1km resolution. Results indicate highly variable uptake-depth across seasonal and local hydrologic gradients, and a far more common occurrence of deep (>5m) uptake than previous thought. Implications to future environmental change are briefly discussed.

  10. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  11. Hydrologic Regulation of Global Geochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's temperature is thought to be regulated by a negative feedback between atmospheric CO2 levels and chemical weathering of silicate rocks. However, direct evidence for the operation of this feedback over million-year timescales is difficult to obtain. For example, weathering fluxes over the last 20 million years of the Cenozoic Era, calculated using marine isotopic proxies (i.e. 87Sr/86Sr, δ7Li, and 187Os/188Os), appear inconsistent with past atmospheric CO2 levels and carbon mass balance. Similarly, observations from modern catchments suggest that chemical weathering fluxes are strongly correlated with erosion rates and only weakly correlated with temperature. As an alternative approach to evaluating the operation of a negative feedback, we use the major surface reservoirs of carbon to determine the imbalance in the geologic carbon cycle and the required silicate weathering flux over the Cenozoic. A miniscule (0.5-1%) increase in silicate weathering is necessary to explain the long-term decline in CO2 levels over the Cenozoic, providing evidence for a strong negative feedback between silicate weathering and climate. Rather than an appreciable increase in the silicate weathering flux, the long-term decrease in CO2levels may be due to an increase in the strength of the silicate weathering feedback. To explain the observed variations in the strength of the weathering feedback during the Cenozoic, we present a model for silicate weathering where hydrologic processes regulate climatic and tectonic forcings due to the presence of a thermodynamic limit to weathering fluxes. Climate regulation by silicate weathering is thus strongest when global topography is elevated, similar to today, and lowest when global topography is more subdued, allowing planetary temperatures to vary depending on the global distribution of topography and mountain belts. These results also motivate several key outstanding challenges in earth surface processes, including the need to

  12. Social responsibility of nursing: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Barry, Donna M; Hoyt, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Davis, Sheila M

    2009-05-01

    This study addresses social responsibility in the discipline of nursing and implications for global health. The concept of social responsibility is explicated and its relevance for nursing is examined, grounded in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics and the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics. Social justice, human rights, nurse migration, and approaches to nursing education are discussed within the framework of nursing's social responsibility. Strategies for addressing nursing workforce issues and education within a framework of social responsibility are explored.

  13. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  14. Dissecting specific and global transcriptional regulation of bacterial gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerosa, Luca; Kochanowski, Karl; Heinemann, Matthias; Sauer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by specific transcriptional circuits but also by the global expression machinery as a function of growth. Simultaneous specific and global regulation thus constitutes an additional-but often neglected-layer of complexity in gene expression. Here, we develop an experiment

  15. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  16. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    2000-06-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.

  17. Nickel-responsive transcriptional regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiani, Francesco; Zambelli, Barbara; Bazzani, Micaela; Mazzei, Luca; Ciurli, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Nickel is an essential micronutrient for a large number of living organisms, but it is also a toxic metal ion when it accumulates beyond the sustainable level as it may result if and when its cellular trafficking is not properly governed. Therefore, the homeostasis and metabolism of nickel is tightly regulated through metal-specific protein networks that respond to the available Ni(II) concentration. These are directed by specific nickel sensors, able to couple Ni(II) binding to a change in their DNA binding affinity and/or specificity, thus translating the cellular level of Ni(II) into a modification of the expression of the proteins devoted to modulating nickel uptake, efflux and cellular utilization. This review describes the Ni(II)-dependent transcriptional regulators discovered so far, focusing on their structural features, metal coordination modes and metal binding thermodynamics. Understanding these properties is essential to comprehend how these sensors correlate nickel availability to metal coordination and functional responses. A broad and comparative study, described here, reveals some general traits that characterize the binding stoichiometry and Ni(II) affinity of these metallo-sensors.

  18. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... treatment has to be supplemented with methods for detailed stress evaluation and for structural strength assessment before a complete structural reliability analysis can be carried out....

  19. The liberal battlefields of global business regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, Kate; Macdonald, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The global justice movement has often been associated with opposition to the broad programme of ‘neoliberalism’ and associated patterns of ‘corporate globalisation’, creating a widespread impression that this movement is opposed to liberalism more broadly conceived. Our goal in this article is to challenge this widespread view. By engaging in critical interpretive analysis of the contemporary ‘corporate accountability’ movement, we argue that the corporate ...

  20. Semi-global output regulation for linear systems with input saturation by composite nonlinear feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongwen; Yu, Xiao; Lan, Weiyao

    2014-10-01

    To improve transient performance of output response, this paper applies composite nonlinear feedback (CNF) control technique to investigate semi-global output regulation problems for linear systems with input saturation. Based on a linear state feedback control law for a semi-global output regulation problem, a state feedback CNF control law is constructed by adding a nonlinear feedback part. The extra nonlinear feedback part can be applied to improve the transient performance of the closed-loop system. Moreover, an observer is designed to construct an output feedback CNF control law that also solves the semi-global output regulation problem. The sufficient solvability condition of the semi-global output regulation problem by CNF control is the same as that by linear control, but the CNF control technique can improve the transient performance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by a disturbance rejection problem of a translational oscillator with rotational actuator system.

  1. Nuclear transport factors: global regulation of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Douglass J; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew S; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear import receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator - the γ-TuRC complex - and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores toward the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic.

  2. The liberal battlefields of global business regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Macdonald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The global justice movement has often been associated with opposition to the broad programme of ‘neoliberalism’ and associated patterns of ‘corporate globalisation’, creating a widespread impression that this movement is opposed to liberalism more broadly conceived. Our goal in this article is to challenge this widespread view. By engaging in critical interpretive analysis of the contemporary ‘corporate accountability’ movement, we argue that the corporate accountability agenda is not opposed to the core values of a liberal project. Rather, it is seeking to reconfigure the design of liberal institutions of individual rights-protection, adjusting these for new material conditions associated with economic globalisation, under which powerful corporations alongside states now pose direct and significant threats to individual rights. This activist agenda is, therefore, much less radical in its challenge to the prevailing liberal global order than it may initially appear, since it functions to buttress rather than corrode many core normative commitments underpinning the liberal political project.

  3. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  4. The responsible subject in the global age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Elena

    2010-09-01

    The first thesis of this article is that the concept of responsibility takes on an unprecedented meaning in the twentieth century resulting from the emergence of a new dimension of the other: to be responsible comes to mean not just to account for oneself in relation to the other, but also to take the other into account, to take care of the other-what I call responsibility towards (the other). The main reason for this change consists in the emergence of global risks and the necessity, as underlined by Hans Jonas, to be responsible for the destiny of the world and future generations. The problem, as explored in the article's second thesis, is that this implies the existence of a subject who is capable of responsibility. Jonas's insights on this point are insufficient, since he only recognizes duty as the fundament for his ethics of responsibility and thus neglects the problem of motivation. This is a particularly crucial problem today as we are witnessing the presence of a pathological subject, characterized by a split in his faculties (between doing and imagining, knowing and feeling). To underline this fact, this article makes use of Günther Anders's reflections, which provide a psycho-anthropological analysis of the subject, showing his pathologies and the necessity, from a moral perspective, to overcome his scission. Finally, this author suggests, as the article's third thesis, that this overcoming is the necessary fundament for the perception of risk, which in turn reinstates the subject's perception of his own vulnerability. Responsibility thus finds a motivation, which is neither altruistic nor duty-centred, in the awareness of our own vulnerability and the bond with the destiny of humankind as a whole.

  5. Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naterstad Kristine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman. Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake

  6. Title: Freshwater phytoplankton responses to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Fanesi, Andrea; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-09-20

    Global warming alters species composition and function of freshwater ecosystems. However, the impact of temperature on primary productivity is not sufficiently understood and water quality models need to be improved in order to assess the quantitative and qualitative changes of aquatic communities. On the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that the commonly used photosynthetic and water chemistry parameters alone are not sufficient for modeling phytoplankton growth under changing temperature regimes. We present some new aspects of the acclimation process with respect to temperature and how contrasting responses may be explained by a more complete physiological knowledge of the energy flow from photons to new biomass. We further suggest including additional bio-markers/traits for algal growth such as carbon allocation patterns to increase the explanatory power of such models. Although carbon allocation patterns are promising and functional cellular traits for growth prediction under different nutrient and light conditions, their predictive power still waits to be tested with respect to temperature. A great challenge for the near future will be the prediction of primary production efficiencies under the global change scenario using a uniform model for phytoplankton assemblages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Global governance, from sovereignty to responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Innerarity

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary political history shows that progress has indisputably been made in terms of shaping delimited democratic spaces, but very little advancement has taken place regarding the possible democratisation of globalised spaces, with the idea that democracy, justice and legality exists beyond the national state. The consternation that currently exists over the future of the European Union is one manifest example of this problem. And yet, these are the main challenges for global governance: whether we can speak of democracy when the decisive decisions cannot be taken either within states or as a result of a simple negotiation between states (in the case of the European Union, how to legitimise military interventions to protect threatened populations, and whether it makes sense to conceive of justice as something that is only measured within states. Basically, the solution to these three questions involves situating the idea of sovereignty in the context of the obligations that are raised by responsibility.

  8. Global Transient Stability and Voltage Regulation for Multimachine Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark; Hill, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses simultaneously the major fundamental and difficult issues of nonlinearity, uncertainty, dimensionality and globality to derive performance enhancing power system stability control. The main focus is on simultaneous enhancement of transient stability and voltage regulation...... law is implemented to coordinate transient stabilizer and voltage regulator for each machine. Digital simulation studies show that global control scheme achieves unified transient stability and voltage regulation in the presence of parametric uncertainties and significant sudden changes in the network...... of power systems. This problem arises from the practical concern that both frequency and voltage control are important indices of power system control and operation but they are ascribed to different stages of system operation, i.e. the transient and post transient period respectively. The Direct Feedback...

  9. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  10. Leptin Regulation of Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Caitlin; Petri, William A

    2016-02-01

    Leptin is a regulatory hormone with multiple roles in the immune system. We favor the concept that leptin signaling 'licenses' various immune cells to engage in immune responses and/or to differentiate. Leptin is an inflammatory molecule that is capable of activating both adaptive and innate immunity. It can also 'enhance' immune functions, including inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages, granulocyte chemotaxis, and increased Th17 proliferation. Leptin can also 'inhibit' cells; CD4(+) T cells are inhibited from differentiating into regulatory T cells in the presence of elevated leptin, while NK cells can exhibit impaired cytotoxicity under the same circumstances. Consequently, understanding the effect of leptin signaling is important to appreciate various aspects of immune dysregulation observed in malnutrition, obesity, and autoimmunity.

  11. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E.

    2017-05-01

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  12. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E

    2017-05-30

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  13. The rise of global corporate social responsibility: mining and the spread of global norms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dashwood, Hevina S

    2012-01-01

    "The Rise of Global Corporate Social Responsibility Combining insights from international relations theory with institutional approaches from organization theory and public policy, this book provides...

  14. Fungal symbionts alter plant responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Emery, Sarah M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    While direct plant responses to global change have been well characterized, indirect plant responses to global change, via altered species interactions, have received less attention. Here, we examined how plants associated with four classes of fungal symbionts (class I leaf endophytes [EF], arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF], ectomycorrhizal fungi [ECM], and dark septate endophytes [DSE]) responded to four global change factors (enriched CO2, drought, N deposition, and warming). We performed a meta-analysis of 434 studies spanning 174 publications to search for generalizable trends in responses of plant-fungal symbioses to future environments. Specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1) Can fungal symbionts ameliorate responses of plants to global change? (2) Do fungal symbiont groups differ in the degree to which they modify plant response to global change? (3) Do particular global change factors affect plant-fungal symbioses more than others? In all global change scenarios, except elevated CO2, fungal symbionts significantly altered plant responses to global change. In most cases, fungal symbionts increased plant biomass in response to global change. However, increased N deposition reduced the benefits of symbiosis. Of the global change factors we considered, drought and N deposition resulted in the strongest fungal mediation of plant responses. Our analysis highlighted gaps in current knowledge for responses of particular fungal groups and revealed the importance of considering not only the nonadditive effects of multiple global change factors, but also the interactive effects of multiple fungal symbioses. Our results show that considering plant-fungal symbioses is critical to predicting ecosystem response to global change.

  15. National and Regional Responses to Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Stoica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to enquire about the relationship between globalization and national economic competitivity or efficiency as indicated by the rate of unemployment, the inflation rate and the level of budget deficit and national debt. In the era of globalization, the ‘Keynesian consensus’ of the after-war period, which prevented any trade-off between social security and economic growth, cannot resist the pressure from the globalization of the world economy. The decline in industrial employment created a situation in which – in the Nordic countries and in Sweden, especially – full employment could only be attained via services and the third economic sector. Conversely, globalization has benefited the small open economies in South-East Asia, which found themselves most in-sync with the demands of the global age.

  16. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  17. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Wu

    Full Text Available Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1, B(2, G(1, and G(2 differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  18. Aflatoxin Regulations in a Network of Global Maize Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000–2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  19. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  20. Managing Corporate Responsibility Globally and Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2012-01-01

    to be highly sensitive to local contexts. How can transnational firms organize CR so as to maximize efficiencies from globalization and to minimize the fragmentation of corporate organizational cultures? provide a framework for analyzing the way that corporations coordinate global and local functions. We build...... on this framework in a case study of Novo Nordisk and its approach to determining global and local CR policies and procedures with regard to its China and US subsidiaries. Our findings suggest that it is important for companies to define a common set of organizational norms. In addition, CR need to be sensitive...

  1. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...

  2. Global self-regulation of the cellular metabolic structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso M De la Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown that cellular enzymatic activities are able to self-organize spontaneously, forming a metabolic core of reactive processes that remain active under different growth conditions while the rest of the molecular catalytic reactions exhibit structural plasticity. This global cellular metabolic structure appears to be an intrinsic characteristic common to all cellular organisms. Recent work performed with dissipative metabolic networks has shown that the fundamental element for the spontaneous emergence of this global self-organized enzymatic structure could be the number of catalytic elements in the metabolic networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate the factors that may affect the catalytic dynamics under a global metabolic structure characterized by the presence of metabolic cores we have studied different transitions in catalytic patterns belonging to a dissipative metabolic network. The data were analyzed using non-linear dynamics tools: power spectra, reconstructed attractors, long-term correlations, maximum Lyapunov exponent and Approximate Entropy; and we have found the emergence of self-regulation phenomena during the transitions in the metabolic activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis has also shown that the chaotic numerical series analyzed correspond to the fractional Brownian motion and they exhibit long-term correlations and low Approximate Entropy indicating a high level of predictability and information during the self-regulation of the metabolic transitions. The results illustrate some aspects of the mechanisms behind the emergence of the metabolic self-regulation processes, which may constitute an important property of the global structure of the cellular metabolism.

  3. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...

  4. The global workforce shortages and the migration of medical professions: the Australian policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D

    2008-05-29

    Medical migration sees the providers of medical services (in particular medical practitioners) moving from one region or country to another. This creates problems for the provision of public health and medical services and poses challenges for laws in the nation state and for laws in the global community.There exists a global shortage of healthcare professionals. Nation states and health rights movements have been both responsible for, and responsive to, this global community shortage through a variety of health policy, regulation and legislation which directly affects the migration of medical providers. The microcosm responses adopted by individual nation states, such as Australia, to this workforce shortage further impact on the global workforce shortage through active recruitment of overseas-trained healthcare professionals. "Push" and "pull" factors exist which encourage medical migration of healthcare professionals. A nation state's approach to health policy, regulation and legislation dramatically helps to create these "push factors" and "pull factors". A co-ordinated global response is required with individual nation states being cognisant of the impact of their health policy, regulations and legislation on the global community through the medical migration of healthcare professionals.

  5. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  6. Arginine methylation regulates the p53 response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Martin; Durant, Stephen T; Cho, Er-Chieh;

    2008-01-01

    Activation of the p53 tumour suppressor protein in response to DNA damage leads to apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. Enzymatic modifications are widely believed to affect and regulate p53 activity. We describe here a level of post-translational control that has an important functional consequence o...

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We outline the drivers, main features, and conceptual underpinnings of the compliance paradigm. We then use a similar structure to investigate the drivers, main features, and conceptual underpinnings of the cooperative paradigm for working with CSR in global value chains. We argue that the measur...

  8. Response to Skeptics of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, William W.

    1991-04-01

    The majority of the scientific community involved in climate research is convinced of the reality of a current and future global warming due to the greenhouse effect, a change that must be largely caused by human activities. However, a minority of scientists is still skeptical of the notion that mankind is significantly influencing the climate of the earth, and it therefore argues against taking certain measures to avert this alleged global warming. In recent years the media have given considerable coverage to the statements of these skeptics. Reasons for their statements range from a simple argument that we do not understand the earth's climate system well enough to predict the future, to more complex arguments involving negative feed-backs and changes of solar activity. They question whether the global temperature increase in this century of up to 0.6 K is primarily a result of worldwide burning of fossil fuels. The purpose of this article is to show that the statements of this skeptical school of thought need to be critically analyzed (and in some cases refuted) in the light of current understanding of the planetary system that determines our climate. There is also another school of thought that agrees about the reality of present and future global warming, and claims that this will be beneficial for most of mankind and that it should be encouraged. The policy implications of the latter view are in many respects similar to those of the group that are not convinced that a significant global warming will occur. Both schools of thought argue against taking immediate steps to slow the climate change.

  9. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T.; Minas, Tsion Z.; Conn, Erin J.; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T.; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Üren, Aykut

    2016-01-01

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes. PMID:27137931

  10. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. IgA isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  11. Soil bacterial community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmark, Lasse

    ’ of climate change manipulations on soil microorganisms and nutrient availability in a Danish heathland, where the samples were taken shortly after a prolonged pre-summer drought. The major findings in the study are that warming increased measures of fungi and bacteria and drought might shift......Soil bacteria and archaea are essential for ecosystem functioning and plant growth through their degradation of organic matter and turnover of nutrients. But since the majority of soil bacteria and archaea are unclassified and “nonculturable” the functionality of the microbial community and its...... overall importance for ecosystem function in soil is poorly understood. Global change factors may affect the diversity and functioning of soil prokaryotes and thereby ecosystem functioning. To gain a better understanding of the effects of global changes it is of fundamental importance to classify...

  12. Soil bacterial community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmark, Lasse

    /change the microbial community towards a higher fungal dominance. That could lead to a change in the carbon and nutrient flow in soil. In Manuscript 2 the impact of climate change manipulations and the seasonal dynamics of soil fungi and bacterial communities are investigated. Our results show that the soil fungal......Soil bacteria and archaea are essential for ecosystem functioning and plant growth through their degradation of organic matter and turnover of nutrients. But since the majority of soil bacteria and archaea are unclassified and “nonculturable” the functionality of the microbial community and its...... overall importance for ecosystem function in soil is poorly understood. Global change factors may affect the diversity and functioning of soil prokaryotes and thereby ecosystem functioning. To gain a better understanding of the effects of global changes it is of fundamental importance to classify...

  13. Global transcriptional regulator TrmB family members in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Park, Soyoung; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2016-10-01

    Members of the TrmB family act as global transcriptional regulators for the activation or repression of sugar ABC transporters and central sugar metabolic pathways, including glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and other metabolic pathways, and also as chromosomal stabilizers in archaea. As a relatively newly classified transcriptional regulator family, there is limited experimental evidence for their role in Thermococcales, halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC1, and crenarchaea Sulfolobus strains, despite being one of the extending protein families in archaea. Recently, the protein structures of Pyrococcus furiosus TrmB and TrmBL2 were solved, and the transcriptomic data uncovered by microarray and ChIP-Seq were published. In the present review, recent evidence of the functional roles of TrmB family members in archaea is explained and extended to bacteria.

  14. Global Financial Crisis – Policy Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakić Milojica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the outbreak of the financial crisis that had shaken the global financial system, experts and analysts all over the world continue discussing the effectiveness, scope and adequacy of mechanisms and measures implemented in the meantime, as well as the adequacy of the underlying theoretical concept. A global consent has been reached on ensuring financial stability through the interaction of monetary, fiscal and prudential policy to ensure the necessary macroprudential dimension of regulatory and supervisory frameworks. The USA crisis spilled over to Europe. Strong support of governments to bail out banks quickly resulted in sovereign debt crises in some peripheral EU Member States. Fiscal insolvency of these countries strongly shook the EU and increased doubts in the monetary union survival. The European Union stood united to defend the euro and responded strongly with a new complex and comprehensive financial stability framework. This supranational framework is a counterpart to the global financial stability framework created by the G20 member countries. Starting from the specific features of the monetary policy whose capacities are determined by euroisation, available instruments and resources for preventive supervisory activities, as well as the role of the government in crisis management, Montenegro created a framework for maintaining financial stability and prescribed fostering and maintaining financial stability as the main objective of the Central Bank of Montenegro.

  15. Global analysis of heat shock response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, A. P. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); Wall, J. D. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO); Hazen, T. C. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); He, Z. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Zhou, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Huang, K. H. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); Gaucher, Sara P.; He, Q. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Hadi, Masood Z.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Alm, Eric J. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); Singh, A. K.

    2005-08-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature. Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation of metal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in the direction of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under a variety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of this organism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-cell transcriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-fold change or greater; Z {ge} 1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463 genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13 C from a growth temperature of 37 C for this organism and suggested both direct and indirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categories that were significantly affected included posttranslational modifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energy production and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport, metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; and biogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed the presence of features of both negative and positive regulation which included the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to the alternate sigma factors {sigma}{sup 32} and {sigma}{sup 54}. While mechanisms of heat shock control for some genes appeared to coincide with those established for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique control schemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of protein expression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggested good agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shock proteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), and AhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility of posttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES (DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU

  16. Linking high-resolution metabolic flux phenotypes and transcriptional regulation in yeast modulated by the global regulator Gcn4p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moxley, Joel F.; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing dramatically increased our ability to understand cellular response to perturbation. Integrating system-wide measurements such as gene expression with networks of protein protein interactions and transcription factor binding revealed critical insights into cellular behavior. Howe...... that an integrated approach focusing on metabolic measurements will facilitate construction of more realistic models of cellular regulation for understanding diseases and constructing strains for industrial applications.......RNA and metabolic flux data that combines information from both interaction network models and flux determination models. We started by quantifying 5,764 mRNAs, 54 metabolites, and 83 experimental C-13-based reaction fluxes in continuous cultures of yeast under stress in the absence or presence of global regulator...... of metabolic flux (i.e., use of different reaction pathways) by transcriptional regulation and metabolite interaction density (i.e., level of pairwise metabolite-protein interactions) as a key biosynthetic control determinant. Furthermore, this model predicted flux rewiring in studies of follow...

  17. Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming; TAO Shanchang; ZHU Baoyou; L(U) Weitao; TAN Yongbo

    2005-01-01

    It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world. Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to the increase of wet bulb temperature at 1000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or in land? What is the response of global lightning activities (in both land and ocean) to the global surface air temperature variation like? This paper, based on the 5-year or 8-year OTD/LIS satellite-based lightning detecting data and the NCEP reanalysis data, makes a reanalysis of the response of the global and regional lightning activities to temperature variations. The results show that on the interannual time scale the global total flash rate has positive response to the variation in global surface air temperature, with the sensitivity of 17±7% K-1. Also, the seasonal mean flash rate of continents all over the world and that of continents in the Northern Hemisphere have sensitive positive response to increase of global surface air temperature and wet bulb temperature, with the sensitivity of about 13±5% K-1, a bit lower than estimation of 40% K-1 in Reeve et al. However, the Southern Hemisphere and other areas like the tropics show no significant correlation.

  18. Desarrollando líderes globales responsables

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola M. Pless; Thomas Maak

    2010-01-01

    Basándose en un estudio empírico, este artículo proporciona elementos para comprender cómo puede un programa de desarrollo del liderazgo basado en misiones de aprendizaje a través del servicio comunitario ayudar a los líderes actuales y futuros a desarrollar las competencias necesarias para hacer frente a los retos del liderazgo (tales como la responsabilidad corporativa, la interacción con los grupos de interés y la diversidad cultural) en un entorno de grupos de interés global y complejo....

  19. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. PAGER - Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that estimates the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing...

  1. Coordinated approaches to quantify long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; Melillo, J.; Niu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Many serious ecosystem consequences of climate change will take decades or even centuries to emerge. Long-term ecological responses to global change are strongly regulated by slow processes, such as changes in species composition, carbon dynamics in soil and by long-lived plants, and accumulation...

  2. Semi-global and global output regulation for classes of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Nathan Kristin

    Many phenomena of interest to scientists and engineers can be modeled by nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations with inputs and outputs. The dynamics of a rocket, for example, may have input and output variables representing thrust and velocity, respectively. The problem of output regulation entails the control of a given plant in such a way that the output of the system asymptotically tracks some reference trajectory while simultaneously rejecting disturbances, where the desired trajectory and the unwanted disturbances are both generated by an autonomous and exogenous system. Achieving this objective necessitates a dynamic nonlinear controller driven only by the regulated error, since neither the state of the plant nor the exogenous signals are assumed to be available for measurement. All trajectories of the resulting closed-loop system are required to remain bounded, and the regulated error must also decay asymptotically to zero. These conditions may need to be satisfied in spite of uncertainties regarding the plant, the exosystem, or the range of allowable initial states. If the state-space representation of the plant can be expressed with finitely many variables, the system is called finite-dimensional. When a solution is sought for every fixed, compact set of initial conditions, the problem is said to be semi-global. By contrast, if a solution is desired for the entire state-space, the problem is known as global regulation. In this dissertation, rather than addressing a particular application, such as a rocket, we present results on both semi-global and global output regulation for multiple classes of finite-dimensional, nonlinear control systems. In so doing, we generalize, in whole or in part, a number of recent papers in the literature. Among the concepts shared by all of these results are the notions of input-to-state stability with respect to compact sets, nonlinear immersion of the steady-state control, the normal form of nonlinear systems

  3. A Global Language for the Global Village? A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Gunilla

    1999-01-01

    This response to an article on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language discusses the role of English as a global language and issues surrounding translation. Suggests that stereotyping resulting from non-nuanced and unsubtle transfer of information might…

  4. The global transcriptional response of fission yeast to hydrogen sulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a newly identified member of the small family of gasotransmitters that are endogenous gaseous signaling molecules that have a fundamental role in human biology and disease. Although it is a relatively recent discovery and the mechanism of H(2S activity is not completely understood, it is known to be involved in a number of cellular processes; H(2S can affect ion channels, transcription factors and protein kinases in mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we have used fission yeast as a model organism to study the global gene expression profile in response to H(2S by microarray. We initially measured the genome-wide transcriptional response of fission yeast to H(2S. Through the functional classification of genes whose expression profile changed in response to H(2S, we found that H(2S mainly influences genes that encode putative or known stress proteins, membrane transporters, cell cycle/meiotic proteins, transcription factors and respiration protein in the mitochondrion. Our analysis showed that there was a significant overlap between the genes affected by H(2S and the stress response. We identified that the target genes of the MAPK pathway respond to H(2S; we also identified that a number of transporters respond to H(2S, these include sugar/carbohydrate transporters, ion transporters, and amino acid transporters. We found many mitochondrial genes to be down regulated upon H(2S treatment and that H(2S can reduce mitochondrial oxygen consumption. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies potential molecular targets of the signaling molecule H(2S in fission yeast and provides clues about the identity of homologues human proteins and will further the understanding of the cellular role of H(2S in human diseases.

  5. Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A

    2013-08-02

    The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years.

  6. Globalization, financial capitalism, and corporate social responsibility: Structural tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbosa Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and financial capitalism keep a synergy in a global context whose problems such as environmental degradation, social inequity, economic crises and corruption are intensified. Corporate Social Responsibility emerges as a mechanism that seeks to mitigate some of these problems, although its effectiveness and impact today are challenged. The system which globalization, financial capitalism and social responsibility are a part of, is currently facing a number of structural tensions that contribute to the analysis, understanding and solving of the mentioned problems. This paper identifies and analyzes four of the aforementioned structural tensions.

  7. A Global Drought Observatory for Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; de Jager, Alfred; Carrão, Hugo; Magni, Diego; Mazzeschi, Marco; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Droughts are occurring on all continents and across all climates. While in developed countries they cause significant economic and environmental damages, in less developed countries they may cause major humanitarian catastrophes. The magnitude of the problem and the expected increase in drought frequency, extent and severity in many, often highly vulnerable regions of the world demand a change from the current reactive, crisis-management approach towards a more pro-active, risk management approach. Such approach needs adequate and timely information from global to local scales as well as adequate drought management plans. Drought information systems are important for continuous monitoring and forecasting of the situation in order to provide timely information on developing drought events and their potential impacts. Against this background, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing a Global Drought Observatory (GDO) for the European Commission's humanitarian services, providing up-to-date information on droughts world-wide and their potential impacts. Drought monitoring is achieved by a combination of meteorological and biophysical indicators, while the societal vulnerability to droughts is assessed through the targeted analysis of a series of social, economic and infrastructural indicators. The combination of the information on the occurrence and severity of a drought, on the assets at risk and on the societal vulnerability in the drought affected areas results in a likelihood of impact, which is expressed by a Likelihood of Drought Impact (LDI) indicator. The location, extent and magnitude of the LDI is then further analyzed against the number of people and land use/land cover types affected in order to provide the decision bodies with information on the potential humanitarian and economic bearings in the affected countries or regions. All information is presented through web-mapping interfaces based on OGC standards and customized reports can be drawn by the

  8. Global analysis of the immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Leonardo C.; Dickman, Ronald; Bernardes, Américo T.

    2008-10-01

    The immune system may be seen as a complex system, characterized using tools developed in the study of such systems, for example, surface roughness and its associated Hurst exponent. We analyze densitometric (Panama blot) profiles of immune reactivity, to classify individuals into groups with similar roughness statistics. We focus on a population of individuals living in a region in which malaria endemic, as well as a control group from a disease-free region. Our analysis groups individuals according to the presence, or absence, of malaria symptoms and number of malaria manifestations. Applied to the Panama blot data, our method proves more effective at discriminating between groups than principal-components analysis or super-paramagnetic clustering. Our findings provide evidence that some phenomena observed in the immune system can be only understood from a global point of view. We observe similar tendencies between experimental immune profiles and those of artificial profiles, obtained from an immune network model. The statistical entropy of the experimental profiles is found to exhibit variations similar to those observed in the Hurst exponent.

  9. Global transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to Flucytosine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is one of the most common human fungal pathogens that cause chronic infections of the skin and nails. To identify antifungal responsive genes, cDNA microarray analysis was performed for T. rubrum to reveal global transcriptional profiles of drug-specific responses to 5-Flucytosine (5-FC). cDNA microarray was constructed from the T. rubrum expressed sequence tag (ESTs) database, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-FC was determined, and microarray hybridization and data analysis were applied. The expression pattern of 7 genes observed by microarray was confirmed by the quantitative real-time reverser transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data analysis indicated that a total of 474 genes were found differentially expressed, 196 showed an increase in expression and 278 showed a decrease in expression. Marked down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism (such as CDC21), transcription (such as E2F1), and RNA processing (such as SGN1, RIM4 and NOP1) was observed. Other genes involved in signal transduction, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acid transport, lipid transport and potential drug resistance mechanism were also affected by 5-FC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of the selected genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray results. This is the first analysis of transcriptional profiles in response to 5-FC for T. rubrum. The findings may be valuable for the identification of genes involved in mechanisms of action and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance of 5-FC.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Macrophage Response to Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Amit Rahat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes and Macrophages (Mo/Mϕ exhibit great plasticity, as they can shift between different modes of activation and, driven by their immediate microenvironment, perform divergent functions. These include, among others, patrolling their surroundings and maintaining homeostasis (resident Mo/Mϕ, combating invading pathogens and tumor cells (classically activated or M1 Mo/Mϕ, orchestrating wound healing (alternatively activated or M2 Mo/Mϕ, and restoring homeostasis after an inflammatory response (resolution Mϕ. Hypoxia is an important factor in the Mϕ microenvironment, is prevalent in many physiological and pathological conditions, and is interdependent with the inflammatory response. Although Mo/Mϕ have been studied in hypoxia, the mechanisms by which hypoxia influences the different modes of their activation, and how it regulates the shift between them, remain unclear. Here we review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that mediate this hypoxic regulation of Mϕ activation. Much is known about the hypoxic transcriptional regulatory network, which includes the master regulators HIF-1 and NF-κB, as well as other transcription factors (e.g. AP-1, Erg-1, but we also highlight the role of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. These mechanisms mediate hypoxic induction of Mϕ pro-angiogenic mediators, suppress M1 Mϕ by post-transcriptionally inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, and help shift the classically activated Mϕ into an activation state which approximate the alternatively activated or resolution Mϕ.

  11. Doing global science a guide to responsible conduct in the global research enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    InterAcademy Partnership

    2016-01-01

    This concise introductory guide explains the values that should inform the responsible conduct of scientific research in today's global setting. Featuring accessible discussions and ample real-world scenarios, Doing Global Science covers proper conduct, fraud and bias, the researcher's responsibilities to society, communication with the public, and much more. The book places special emphasis on the international and highly networked environment in which modern research is done, presenting science as an enterprise that is being transformed by globalization, interdisciplinary research projects, team science, and information technologies. Accessibly written by an InterAcademy Partnership committee comprised of leading scientists from around the world, Doing Global Science is required reading for students, practitioners, and anyone concerned about the responsible conduct of science today.

  12. Optimal function explains forest responses to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick Dewar; Oskar Franklin; Annikki Makela; Ross E. McMurtrie; Harry T. Valentine

    2009-01-01

    Plant responses to global changes in carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen, and water availability are critical to future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, hydrology, and hence climate. Our understanding of those responses is incomplete, however. Multiple-resource manipulation experiments and empirical observations have revealed a...

  13. Conceptualizing psychological processes in response to globalization: Components, antecedents, and consequences of global orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Hui, Bryant P H; Ng, Jacky C K; Mak, Winnie W S; Guan, Yanjun; Buchtel, Emma E; Tang, Willie C S; Lau, Victor C Y

    2016-02-01

    The influences of globalization have permeated various aspects of life in contemporary society, from technical innovations, economic development, and lifestyles, to communication patterns. The present research proposed a construct termed global orientation to denote individual differences in the psychological processes of acculturating to the globalizing world. It encompasses multicultural acquisition as a proactive response and ethnic protection as a defensive response to globalization. Ten studies examined the applicability of global orientations among majority and minority groups, including immigrants and sojourners, in multicultural and relatively monocultural contexts, and across Eastern and Western cultures. Multicultural acquisition is positively correlated with both independent and interdependent self-construals, bilingual proficiency and usage, and dual cultural identifications. Multicultural acquisition is promotion-focused, while ethnic protection is prevention-focused and related to acculturative stress. Global orientations affect individuating and modest behavior over and above multicultural ideology, predict overlap with outgroups over and above political orientation, and predict psychological adaptation, sociocultural competence, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnocultural groups over and above acculturation expectations/strategies. Global orientations also predict English and Chinese oral presentation performance in multilevel analyses and the frequency and pleasantness of intercultural contact in cross-lagged panel models. We discuss how the psychological study of global orientations contributes to theory and research on acculturation, cultural identity, and intergroup relations.

  14. Sustainable Development and Global Responsibility in Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela M Salvioni; Astori, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable development and the company global responsibility have emerged recently as relevant factors both at a business level and with reference to the company in general. The global markets impose new and complex systems of corporate governance aimed at a generic retrieval of effectiveness if compared to the growing dynamism and to the gradual increase of complex relations between  company and environment. In this regard the sustainable development represents an important issue, whose...

  15. Evolutionary responses to global change: lessons from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emily V; Alexander, Jake M

    2014-05-01

    Biologists have recently devoted increasing attention to the role of rapid evolution in species' responses to environmental change. However, it is still unclear what evolutionary responses should be expected, at what rates, and whether evolution will save populations at risk of extinction. The potential of biological invasions to provide useful insights has barely been realised, despite the close analogies to species responding to global change, particularly climate change; in both cases, populations encounter novel climatic and biotic selection pressures, with expected evolutionary responses occurring over similar timescales. However, the analogy is not perfect, and invasive species are perhaps best used as an upper bound on expected change. In this article, we review what invasive species can and cannot teach us about likely evolutionary responses to global change and the constraints on those responses. We also discuss the limitations of invasive species as a model and outline directions for future research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Global regulation of nucleotide biosynthetic genes by c-Myc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The c-Myc transcription factor is a master regulator and integrates cell proliferation, cell growth and metabolism through activating thousands of target genes. Our identification of direct c-Myc target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP coupled with pair-end ditag sequencing analysis (ChIP-PET revealed that nucleotide metabolic genes are enriched among c-Myc targets, but the role of Myc in regulating nucleotide metabolic genes has not been comprehensively delineated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that the majority of genes in human purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway were induced and directly bound by c-Myc in the P493-6 human Burkitt's lymphoma model cell line. The majority of these genes were also responsive to the ligand-activated Myc-estrogen receptor fusion protein, Myc-ER, in a Myc null rat fibroblast cell line, HO.15 MYC-ER. Furthermore, these targets are also responsive to Myc activation in transgenic mouse livers in vivo. To determine the functional significance of c-Myc regulation of nucleotide metabolism, we sought to determine the effect of loss of function of direct Myc targets inosine monophosphate dehydrogenases (IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 on c-Myc-induced cell growth and proliferation. In this regard, we used a specific IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA and found that MPA dramatically inhibits c-Myc-induced P493-6 cell proliferation through S-phase arrest and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results demonstrate the direct induction of nucleotide metabolic genes by c-Myc in multiple systems. Our finding of an S-phase arrest in cells with diminished IMPDH activity suggests that nucleotide pool balance is essential for c-Myc's orchestration of DNA replication, such that uncoupling of these two processes create DNA replication stress and apoptosis.

  17. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production.

  18. VLDL hydrolysis by hepatic lipase regulates PPARδ transcriptional responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PPARs (α,γ,δ are a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate energy balance, including lipid metabolism. Despite these critical functions, the integration between specific pathways of lipid metabolism and distinct PPAR responses remains obscure. Previous work has revealed that lipolytic pathways can activate PPARs. Whether hepatic lipase (HL, an enzyme that regulates VLDL and HDL catabolism, participates in PPAR responses is unknown. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using PPAR ligand binding domain transactivation assays, we found that HL interacted with triglyceride-rich VLDL (>HDL≫LDL, IDL to activate PPARδ preferentially over PPARα or PPARγ, an effect dependent on HL catalytic activity. In cell free ligand displacement assays, VLDL hydrolysis by HL activated PPARδ in a VLDL-concentration dependent manner. Extended further, VLDL stimulation of HL-expressing HUVECs and FAO hepatoma cells increased mRNA expression of canonical PPARδ target genes, including adipocyte differentiation related protein (ADRP, angiopoietin like protein 4 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4. HL/VLDL regulated ADRP through a PPRE in the promoter region of this gene. In vivo, adenoviral-mediated hepatic HL expression in C57BL/6 mice increased hepatic ADRP mRNA levels by 30%. In ob/ob mice, a model with higher triglycerides than C57BL/6 mice, HL overexpression increased ADRP expression by 70%, demonstrating the importance of triglyceride substrate for HL-mediated PPARδ activation. Global metabolite profiling identified HL/VLDL released fatty acids including oleic acid and palmitoleic acid that were capable of recapitulating PPARδ activation and ADRP gene regulation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These data define a novel pathway involving HL hydrolysis of VLDL that activates PPARδ through generation of specific monounsaturated fatty acids. These data also demonstrate how integrating cell biology with metabolomic approaches provides insight

  19. Phylogenetic responses of forest trees to global change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Senior

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing biosphere, approaches to understanding the ecology and evolution of forest species will be critical to predict and mitigate the effects of anthropogenic global change on forest ecosystems. Utilizing 26 forest species in a factorial experiment with two levels each of atmospheric CO2 and soil nitrogen, we examined the hypothesis that phylogeny would influence plant performance in response to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. We found highly idiosyncratic responses at the species level. However, significant, among-genetic lineage responses were present across a molecularly determined phylogeny, indicating that past evolutionary history may have an important role in the response of whole genetic lineages to future global change. These data imply that some genetic lineages will perform well and that others will not, depending upon the environmental context.

  20. Regulation of oxidative stress response by CosR, an essential response regulator in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hwang

    Full Text Available CosR (Campylobacter oxidative stress regulator; Cj0355c is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a leading foodborne pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite importance, the function of CosR remains completely unknown mainly because of cell death caused by its knockout mutation. To overcome this technical limitation, in this study, antisense technology was used to investigate the regulatory function of CosR by modulating the level of CosR expression. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE was performed to identify the CosR regulon either by suppressing CosR expression with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA or by overexpressing CosR in C. jejuni. According to the results of 2DGE, CosR regulated 32 proteins involved in various cellular processes. Notably, CosR negatively regulated a few key proteins of the oxidative stress response of C. jejuni, such as SodB, Dps, Rrc and LuxS, whereas CosR positively controlled AhpC. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that CosR directly bound to the promoter region of the oxidative stress genes. DNase I footprinting assays identified 21-bp CosR binding sequences in the sodB and ahpC promoters, suggesting CosR specifically recognizes and binds to the regulated genes. Interestingly, the level of CosR protein was significantly reduced by paraquat (a superoxide generator but not by hydrogen peroxide. Consistent with the overall negative regulation of oxidative stress defense proteins by CosR, the CosR knockdown by antisense rendered C. jejuni more resistant to oxidative stress compared to the wild type. Overall, this study reveals the important role played by the essential response regulator CosR in the oxidative stress defense of C. jejuni.

  1. Hantavirus Regulation of Type I Interferon Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Matthys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses primarily infect human endothelial cells (ECs and cause two highly lethal human diseases. Early addition of Type I interferon (IFN to ECs blocks hantavirus replication and thus for hantaviruses to be pathogenic they need to prevent early interferon induction. PHV replication is blocked in human ECs, but not inhibited in IFN deficient VeroE6 cells and consistent with this, infecting ECs with PHV results in the early induction of IFNβ and an array of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs. In contrast, ANDV, HTNV, NY-1V and TULV hantaviruses, inhibit early ISG induction and successfully replicate within human ECs. Hantavirus inhibition of IFN responses has been attributed to several viral proteins including regulation by the Gn proteins cytoplasmic tail (Gn-T. The Gn-T interferes with the formation of STING-TBK1-TRAF3 complexes required for IRF3 activation and IFN induction, while the PHV Gn-T fails to alter this complex or regulate IFN induction. These findings indicate that interfering with early IFN induction is necessary for hantaviruses to replicate in human ECs, and suggest that additional determinants are required for hantaviruses to be pathogenic. The mechanism by which Gn-Ts disrupt IFN signaling is likely to reveal potential therapeutic interventions and suggest protein targets for attenuating hantaviruses.

  2. Importins and exportins regulating allergic immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ankita; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES) on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  3. Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  4. The flood and global warming: Who is responsible?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Geller

    2014-01-01

    The flood and global warming: Who is responsible? The essential difference between ancient versions of the Flood (including the biblical Noah account) is whether mankind brought the cataclysm on itself through immoral behaviour. In a second disaster story of the Tower of Babel, misuse of technology was responsible for the Tower’s failure. Both of these narratives may be represented on a unique Babylonian mappa mundi, which might also show the topography of biblical Eden.   Potop...

  5. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in or

  6. Self-Organizing Global Gene Expression Regulated through Criticality: Mechanism of the Cell-Fate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Giuliani, Alessandro; Hashimoto, Midori; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background A fundamental issue in bioscience is to understand the mechanism that underlies the dynamic control of genome-wide expression through the complex temporal-spatial self-organization of the genome to regulate the change in cell fate. We address this issue by elucidating a physically motivated mechanism of self-organization. Principal Findings Building upon transcriptome experimental data for seven distinct cell fates, including early embryonic development, we demonstrate that self-organized criticality (SOC) plays an essential role in the dynamic control of global gene expression regulation at both the population and single-cell levels. The novel findings are as follows: i) Mechanism of cell-fate changes: A sandpile-type critical transition self-organizes overall expression into a few transcription response domains (critical states). A cell-fate change occurs by means of a dissipative pulse-like global perturbation in self-organization through the erasure of initial-state critical behaviors (criticality). Most notably, the reprogramming of early embryo cells destroys the zygote SOC control to initiate self-organization in the new embryonal genome, which passes through a stochastic overall expression pattern. ii) Mechanism of perturbation of SOC controls: Global perturbations in self-organization involve the temporal regulation of critical states. Quantitative evaluation of this perturbation in terminal cell fates reveals that dynamic interactions between critical states determine the critical-state coherent regulation. The occurrence of a temporal change in criticality perturbs this between-states interaction, which directly affects the entire genomic system. Surprisingly, a sub-critical state, corresponding to an ensemble of genes that shows only marginal changes in expression and consequently are considered to be devoid of any interest, plays an essential role in generating a global perturbation in self-organization directed toward the cell-fate change

  7. The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Sub-Saharan Africa and Global Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    political unrest in several countries. The fiscal costs of African policy responses to the crisis doubled between 2007 and 2008, to an average of 1...October 1, 2009. See also Andrew Berg et al, “ Fiscal Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa in Response to the Impact of the Global Crisis” (IMF Staff Position...packages (e.g. Mauritius, South Africa), targeted assistance to certain sectors (Nigeria, Uganda), expansionary monetary policy (Botswana, Namibia, South

  8. Global Citizenship Incorporated: Competing Responsibilities in the Education of Global Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the education of young people to be 'responsible global citizens' has grown exponentially since the turn of the century, led by increasingly diverse networks of sectors, including government, community, business and philanthropy. These networks now have a significant influence on education policy and practice, indicative of wider…

  9. Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalley, Carmody K; Woodcroft, Ben J; Hodgkins, Suzanne B; Wehr, Richard A; Kim, Eun-Hae; Mondav, Rhiannon; Crill, Patrick M; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Rich, Virginia I; Tyson, Gene W; Saleska, Scott R

    2014-10-23

    Permafrost contains about 50% of the global soil carbon. It is thought that the thawing of permafrost can lead to a loss of soil carbon in the form of methane and carbon dioxide emissions. The magnitude of the resulting positive climate feedback of such greenhouse gas emissions is still unknown and may to a large extent depend on the poorly understood role of microbial community composition in regulating the metabolic processes that drive such ecosystem-scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we show that changes in vegetation and increasing methane emissions with permafrost thaw are associated with a switch from hydrogenotrophic to partly acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulting in a large shift in the δ(13)C signature (10-15‰) of emitted methane. We used a natural landscape gradient of permafrost thaw in northern Sweden as a model to investigate the role of microbial communities in regulating methane cycling, and to test whether a knowledge of community dynamics could improve predictions of carbon emissions under loss of permafrost. Abundance of the methanogen Candidatus 'Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis' is a key predictor of the shifts in methane isotopes, which in turn predicts the proportions of carbon emitted as methane and as carbon dioxide, an important factor for simulating the climate feedback associated with permafrost thaw in global models. By showing that the abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, we establish a basis for scaling changing microbial communities to ecosystem isotope dynamics. Our findings indicate that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change.

  10. Environmental variation and population responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Callum R; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in order to design effective strategies to conserve biodiversity under global change. Here, we review recent theoretical and empirical studies to assess: (1) how populations respond to changes in environmental variance, and (2) how environmental variance affects population responses to changes in mean conditions. Contrary to frequent claims, empirical studies show that increases in environmental variance can increase as well as decrease long-term population growth rates. Moreover, environmental variance can alter and even reverse the effects of changes in the mean environment, such that even if environmental variance remains constant, omitting it from population models compromises their ability to predict species' responses to changes in mean conditions. Drawing on theory relating these effects of environmental variance to the curvatures of population growth responses to the environment, we outline how species' traits such as phylogenetic history and body mass could be used to predict their responses to global change under future environmental variability.

  11. Global analysis of a buck regulator. [for voltage using discrete control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. B.; Caughey, T. K.

    1978-01-01

    Sufficient conditions for global stability of a buck regulator using a discrete control law are found. The method of paired systems and Liapunov functions are used to establish global stability and to study the convergence of the regulator. A heuristic argument is given that the optimal switching curves associated with the paired continuous systems approximate the optimal switching curves of the discrete systems.

  12. CovR-controlled global regulation of gene expression in Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dmitriev

    Full Text Available CovR/S is a two-component signal transduction system (TCS that controls the expression of various virulence related genes in many streptococci. However, in the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans, the response regulator CovR appears to be an orphan since the cognate sensor kinase CovS is absent. In this study, we explored the global transcriptional regulation by CovR in S. mutans. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of the wild-type strain UA159 with its isogenic covR deleted strain IBS10 indicated that at least 128 genes (∼6.5% of the genome were differentially regulated. Among these genes, 69 were down regulated, while 59 were up regulated in the IBS10 strain. The S. mutans CovR regulon included competence genes, virulence related genes, and genes encoded within two genomic islands (GI. Genes encoded by the GI TnSmu2 were found to be dramatically reduced in IBS10, while genes encoded by the GI TnSmu1 were up regulated in the mutant. The microarray data were further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, direct regulation of some of the differentially expressed genes was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using purified CovR protein. A proteomic study was also carried out that showed a general perturbation of protein expression in the mutant strain. Our results indicate that CovR truly plays a significant role in the regulation of several virulence related traits in this pathogenic streptococcus.

  13. Global Change and Regional Landscape Response and Desertification in Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.M. PLYUSNIN; L.V. DANKO

    2011-01-01

    Climate changes and associated natural and anthropogenic processes have manifested themselves particularly clearly during the last two decades.The study of consequences of these changes has become one of the central scientific,social and political issues of our time (Pilot 2000;UNEP 2007).The study of the regional response of landscapes of Siberia to global changes is one of the fundamental tasks,aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Siberian regions both at present time and in the future.Because in the 21 st century we should expect strong changes the humidity regime,accompanying the global warming (CCD 1994).

  14. Global Surface Temperature Response Explained by Multibox Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, H. B.; Rypdal, M.

    2016-12-01

    We formulate a multibox energy balance model, from which global temperature evolution can be described by convolving a linear response function and a forcing record. We estimate parameters in the response function from instrumental data and historic forcing, such that our model can produce a response to both deterministic forcing and stochastic weather forcing consistent with observations. Furthermore, if we make separate boxes for upper ocean layer and atmosphere over land, we can also make separate response functions for global land and sea surface temperature. By describing internal variability as a linear response to white noise, we demonstrate that the power-law form of the observed temperature spectra can be described by linear dynamics, contrary to a common belief that these power-law spectra must arise from nonlinear processes. In our multibox model, the power-law form can arise due to the multiple response times. While one of our main points is that the climate system responds over a wide range of time scales, we cannot find one set of time scales that can be preferred compared to other choices. Hence we think the temperature response can best be characterized as something that is scale-free, but still possible to approximate by a set of well separated time scales.

  15. Global low-carbon transition and China's response strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement establishes a new mechanism for post-2020 global climate governance, and sets long-term goals for global response to climate change, which will accelerate worldwide low-carbon transformation of economic development pattern, promote the revolutionary reform of energy system, boost a fundamental change in the mode of social production and consumption, and further the civilization of human society from industrial civilization to eco-civilization. The urgency of global low-carbon transition will reshape the competition situation of world's economy, trade and technology. Taking the construction of eco-civilization as a guide, China explores green and low-carbon development paths, establishes ambitious intended nationally determined contribution (INDC targets and action plans, advances energy production and consumption revolution, and speeds up the transformation of economic development pattern. These strategies and actions not only confirm to the trend of the world low-carbon transition, but also meet the intrinsic requirements for easing the domestic resources and environment constraints and realizing sustainable development. They are multi-win-win strategies for promotion of economic development and environmental protection and mitigation of carbon emissions. China should take the global long-term emission reduction targets as a guide, and formulate medium and long-term low-carbon development strategy, build the core competitiveness of low-carbon advanced technology and development pattern, and take an in-depth part in global governance so as to reflect the responsibility of China as a great power in constructing a community of common destiny for all mankind and addressing global ecological crisis.

  16. Will surface winds weaken in response to global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Foltz, Gregory R.; Soden, Brian J.; Huang, Gang; He, Jie; Dong, Changming

    2016-12-01

    The surface Walker and tropical tropospheric circulations have been inferred to slow down from historical observations and model projections, yet analysis of large-scale surface wind predictions is lacking. Satellite measurements of surface wind speed indicate strengthening trends averaged over the global and tropical oceans that are supported by precipitation and evaporation changes. Here we use corrected anemometer-based observations to show that the surface wind speed has not decreased in the averaged tropical oceans, despite its reduction in the region of the Walker circulation. Historical simulations and future projections for climate change also suggest a near-zero wind speed trend averaged in space, regardless of the Walker cell change. In the tropics, the sea surface temperature pattern effect acts against the large-scale circulation slow-down. For higher latitudes, the surface winds shift poleward along with the eddy-driven mid-latitude westerlies, resulting in a very small contribution to the global change in surface wind speed. Despite its importance for surface wind speed change, the influence of the SST pattern change on global-mean rainfall is insignificant since it cannot substantially alter the global energy balance. As a result, the precipitation response to global warming remains ‘muted’ relative to atmospheric moisture increase. Our results therefore show consistency between projections and observations of surface winds and precipitation.

  17. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  18. Engaging with Diversity and Global Learning - The leadership Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Gregersen Hermans, Jeanine

    This roundtable discusses what is at play in an international - or internationalizing - university when students with very diverse cultural backgrounds are brought together. It specifically addresses the leadership responsibility for ensuring that curricula and syllabi are adapted to teaching...... linguistically and culturally diverse student audiences, and that all members of faculty are well prepared for teaching in a global learning program to the benefit of all students....

  19. Global change and biodiversity loss: Some impediments to response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Karen; Jamieson, Dale

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the effects of anthropogenic global climate change on biodiversity. The focus is on human responses to the problem. Greenhouse warming-induced climate change may shift agricultural growing belts, reduce forests of the Northern Hemisphere and drive many species to extinction, among other effects. If these changes occur together with the mass extinctions already occurring, we may suffer a profound loss of biological diversity.

  20. Global Financial Regulations:An Antidote to Economic Predicament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of public order in the international financial arena, asset bubbles and resource misallocations persisted over a long period of time and resulted in global financial crisis in 2008. Global financial rules, which can take on a role like that of WTO in the international trade, are urgently needed for global economic recovery. They will balance the pressure of economic restructuring between large and small countries, and push forward some countries’ domestic reforms which may hardly be implemented due to domestic politics.

  1. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...

  2. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, T W; Todd-Brown, K E O; Rowe, C W; Wieder, W R; Carey, J C; Machmuller, M B; Snoek, B L; Fang, S; Zhou, G; Allison, S D; Blair, J M; Bridgham, S D; Burton, A J; Carrillo, Y; Reich, P B; Clark, J S; Classen, A T; Dijkstra, F A; Elberling, B; Emmett, B A; Estiarte, M; Frey, S D; Guo, J; Harte, J; Jiang, L; Johnson, B R; Kröel-Dulay, G; Larsen, K S; Laudon, H; Lavallee, J M; Luo, Y; Lupascu, M; Ma, L N; Marhan, S; Michelsen, A; Mohan, J; Niu, S; Pendall, E; Peñuelas, J; Pfeifer-Meister, L; Poll, C; Reinsch, S; Reynolds, L L; Schmidt, I K; Sistla, S; Sokol, N W; Templer, P H; Treseder, K K; Welker, J M; Bradford, M A

    2016-11-30

    The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ± 161 petagrams of carbon under one degree of warming, depending on the rate at which the effects of warming are realized. Under the conservative assumption that the response of soil carbon to warming occurs within a year, a business-as-usual climate scenario would drive the loss of 55 ± 50 petagrams of carbon from the upper soil horizons by 2050. This value is around 12-17 per cent of the expected anthropogenic emissions over this period. Despite the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, the direction of the global soil carbon response is consistent across all scenarios. This provides strong empirical support for the idea that rising temperatures will stimulate the net loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, driving a positive land carbon-climate feedback that could accelerate climate change.

  3. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, T. W.; Todd-Brown, K. E. O.; Rowe, C. W.; Wieder, W. R.; Carey, J. C.; Machmuller, M. B.; Snoek, B. L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S. D.; Blair, J. M.; Bridgham, S. D.; Burton, A. J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P. B.; Clark, J. S.; Classen, A. T.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B. A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S. D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B. R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K. S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J. M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L. N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L. L.; Schmidt, I. K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N. W.; Templer, P. H.; Treseder, K. K.; Welker, J. M.; Bradford, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ± 161 petagrams of carbon under one degree of warming, depending on the rate at which the effects of warming are realized. Under the conservative assumption that the response of soil carbon to warming occurs within a year, a business-as-usual climate scenario would drive the loss of 55 ± 50 petagrams of carbon from the upper soil horizons by 2050. This value is around 12-17 per cent of the expected anthropogenic emissions over this period. Despite the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, the direction of the global soil carbon response is consistent across all scenarios. This provides strong empirical support for the idea that rising temperatures will stimulate the net loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, driving a positive land carbon-climate feedback that could accelerate climate change.

  4. Resilience ethics: responsibility and the globally embedded subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chandler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse the rise of ‘resilience ethics’, in terms of the shift in ethical approaches away from the hierarchical liberal internationalist constructions of the 1990s and towards broader and more inclusive understandings of ethical responsibility for global problems. This shift in ethical attention away from the formal international politics of inter-state relations and towards the unintended consequences of both institutional structures and the informal market choices of individuals has diversified understandings of global ethical responsibilities. It is argued that the recasting of ethical responsibility in the increasingly sociological terms of unintended and indirect consequences of socio-material embeddedness constructs new ethical differentials and hierarchies of responsibility. These framings have facilitated new policy practices, recasting interventionist policy-making in terms of the growing self-awareness and reflexivity of Western actors, reframing ethical foreign policy as starting with the choices of individual citizens, and, at the same time, operating to reify the relations of the market.

  5. Changes in aridity in response to the global warming hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Guo, Ruixia

    2017-02-01

    The global warming slowdown or warming hiatus, began around the year 2000 and has persisted for nearly 15 years. Most studies have focused on the interpretation of the hiatus in temperature. In this study, changes in a global aridity index (AI) were analyzed by using a newly developed dynamical adjustment method that can successfully identify and separate dynamically induced and radiatively forced aridity changes in the raw data. The AI and Palmer Drought Severity Index produced a wetting zone over the mid-to-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in recent decades. The dynamical adjustment analysis suggested that this wetting zone occurred in response to the global warming hiatus. The dynamically induced AI (DAI) played a major role in the AI changes during the hiatus period, and its relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) also indicated that different phases of the NAO, PDO, and AMO contributed to different performances of the DAI over the Northern Hemisphere. Although the aridity wetting over the mid-to-high latitudes may relieve long-term drying in certain regions, the hiatus is temporary, and so is the relief. Accelerated global warming will return when the NAO, PDO, and AMO revert to their opposite phases in the future, and the wetting zone is likely to disappear.

  6. A consistent picture of the hydroclimatic response to global warming from multiple indices: Models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Raffaele, F.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze trends of six daily precipitation-based and physically interconnected hydroclimatic indices in an ensemble of historical and 21st century climate projections under forcing from increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)8.5), along with gridded (land only) observations for the late decades of the twentieth century. The indices include metrics of intensity (SDII) and extremes (R95) of precipitation, dry (DSL), and wet spell length, the hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and a newly introduced index of precipitation area (PA). All the indices in both the 21st century and historical simulations provide a consistent picture of a predominant shift toward a hydroclimatic regime of more intense, shorter, less frequent, and less widespread precipitation events in response to GHG-induced global warming. The trends are larger and more spatially consistent over tropical than extratropical regions, pointing to the importance of tropical convection in regulating this response, and show substantial regional spatial variability. Observed trends in the indices analyzed are qualitatively and consistently in line with the simulated ones, at least at the global and full tropical scale, further supporting the robustness of the identified prevailing hydroclimatic responses. The HY-INT, PA, and R95 indices show the most consistent response to global warming, and thus offer the most promising tools for formal hydroclimatic model validation and detection/attribution studies. The physical mechanism underlying this response and some of the applications of our results are also discussed.

  7. Global transcriptome analysis of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to silver nitrate stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus cereus strains. Earlier, we had synthesized monodispersive crystalline silver nanoparticles using B. cereus PGN1 and ATCC14579 strains. These strains have showed high level of resistance to silver nitrate (1 mM but their global transcriptomic response has not been studied earlier. In this study, we investigated the cellular and metabolic response of B. cereus ATCC14579 treated with 1 mM silver nitrate for 30 & 60 min. Global expression profiling using genomic DNA microarray indicated that 10% (n = 524 of the total genes (n = 5234 represented on the microarray were up-regulated in the cells treated with silver nitrate. The majority of genes encoding for chaperones (GroEL, nutrient transporters, DNA replication, membrane proteins, etc. were up-regulated. A substantial number of the genes encoding chemotaxis and flagellar proteins were observed to be down-regulated. Motility assay of the silver nitrate treated cells revealed reduction in their chemotactic activity compared to the control cells. In addition, 14 distinct transcripts overexpressed from the 'empty' intergenic regions were also identified and proposed as stress-responsive non-coding small RNAs.

  8. Pellino-1 Selectively Regulates Epithelial Cell Responses to Rhinovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, Julie A; Prince, Lynne R; Parker, Lisa C; Stokes, Clare A; de Bruin, Harold G; van den Berge, Maarten; Heijink, Irene H; Whyte, Moira K; Sabroe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Pellino-1 has recently been identified as a regulator of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling, but its roles in regulation of responses of human cells to human pathogens are unknown. We investigated the potential roles of Pellino-1 in the airways. We show for the first time that Pellino-1 regulates respon

  9. Pellino-1 selectively regulates epithelial cell responses to rhinovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, Julie A; Prince, Lynne R; Parker, Lisa C; Stokes, Clare A; de Bruin, Harold G; van den Berge, Maarten; Heijink, Irene H; Whyte, Moira K; Sabroe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Pellino-1 has recently been identified as a regulator of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling, but its roles in regulation of responses of human cells to human pathogens are unknown. We investigated the potential roles of Pellino-1 in the airways. We show for the first time that Pellino-1 regulates respon

  10. Role of Glycolytic Intermediates in Global Regulation and Signal Transduction. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.C.

    2000-05-08

    The goal of this project is to determine the role of glycolytic intermediates in regulation of cell physiology. It is known that many glycolytic intermediates are involved in regulation of enzyme activities at the kinetic level. However, little is known regarding the role of these metabolites in global regulation and signal transduction. This project aims to investigate the role of glycolytic intermediates in the regulation of gene expression.

  11. Crp Is a Global Regulator of Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chan; Hindra,; Mulder, David; Yin, Charles; Elliot, Marie A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcription regulator controlling diverse cellular processes in many bacteria. In Streptomyces coelicolor, it is well established that Crp plays a critical role in spore germination and colony development. Here, we demonstrate that Crp is a key regulator of secondary metabolism and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor and show that it may additionally coordinate precursor flux from primary to secondary metabolism. We found that crp deletion ...

  12. Insights into the global regulation of anaerobic metabolism for improved biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To improve the biohydrogen yield in bacterial dark fermentation, a new approach of global anaerobic regulation was introduced. Two cellular global regulators FNR and NarP were overexpressed in two model organisms: facultatively anaerobic Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea) and strictly anaerobic Clostridium paraputrificum (Cp). The overexpression of FNR and NarP greatly altered anaerobic metabolism and increased the hydrogen yield by 40%. Metabolic analysis showed that the global regulation caused more reducing environment inside the cell. To get a thorough understanding of the global metabolic regulation, more genes (fdhF, fhlA, ppk, Cb-fdh1, and Sc-fdh1) were overexpressed in different Ea and Cp mutants. For the first time, it demonstrated that there were approximately linear relationships between the relative change of hydrogen yield and the relative change of NADH yield or ATP yield. It implied that cellular reducing power and energy level played vital roles in the biohydrogen production.

  13. Integrating comparative functional response experiments into global change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the importance of non-consumptive effects in predator-prey interaction research, which can often outweigh the importance of direct feeding. Barrios-O'Neill et al. (2014) report a novel method to characterize such effects by comparing the functional response of native and introduced intermediate consumers in the presence and absence of a higher predator. The invader exhibited stronger direct feeding and was also more resistant to intimidation by the higher predator. This experimental framework may be incorporated into mainstream global change research, for example, to quantify the importance of non-consumptive effects for the success or failure of biological invasions.

  14. The global response to diabetes: action or apathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Dain, Katie; Moylan, Judi

    2014-11-17

    Diabetes and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for over 60% of the world's annual deaths, untold personal suffering, and an economically crippling burden of lost productivity. Despite the body of evidence and various calls to action, historically, the global response has bordered on apathy. Although diabetes and related NCDs remain disproportionately underfunded, the United Nations now recognises them as a major challenge to human and economic development, resulting in an action-oriented policy, frameworks and monitoring requirements that are being driven by the UN and the World Health Organization. Australia is at the forefront of many of these initiatives and is currently developing a new national diabetes strategy.

  15. Global Response to Tropical Diabatic Heating Variability in Boreal Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu; Hai LIN; JIANG Jing

    2012-01-01

    Global teleconnections associated with tropical convective activities were investigated,based on monthly data of 29 Northern Hemisphere winters:December,January,February,and March (DJFM).First,EOF analyses were performed on the outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data to characterize the convective activity variability in the tropical Indian Ocean and the western Pacific.The first EOF mode of the convective activity was highly correlated with the ENSO.The second EOF mode had an east-west dipole structure,and the third EOF mode had three convective activity centers.Two distinct teleconnection patterns were identified that were associated,respectively,with the second and third EOF modes. A global primitive equation model was used to investigate the physical mechanism that causes the global circulation anomalies.The model responses to anomalous tropical thermal forcings that mimic the EOF patterns matched the general features of the observed circulation anomalies well,and they were mainly controlled by linear processes.The importance of convective activities in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific to the extended- and long-range forecasting capability in the extratropics is discussed.

  16. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  17. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... of social policy change. By contrast, in more generous welfare states, i.e., those with highly developed automatic stabilisers, the overall direction of policy change is regularly not subject to debate. Political conflict in these welfare states rather concerns the extent to which expansion or retrenchment...

  18. Global transcriptome analysis of the heat shock response ofshewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Sarah; Liu, Xueduan; Yan, Tinfeng; Wu, Liyou; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam P.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-04-30

    Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities. However, the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of S. oneidensis to survive and adapt to various environmentally relevant stresses is poorly understood. To define this organism's molecular response to elevated growth temperatures, temporal gene expression profiles were examined in cells subjected to heat stress using whole-genome DNA microarrays for S. oneidensis MR-1. Approximately 15 percent (711) of the predicted S. oneidensis genes represented on the microarray were significantly up- or down-regulated (P < 0.05) over a 25-min period following shift to the heat shock temperature (42 C). As expected, the majority of S. oneidensis genes exhibiting homology to known chaperones and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were highly and transiently induced. In addition, a number of predicted genes encoding enzymes in glycolys is and the pentose cycle, [NiFe] dehydrogenase, serine proteases, transcriptional regulators (MerR, LysR, and TetR families), histidine kinases, and hypothetical proteins were induced in response to heat stress. Genes encoding membrane proteins were differentially expressed, suggesting that cells possibly alter their membrane composition or structure in response to variations in growth temperature. A substantial number of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins displayed down-regulated co-expression patterns in response to heat stress, as did genes encoding prophage and flagellar proteins. Finally, based on computational comparative analysis of the upstream promoter regions of S.oneidensis heat-inducible genes, a putative regulatory motif, showing high conservation to the Escherichia coli sigma 32-binding consensus sequence, was identified.

  19. Global regulation of robots using only position measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Harry; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1993-01-01

    In this note we propose a simple solution to the regulation problem of rigid robots based on the availability of only joint position measurements. The controller consists of two parts: (1) a gravitation compensation, (2) a linear dynamic first-order compensator. The gravitation compensation part can

  20. Global ionospheric TEC response to a strong magnetic storm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The global characteristics of the ionospheric storm and irregularities as well as propagation of TEC (total electron content) disturbances during the strong mag-netic storm occurring in November 2004 were investigated by using the data of the IGS network. For the response of the global ionospheric TEC to this strong mag-netic storm, the following features are noticeable: 1) the maximum of the iono-spheric storm phase occurred around the main phase maximum of the magnetic storm; 2) the TEC response in equatorial and low latitudes was more remarkable than that in mid-high latitudes; 3) as a whole, the storm phase in the northern hemisphere was mainly positive, and it was negative in the southern hemisphere; 4) during the whole magnetic storm from November 7 to 11, the locations where the maxima of the positive and negative ionospheric storm phases occurred were nearly invariant to the Sun at low and equatorial latitudes, i.e. the 24-h recurrence. Analyzing results of TEC rate and its standard deviation showed that the iono-spheric irregularities and disturbances in the global mainly occurred around the main phase maximum of the storm, and they distributed in a large longitudinal re-gion for both day and night in mid-high latitudes and they generated and developed only after the sunset, and lasted out to the midnight in equatorial and low latitudes. The disturbance propagation parameters were also estimated by using the wavelet reconstruction and cross-correlation technologies for a set of spaced stations in the Northern America.

  1. Exceptional epidemics: AIDS still deserves a global response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been a renewed debate over whether AIDS deserves an exceptional response. We argue that as AIDS is having differentiated impacts depending on the scale of the epidemic, and population groups impacted, and so responses must be tailored accordingly. AIDS is exceptional, but not everywhere. Exceptionalism developed as a Western reaction to a once poorly understood epidemic, but remains relevant in the current multi-dimensional global response. The attack on AIDS exceptionalism has arisen because of the amount of funding targeted to the disease and the belief that AIDS activists prioritize it above other health issues. The strongest detractors of exceptionalism claim that the AIDS response has undermined health systems in developing countries. We agree that in countries with low prevalence, AIDS should be normalised and treated as a public health issue--but responses must forcefully address human rights and tackle the stigma and discrimination faced by marginalized groups. Similarly, AIDS should be normalized in countries with mid-level prevalence, except when life-long treatment is dependent on outside resources--as is the case with most African countries--because treatment dependency creates unique sustainability challenges. AIDS always requires an exceptional response in countries with high prevalence (over 10 percent. In these settings there is substantial morbidity, filling hospitals and increasing care burdens; and increased mortality, which most visibly reduces life expectancy. The idea that exceptionalism is somehow wrong is an oversimplification. The AIDS response can not be mounted in isolation; it is part of the development agenda. It must be based on human rights principles, and it must aim to improve health and well-being of societies as a whole.

  2. Unraveling the global microRNAome responses to ionizing radiation in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA comprise a group of short ribonucleic acid molecules implicated in regulation of key biological processes and functions at the post-transcriptional level. Ionizing radiation (IR causes DNA damage and generally triggers cellular stress response. However, the role of miRNAs in IR-induced response in human embryonic stem cells (hESC has not been defined yet. Here, by using system biology approaches, we show for the first time, that miRNAome undergoes global alterations in hESC (H1 and H9 lines after IR. Interrogation of expression levels of 1,090 miRNA species in irradiated hESC showed statistically significant changes in 54 genes following 1 Gy of X-ray exposures; global miRNAome alterations were found to be highly temporally and cell line--dependent in hESC. Time-course studies showed that the 16 hr miRNAome radiation response of hESC is much more robust compared to 2 hr-response signature (only eight genes, and may be involved in regulating the cell cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR performed on some miRNA species confirms the robustness of our miRNA microarray platform. Positive regulation of differentiation-, cell cycle-, ion transport- and endomembrane system-related processes were predicted to be negatively affected by miRNAome changes in irradiated hESC. Our findings reveal a fundamental role of miRNAome in modulating the radiation response, and identify novel molecular targets of radiation in hESC.

  3. Global Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195 to Fixed Nitrogen Limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Patrick K. H. [University of California, Berkeley; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Louie, Tiffany S. [University of California, Berkeley; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Andersen, Gary L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Zinder, Stephen H. [Cornell University; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides play an important role in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. A systems level approach was taken in this study to examine the global transcriptomic and proteomic responses of exponentially growing D. ethenogenes strain 195 to fixed nitrogen limitation (FNL) as dechlorination activity and cell yield both decrease during FNL. As expected, the nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes were differentially up-regulated in the transcriptome and proteome of strain 195 during FNL. Aside from the nif operon, a putative methylglyoxal synthase-encoding gene (DET1576), the product of which is predicted to catalyze the formation of the toxic electrophile methylglyoxal and implicated in the uncoupling of anabolism from catabolism in bacteria, was strongly up-regulated in the transcriptome and could potentially play a role in the observed growth inhibition during FNL. Carbon catabolism genes were generally down regulated in response to FNL and a number of transporters were differentially regulated in response to nitrogen limitation, with some playing apparent roles in nitrogen acquisition while others were associated with general stress responses. A number of genes related to the functions of nucleotide synthesis, replication, transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications were also differentially expressed. One gene coding for a putative reductive dehalogenase (DET1545) and a number coding for oxidoreductases, which have implications in energy generation and redox reactions, were also differentially regulated. Interestingly, most of the genes within the multiple integrated elements were not differentially expressed. Overall, this study elucidates the molecular responses of strain 195 to FNL and identifies differentially expressed genes that are potential biomarkers to evaluate environmental cellular nitrogen status.

  4. Global analysis of gene transcription regulation in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Yang, R

    2006-10-01

    Prokaryotes have complex mechanisms to regulate their gene transcription, through the action of transcription factors (TFs). This review deals with current strategies, approaches and challenges in the understanding of i) how to map the repertoires of TF and operon on a genome, ii) how to identify the specific cis-acting DNA elements and their DNA-binding TFs that are required for expression of a given gene, iii) how to define the regulon members of a given TF, iv) how a given TF interacts with its target promoters, v) how these TF-promoter DNA interactions constitute regulatory networks, and vi) how transcriptional regulatory networks can be reconstructed by the reverse-engineering methods. Our goal is to depict the power of newly developed genomic techniques and computational tools, alone or in combination, to dissect the genetic circuitry of transcription regulation, and how this has the tremendous potential to model the regulatory networks in the prokaryotic cells.

  5. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry.

  6. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon; Kovacevic, Natasa; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Nichols, Thomas; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcela; Smolka, Michal N; Ströhle, Andreas; Toro, Roberto; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620). Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2) = 0.38, p<0.001). Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001) and the magnitude of brain response (R(2) = 0.32, p<0.001). Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  7. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin W Dickie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML, we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620. Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50% in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2 = 0.38, p<0.001. Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001 and the magnitude of brain response (R(2 = 0.32, p<0.001. Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  8. Transcriptional responses and regulations to deficient phosphorus in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinxiang BAO; Shuhua ZHANG; Wenjing LU; Chengjin GUO; Juntao GU; Kai XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past several years in the understanding of phosphorus (Pi)-starvation responses in plants and their regulation. The transcriptional changes that occur in response to Pi starvation are beginning to be revealed, although much is left to understand about their significance. In this paper, the recent progresses on the gene expression changes under deficient-Pi, cis-regulatory elements involved in response to deficient-Pi, the transcriptional control of Pi-starvation responses in eukaryotes, transcription factors involved in response to Pi-starvation, the role of MicroRNA on regulation of phosphate homeostasis, and phosphate sensing and signal transduction in plants have been summarized. The purpose of this review is to provide some basis for further elucidation of the transcriptional responses and regulations, and the networks of Pi sensing and signal transduction under deficient-Pi in plants in the future.

  9. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of the Response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to Vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Can; Pan, Junfeng; Yang, Xiaobing; Guo, Chenghao; Ding, Wei; Si, Meiru; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Vanillin is one of the major phenolic inhibitors in biomass production using lignocellulose. To assess the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to vanillin stress, we performed a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that the vanillin stress not only affected the genes involved in degradation of vanillin, but also differentially regulated several genes related to the stress response, ribosome/translation, protein secretion, and the cell envelope. Moreover, deletion of the sigH or msrA gene in C. glutamicum resulted in a decrease in cell viability under vanillin stress. These insights will promote further engineering of model industrial strains, with enhanced tolerance or degradation ability to vanillin to enable suitable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27760214

  10. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of the Response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Can; Pan, Junfeng; Yang, Xiaobing; Guo, Chenghao; Ding, Wei; Si, Meiru; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Vanillin is one of the major phenolic inhibitors in biomass production using lignocellulose. To assess the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to vanillin stress, we performed a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that the vanillin stress not only affected the genes involved in degradation of vanillin, but also differentially regulated several genes related to the stress response, ribosome/translation, protein secretion, and the cell envelope. Moreover, deletion of the sigH or msrA gene in C. glutamicum resulted in a decrease in cell viability under vanillin stress. These insights will promote further engineering of model industrial strains, with enhanced tolerance or degradation ability to vanillin to enable suitable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, S M; Simó, R; Manizza, M

    2007-10-09

    The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO(2) and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000-2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the "plankton-DMS-clouds-earth albedo feedback" hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere.

  12. Crp is a global regulator of antibiotic production in streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chan; Hindra; Mulder, David; Yin, Charles; Elliot, Marie A

    2012-12-11

    Cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcription regulator controlling diverse cellular processes in many bacteria. In Streptomyces coelicolor, it is well established that Crp plays a critical role in spore germination and colony development. Here, we demonstrate that Crp is a key regulator of secondary metabolism and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor and show that it may additionally coordinate precursor flux from primary to secondary metabolism. We found that crp deletion adversely affected the synthesis of three well-characterized antibiotics in S. coelicolor: actinorhodin (Act), undecylprodigiosin (Red), and calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray (ChIP-chip) assays, we determined that eight (out of 22) secondary metabolic clusters encoded by S. coelicolor contained Crp-associated sites. We followed the effect of Crp induction using transcription profiling analyses and found secondary metabolic genes to be significantly affected: included in this Crp-dependent group were genes from six of the clusters identified in the ChIP-chip experiments. Overexpressing Crp in a panel of Streptomyces species led to enhanced antibiotic synthesis and new metabolite production, suggesting that Crp control over secondary metabolism is broadly conserved in the streptomycetes and that Crp overexpression could serve as a powerful tool for unlocking the chemical potential of these organisms. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces produces a remarkably diverse array of secondary metabolites, including many antibiotics. In recent years, genome sequencing has revealed that these products represent only a small proportion of the total secondary metabolite potential of Streptomyces. There is, therefore, considerable interest in discovering ways to stimulate the production of new metabolites. Here, we show that Crp (the classical regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Escherichia coli) is a master regulator of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces

  13. Global Empirical Model of the TEC Response to Geomagnetic Activity and Forcing from Below

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0025 Global empirical model of the TEC response to geomagnetic activity and forcing from below Dora...April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global empirical model of the TEC response to geomagnetic activity and forcing from below 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the global background TEC model c) Development of global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity d) On-line implementation of both

  14. Global chromatin fibre compaction in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Charlotte [Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR (United Kingdom); Hayward, Richard L. [Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Nick, E-mail: Nick.Gilbert@ed.ac.uk [Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robust KAP1 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair foci are found in soluble chromatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biophysical analysis reveals global chromatin fibre compaction after DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA damage is accompanied by rapid linker histone dephosphorylation. -- Abstract: DNA is protected by packaging it into higher order chromatin fibres, but this can impede nuclear processes like DNA repair. Despite considerable research into the factors required for signalling and repairing DNA damage, it is unclear if there are concomitant changes in global chromatin fibre structure. In human cells DNA double strand break (DSB) formation triggers a signalling cascade resulting in H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX), the rapid recruitment of chromatin associated proteins and the subsequent repair of damaged sites. KAP1 is a transcriptional corepressor and in HCT116 cells we found that after DSB formation by chemicals or ionising radiation there was a wave of, predominantly ATM dependent, KAP1 phosphorylation. Both KAP1 and phosphorylated KAP1 were readily extracted from cells indicating they do not have a structural role and {gamma}H2AX was extracted in soluble chromatin indicating that sites of damage are not attached to an underlying structural matrix. After DSB formation we did not find a concomitant change in the sensitivity of chromatin fibres to micrococcal nuclease digestion. Therefore to directly investigate higher order chromatin fibre structures we used a biophysical sedimentation technique based on sucrose gradient centrifugation to compare the conformation of chromatin fibres isolated from cells before and after DNA DSB formation. After damage we found global chromatin fibre compaction, accompanied by rapid linker histone dephosphorylation, consistent with fibres being more regularly folded or fibre deformation being stabilized by

  15. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to 1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  16. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Roopnarine, Peter D; Kennett, James P

    2015-04-14

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to 1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  17. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    Full Text Available In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria.

  18. Linking maternal warmth and responsiveness to children's self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children?s acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children?s self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten children (51 girls and 51 boys). Behavior regulation and internalization of rules of conduct were examined as specific components ...

  19. Linking maternal warmth and responsiveness to children's self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children's acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children's self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten children (51 girls and 51 boys). Behavior regulation and internalization of rules of conduct were examined as specific compone...

  20. Romanian Campaigns on Corporate Social Responsibility – Signs of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Patrut

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations play an important role in the development of the modern society since managers have become aware that financial profit highly depends on community involvement. The active participation of organizations in community life implies to adapt global strategies to local issues or to promote local issues at a global level. Actually this is the essence of glocalization. The means by which organizations can achieve these glocal objectives is CSR campaigns.  CSR represents an instrument used to solve diverse issues, such as: human rights, environment and climate change, education, support for vulnerable groups, sustainable development, or establishment of moral capitalism. Within the context of the ever-rising internet access of all audiences, CSR campaigns have become more visible and have capitalized on the advantages of collective intelligence, internet users’ participation and their user generated contents. The purpose of our study is to provide an insight into (1 the prominence of Romanian organizations which are the most socially responsible, (2 the domains in which Romanian organizations have invested; (3 the salience of CSR 1.0 and CSR 2.0 tools used in the promotion of CSR campaigns in Romania. 

  1. Global transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 to changes in iron bioavailability in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutzke Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (DC3000 is a Gram-negative model plant pathogen that is found in a wide variety of environments. To survive in these diverse conditions it must sense and respond to various environmental cues. One micronutrient required for most forms of life is iron. Bioavailable iron has been shown to be an important global regulator for many bacteria where it not only regulates a wide variety of genes involved in general cell physiology but also virulence determinants. In this study we used microarrays to study differential gene regulation in DC3000 in response to changes in levels of cell-associated iron. Results DC3000 cultures were grown under highly controlled conditions and analyzed after the addition of iron citrate or sodium citrate to the media. In the cultures supplemented with iron, we found that cell-associated iron increased rapidly while culture densities were not significantly different over 4 hours when compared to cultures with sodium citrate added. Microarray analysis of samples taken from before and after the addition of either sodium citrate or iron citrate identified 386 differentially regulated genes with high statistical confidence. Differentially regulated genes were clustered based on expression patterns observed between comparison of samples taken at different time points and with different supplements. This analysis grouped genes associated with the same regulatory motifs and/or had similar putative or known function. Conclusion This study shows iron is rapidly taken up from the medium by iron-depleted DC3000 cultures and that bioavailable iron is a global cue for the expression of iron transport, storage, and known virulence factors in DC3000. Furthermore approximately 34% of the differentially regulated genes are associated with one of four regulatory motifs for Fur, PvdS, HrpL, or RpoD.

  2. Cap0037, a Novel Global Regulator of Clostridium acetobutylicum Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Phuong-Thao; Linder, Sonja; Flitsch, Stefanie K; Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Dürre, Peter; Soucaille, Philippe

    2016-10-04

    An operon comprising two genes, CA_P0037 and CA_P0036, that encode proteins of unknown function that were previously shown to be highly expressed in acidogenic cells and repressed in solventogenic and alcohologenic cells is located on the pSOL1 megaplasmid of Clostridium acetobutylicum upstream of adhE2 A CA_P0037::int (189/190s) mutant in which an intron was inserted at position 189/190 in the sense strand of CA_P0037 was successfully generated by the Targetron technique. The resultant mutant showed significantly different metabolic flux patterns in acidogenic (producing mainly lactate, butyrate, and butanol) and alcohologenic (producing mainly butyrate, acetate, and lactate) chemostat cultures but not in solventogenic or batch cultures. Transcriptomic investigation of the CA_P0037::int (189/190s) mutant showed that inactivation of CA_P0037 significantly affected the expression of more than 258 genes under acidogenic conditions. Surprisingly, genes belonging to the Fur regulon, involved in iron transport (CA_C1029-CA_C1032), or coding for the main flavodoxin (CA_C0587) were the most significantly expressed genes under all conditions, whereas fur (coding for the ferric uptake regulator) gene expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, most of the genes of the Rex regulon, such as the adhE2 and ldhA genes, and of the PerR regulon, such as rbr3A-rbr3B and dfx, were overexpressed in the mutant. In addition, the whole CA_P0037-CA_P0036 operon was highly expressed under all conditions in the CA_P0037::int (189/190s) mutant, suggesting a self-regulated expression mechanism. Cap0037 was shown to bind to the CA_P0037-CA_P0036 operon, sol operon, and adc promoters, and the binding sites were determined by DNA footprinting. Finally, a putative Cap0037 regulon was generated using a bioinformatic approach. Clostridium acetobutylicum is well-known for its ability to produce solvents, especially n-butanol. Understanding the regulatory network of C. acetobutylicum will be

  3. Global transcriptomic response of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 to aluminum exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jia Chun; Thevarajoo, Suganthi; Selvaratnam, Chitra; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2017-02-01

    Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and a member of family Bacillaceae. We had previously reported that the strain is an aluminum resistant thermophilic bacterium. This is the first report to provide a detailed analysis of the global transcriptional response of Anoxybacillus when the cells were exposed to 600 mg L(-1) of aluminum. The transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq sequencer. Total of 708 genes were differentially expressed (fold change >2.00) with 316 genes were up-regulated while 347 genes were down-regulated, in comparing to control with no aluminum added in the culture. Based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the majority of genes encoding for cell metabolism such as glycolysis, sulfur metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism were up-regulated; while most of the gene associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, a significant number of the genes encoding ABC transporters, metal ions transporters, and some stress response proteins were also differentially expressed following aluminum exposure. The findings provide further insight and help us to understand on the resistance of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 toward aluminium. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

  5. Clouds and the extratropical circulation response to global warming in a hierarchy of global atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    Climate models project that global warming will lead to substantial changes in the position of the extratropical jet streams. Yet, many quantitative aspects of such jet stream changes remain uncertain among models, and recent work has indicated a potentially important role of cloud radiative interactions. Here, I will investigate how cloud-radiative changes impact the extratropical circulation response using a hierarchy of global atmosphere models. I will first focus on aquaplanet setups with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), which reproduce the model spread found in realistic simulations with interactive SSTs. Simulations with two CMIP5 models MPI-ESM and IPSL-CM5A and prescribed clouds show that half of the circulation response can be attributed to cloud changes. The rise of tropical high-level clouds and the upward and poleward movement of midlatitude high-level clouds lead to poleward jet shifts. High-latitude low-level cloud changes shift the jet poleward in one model but not in the other. The impact of clouds on the jet operates via the atmospheric radiative forcing that is created by the cloud changes and is qualitatively reproduced in a dry Held-Suarez model, although the latter is too sensitive because of its simplified treatment of diabatic processes. I will then show that the aquaplanet results also hold when the models are used in a realistic setup that includes continents and seasonality. Finally, I will juxtapose these prescribed-SST simulations with interactive-SST simulations. This will allow for a comparison of the circulation impacts of atmospheric and surface cloud-radiative changes.

  6. Globalization of health insecurity: the World Health Organization and the new International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2006-12-01

    The transnational spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases has opened new vistas in the discourse of global health security. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens, according to exponents of globalization of public health, disrespect the geo-political boundaries of nation-states. Despite the global ramifications of health insecurity in a globalizing world, contemporary international law still operates as a classic inter-state law within an international system exclusively founded on a coalition of nation-states. This article argues that the dynamic process of globalization has created an opportunity for the World Health Organization to develop effective synergy with a multiplicity of actors in the exercise of its legal powers. WHO's legal and regulatory strategies must transform from traditional international legal approaches to disease governance to a "post-Westphalian public health governance": the use of formal and informal sources from state and non-state actors, hard law (treaties and regulations) and soft law (recommendations and travel advisories) in global health governance. This article assesses the potential promise and problems of WHO's new International Health Regulations (IHR) as a regulatory strategy for global health governance and global health security.

  7. Cap0037, a Novel Global Regulator of Clostridium acetobutylicum Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Phuong-Thao Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An operon comprising two genes, CA_P0037 and CA_P0036, that encode proteins of unknown function that were previously shown to be highly expressed in acidogenic cells and repressed in solventogenic and alcohologenic cells is located on the pSOL1 megaplasmid of Clostridium acetobutylicum upstream of adhE2. A CA_P0037::int (189/190s mutant in which an intron was inserted at position 189/190 in the sense strand of CA_P0037 was successfully generated by the Targetron technique. The resultant mutant showed significantly different metabolic flux patterns in acidogenic (producing mainly lactate, butyrate, and butanol and alcohologenic (producing mainly butyrate, acetate, and lactate chemostat cultures but not in solventogenic or batch cultures. Transcriptomic investigation of the CA_P0037::int (189/190s mutant showed that inactivation of CA_P0037 significantly affected the expression of more than 258 genes under acidogenic conditions. Surprisingly, genes belonging to the Fur regulon, involved in iron transport (CA_C1029-CA_C1032, or coding for the main flavodoxin (CA_C0587 were the most significantly expressed genes under all conditions, whereas fur (coding for the ferric uptake regulator gene expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, most of the genes of the Rex regulon, such as the adhE2 and ldhA genes, and of the PerR regulon, such as rbr3A-rbr3B and dfx, were overexpressed in the mutant. In addition, the whole CA_P0037-CA_P0036 operon was highly expressed under all conditions in the CA_P0037::int (189/190s mutant, suggesting a self-regulated expression mechanism. Cap0037 was shown to bind to the CA_P0037-CA_P0036 operon, sol operon, and adc promoters, and the binding sites were determined by DNA footprinting. Finally, a putative Cap0037 regulon was generated using a bioinformatic approach.

  8. Global analysis of SUMO chain function reveals multiple roles in chromatin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikumar, Tharan; Lewicki, Megan C; Costanzo, Michael; Tkach, Johnny M; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Johnson, Erica S; Brown, Grant W; Andrews, Brenda J; Boone, Charles; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Raught, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Like ubiquitin, the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins can form oligomeric "chains," but the biological functions of these superstructures are not well understood. Here, we created mutant yeast strains unable to synthesize SUMO chains (smt3(allR)) and subjected them to high-content microscopic screening, synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis, and high-density transcript profiling to perform the first global analysis of SUMO chain function. This comprehensive assessment identified 144 proteins with altered localization or intensity in smt3(allR) cells, 149 synthetic genetic interactions, and 225 mRNA transcripts (primarily consisting of stress- and nutrient-response genes) that displayed a >1.5-fold increase in expression levels. This information-rich resource strongly implicates SUMO chains in the regulation of chromatin. Indeed, using several different approaches, we demonstrate that SUMO chains are required for the maintenance of normal higher-order chromatin structure and transcriptional repression of environmental stress response genes in budding yeast.

  9. Hepato-cardiovascular response and its regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Nong Li; Irving S Benjamin; Barry Alexander

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the possible existence of a hepatocardiovascular response and its regulatory mechanism in normal rats.METHODS: Systemic hemodynamic changes following intraportal injection of latex microspheres were studied in two modified rat models of hepatic circulation, in which the extrahepatic splanchnic circulation was excluded by evisceration and the liver was perfused by systemic blood via either the portal vein (model 1) or hepatic artery(model 2)in vivo.RFSULTS: In model 1, intraportal injection of two sized microspheres (15-μm and 8O-μm) induced a similar decrease in mean arterial pressure, while extrahepatic portal venous occlusion induced an immediate increase in mean arterial pressure. In model 2, microsphere injection again induced a significant reduction in mean arterial pressure, aortic blood flow and aortic resistance. There were no significant differences in these parameters between liver-innervated rats and liver-denervated rats.The degrees of microsphere-induced reduction in mean arterial pressure (-38.1±1.9% in liver-innervated rats and -35.4±2.1% in liver-denervated rats, respectively)were similar to those obtained by withdrawal of 2.0 mL of blood via the jugular vein (-33.3±2.1%) (P>0.05).Injection of 2.0 mL Haemaccel in microsphere-treated rats, to compensate for the reduced effective circulating blood volume, led to a hyperdynamic state which, as compared with basal values and unlike control rats, was characterised by increased aortic blood flow (+21.6±3.3%),decreased aortic resistance (-38.1±3.5%) and reduced mean arterial pressure (-9.7±2.8%).CONCLUSION: A hepato-cardiovascular response exists in normal rats. It acts through a humoral mechanism leading to systemic vasodilatation, and may be involved in the hemodynamic disturbances associated with acute and chronic liver diseases.

  10. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  11. The flood and global warming: Who is responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Geller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The flood and global warming: Who is responsible? The essential difference between ancient versions of the Flood (including the biblical Noah account is whether mankind brought the cataclysm on itself through immoral behaviour. In a second disaster story of the Tower of Babel, misuse of technology was responsible for the Tower’s failure. Both of these narratives may be represented on a unique Babylonian mappa mundi, which might also show the topography of biblical Eden.   Potop i globalne ocieplenie: gdzie leży odpowiedzialność? Zasadnicze różnice między różnymi starożytnymi wersjami mitu o Potopie (w tym biblijnej historii Noego dotyczą pytania, czy to ludzkość ściągnęła na siebie kataklizm niemoralnym życiem. W innej opowieści o katastrofie – micie Wieży Babel – przyczyną runięcia Wieży jest złe wykorzystanie technologii. Obie narracje da się umieścić na unikatowej babilońskiej mappa mundi, która może również przedstawiać topografię ogrodu Eden.

  12. Separating the nature and nurture of the allocation of energy in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Scott L; Pan, T-C Francis; Hedgecock, Dennis; Manahan, Donal T

    2014-07-01

    Understanding and predicting biological stability and change in the face of rapid anthropogenic modifications of ecosystems and geosystems are grand challenges facing environmental and life scientists. Physiologically, organisms withstand environmental stress through changes in biochemical regulation that maintain homeostasis, which necessarily demands tradeoffs in the use of metabolic energy. Evolutionarily, in response to environmentally forced energetic tradeoffs, populations adapt based on standing genetic variation in the ability of individual organisms to reallocate metabolic energy. Combined study of physiology and genetics, separating "Nature and Nurture," is, thus, the key to understanding the potential for evolutionary adaptation to future global change. To understand biological responses to global change, we need experimentally tractable model species that have the well-developed physiological, genetic, and genomic resources necessary for partitioning variance in the allocation of metabolic energy into its causal components. Model species allow for discovery and for experimental manipulation of relevant phenotypic contrasts and enable a systems-biology approach that integrates multiple levels of analyses to map genotypic-to-phenotypic variation. Here, we illustrate how combined physiological and genetic studies that focus on energy metabolism in developmental stages of a model marine organism contribute to an understanding of the potential to adapt to environmental change. This integrative research program provides insights that can be readily incorporated into individual-based ecological models of population persistence under global change.

  13. Coralline algae (Rhodophyta) in a changing world: integrating ecological, physiological, and geochemical responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sophie J; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2015-02-01

    Coralline algae are globally distributed benthic primary producers that secrete calcium carbonate skeletons. In the context of ocean acidification, they have received much recent attention due to the potential vulnerability of their high-Mg calcite skeletons and their many important ecological roles. Herein, we summarize what is known about coralline algal ecology and physiology, providing context to understand their responses to global climate change. We review the impacts of these changes, including ocean acidification, rising temperatures, and pollution, on coralline algal growth and calcification. We also assess the ongoing use of coralline algae as marine climate proxies via calibration of skeletal morphology and geochemistry to environmental conditions. Finally, we indicate critical gaps in our understanding of coralline algal calcification and physiology and highlight key areas for future research. These include analytical areas that recently have become more accessible, such as resolving phylogenetic relationships at all taxonomic ranks, elucidating the genes regulating algal photosynthesis and calcification, and calibrating skeletal geochemical metrics, as well as research directions that are broadly applicable to global change ecology, such as the importance of community-scale and long-term experiments in stress response.

  14. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  15. The global response of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to UVA stress, assessed in a temporal DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Tanya; Gao, Qunjie; Stout, Valerie; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria in nature are exposed not only to the visible spectrum of sunlight but also to its harmful ultraviolet components (UVA and UVB). We used Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 as a model to study the UVA response by analyzing global gene expression patterns using genomic microarrays. UVA exposure resulted in the statistically detectable differential expression of 573 genes of the 6903 that were probed, compared with that of the control cultures. Of those genes, 473 were up-regulated, while only 100 were down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis, indicating a significant shift in this metabolism. As expected, we detected the up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and the sunscreen, scytonemin. However, a majority of the up-regulated genes, 47%, were unassignable bioinformatically to known functional categories, suggesting that the UVA stress response is not well understood. Interestingly, the most dramatic up-regulation involved several contiguous genes of unassigned metabolism on plasmid A. This is the first global UVA stress response analysis of any phototrophic microorganism and the differential expression of 8% of the genes of the Nostoc genome indicates that adaptation to UVA in Nostoc has been an evolutionary force of significance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R

    2010-01-01

    It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

  17. The circadian clock regulates auxin signaling and responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Covington

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a pervasive role in the temporal regulation of plant physiology, environmental responsiveness, and development. In contrast, the phytohormone auxin plays a similarly far-reaching role in the spatial regulation of plant growth and development. Went and Thimann noted 70 years ago that plant sensitivity to auxin varied according to the time of day, an observation that they could not explain. Here we present work that explains this puzzle, demonstrating that the circadian clock regulates auxin signal transduction. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we found many auxin-induced genes are under clock regulation. We verified that endogenous auxin signaling is clock regulated with a luciferase-based assay. Exogenous auxin has only modest effects on the plant clock, but the clock controls plant sensitivity to applied auxin. Notably, we found both transcriptional and growth responses to exogenous auxin are gated by the clock. Thus the circadian clock regulates some, and perhaps all, auxin responses. Consequently, many aspects of plant physiology not previously thought to be under circadian control may show time-of-day-specific sensitivity, with likely important consequences for plant growth and environmental responses.

  18. Quantitative analysis of proteome and lipidome dynamics reveals functional regulation of global lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanovas, Albert; Sprenger, Richard R; Tarasov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    architecture and processes during physiological adaptations in yeast. Our results reveal that activation of cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling supports mitochondrial biogenesis in the transition from fermentative to respiratory metabolism, that down-regulation of de novo sterol synthesis machinery prompts......Elucidating how and to what extent lipid metabolism is remodeled under changing conditions is essential for understanding cellular physiology. Here, we analyzed proteome and lipidome dynamics to investigate how regulation of lipid metabolism at the global scale supports remodeling of cellular...

  19. Reconstructing a Network of Stress-Response Regulators via Dynamic System Modeling of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Sheng Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular organisms such as yeasts have evolved mechanisms to respond to environmental stresses by rapidly reorganizing the gene expression program. Although many stress-response genes in yeast have been discovered by DNA microarrays, the stress-response transcription factors (TFs that regulate these stress-response genes remain to be investigated. In this study, we use a dynamic system model of gene regulation to describe the mechanism of how TFs may control a gene’s expression. Then, based on the dynamic system model, we develop the Stress Regulator Identification Algorithm (SRIA to identify stress-response TFs for six kinds of stresses. We identified some general stress-response TFs that respond to various stresses and some specific stress-response TFs that respond to one specifi c stress. The biological significance of our findings is validated by the literature. We found that a small number of TFs is probably suffi cient to control a wide variety of expression patterns in yeast under different stresses. Two implications can be inferred from this observation. First, the response mechanisms to different stresses may have a bow-tie structure. Second, there may be regulatory cross-talks among different stress responses. In conclusion, this study proposes a network of stress-response regulators and the details of their actions.

  20. Reconstructing a network of stress-response regulators via dynamic system modeling of gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Sheng; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2008-02-10

    Unicellular organisms such as yeasts have evolved mechanisms to respond to environmental stresses by rapidly reorganizing the gene expression program. Although many stress-response genes in yeast have been discovered by DNA microarrays, the stress-response transcription factors (TFs) that regulate these stress-response genes remain to be investigated. In this study, we use a dynamic system model of gene regulation to describe the mechanism of how TFs may control a gene's expression. Then, based on the dynamic system model, we develop the Stress Regulator Identification Algorithm (SRIA) to identify stress-response TFs for six kinds of stresses. We identified some general stress-response TFs that respond to various stresses and some specific stress-response TFs that respond to one specific stress. The biological significance of our findings is validated by the literature. We found that a small number of TFs is probably sufficient to control a wide variety of expression patterns in yeast under different stresses. Two implications can be inferred from this observation. First, the response mechanisms to different stresses may have a bow-tie structure. Second, there may be regulatory cross-talks among different stress responses. In conclusion, this study proposes a network of stress-response regulators and the details of their actions.

  1. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  2. Aflatoxin Regulations and Global Pistachio Trade: Insights from Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R.; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations’ aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996–2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations. PMID:24670581

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  4. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Mandle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers’ usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Design: Narrative review. Results: This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Conclusions: Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies.

  5. Response of a temperate demersal fish community to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzón, A.; Serrano, A.; Sánchez, F.; Velasco, F.; Preciado, I.; González-Irusta, J. M.; López-López, L.

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the distribution of the demersal fish species have been identified in north-European Atlantic waters. The consequence of these changes has been a northward shift of the distribution limits and changes in richness. In this study a notable increase in demersal fish species richness per sampling station was detected in the southern Bay of Biscay. This rise was due to an increase in frequency of occurrence and abundance of the majority of fish species in the area (53% from the total species). A fisheries relate explanation was discarded because the mismatch between the changes in the fishing effort and the augment in frequency of occurrence and abundance. On the contrary, these changes are in agreement with expected response under the increasing temperature of the sea observed over the last three decades, associated to global warming. These changes were positively correlated with an increase in temperature of intermediate waters in the study area. In addition, some of these species showed a notable western displacements of the Centre of Gravity in the study area, which would be expected if temperate water species would be favoured by an increase in water temperature. Our results are consistent with studies in the North Sea, where many of these species showing widened distribution limits towards north. The analysis of the results shows that the studied ecosystem, the Bay of Biscay is under a meridionalization process. On the other hand, only one tropicalization event (Lepidotrigla dieuzeidei), was recorded, maybe due to the conservative restrictions applied in species selection.

  6. Trends and responses to global change of China's arid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixi YANG

    2009-01-01

    Ⅰ analyzed and elaborated the trends in and responses to global change in arid regions of China, from the perspective of nine variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation, river runoff, melting glaciers, water level of lakes, wind power and evaporation, vegetation, oases, and desertification. The climate and hydrology data Ⅰ citedrepresent many years of observations. Ⅰ conclude that, since the 1980s, the climate in arid regions of China has clearly changed with rising temperatures and precipitation in most areas. Wind power and the number of galestorm days have continuously decreased, which resulted in an improvement of humid conditions and increases in river discharge and water levels of lakes. Simultaneously, vegetation also has improved and the process of deserti-fication has essentially been arrested. Although there are some unfavorable developments, such as decreased river flows or flow interruptions and downstream oases have suffered from degradation, these incidental cases should not distract our attention from the generally favorable trends during the middle and late 20th century. These discordant phenomena are not consequences of climate change but rather of unsuitable human activities. Despitea substantial increase in precipitation, the level of the original precipitation was so small that any increase in precipitation was still small. As a result, none of the fundamental conditions such as a scarcity of water resources and precipitation nor the landscape of drought-ridden deserts in the arid regions will change. The vulnerability of the eco-environmental system in the arid regions will not change fundamentally either in the near future.

  7. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  8. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To Sing Fung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed.

  9. Fairness through regulation? Reflections on a cosmopolitan approach to global finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Božina Beroš

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the last financial crisis a strong message prevails that ‘something’ has to be changed in the manner global finance is governed. What exactly this ‘something’ entails and what could constitute the ‘common ground’ of anticipated change is more difficult to determine. Many envisage future improvements of global financial governance by evoking deliberative democracy, political equality and cosmopolitanism. As financial regulation is the main instrument through which global finance is shaped and governed nowadays, these principles should then be transmitted to regulatory arrangements. This paper focuses on a new conceptual approach to regulatory and governance issues in global finance, by employing the philosophical idea of cosmopolitanism. It argues that although as a concept, cosmopolitanism cannot mitigate all the flaws attributed to contemporary finance, its development and extension to international financial regulation that is promulgated by institutions of the global financial system, would represent a worthwhile endeavour in making global finance more accountable and just in the eyes of many.

  10. Mineral supply constraints necessitate a global policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund

    2016-04-01

    Adoption on 12 December 2015 of The Paris Agreement, the first universal climate agreement, suggests that nations will invest in infrastructures for renewable energy sources paving the way to a global low-carbon society. These large-scale changes will require vast amounts of metals and minerals. Regardless of whether known supplies are enough to meet demand in the near future, efforts must be made now to forestall unpredictable yet inevitable supply shortages in the decades to come, shortages that would dramatically impact the building of additional generation and distribution capacity, and deployment of low-carbon technology. But in response to the current downturn in commodity prices, the global mining industry is downsizing and reducing investment in the new exploration, putting at risk future security of supply. Mining and climate change are inextricably linked; the new adaptive technologies needed to tackle climate change depend on extraction of minerals and metals. An interdisciplinary group supported by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the International Council for Science Unions and UNESCO proposes measures to avert the looming minerals crisis that is developing in the context of current recycling capacity and exploration trends. Our immediate goal is to stimulate discussion of supply constraints using available data on mineral reserves. We build on recent discussions of supply risk and criticality with a focus on the source of primary resources over the next two to three decades when the availability of metals for recycling will remain low. Current massive production of iron ore and other such commodities despite record low prices indicates a failure of the traditional supply and demand constraints. Broader discussions of metal and mineral supply beyond current criticality are needed given the pace of technological and demographic change as well as rapid development spurts. Furthermore, accessible mineral deposits are irregularly distributed

  11. Regulation of abiotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights into ...... through ubiquitination. The wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses that affect crop plants limits agricultural production.......Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights...

  12. The response to inositol: regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Susan A; Gaspar, Maria L; Jesch, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    This article focuses on discoveries of the mechanisms governing the regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in response to the phospholipid precursor, inositol. The regulation of glycerolipid lipid metabolism in yeast in response to inositol is highly complex, but increasingly well understood, and the roles of individual lipids in stress response are also increasingly well characterized. Discoveries that have emerged over several decades of genetic, molecular and biochemical analyses of metabolic, regulatory and signaling responses of yeast cells, both mutant and wild type, to the availability of the phospholipid precursor, inositol are discussed.

  13. Global Change and Human Consumption of Freshwater Driven by Flow Regulation and Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, F.; Destouni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show major uncertainties about the magnitude and key drivers of global freshwater change, historically and projected for the future. The tackling of these uncertainties should be a societal priority to understand: 1) the role of human change drivers for freshwater availability changes, 2) the global water footprint of humanity and 3) the relation of human freshwater consumption to a proposed planetary boundary. This study analyses worldwide hydroclimatic changes, as observed during 1900-2009 in 99 large hydrological basins across all continents. We test whether global freshwater change may be driven by major developments of flow regulation and irrigation (FRI) occurring over this period. Independent categorization of the variability of FRI-impact strength among the studied basins is used to identify statistical basin differences in occurrence and strength of characteristic hydroclimatic signals of FRI. Our results show dominant signals of increasing relative evapotranspiration in basins affected by flow regulation and/or irrigation, in conjunction with decreasing relative intra-annual variability of runoff in basins affected by flow regulation. The FRI-related increase in relative evapotranspiration implies an increase of 4,688 km3/yr in global annual average water flow from land to the atmosphere. This observation-based estimate extends considerably the upper quantification limits of both FRI-driven and total global human consumption of freshwater, as well as the global water footprint of humanity. Our worldwide analysis shows clear FRI-related change signals emerging directly from observations, in spite of large change variability among basins and many other coexisting change drivers in both the atmosphere and the landscape. These results highlight the importance of considering local water use as a key change driver in Earth system studies and modelling, of relevance for global change and human consumption of freshwater.

  14. Leveraging the laboratory response network model for the global health security agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Chris N; Maryogo-Robinson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Promoting global health security as an international priority is a challenge; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in its Global Health Security Agenda has articulated the importance of accelerating progress toward a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats. The goals are to (1) prevent and reduce the likelihood of outbreaks-natural, accidental, or intentional; (2) detect threats early to save lives; and (3) respond rapidly and effectively using multisectoral, international coordination and communication. Foundational to this agenda is the World Health Organization (WHO) Revised International Health Regulations (IHR) of 2005, which provide the legal framework for countries to strengthen their health systems in order to be able to respond to any public health emergency of international concern. This article proposes leveraging the distributed structure of the US-managed Laboratory Response Network for Biological Threats Preparedness (LRN-B) to develop the core capacity of laboratory testing and to fulfill the laboratory-strengthening component of the Global Health Security Agenda. The LRN model offers an effective mechanism to detect and respond to public health emergencies of international concern.

  15. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  16. Global Responses to Potential Climate Change: A Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise; Mowry, George

    This interdisciplinary five-day unit provides students with an understanding of the issues in the debate on global climate change. Introductory lessons enhance understanding of the "greenhouse gases" and their sources with possible global effects of climate change. Students then roleplay negotiators from 10 nations in a simulation of the…

  17. The LysR-type transcription factor PacR is a global regulator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria perform water-splitting photosynthesis and are important primary producers impacting the carbon and nitrogen cycles at global scale. They fix CO2 through ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and have evolved a distinct CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that builds high CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCo favouring its carboxylase activity. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fix CO2 in photosynthetic vegetative cells, which donate photosynthate to heterocysts that rely on a heterotrophic metabolism to fix N2 . CCM elements are induced in response to inorganic carbon limitation, a cue that exposes the photosynthetic apparatus to photodamage by over-reduction. An Anabaena mutant lacking the LysR-type transcription factor All3953 grew poorly and dies under high light. The rbcL operon encoding RuBisCo was induced upon carbon limitation in the wild type but not in the mutant. ChIP-Seq analysis was used to globally identify All3953 targets under carbon limitation. Targets include, besides rbcL, genes encoding CCM elements, photorespiratory pathway- photosystem- and electron transport-related components, and factors, including flavodiiron proteins, with a demonstrated or putative function in photoprotection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected All3953 targets showed regulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. All3953 (PacR) is a global regulator of carbon assimilation in an oxygenic photoautotroph.

  18. Global transcriptome and physiological responses of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 exposed to distinct classes of antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Heo

    Full Text Available The effects of antibiotics on environment-originated nonpathogenic Acinetobacter species have been poorly explored. To understand the antibiotic-resistance mechanisms that function in nonpathogenic Acinetobacter species, we used an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq technique to perform global gene-expression profiling of soil-borne Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 after exposing the bacteria to 4 classes of antibiotics (ampicillin, Amp; kanamycin, Km; tetracycline, Tc; norfloxacin, Nor. Interestingly, the well-known two global regulators, the soxR and the rpoE genes are present among 41 commonly upregulated genes under all 4 antibiotic-treatment conditions. We speculate that these common genes are essential for antibiotic resistance in DR1. Treatment with the 4 antibiotics produced diverse physiological and phenotypic changes. Km treatment induced the most dramatic phenotypic changes. Examination of mutation frequency and DNA-repair capability demonstrated the induction of the SOS response in Acinetobacter especially under Nor treatment. Based on the RNA-seq analysis, the glyoxylate-bypass genes of the citrate cycle were specifically upregulated under Amp treatment. We also identified newly recognized non-coding small RNAs of the DR1 strain, which were also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These results reveal that treatment with antibiotics of distinct classes differentially affected the gene expression and physiology of DR1 cells. This study expands our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic-stress response of environment-originated bacteria and provides a basis for future investigations.

  19. 17 CFR 450.1 - Scope of regulations; office responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible. 450.1 Section 450.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY... institutions that hold government securities as fiduciary, custodian, or otherwise for the account of...

  20. VENTROMEDIAL HYPOTHALAMIC REGULATION OF HORMONAL AND METABOLIC RESPONSES TO EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissing, John; Wallace, Jo L.; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Galbo, Henrik; Steffens, Anton B.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated a neural regulation of hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. Studies on the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) suggest that the VMH might be involved in neural control of exercise metabolism. We therefore studied 25 rats with or without Marcain-anesthetized VMH (Ma

  1. Implications of the global financial crisis for the response to diseases of poverty within overall health sector development: the case of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    The global financial crisis poses a threat to global health, and may exacerbate diseases of poverty, e.g. HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Exploring the implications of the global financial crisis for the health sector response to tuberculosis is useful to illustrate the practical problems and propose possible solutions. The response to tuberculosis is considered in the context of health sector development. Problems and solutions are considered in five key areas: financing, prioritization, government regulation, integration and decentralization. Securing health gains in global tuberculosis control depends on protecting expenditure by governments of countries badly affected by tuberculosis and by donors, taking measures to increase efficiencies, prioritizing health expenditures and strengthening government regulation. Lessons learned will be valuable for stakeholders involved in the health sector response to tuberculosis and other diseases of poverty.

  2. Regulation of Secondary Metabolism by the Velvet Complex Is Temperature-Responsive in Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Lind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and responding to environmental cues is critical to the lifestyle of filamentous fungi. How environmental variation influences fungi to produce a wide diversity of ecologically important secondary metabolites (SMs is not well understood. To address this question, we first examined changes in global gene expression of the opportunistic human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, after exposure to different temperature conditions. We found that 11 of the 37 SM gene clusters in A. fumigatus were expressed at higher levels at 30° than at 37°. We next investigated the role of the light-responsive Velvet complex in environment-dependent gene expression by examining temperature-dependent transcription profiles in the absence of two key members of the Velvet protein complex, VeA and LaeA. We found that the 11 temperature-regulated SM gene clusters required VeA at 37° and LaeA at both 30 and 37° for wild-type levels of expression. Interestingly, four SM gene clusters were regulated by VeA at 37° but not at 30°, and two additional ones were regulated by VeA at both temperatures but were substantially less so at 30°, indicating that the role of VeA and, more generally of the Velvet complex, in the regulation of certain SM gene clusters is temperature-dependent. Our findings support the hypothesis that fungal secondary metabolism is regulated by an intertwined network of transcriptional regulators responsive to multiple environmental factors.

  3. Global Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195 to Fixed Nitrogen Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick K. H.; Dill, Brian D.; Louie, Tiffany S.; Shah, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Andersen, Gary L.; Zinder, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides play an important role in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. A systems-level approach was taken in this study to examine the global transcriptomic and proteomic responses of exponentially growing cells of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 to fixed nitrogen limitation (FNL), as dechlorination activity and cell yield both decrease during FNL. As expected, the nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes were differentially upregulated in the transcriptome and proteome of strain 195 during FNL. Aside from the nif operon, a putative methylglyoxal synthase-encoding gene (DET1576), the product of which is predicted to catalyze the formation of the toxic electrophile methylglyoxal and is implicated in the uncoupling of anabolism from catabolism in bacteria, was strongly upregulated in the transcriptome and could potentially play a role in the observed growth inhibition during FNL. Carbon catabolism genes were generally downregulated in response to FNL, and a number of transporters were differentially regulated in response to nitrogen limitation, with some playing apparent roles in nitrogen acquisition, while others were associated with general stress responses. A number of genes related to the functions of nucleotide synthesis, replication, transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications were also differentially expressed. One gene coding for a putative reductive dehalogenase (DET1545) and a number of genes coding for oxidoreductases, which have implications in energy generation and redox reactions, were also differentially regulated. Interestingly, most of the genes within the multiple integrated elements were not differentially expressed. Overall, this study elucidates the molecular responses of strain 195 to FNL and identifies differentially expressed genes that are potential biomarkers to evaluate environmental cellular nitrogen status. PMID:22179257

  4. Enhancing forest tenure reforms through more responsive regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Larson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest tenure reforms have offered new opportunities for communities to obtain formal rights to forests and forest benefits, but at the same time a variety of limitations are placed on livelihood options. This article draws on several case studies of reforms in Africa, Asia and Latin America to analyse the regulations accompanying reforms. It identifies three types of regulations, namely rules that limit areas available to local communities; rules that delineate conservation areas and impose related limits on use; and bureaucratic requirements for permits and management plans, which restrict the commercial use and marketing of valuable forest products. It discusses problems with these regulations, and proposes a simple framework for identifying ways to promote regulations that work for forest conservation but are more responsive to the needs of communities and forests.

  5. Tri6 is a global transcription regulator in the phytopathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G Nasmith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In F. graminearum, the transcriptional regulator Tri6 is encoded within the trichothecene gene cluster and regulates genes involved in the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite deoxynivalenol (DON. The Tri6 protein with its Cys₂His₂ zinc-finger may also conform to the class of global transcription regulators. This class of global transcriptional regulators mediate various environmental cues and generally responds to the demands of cellular metabolism. To address this issue directly, we sought to find gene targets of Tri6 in F. graminearum grown in optimal nutrient conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing (ChIP-Seq revealed that in addition to identifying six genes within the trichothecene gene cluster, Tri1, Tri3, Tri6, Tri7, Tri12 and Tri14, the ChIP-Seq also identified 192 additional targets potentially regulated by Tri6. Functional classification revealed that, among the annotated genes, ∼40% are associated with cellular metabolism and transport and the rest of the target genes fall into the category of signal transduction and gene expression regulation. ChIP-Seq data also revealed Tri6 has the highest affinity toward its own promoter, suggesting that this gene could be subject to self-regulation. Electro mobility shift assays (EMSA performed on the promoter of Tri6 with purified Tri6 protein identified a minimum binding motif of GTGA repeats as a consensus sequence. Finally, expression profiling of F. graminearum grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions revealed that 49 out of 198 target genes are differentially regulated by Tri6. The identification of potential new targets together with deciphering novel binding sites for Tri6, casts new light into the role of this transcriptional regulator in the overall growth and development of F. graminearum.

  6. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 regulates ROS homeostasis and oxidative stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alvina Grace; Doherty, Colleen J; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kay, Steve A; Schippers, Jos H M; Dijkwel, Paul P

    2012-10-16

    Organisms have evolved endogenous biological clocks as internal timekeepers to coordinate metabolic processes with the external environment. Here, we seek to understand the mechanism of synchrony between the oscillator and products of metabolism known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ROS-responsive genes exhibit a time-of-day-specific phase of expression under diurnal and circadian conditions, implying a role of the circadian clock in transcriptional regulation of these genes. Hydrogen peroxide production and scavenging also display time-of-day phases. Mutations in the core-clock regulator, CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), affect the transcriptional regulation of ROS-responsive genes, ROS homeostasis, and tolerance to oxidative stress. Mis-expression of EARLY FLOWERING 3, LUX ARRHYTHMO, and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 affect ROS production and transcription, indicating a global effect of the clock on the ROS network. We propose CCA1 as a master regulator of ROS homeostasis through association with the Evening Element in promoters of ROS genes in vivo to coordinate time-dependent responses to oxidative stress. We also find that ROS functions as an input signal that affects the transcriptional output of the clock, revealing an important link between ROS signaling and circadian output. Temporal coordination of ROS signaling by CCA1 and the reciprocal control of circadian output by ROS reveal a mechanistic link that allows plants to master oxidative stress responses.

  7. Joint science academies' statement:Global response to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Climate change is real There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world's climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring1.

  8. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  9. Japan's response to China's rise : regional engagement, global containment, dangers of collision

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Japan and China's ability to manage their bilateral relationship is crucial for the stability of the East Asian region. It also has a global impact on the security and economic development of other regions. For just as China's rise has inevitably involved an expansion of its global reach, so Japan's responses to the challenges posed by China have increasingly taken a global form, seeking to incorporate new partners and frameworks outside East Asia. Japan's preferred response to China's region...

  10. Inequality and schooling responses to globalization forces: lessons from history

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    In the first global century before 1914, trade and especially migration had profound effects on both low-wage, labour abundant Europe and the high-wage, labour scarce New World. Those global forces contributed to a reduction in unskilled labour scarcity in the New World and to a rise in unskilled labour scarcity in Europe. Thus, it contributed to rising inequality in overseas countries, like the United States, and falling inequality in most of Europe. Falling unskilled labour scarcity and ris...

  11. Arabidopsis YAK1 regulates abscisic acid response and drought resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2016-06-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that controls several plant processes such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress response. Here, we report that AtYak1 plays an important role in ABA signaling and postgermination growth in Arabidopsis. AtYak1 knockout mutant plants were hyposensitive to ABA inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening, seedling growth, and stomatal movement. atyak1-1 mutant plants display reduced drought stress resistance, as evidenced by water loss rate and survival rate. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that AtYak1 deficiency led to elevated expression of stomatal-related gene, MYB60, and down-regulation of several stress-responsive genes. Altogether, these results indicate that AtYak1 plays a role as a positive regulator in ABA-mediated drought response in Arabidopsis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. The global gene expression response of Escherichia coli to L-phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, T; Krämer, M; Bongaerts, J; Wubbolts, M; Wendisch, V F

    2005-02-09

    We investigated the global gene expression changes of Escherichia coli due to the presence of different concentrations of phenylalanine or shikimate in the growth medium. The response to 0.5 g l(-1) phenylalanine primarily reflected a perturbed aromatic amino acid metabolism, in particular due to TyrR-mediated regulation. The addition of 5g l(-1) phenylalanine reduced the growth rate by half and elicited a great number of likely indirect effects on genes regulated in response to changed pH, nitrogen or carbon availability. Consistent with the observed gene expression changes, supplementation with shikimate, tyrosine and tryptophan relieved growth inhibition by phenylalanine. In contrast to the wild-type, a tyrR disruption strain showed increased expression of pckA and of tktB in the presence of phenylalanine, but its growth was not affected by phenylalanine at the concentrations tested. The absence of growth inhibition by phenylalanine suggested that at high phenylalanine concentrations TyrR-defective strains might perform better in phenylalanine production.

  13. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    Paper 1, Local Solutions to Global Problems: Climate Change Policies and Regulatory Jurisdiction, considers the efficacy of various types of environmental regulations when they are applied locally to pollutants whose damages extend beyond the jurisdiction of the local regulators. Local regulations of a global pollutant may be ineffective if producers and consumers can avoid them by transacting outside the reach of the local regulator. In many cases, this may involve the physical relocation of the economic activity, a problem often referred to as "leakage." This paper highlights another way in which local policies can be circumvented: through the shuffling of who buys from whom. The paper maintains that the problems of reshuffling are exacerbated when the options for compliance with the regulations are more flexible. Numerical analyses is presented demonstrating that several proposed policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the California electricity sector may have very little effect on carbon emissions if they are applied only within that state. Paper 1 concludes that although local subsidies for energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and transportation biofuels constitute attempts to pick technology winners, they may be the only mechanisms that local jurisdictions, acting alone, have at their disposal to address climate change. Paper 2, Pass-Through of Solar PV Incentives to Consumers: The Early Years of California's Solar PV Incentives, examines the pass through of incentives to California solar PV system owners. The full post-subsidy price consumers pay for solar power is a key metric of the success of solar PV incentive programs and of overall PV market performance. This study examines the early years of California's most recent wave of distributed solar PV incentives (2000-2008) to determine the pass-through of incentives. Examination of this period is both intellectually and pragmatically important due to the high level of incentives provided and

  14. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora.

  15. Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: global patterns and response to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Litton; C.P. Giardina

    2008-01-01

    1. The fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) and the fraction of TBCF that is below-ground net primary production (BNPP) represent globally significant C fluxes that are fundamental in regulating ecosystem C balance. However, global estimates of the partitioning of GPP to TBCF and of TBCF to BNPP, as well as the...

  16. MicroRNAs as regulators in plant metal toxicity response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Mendoza-Soto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal toxicity is a major stress affecting crop production. This includes metals that are essential for plants (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and non-essential metals (cadmium, aluminum, cobalt, mercury. A primary common effect of high concentrations of metals such as aluminum, cooper, cadmium or mercury, is root growth inhibition. Metal toxicity triggers the accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to damage of lipids, proteins and DNA. The plants response to metal toxicity involves several biological processes that require fine and precise regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are 21 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A miRNA, incorporated into a RNA induced silencing complex, promotes cleavage of its target mRNA that is recognized by an almost perfect base complementarity. In plants miRNA regulation has been involved in development and also in biotic and abiotic stress responses. We review novel advances in identifying miRNAs related to metal toxicity responses and their potential role according to their targets. Most of the targets for plant metal-responsive miRNAs are transcription factors. Information about metal-responsive miRNAs in different plants points to important regulatory roles of miR319, miR390, miR393 and miR398. The target of miR319 is the TCP transcription factor, implicated in growth control. MiR390 exerts its action through the biogenesis of trans-acting small interference RNAs that, in turn, regulate auxin responsive factors. MiR393 targets the auxin receptors TIR1/AFBs and a bHLH transcription factor. Increasing evidence points to the crucial role of miR398 and its targets Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in the control of the oxidative stress generated after high metal copper or iron exposure.

  17. Quantitative analysis of proteome and lipidome dynamics reveals functional regulation of global lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, Albert; Sprenger, Richard R; Tarasov, Kirill; Ruckerbauer, David E; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Jensen, Ole N; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-03-19

    Elucidating how and to what extent lipid metabolism is remodeled under changing conditions is essential for understanding cellular physiology. Here, we analyzed proteome and lipidome dynamics to investigate how regulation of lipid metabolism at the global scale supports remodeling of cellular architecture and processes during physiological adaptations in yeast. Our results reveal that activation of cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling supports mitochondrial biogenesis in the transition from fermentative to respiratory metabolism, that down-regulation of de novo sterol synthesis machinery prompts differential turnover of lipid droplet-associated triacylglycerols and sterol esters during respiratory growth, that sphingolipid metabolism is regulated in a previously unrecognized growth stage-specific manner, and that endogenous synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids constitutes an in vivo upstream activator of peroxisomal biogenesis, via the heterodimeric Oaf1/Pip2 transcription factor. Our work demonstrates the pivotal role of lipid metabolism in adaptive processes and provides a resource to investigate its regulation at the cellular level.

  18. lncRNA-mediated regulation of the interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadkhan, Saba; Gunawardane, Lalith S

    2016-01-01

    The interferon (IFN) response is a critical arm of the innate immune response and a major host defense mechanism against viral infections. Following microbial encounter, a series of signaling events lead to transcriptional activation of the IFN genes, which in turn leads to significant changes in the cellular transcriptome by altering the expression of hundreds of target genes. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a major subgroup of the IFN target genes, and further, that the IFN response is subject to regulation by a large number of host- and pathogen-derived lncRNAs. While the vast majority of lncRNAs with potential roles in the IFN response remain unstudied, analysis of a very small subset provides a glimpse of the regulatory impact of this class of RNAs on IFN response.

  19. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by the Csr Global Regulatory System in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazushi; 鈴木, 一史

    2007-01-01

    In many species of bacteria, the Csr (carbon storage regulator) global regulatory system coordinates the expression of various genes. In Escherichia coli, the central component of this system, CsrA, is a RNA-binding protein. The CsrA is a homodimer and binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two small non-coding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC. These RNAs contain multiple CsrA-binding sequences and act by sequestering CsrA. In thi...

  20. SOS response and its regulation on the fluoroquinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting-Ting; Kang, Hai-Quan; Ma, Ping; Li, Peng-Peng; Huang, Lin-Yan; Gu, Bing

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria can survive fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) treatment by becoming resistant through a genetic change-mutation or gene acquisition. The SOS response is widespread among bacteria and exhibits considerable variation in its composition and regulation, which is repressed by LexA protein and derepressed by RecA protein. Here, we take a comprehensive review of the SOS gene network and its regulation on the fluoroquinolone resistance. As a unique survival mechanism, SOS may be an important factor influencing the outcome of antibiotic therapy in vivo.

  1. Global robust output regulation control for cascaded nonlinear systems using the internal model principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiang-Bo; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Yu-Qiang

    2014-04-01

    This article considers the global robust output regulation problem via output feedback for a class of cascaded nonlinear systems with input-to-state stable inverse dynamics. The system uncertainties depend not only on the measured output but also all the unmeasurable states. By introducing an internal model, the output regulation problem is converted into a stabilisation problem for an appropriately augmented system. The designed dynamic controller could achieve the global asymptotic tracking control for a class of time-varying reference signals for the system output while keeping all other closed-loop signals bounded. It is of interest to note that the developed control approach can be applied to the speed tracking control of the fan speed control system. The simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  3. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments.

  4. The Growth of Private Regulation of Labor Standards in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2013-01-01

    on the Business for Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), this article examines the positions of private actors, who demand and supply private regulation as well as the positions of those firms, who are the targets of such schemes. As the BSCI has grown its membership, MNCs increasingly request that SMEs meet BSCI...... requirements in global supply chains even though compliance is a “mission impossible” for many smaller firms. As a result of this development, the private regulatory system is facing growing strain....

  5. Work and Employment Relations in a Globalized World: The Emerging Texture of Transnational Labour Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pries, L.; Seeliger, M.

    2013-01-01

    While globalization has led to what can – with reference to Karl Polanyi – be referred to as a disembedding of the labour market from its nationally segmented settings, recent decades bring about a development identifiable as a ‘countermovement’. As the text shows, drawing on the example of European Works Councils and International Framework Agreements, this process of ‘re-embedding’ takes place through a network of different measures of labour regulation. It is for this reason that establish...

  6. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase regulates the cold stress response by slowing translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John R P; Bastide, Amandine; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Jackson, Thomas J; Utami, Wahyu; Barrett, David A; Smales, C Mark; Willis, Anne E

    2015-01-15

    Cells respond to external stress conditions by controlling gene expression, a process which occurs rapidly via post-transcriptional regulation at the level of protein synthesis. Global control of translation is mediated by modification of translation factors to allow reprogramming of the translatome and synthesis of specific proteins that are required for stress protection or initiation of apoptosis. In the present study, we have investigated how global protein synthesis rates are regulated upon mild cooling. We demonstrate that although there are changes to the factors that control initiation, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) on the α-subunit, the reduction in the global translation rate is mediated by regulation of elongation via phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by its specific kinase, eEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase). The AMP/ATP ratio increases following cooling, consistent with a reduction in metabolic rates, giving rise to activation of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase), which is upstream of eEF2K. However, our data show that the major trigger for activation of eEF2K upon mild cooling is the release of Ca2+ ions from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and, importantly, that it is possible to restore protein synthesis rates in cooled cells by inhibition of this pathway at multiple points. As cooling has both therapeutic and industrial applications, our data provide important new insights into how the cellular responses to this stress are regulated, opening up new possibilities to modulate these responses for medical or industrial use at physiological or cooler temperatures.

  7. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  8. A Surfactant-Induced Functional Modulation of a Global Virulence Regulator from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Mandal

    Full Text Available Triton X-100 (TX-100, a useful non-ionic surfactant, reduced the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus significantly. Many S. aureus proteins were expressed in the presence of TX-100. SarA, one of the TX-100-induced proteins, acts as a global virulence regulator in S. aureus. To understand the effects of TX-100 on the structure, and function of SarA, a recombinant S. aureus SarA (rSarA and its derivative (C9W have been investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of this surfactant using various probes. Our data have revealed that both rSarA and C9W bind to the cognate DNA with nearly similar affinity in the absence of TX-100. Interestingly, their DNA binding activities have been significantly increased in the presence of pre-micellar concentration of TX-100. The increase of TX-100 concentrations to micellar or post-micellar concentration did not greatly enhance their activities further. TX-100 molecules have altered the secondary and tertiary structures of both proteins to some extents. Size of the rSarA-TX-100 complex appears to be intermediate to those of rSarA and TX-100. Additional analyses show a relatively moderate interaction between C9W and TX-100. Binding of TX-100 to C9W has, however, occurred by a cooperative pathway particularly at micellar and higher concentrations of this surfactant. Taken together, TX-100-induced structural alteration of rSarA and C9W might be responsible for their increased DNA binding activity. As TX-100 has stabilized the somewhat weaker SarA-DNA complex effectively, it could be used to study its structure in the future.

  9. In vitro ischemia triggers a transcriptional response to down-regulate synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Fernandes

    Full Text Available Transient global cerebral ischemia induces profound changes in the transcriptome of brain cells, which is partially associated with the induction or repression of genes that influence the ischemic response. However, the mechanisms responsible for the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to global ischemia remain to be clarified. To identify molecular changes elicited by ischemic insults, we subjected hippocampal primary cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, an in vitro model for global ischemia that resulted in delayed neuronal death with an excitotoxic component. To investigate changes in the transcriptome of hippocampal neurons submitted to OGD, total RNA was extracted at early (7 h and delayed (24 h time points after OGD and used in a whole-genome RNA microarray. We observed that at 7 h after OGD there was a general repression of genes, whereas at 24 h there was a general induction of gene expression. Genes related with functions such as transcription and RNA biosynthesis were highly regulated at both periods of incubation after OGD, confirming that the response to ischemia is a dynamic and coordinated process. Our analysis showed that genes for synaptic proteins, such as those encoding for PICK1, GRIP1, TARPγ3, calsyntenin-2/3, SAPAP2 and SNAP-25, were down-regulated after OGD. Additionally, OGD decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit as well as the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors, but increased the mRNA expression of the GluN3A subunit, thus altering the composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampal neurons. Together, our results present the expression profile elicited by in vitro ischemia in hippocampal neurons, and indicate that OGD activates a transcriptional program leading to down-regulation in the expression of genes coding for synaptic proteins, suggesting that the synaptic proteome may change after ischemia.

  10. Structural basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Vijay; Mirouze, Nicolas; Dubnau, David A; Neiditch, Matthew B

    2011-02-08

    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic "switch" residue to an internal position when the β4-α4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  11. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T.W.; Todd-Brown, K.E.O.; Rowe, C.W.; Wieder, W.R.; Carey, J.C.; Machmuller, M.B.; Snoek, B.L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S.D.; Blair, J.M.; Bridgham, S.D.; Burton, A.J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P.B.; Clark, J.S.; Classen, A.T.; Dijkstra, F.A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B.A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S.D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B.R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K.S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J.M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L.N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L.L.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N.W.; Templer, P.H.; Treseder, K.K.; Welker, J.M.; Bradford, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil the net global balance between

  12. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T. W.; Todd-Brown, K. E. O.; Rowe, C. W.; Wieder, W. R.; Carey, J. C.; Machmuller, M. B.; Snoek, B. L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S. D.; Blair, J. M.; Bridgham, S. D.; Burton, A. J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P. B.; Clark, J. S.; Classen, A. T.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B. A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S. D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B. R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K. S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J. M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L. N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L. L.; Schmidt, I. K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N. W.; Templer, P. H.; Treseder, K. K.; Welker, J. M.; Bradford, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming1, 2, 3, 4. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil5, 6, the net global

  13. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T. W.; Todd-Brown, K. E. O.; Rowe, C. W.; Wieder, W. R.; Carey, J. C.; Machmuller, M. B.; Snoek, B. L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S. D.; Blair, J. M.; Bridgham, S. D.; Burton, A. J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P. B.; Clark, J. S.; Classen, A. T.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B. A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S. D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B. R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K. S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J. M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L. N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L. L.; Schmidt, I. K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N. W.; Templer, P. H.; Treseder, K. K.; Welker, J. M.; Bradford, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming1, 2, 3, 4. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil5, 6, the net global balan

  14. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T.W.; Todd-Brown, K.E.O.; Rowe, C.W.; Wieder, W.R.; Carey, J.C.; Machmuller, M.B.; Snoek, B.L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S.D.; Blair, J.M.; Bridgham, S.D.; Burton, A.J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P.B.; Clark, J.S.; Classen, A.T.; Dijkstra, F.A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B.A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S.D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B.R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K.S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J.M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L.N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L.L.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N.W.; Templer, P.H.; Treseder, K.K.; Welker, J.M.; Bradford, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil the net global balance between thes

  15. Pleiotropic regulations of neutrophil receptors response to sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huafeng; Sun, Bingwei

    2017-03-01

    Sepsis is a complex clinical condition that causes a high mortality rate worldwide. Numerous studies on the pathophysiology of sepsis have revealed an imbalance in the inflammatory network, thus leading to tissue damage, organ failure, and ultimately death. The impairment of neu-trophil migration is associated with the outcome of sepsis. Literature review was performed on the roles of neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil receptors as pleiotropic regulators during sepsis. Additionally, we systematically classify neutrophil receptors with regard to the neutrophil response during sepsis and discuss the clinical implications of these receptors for the treatment of sepsis. Increasing evidence suggests that there is significant dysfunction in neutrophil recruitment during sepsis, characterized by the failure to migrate to the site of infection. Neutrophil receptors, as pleiotropic regulators, play important roles in the neutrophil response during sepsis. Neutrophil receptors play key roles in chemotactic neutrophil migration and may prove to be suitable targets in future pharmacological therapies for sepsis.

  16. The light responsive transcriptome of the zebrafish: function and regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Weger

    Full Text Available Most organisms possess circadian clocks that are able to anticipate the day/night cycle and are reset or "entrained" by the ambient light. In the zebrafish, many organs and even cultured cell lines are directly light responsive, allowing for direct entrainment of the clock by light. Here, we have characterized light induced gene transcription in the zebrafish at several organizational levels. Larvae, heart organ cultures and cell cultures were exposed to 1- or 3-hour light pulses, and changes in gene expression were compared with controls kept in the dark. We identified 117 light regulated genes, with the majority being induced and some repressed by light. Cluster analysis groups the genes into five major classes that show regulation at all levels of organization or in different subset combinations. The regulated genes cover a variety of functions, and the analysis of gene ontology categories reveals an enrichment of genes involved in circadian rhythms, stress response and DNA repair, consistent with the exposure to visible wavelengths of light priming cells for UV-induced damage repair. Promoter analysis of the induced genes shows an enrichment of various short sequence motifs, including E- and D-box enhancers that have previously been implicated in light regulation of the zebrafish period2 gene. Heterologous reporter constructs with sequences matching these motifs reveal light regulation of D-box elements in both cells and larvae. Morpholino-mediated knock-down studies of two homologues of the D-box binding factor Tef indicate that these are differentially involved in the cell autonomous light induction in a gene-specific manner. These findings suggest that the mechanisms involved in period2 regulation might represent a more general pathway leading to light induced gene expression.

  17. Enzyme action in the regulation of plant hormone responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Corey S; Muehler, Ashley M; Jez, Joseph M

    2013-07-05

    Plants synthesize a chemically diverse range of hormones that regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. The major classes of plant hormones are specialized metabolites with exquisitely tailored perception and signaling systems, but equally important are the enzymes that control the dose and exposure to the bioactive forms of these molecules. Here, we review new insights into the role of enzyme families, including the SABATH methyltransferases, the methylesterases, the GH3 acyl acid-amido synthetases, and the hormone peptidyl hydrolases, in controlling the biosynthesis and modifications of plant hormones and how these enzymes contribute to the network of chemical signals responsible for plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation.

  18. Regulation of Neurotransmitter Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-05

    accordance with DoD 5200.1 -R, Information Security Program Regulation. Chapter V1 Section 2, V"-apaph 4-200. clasification markings are to be stamped...through pharmacologically distinct reports. Finally, the augmenting response does not appear to be mediated through protein kinase C. However, BAC...may facilitate second messenger production by altering the coupling of catecholamine receptor to C- proteins involved in the cAMP cascade. (( ( CONTRACT

  19. Adaptive Immune Responses Regulate the Pathophysiology of Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Pathophysiology of Lymphedema PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jamie Zampell, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sloan-Kettering Institute for...Immune Responses Regulate the Pathophysiology of Lymphedema 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0495 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... Lymphedema is a debilitating disorder affecting as many as 1 in 8 cancer survivors. Despite wide prevalence, limited understanding of disease

  20. Sapfluxnet: a global database of sap flow measurements to unravel the ecological factors of transpiration regulation in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Steppe, Kathy; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Plant transpiration is one of the main components of the global water cycle, it controls land energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and exerts strong feedbacks on regional and global climate. At the same time, plant productivity, growth and survival are severely constrained by water availability, which is expected to decline in many areas of the world because of global-change driven increases in drought conditions. While global surveys of drought tolerance traits at the organ level are rapidly increasing our knowledge of the diversity in plant functional strategies to cope with drought stress, a whole-plant perspective of drought vulnerability is still lacking. Sap flow measurements using thermal methods have now been applied to measure seasonal patterns in water use and the response of transpiration to environmental drivers across hundreds of species of woody plants worldwide, covering a wide range of climates, soils and stand structural characteristics. Here, we present the first effort to build a global database of sub-daily, tree-level sap flow (SAPFLUXNET) that will be used to improve our understanding of physiological and structural determinants of plant transpiration and to further investigate the role of vegetation in controlling global water balance. We already have the expression of interest of data contributors representing >115 globally distributed sites, > 185 species and > 700 trees, measured over at least one growing season. However, the potential number of available sites and species is probably much higher given that > 2500 sap flow-related papers have been identified in a Scopus literature search conducted in November 2015. We will give an overview of how data collection, harmonisation and quality control procedures are implemented within the project. We will also discuss potential analytical strategies to synthesize hydroclimatic controls on sap flow into biologically meaningful traits related to whole-plant transpiration

  1. Hydrogen Monitoring Requirements in the Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Hartmann, Kevin; Bubar, Max; Post, Matthew; Boon-Brett, Lois; Weidner, Eveline; Moretto, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Global Technical Regulation (GTR) Number 13 (Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles) is the defining document regulating safety requirements in hydrogen vehicles, and in particular fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). GTR Number 13 has been formally implemented and will serve as the basis for the national regulatory standards for FCEV safety in North America (Canada, United States), Japan, Korea, and the European Union. The GTR defines safety requirement for these vehicles, including specifications on the allowable hydrogen levels in vehicle enclosures during in-use and post-crash conditions and on the allowable hydrogen emissions levels in vehicle exhaust during certain modes of normal operation. However, in order to be incorporated into national regulations, that is, in order to be binding, methods to verify compliance to the specific requirements must exist. In a collaborative program, the Sensor Laboratories at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the United States and the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport in the Netherlands have been evaluating and developing analytical methods that can be used to verify compliance to the hydrogen release requirement as specified in the GTR.

  2. MOF maintains transcriptional programs regulating cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, B N; Bechtel-Walz, W; Lucci, J; Karpiuk, O; Hild, I; Hartleben, B; Vornweg, J; Helmstädter, M; Sahyoun, A H; Bhardwaj, V; Stehle, T; Diehl, S; Kretz, O; Voss, A K; Thomas, T; Manke, T; Huber, T B; Akhtar, A

    2016-05-01

    MOF (MYST1, KAT8) is the major H4K16 lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) in Drosophila and mammals and is essential for embryonic development. However, little is known regarding the role of MOF in specific cell lineages. Here we analyze the differential role of MOF in proliferating and terminally differentiated tissues at steady state and under stress conditions. In proliferating cells, MOF directly binds and maintains the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression. In contrast, MOF is dispensable for terminally differentiated, postmitotic glomerular podocytes under physiological conditions. However, in response to injury, MOF is absolutely critical for podocyte maintenance in vivo. Consistently, we detect defective nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi structures, as well as presence of multivesicular bodies in vivo in podocytes lacking Mof following injury. Undertaking genome-wide expression analysis of podocytes, we uncover several MOF-regulated pathways required for stress response. We find that MOF, along with the members of the non-specific lethal but not the male-specific lethal complex, directly binds to genes encoding the lysosome, endocytosis and vacuole pathways, which are known regulators of podocyte maintenance. Thus, our work identifies MOF as a key regulator of cellular stress response in glomerular podocytes.

  3. The bHLH transcription factor POPEYE regulates response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Terri A; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Busch, Wolfgang; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Benfey, Philip N

    2010-07-01

    Global population increases and climate change underscore the need for better comprehension of how plants acquire and process nutrients such as iron. Using cell type-specific transcriptional profiling, we identified a pericycle-specific iron deficiency response and a bHLH transcription factor, POPEYE (PYE), that may play an important role in this response. Functional analysis of PYE suggests that it positively regulates growth and development under iron-deficient conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis and transcriptional profiling reveal that PYE helps maintain iron homeostasis by regulating the expression of known iron homeostasis genes and other genes involved in transcription, development, and stress response. PYE interacts with PYE homologs, including IAA-Leu Resistant3 (ILR3), another bHLH transcription factor that is involved in metal ion homeostasis. Moreover, ILR3 interacts with a third protein, BRUTUS (BTS), a putative E3 ligase protein, with metal ion binding and DNA binding domains, which negatively regulates the response to iron deficiency. PYE and BTS expression is also tightly coregulated. We propose that interactions among PYE, PYE homologs, and BTS are important for maintaining iron homeostasis under low iron conditions.

  4. A global transcriptional regulator in Thermococcus kodakaraensis controls the expression levels of both glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzyme-encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tamotsu; Akerboom, Jasper; Takedomi, Shogo; van de Werken, Harmen J G; Blombach, Fabian; van der Oost, John; Murakami, Taira; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2007-11-16

    We identified a novel regulator, Thermococcales glycolytic regulator (Tgr), functioning as both an activator and a repressor of transcription in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. Tgr (TK1769) displays similarity (28% identical) to Pyrococcus furiosus TrmB (PF1743), a transcriptional repressor regulating the trehalose/maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, but is more closely related (67%) to a TrmB paralog in P. furiosus (PF0124). Growth of a tgr disruption strain (Deltatgr) displayed a significant decrease in growth rate under gluconeogenic conditions compared with the wild-type strain, whereas comparable growth rates were observed under glycolytic conditions. A whole genome microarray analysis revealed that transcript levels of almost all genes related to glycolysis and maltodextrin metabolism were at relatively high levels in the Deltatgr mutant even under gluconeogenic conditions. The Deltatgr mutant also displayed defects in the transcriptional activation of gluconeogenic genes under these conditions, indicating that Tgr functions as both an activator and a repressor. Genes regulated by Tgr contain a previously identified sequence motif, the Thermococcales glycolytic motif (TGM). The TGM was positioned upstream of the Transcription factor B-responsive element (BRE)/TATA sequence in gluconeogenic promoters and downstream of it in glycolytic promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that recombinant Tgr protein specifically binds to promoter regions containing a TGM. Tgr was released from the DNA when maltotriose was added, suggesting that this sugar is most likely the physiological effector. Our results strongly suggest that Tgr is a global transcriptional regulator that simultaneously controls, in response to sugar availability, both glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolism in T. kodakaraensis via its direct binding to the TGM.

  5. From Apathy to Action : Promoting Active Citizenship and Global Responsibility Amongst Populations in the Global North

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to address social and global problems such as poverty, mass hunger and mass-atrocity crimes are hindered significantly by apathy and low levels of active civil and political engagement amongst populations in developed countries. Social change non-government organisations (NGOs), such as Oxfa

  6. Global functional analyses of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Kao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first global functional analysis of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins (PFTs. PFTs are uniquely important bacterial virulence factors, comprising the single largest class of bacterial protein toxins and being important for the pathogenesis in humans of many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Their mode of action is deceptively simple, poking holes in the plasma membrane of cells. The scattered studies to date of PFT-host cell interactions indicate a handful of genes are involved in cellular defenses to PFTs. How many genes are involved in cellular defenses against PFTs and how cellular defenses are coordinated are unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen for genes that, when knocked down, result in hypersensitivity to a PFT. This screen identifies 106 genes (∼0.5% of genome in seven functional groups that protect Caenorhabditis elegans from PFT attack. Interactome analyses of these 106 genes suggest that two previously identified mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, one (p38 studied in detail and the other (JNK not, form a core PFT defense network. Additional microarray, real-time PCR, and functional studies reveal that the JNK MAPK pathway, but not the p38 MAPK pathway, is a key central regulator of PFT-induced transcriptional and functional responses. We find C. elegans activator protein 1 (AP-1; c-jun, c-fos is a downstream target of the JNK-mediated PFT protection pathway, protects C. elegans against both small-pore and large-pore PFTs and protects human cells against a large-pore PFT. This in vivo RNAi genomic study of PFT responses proves that cellular commitment to PFT defenses is enormous, demonstrates the JNK MAPK pathway as a key regulator of transcriptionally-induced PFT defenses, and identifies AP-1 as the first cellular component broadly important for defense against large- and small-pore PFTs.

  7. The genetic regulation of infant immune responses to vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eNewport

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors are recognised to influence immune responses to vaccinations including age, gender, the dose and quality of the antigen used, the number of doses given, the route of administration and the nutritional status of the recipient. Additionally, several immunogenetic studies have identified associations between polymorphisms in genes encoding immune response proteins, both innate and adaptive, and variation in responses to vaccines. Variants in the genes encoding Toll-like receptors, HLA molecules, cytokines, cytokine receptors have associated with heterogeneity of responses to a wide range of vaccines including measles, hepatitis B, influenza A, BCG, Haemophilus influenzae type b and certain Neisseria meningitidis serotypes, amongst others. However, the vast majority of these studies have been conducted in older children and adults and there are very few data available from studies conducted in infants. This paper reviews the evidence to date that host genes influencing vaccines responses in these older population and identifies a large gap in our understanding of the genetic regulation of responses in early life. . Given the high mortality from infection in early life and the challenges of developing vaccines that generate effective immune responses in the context of the developing immune system further research on infant populations is required.

  8. Global changes in biogeochemical cycles in response to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Melillo, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of our research was to characterize biogeochemical cycles at continental and global scales in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This characterization applied to both natural ecosystems and those disturbed by human activity. The primary elements of interest were carbon and nitrogen and the analysis sought to quantify standing stocks and dynamic cycling processes. The translocation of major nutrients from the terrestrial landscape to the atmosphere (via trace gases) and to fluvial systems (via leaching, erosional losses, and point source pollution) were of particular importance to this study. Our aim was to develop the first generation of Earth System Models. Our research was organized around the construction and testing of component biogeochemical models which treated terrestrial ecosystem processes, aquatic nutrient transport through drainage basins, and trace gas exchanges at the continental and global scale. A suite of three complementary models were defined within this construct. The models were organized to operate at a 1/2 degree latitude by longitude level of spatial resolution and to execute at a monthly time step. This discretization afforded us the opportunity to understand the dynamics of the biosphere down to subregional scales, while simultaneously placing these dynamics into a global context.

  9. Sustainable water future with global implications: everyone's responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuylenstierna, J L; Bjorklund, G; Najlis, P

    1997-01-01

    The current use and management of freshwater is not sustainable in many countries and regions of the world. If current trends are maintained, about two-thirds of the world's population will face moderate to severe water stress by 2025 compared to one-third at present. This water stress will hamper economic and social development unless action is taken to deal with the emerging problems. The Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World, prepared by the UN and the Stockholm Environment Institute, calls for immediate action to prevent further deterioration of freshwater resources. Although most problems related to water quantity and quality require national and regional solutions, only a global commitment can achieve the necessary agreement on principles, as well as financial means to attain sustainability. Due to the central and integrated role played by water in human activities, any measures taken need to incorporate a wide range of social, ecological and economic factors and needs. The Assessment thus addresses the many issues related to freshwater use, such as integrated land and water management at the watershed level, global food security, water supply and sanitation, ecosystem requirements, pollution, strengthening of major groups, and national water resource assessment capabilities and monitoring networks. Governments are urged to work towards a consensus regarding global principles and guidelines for integrated water management, and towards their implementation in local and regional water management situations. The alternative development options available to countries facing water stress, or the risk thereof, needs to be considered in all aspects of development planning.

  10. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  11. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  12. Transcriptomics analyses reveal global roles of the regulator AveI in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Weiwen; Jiang, Weihong; Lu, Yinhua

    2009-09-01

    In our previous studies, AveI was identified as a negative regulator for avermectin biosynthesis in Streptomyces avermitilis NRRL8165, and the aveI-null mutant of NRRL8165 could produce at least 10-fold more avermectin B1a than its wild-type strain. In order to explore the regulatory mechanism by which aveI affects avermectin biosynthesis, in this study, we performed a global comparative gene expression analysis between aveI deletion mutant 8165DeltaI and its wild-type strain using NimbleGen microarrays in combination with real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. The results showed the aveI deletion has caused global changes beyond the avermectin biosynthetic gene cluster. The aveI gene not only negatively affected expression of the avermectin biosynthetic gene cluster but also affected expression of oligomycin and filipin biosynthetic clusters. In addition, the genes involved in precursor biosyntheses for avermectin or other antibiotics, such as crotonyl-CoA reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase, were also upregulated in aveI mutant. Furthermore, genes in several key primary metabolic pathways, such as protein synthesis and fatty acid metabolism, were found downregulated in the mutant. These results suggested that the aveI gene may be functioning as a global regulator involved in directing carbon flux from primary to secondary metabolism.

  13. The complex logic of stringent response regulation in Caulobacter crescentus: starvation signalling in an oligotrophic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Cara C; Crosson, Sean

    2011-05-01

    Bacteria rapidly adapt to nutritional changes via the stringent response, which entails starvation-induced synthesis of the small molecule, ppGpp, by RelA/SpoT homologue (Rsh) enzymes. Binding of ppGpp to RNA polymerase modulates the transcription of hundreds of genes and remodels the physiology of the cell. Studies of the stringent response have primarily focused on copiotrophic bacteria such as Escherichia coli; little is known about how stringent signalling is regulated in species that live in consistently nutrient-limited (i.e. oligotrophic) environments. Here we define the input logic and transcriptional output of the stringent response in the oligotroph, Caulobacter crescentus. The sole Rsh protein, SpoT(CC), binds to and is regulated by the ribosome, and exhibits AND-type control logic in which amino acid starvation is a necessary but insufficient signal for activation of ppGpp synthesis. While both glucose and ammonium starvation upregulate the synthesis of ppGpp, SpoT(CC) detects these starvation signals by two independent mechanisms. Although the logic of stringent response control in C. crescentus differs from E. coli, the global transcriptional effects of elevated ppGpp are similar, with the exception of 16S rRNA transcription, which is controlled independently of spoT(CC). This study highlights how the regulatory logic controlling the stringent response may be adapted to the nutritional niche of a bacterial species.

  14. Global reductions in seafloor biomass in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O B; Yool, Andrew; Wei, Chih-Lin; Henson, Stephanie A; Ruhl, Henry A; Watson, Reg A; Gehlen, Marion

    2014-06-01

    Seafloor organisms are vital for healthy marine ecosystems, contributing to elemental cycling, benthic remineralization, and ultimately sequestration of carbon. Deep-sea life is primarily reliant on the export flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean for food, but most ocean biogeochemistry models predict global decreases in export flux resulting from 21st century anthropogenically induced warming. Here we show that decadal-to-century scale changes in carbon export associated with climate change lead to an estimated 5.2% decrease in future (2091-2100) global open ocean benthic biomass under RCP8.5 (reduction of 5.2 Mt C) compared with contemporary conditions (2006-2015). Our projections use multi-model mean export flux estimates from eight fully coupled earth system models, which contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, that have been forced by high and low representative concentration pathways (RCP8.5 and 4.5, respectively). These export flux estimates are used in conjunction with published empirical relationships to predict changes in benthic biomass. The polar oceans and some upwelling areas may experience increases in benthic biomass, but most other regions show decreases, with up to 38% reductions in parts of the northeast Atlantic. Our analysis projects a future ocean with smaller sized infaunal benthos, potentially reducing energy transfer rates though benthic multicellular food webs. More than 80% of potential deep-water biodiversity hotspots known around the world, including canyons, seamounts, and cold-water coral reefs, are projected to experience negative changes in biomass. These major reductions in biomass may lead to widespread change in benthic ecosystems and the functions and services they provide. © 2013 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Globalism and Tribalism and the State of the Discipline: A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama-Carr, Myriam

    1999-01-01

    This response to an article on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language argues that the two opposing directions of globalization and tribalism can be equally related to what is going on within the discipline of translation studies. (Author/VWL)

  16. Global biodiversity, stoichiometry and ecosystem function responses to human-induced C-N-P imbalances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Sardans, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constanti; Ubach, Andreu; Bartrons, Mireia; Asensio, Dolores; Penuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Global change analyses usually consider biodiversity as a global asset that needs to be preserved. Biodiversity is frequently analysed mainly as a response variable affected by diverse environmental drivers. However, recent studies highlight that gradients of biodiversity are associated with gradual

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Responsive Global Engagement in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of speech-language pathology needs a conceptual framework to guide the provision of services in a globalized world. Proposed in this article is a conceptual framework designed to facilitate responsive global engagement for professionals such as speech-language pathologists, who are increasingly serving diverse populations around the…

  18. Globalism and Tribalism and the State of the Discipline: A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama-Carr, Myriam

    1999-01-01

    This response to an article on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language argues that the two opposing directions of globalization and tribalism can be equally related to what is going on within the discipline of translation studies. (Author/VWL)

  19. An Empirical Analysis of the Integration-Responsiveness Framework in Global Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; Allen J Morrison

    1990-01-01

    In this study, business competing in global industries were categorized into three groups according to the integration responsiveness framework for conceptualizing industry pressures confronting business competing internationally. Using this framework, contextual conditions associated with each group were examined. Competitive attributes distinguishing each group were then identified to clarify alternate business-level strategies for competing within a global industry context. Beyond providin...

  20. Arabidopsis type B cytokinin response regulators ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively regulate plant responses to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yasunari; Tran, Uven Thi; Li, Weiqiang; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Schaller, G Eric; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we used a loss-of-function approach to elucidate the functions of three Arabidopsis type B response regulators (ARRs)--namely ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12--in regulating the Arabidopsis plant responses to drought. The arr1,10,12 triple mutant showed a significant increase in drought tolerance versus WT plants, as indicated by its higher relative water content and survival rate on drying soil. This enhanced drought tolerance of arr1,10,12 plants can be attributed to enhanced cell membrane integrity, increased anthocyanin biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, and reduced stomatal aperture, but not to altered stomatal density. Further drought-tolerance tests of lower-order double and single mutants indicated that ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively and redundantly control plant responses to drought, with ARR1 appearing to bear the most critical function among the three proteins. In agreement with these findings, a comparative genome-wide analysis of the leaves of arr1,10,12 and WT plants under both normal and dehydration conditions suggested a cytokinin (CK) signaling-mediated network controlling plant adaptation to drought via many dehydration/drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes that can provide osmotic adjustment and protection to cellular and membrane structures. Expression of all three ARR genes was repressed by dehydration and ABA treatments, inferring that plants down-regulate these genes as an adaptive mechanism to survive drought. Collectively, our results demonstrate that repression of CK response, and thus CK signaling, is one of the strategies plants use to cope with water deficit, providing novel insight for the design of drought-tolerant plants by genetic engineering.

  1. Identification of global alteration of translational regulation in glioma in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Helmy

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression contributes to the protein output of a cell, however, methods for measuring translational regulation in complex in vivo systems are lacking. Here, we describe a sensitive method for measuring translational regulation in defined cell populations from heterogeneous tissue in vivo. We adapted the translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP methodology to measure the relative occupancy of individual mRNA transcripts in translating ribosomes in the Olig2-positive tumor cell population in a genetically engineered mouse model (GEM of glioma. Global measurement of paired ribosome-bound and total cellular mRNA populations from tumor cells in vivo identified a broad distribution of relative ribosome occupancies amongst mRNA species that was highly reproducible across biological samples. Comparison of the translation state of glioma cells to non-transformed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in normal brain identified global alteration of translation in tumor, and specifically of genes involved in cell division and synthetic metabolism. Furthermore, investigation of alteration in steady state translational efficiencies upon loss of PTEN, one of the most frequently mutated and deleted tumor suppressors in glioma, identified differential translation of proteins involved in cellular respiration, canonically regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling, and cellular glycosylation profiles, deregulation of which is known to be associated with tumor progression. Application of the translation efficiency profiling method described here to other biological contexts and conditions would extend our knowledge of the scope and impact of this important mode of gene regulation in complex in vivo systems.

  2. HP1 Is Involved in Regulating the Global Impact of DNA Methylation on Alternative Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvi Yearim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The global impact of DNA methylation on alternative splicing is largely unknown. Using a genome-wide approach in wild-type and methylation-deficient embryonic stem cells, we found that DNA methylation can either enhance or silence exon recognition and affects the splicing of more than 20% of alternative exons. These exons are characterized by distinct genetic and epigenetic signatures. Alternative splicing regulation of a subset of these exons can be explained by heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, which silences or enhances exon recognition in a position-dependent manner. We constructed an experimental system using site-specific targeting of a methylated/unmethylated gene and demonstrate a direct causal relationship between DNA methylation and alternative splicing. HP1 regulates this gene’s alternative splicing in a methylation-dependent manner by recruiting splicing factors to its methylated form. Our results demonstrate DNA methylation’s significant global influence on mRNA splicing and identify a specific mechanism of splicing regulation mediated by HP1.

  3. Women's global self-determination, eating regulation, and body dissatisfaction: exploring the role of autonomy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Lyndall L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2011-08-01

    Body dissatisfaction is an important correlate of dysfunctional eating. In the present study (N=208) the primary aim was to test whether women's internal and autonomous motivation can protect against endorsements of societal pressures regarding the ideal female body and against body dissatisfaction. Additionally, the role of others' autonomy support was investigated. Women who reported more Global Self-Determination (GSD) were lower in internalisation of the thin ideal and this association was fully mediated by perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin. Moreover, the positive association between perceived pressure and body dissatisfaction was partially mediated by thin ideal internalisation. Body dissatisfaction was associated with a more controlled regulation of eating, and GSD moderated the association between body dissatisfaction and autonomous regulation of eating. Autonomy support played a role in eating regulation as women with more support reported more autonomous eating. Yet, the support did not moderate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating regulation. Future studies should continue to explore the potential facilitative role of autonomy support in promoting a self-determined approach to eating regulation.

  4. Global scenarios for the energy industry: challenge and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahane, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of far reaching change that will affect the future of the energy industry are identified - geopolitical changes, such as the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the relative decline of economic importance of the USA and the stimulus of European Community programmes; changes and difficulties in the international economy such as disagreement over trade and foreign direct investment; and thirdly, changing attitudes towards man's impact on the natural environment. These changes suggest two different images of the future, one called 'global mercantilism' and the other 'sustainable change'. In the first, the main global challenge is to deal with decline in the hegemonic position of the USA and Japan and the instability in international markets - the energy industry here faces new rules for business; in the 'sustainable world' the main challenge is to deal with common problems with implications for the redefining of the value of clean fuels and processes as well as substantial reconstruction of the energy industry. 10 figs.

  5. The Global Burden of Disease assessments--WHO is responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD concept has been used by the World Health Organization (WHO for its reporting on health information for nearly 10 years. The GBD approach results in a single summary measure of morbidity, disability, and mortality, the so-called disability-adjusted life year (DALY. To ensure transparency and objectivity in the derivation of health information, WHO has been urged to use reference groups of external experts to estimate burden of disease. Under the leadership and coordination of WHO, expert groups have been appraising and abstracting burden of disease information. Examples include the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG, the Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (MERG, and the recently established Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG. The structure and functioning of and lessons learnt by these groups are described in this paper. External WHO expert groups have provided independent scientific health information while operating under considerable differences in structure and functioning. Although it is not appropriate to devise a single "best practice" model, the common thread described by all groups is the necessity of WHO's leadership and coordination to ensure the provision and dissemination of health information that is to be globally accepted and valued.

  6. Qualifications Frameworks Between Global and European Pressures and Local Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Mikulec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the Europeanization of education, a process that is taking place in the European Union (EU as a result of the establishment of a common education policy and that is playing a part in determining the development of education policies in EU member states and candidate countries. The concept of Europeanization serves as a methodological tool with which to analyze one of the fundamental political instruments of European education policy, namely, the European Qualifications Framework (EQF, and also the national qualifications frameworks (NQFs that are emerging under its influence. In the case of our analysis of the NQF that has been prepared by Slovenia, we demonstrate that the formulation of the EQF and NQFs in the EU is influenced by two factors: by the Anglo-Saxon countries, which were the first to establish a qualifications framework of the modern type, and by global neoliberal policy, with its tendency toward the deregulation, marketization, and commodification of education. At the same time, we tried to show that NQFs in continental Europe have resulted, by virtue of their local specificities, in frameworks that differ considerably from qualifications in the Anglo-Saxon countries. It appears that the effects of globalization and Europeanization on education are unpredictable, because policies are never simply copied into national systems.

  7. Glucocorticoids and the Brain: Neural Mechanisms Regulating the Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Shawn N; Friedman, Aaron R; Kaufer, Daniela; Sakhai, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the central role of the brain in the glucocorticoid mediated stress response. We describe the mechanisms by which the brain gauges the severity of stress, mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) regulation, and how various sub-systems of the brain respond to glucocorticoid (GC) signaling to regulate stress behavior. In particular, we focus on the hippocampus, pre-frontal cortex, and amygdala, where GCs can induce a series of changes. Finally, we briefly discuss an apparent paradox in GC signaling: while exposure to glucocorticoids promotes the survival of an organism during acute stress, these same hormones in chronic excess can also cause damage and promote illness.

  8. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation. PMID:28193862

  9. New tuning conditions for a class of nonlinear PID global regulators of robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrante-Sakanassi, Jorge; Santibánez, Victor; Hernández-Guzmán, Victor M.

    2014-04-01

    Several nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for robot manipulators that ensure global asymptotic stability have been proposed in the literature. However, the tuning criteria obtained are expressed in terms of conditions so restrictive that they have avoided, until now, carrying out experimental tests with such controllers. Tuning criteria of some PID controllers for robot manipulators with conditions more relaxed than those presented previously in the literature have been proposed in two recent works by the authors. This was achieved by setting the tuning conditions individually for each joint instead of general conditions for the whole robot. In this paper we extend these results to a class of nonlinear PID global regulators for robot manipulators. The obtained tuning criteria are given in terms of conditions so relaxed that they have allowed to carry out, for the first time, experimental essays with these controllers. Such experiments are presented in this paper using a two-degrees-of-freedom robot manipulator.

  10. Circadian clock-regulated physiological outputs: dynamic responses in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Golembeski, Greg S; Imaizumi, Takato

    2013-05-01

    The plant circadian clock is involved in the regulation of numerous processes. It serves as a timekeeper to ensure that the onset of key developmental events coincides with the appropriate conditions. Although internal oscillating clock mechanisms likely evolved in response to the earth's predictable day and night cycles, organisms must integrate a range of external and internal cues to adjust development and physiology. Here we introduce three different clock outputs to illustrate the complexity of clock control. Clock-regulated diurnal growth is altered by environmental stimuli. The complexity of the photoperiodic flowering pathway highlights numerous nodes through which plants may integrate information to modulate the timing of flowering. Comparative analyses among ecotypes that differ in flowering response reveal additional environmental cues and molecular processes that have developed to influence flowering. We also explore the process of cold acclimation, where circadian inputs, light quality, and stress responses converge to improve freezing tolerance in anticipation of colder temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of global crisis on structural policies and financial regulations: the comparison of OECD economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Karaaslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis that has affected all economies has also given harms for financial and structural bodies of economies. Near after this financial crisis, governments took different responsibilities to overcome this phenomenon. In this context, priorities in overcoming the crisis have concentrated on the macroeconomic adjustments and regulatory precautions. Measures should have taken by the governments of OECD economies in line of macroeconomic adjustment and crisis exit strategies are outlined briefly.

  12. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms

    OpenAIRE

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. Methods We conducted a small-scale, explora...

  13. The tumor suppressor ARF regulates innate immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Través, Paqui G; López-Fontal, Raquel; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2011-12-15

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading organisms, and TLRs are the main sensors of microbial components, initiating signaling pathways that induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. An antiviral action for the tumor suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) has been reported; however, the precise role of ARF in innate immunity is unknown. In this study, we show that ARF plays an important role in regulation of inflammatory responses. In peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages from ARF-deficient animals, the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by TLR ligands was severely impaired. The altered responses of ARF(-/-) cells to TLR ligands result from aberrant activation of intracellular signaling molecules including MAPKs, IκBα degradation, and NF-κB activation. Additionally, animals lacking ARF were resistant to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. This impaired activation of inflammation in ARF(-/-) mice was not restricted to TLRs, as it was also shown in response to non-TLR signaling pathways. Thus, ARF(-/-) mice were also unable to trigger a proper inflammatory response in experimental peritonitis or in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced edema. Overexpression of ARF, but not its downstream target p53, rescued the ARF-deficient phenotype, increasing TLR4 levels and restoring inflammatory reaction. An increase in the E2F1 protein levels observed in ARF(-/-) macrophages at basal condition and after LPS stimulation may be involved in the impaired response in this system, as E2F1 has been described as an inflammatory suppressor. These results indicate that tumor suppressor ARF is a new regulator of inflammatory cell signaling.

  14. Molecular Responses to Small Regulating Molecules against Huanglongbing Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Dolan, David; Fileccia, Veronica; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My; Spann, Timothy M.; McCollum, Thomas G.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. No cure is yet available for this disease and infected trees generally decline after several months. Disease management depends on early detection of symptoms and chemical control of insect vectors. In this work, different combinations of organic compounds were tested for the ability to modulate citrus molecular responses to HLB disease beneficially. Three small-molecule regulating compounds were tested: 1) L-arginine, 2) 6-benzyl-adenine combined with gibberellins, and 3) sucrose combined with atrazine. Each treatment contained K-phite mineral solution and was tested at two different concentrations. Two trials were conducted: one in the greenhouse and the other in the orchard. In the greenhouse study, responses of 42 key genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism, hormone-related pathways, biotic stress responses, and secondary metabolism in treated and untreated mature leaves were analyzed. TGA5 was significantly induced by arginine. Benzyladenine and gibberellins enhanced two important genes involved in biotic stress responses: WRKY54 and WRKY59. Sucrose combined with atrazine mainly upregulated key genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, starch synthase, and α-amylase. Atrazine also affected expression of some key genes involved in systemic acquired resistance such as EDS1, TGA6, WRKY33, and MYC2. Several treatments upregulated HSP82, which might help protect protein folding and integrity. A subset of key genes was chosen as biomarkers for molecular responses to treatments under field conditions. GPT2 was downregulated by all small-molecule treatments. Arginine-induced genes involved in systemic acquired resistance included PR1, WRKY70, and EDS1. These molecular data encourage long-term application of treatments that combine these regulating molecules in field trials. PMID:27459099

  15. Molecular Responses to Small Regulating Molecules against Huanglongbing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Dolan, David; Fileccia, Veronica; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My; Spann, Timothy M; McCollum, Thomas G; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. No cure is yet available for this disease and infected trees generally decline after several months. Disease management depends on early detection of symptoms and chemical control of insect vectors. In this work, different combinations of organic compounds were tested for the ability to modulate citrus molecular responses to HLB disease beneficially. Three small-molecule regulating compounds were tested: 1) L-arginine, 2) 6-benzyl-adenine combined with gibberellins, and 3) sucrose combined with atrazine. Each treatment contained K-phite mineral solution and was tested at two different concentrations. Two trials were conducted: one in the greenhouse and the other in the orchard. In the greenhouse study, responses of 42 key genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism, hormone-related pathways, biotic stress responses, and secondary metabolism in treated and untreated mature leaves were analyzed. TGA5 was significantly induced by arginine. Benzyladenine and gibberellins enhanced two important genes involved in biotic stress responses: WRKY54 and WRKY59. Sucrose combined with atrazine mainly upregulated key genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, starch synthase, and α-amylase. Atrazine also affected expression of some key genes involved in systemic acquired resistance such as EDS1, TGA6, WRKY33, and MYC2. Several treatments upregulated HSP82, which might help protect protein folding and integrity. A subset of key genes was chosen as biomarkers for molecular responses to treatments under field conditions. GPT2 was downregulated by all small-molecule treatments. Arginine-induced genes involved in systemic acquired resistance included PR1, WRKY70, and EDS1. These molecular data encourage long-term application of treatments that combine these regulating molecules in field trials.

  16. Molecular Responses to Small Regulating Molecules against Huanglongbing Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. No cure is yet available for this disease and infected trees generally decline after several months. Disease management depends on early detection of symptoms and chemical control of insect vectors. In this work, different combinations of organic compounds were tested for the ability to modulate citrus molecular responses to HLB disease beneficially. Three small-molecule regulating compounds were tested: 1 L-arginine, 2 6-benzyl-adenine combined with gibberellins, and 3 sucrose combined with atrazine. Each treatment contained K-phite mineral solution and was tested at two different concentrations. Two trials were conducted: one in the greenhouse and the other in the orchard. In the greenhouse study, responses of 42 key genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism, hormone-related pathways, biotic stress responses, and secondary metabolism in treated and untreated mature leaves were analyzed. TGA5 was significantly induced by arginine. Benzyladenine and gibberellins enhanced two important genes involved in biotic stress responses: WRKY54 and WRKY59. Sucrose combined with atrazine mainly upregulated key genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, starch synthase, and α-amylase. Atrazine also affected expression of some key genes involved in systemic acquired resistance such as EDS1, TGA6, WRKY33, and MYC2. Several treatments upregulated HSP82, which might help protect protein folding and integrity. A subset of key genes was chosen as biomarkers for molecular responses to treatments under field conditions. GPT2 was downregulated by all small-molecule treatments. Arginine-induced genes involved in systemic acquired resistance included PR1, WRKY70, and EDS1. These molecular data encourage long-term application of treatments that combine these regulating molecules in field trials.

  17. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS 2008 CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES FOR RUSSIAN MACROPRUDENTIAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of volatility in global financial markets on the economy of developing countries and the analysis of factors contributing to a greater or lesser degree of vulnerability of the financial systems of developing countries in the global crisis of 2008-2010. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the global financial crisis on the economies of the two groups of developing countries of Southeast Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. On the basis of the analysis due to the dynamics of the main macroeconomic indicators of the Russian Federation during the acute phase of the crisis. The author presents an analysis of the vulnerability of the Russian economy in the event of possible instability in global financial markets at present. The author came to the conclusion that the main reason for which in 2009 the level of GDP growth Russia won 178 seats out of 184 countries, were 2 groups of errors. The first group of errors - errors are system of macro-prudential regulation made by the Central Bank from 2002 to 2007, such as: lack of control and regulation of borrowings of the private and banking sectors to foreign markets, as well as in the domestic market in foreign currency, the loss of control over domestic financial markets, such as: the interbank lending market, the stock market. The second group of errors - errors it committed securities during the crisis. The first error of the Central Bank - a rejection Vat refinance foreign debt of non-financial sector, resulting in an acute liquidity crisis. The second error is stretched for a few months, not a one-time devaluation of the ruble. Price of the second error was 200 billion USD, which the Central Bank lost and speculators earned.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-4

  18. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-04-18

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  19. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Carmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  20. Responsible conduct of research: Global trends, local opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Rossouw

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Instances of research misconduct reported in the lay and scientific literature as well as international efforts to encourage research integrity and the responsible conduct of research are currently receiving considerable attention. In South Africa, however, the topic has not featured prominently in public debate and clear evidence of a national, coordinated effort to address the problem of research misconduct seems to be lacking. Given increasing globalisation of research efforts, the need exists to promote standardised approaches to interpretation and implementation of the principles and values that underlie responsible conduct of research as well as to create guidelines and structures to promote integrity in research in the country. We explore the notions of research misconduct and research integrity, focusing on initiatives that promote responsible conduct of research, and propose a framework for the South African context.

  1. CytR Is a Global Positive Regulator of Competence, Type VI Secretion, and Chitinases in Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit S Watve

    Full Text Available The facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae transitions between its human host and aquatic reservoirs where it colonizes chitinous surfaces. Growth on chitin induces expression of chitin utilization genes, genes involved in DNA uptake by natural transformation, and a type VI secretion system that allows contact-dependent killing of neighboring bacteria. We have previously shown that the transcription factor CytR, thought to primarily regulate the pyrimidine nucleoside scavenging response, is required for natural competence in V. cholerae. Through high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, we show that CytR positively regulates the majority of competence genes, the three type VI secretion operons, and the four known or predicted chitinases. We used transcriptional reporters and phenotypic analysis to determine the individual contributions of quorum sensing, which is controlled by the transcription factors HapR and QstR; chitin utilization that is mediated by TfoX; and pyrimidine starvation that is orchestrated by CytR, toward each of these processes. We find that in V. cholerae, CytR is a global regulator of multiple behaviors affecting fitness and adaptability in the environment.

  2. CytR Is a Global Positive Regulator of Competence, Type VI Secretion, and Chitinases in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Samit S; Thomas, Jacob; Hammer, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    The facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae transitions between its human host and aquatic reservoirs where it colonizes chitinous surfaces. Growth on chitin induces expression of chitin utilization genes, genes involved in DNA uptake by natural transformation, and a type VI secretion system that allows contact-dependent killing of neighboring bacteria. We have previously shown that the transcription factor CytR, thought to primarily regulate the pyrimidine nucleoside scavenging response, is required for natural competence in V. cholerae. Through high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that CytR positively regulates the majority of competence genes, the three type VI secretion operons, and the four known or predicted chitinases. We used transcriptional reporters and phenotypic analysis to determine the individual contributions of quorum sensing, which is controlled by the transcription factors HapR and QstR; chitin utilization that is mediated by TfoX; and pyrimidine starvation that is orchestrated by CytR, toward each of these processes. We find that in V. cholerae, CytR is a global regulator of multiple behaviors affecting fitness and adaptability in the environment.

  3. Crosstalk of Escherichia coli FadR with global regulators in expression of fatty acid transport genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Feng

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli FadR plays two regulatory roles in fatty acid metabolism. FadR represses the fatty acid degradation (fad system and activates the unsaturated fatty acid synthetic pathway. Cross-talk between E. coli FadR and the ArcA-ArcB oxygen-responsive two-component system was observed that resulted in diverse regulation of certain fad regulon β-oxidation genes. We have extended such analyses to the fadL and fadD genes, the protein products of which are required for long chain fatty acid transport and have also studied the role of a third global regulator, the CRP-cAMP complex. The promoters of both the fadL and fadD genes contain two experimentally validated FadR-binding sites plus binding sites for ArcA and CRP-cAMP. Despite the presence of dual binding sites FadR only modestly regulates expression of these genes, indicating that the number of binding sites does not determine regulatory strength. We report complementary in vitro and in vivo studies indicating that the CRP-cAMP complex directly activates expression of fadL and fadD as well as the β-oxidation gene, fadH. The physiological relevance of the fadL and fadD transcription data was validated by direct assays of long chain fatty acid transport.

  4. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO GLOBAL ROBUST OUTPUT REGULATION OF OUTPUT FEEDBACK SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie HUANG

    2007-01-01

    The global robust output regulation problem of the output feedback systems has been extensively studied under various assumptions of the complexity and uncertainty. All these approaches boil down to a stabilization problem of a so-called augmented extended system. This paper will describe an alternative approach which converts the original problem into a stabilization problem of a so-called extended augmented system. As the extended augmented system is somewhat simpler than the augmented extended system, this alternative approach is also simpler than the first approach.

  5. Response of monsoon variability in Himalayas to global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructed annual net accumulation from the Dasuopu ice core recovered in Himalayas, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in central Himalayas. The Dasuopu accumulation (DSP An) also shows a strong correlation to the Northern Hemispheric temperature. Generally, as the Northern Hemispheric temperature increases by 0.1 K, the accumulation decreases by about 90 mm and vise versa. Under the condition of global warming, especially since 1920, the Northern Hemispheric mean temperature has increased by about 0.5 K, whereas accumulation in Dasuopu ice core has decreased by about 450 mm. According to the relationship between accumulation and temperature, a scenario prediction of monsoon rainfall in central Himalayas is made.

  6. Developing Global Building Exposure for Disaster Forecasting, Mitigation, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nongovernmental organizations and governments are recognizing the importance of insurance penetration in developing countries to mitigate the tremendous setbacks that follow natural disasters., but to effectively manage risk stakeholders must accurately quantify the built environment. Although there are countless datasets addressing elements of buildings, there are surprisingly few that are directly applicable to assessing vulnerability to natural disasters without skewing the spatial distribution of risk towards known assets. Working with NASA center partners Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University in New York (http://www.ciesin.org), ImageCat have developed a novel method of developing Global Exposure Data (GED) from EO sources. The method has been applied to develop exposure datasets for GFDRR, CAT modelers, and aid in post-earthquake allocation of resources for UNICEF.

  7. A Robust Response of the Hadley Circulation to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rainfall is expected to increase in a warmer climate. Yet, recent studies have inferred that the Hadley Circulation (HC), which is primarily driven by latent heating from tropical rainfall, is weakened under global warming. Here, we show evidence of a robust intensification of the HC from analyses of 33 CMIP5 model projections under a scenario of 1 per year CO2 emission increase. The intensification is manifested in a deep-tropics squeeze, characterized by a pronounced increase in the zonal mean ascending motion in the mid and upper troposphere, a deepening and narrowing of the convective zone and enhanced rainfall in the deep tropics. These changes occur in conjunction with a rise in the region of maximum outflow of the HC, with accelerated meridional mass outflow in the uppermost branch of the HC away from the equator, coupled to a weakened inflow in the return branches of the HC in the lower troposphere.

  8. Family health nursing: a response to the global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul; Duffy, Tim; Johnston, Brian; Banks, Pauline; Harkess-Murphy, Eileen; Martin, Colin R

    2013-02-01

    The European Family Health Nursing Project is a revitalized World Health Organization initiative led by the University of the West of Scotland. Partner countries include Armenia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. European Union Lifelong Learning funding was received in 2011 to facilitate a consistency of approach in the development of a definition of family health nursing, required core competencies and capabilities, and consequent education and training requirements. Global health challenges have informed the development of the project: increasingly aging populations, the increasing incidence in noncommunicable diseases that are currently the main cause of death, and the significant progress made in the way health systems have developed to meet the demands in relation to access and equality of health services. Governments and policy makers should develop a health workforce based on the principles of teamwork and interdisciplinarity while recognizing the core contribution of the "specialist generalist" role in the primary care setting.

  9. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  10. Large-signal transient response of a switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K.; Nabeshima, T.

    Analytical and experimental considerations on the large-signal transient-responses of the buck-type switching regulator are described. The behaviour under the large-signal operation is different from the case of small signal because of the saturation characteristics of the PWM feedback controller. The effect of this nonlinearity is analyzed by dividing its operation into three modes. As a result, the maximum peak values of the inrush current and output voltage are obtained analytically both for the start-up and for the step change of the load current.

  11. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whitten, Douglas A. [Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Ming [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chan, Christina [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wilkerson, Curtis G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  12. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon;

    2014-01-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximu...

  13. Copper response regulator1-dependent and -independent responses of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome to dark anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Casero, David; Liu, Bensheng; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Happe, Thomas; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobiosis is a stress condition for aerobic organisms and requires extensive acclimation responses. We used RNA-Seq for a whole-genome view of the acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to anoxic conditions imposed simultaneously with transfer to the dark. Nearly 1.4 × 10(3) genes were affected by hypoxia. Comparing transcript profiles from early (hypoxic) with those from late (anoxic) time points indicated that cells activate oxidative energy generation pathways before employing fermentation. Probable substrates include amino acids and fatty acids (FAs). Lipid profiling of the C. reinhardtii cells revealed that they degraded FAs but also accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs). In contrast with N-deprived cells, the TAGs in hypoxic cells were enriched in desaturated FAs, suggesting a distinct pathway for TAG accumulation. To distinguish transcriptional responses dependent on copper response regulator1 (CRR1), which is also involved in hypoxic gene regulation, we compared the transcriptomes of crr1 mutants and complemented strains. In crr1 mutants, ~40 genes were aberrantly regulated, reaffirming the importance of CRR1 for the hypoxic response, but indicating also the contribution of additional signaling strategies to account for the remaining differentially regulated transcripts. Based on transcript patterns and previous results, we conclude that nitric oxide-dependent signaling cascades operate in anoxic C. reinhardtii cells.

  14. Membrane regulation of the stress response from prokaryotic models to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, Laszlo; Nakamoto, Hitoshi; Landry, Jacques; Gomez-Munoz, Antonio; Harwood, John L; Horvath, Ibolya

    2007-10-01

    "Membrane regulation" of stress responses in various systems is widely studied. In poikilotherms, membrane rigidification could be the first reaction to cold perception: reducing membrane fluidity of membranes at physiological temperatures is coupled with enhanced cold inducibility of a number of genes, including desaturases (see J.L. Harwood's article in this Proceedings volume). A similar role of changes in membrane physical state in heat (oxidative stress, etc.) sensing- and signaling gained support recently from prokaryotes to mammalian cells. Stress-induced remodeling of membrane lipids could influence generation, transduction, and deactivation of stress signals, either through global effects on the fluidity of the membrane matrix, or by specific interactions of boundary (or raft) lipids with receptor proteins, lipases, ion channels, etc. Our data point to membranes not only as targets of stress, but also as sensors in activating a stress response.

  15. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium; Biodiversite et changement global. Reponses adaptatives au changement global: resultats et prospective. Colloque de restitution IFB-GICC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despres, L.; Hossaert-Mckey, M.; Martin, J.F.; Pont, D.; Valero, M.; Chave, J.; Benizri, E.; Amiaud, B.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Fritz, H.; Lavelle, P.; Martin, F.; Poulet, S.; Blanchard, F.; Cheddadi, R.; Dupouey, J.L.; Hulle, M.; Michaux, J.; Souissi, S.; Bridault, A.; Dambrine, E.; Gomez, B.; Thevenard, F.; Legendre, S.; Suc, J.P.; Zeitoun, V.; Bezancon, G.; Frascaria-Lacoste, N.; Ponsard, S.; Bourguet, D.; Vigne, J.D.; Doyen, L.; Joly, P.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Garnier, E.; Lebaron, Ph.; Boulinier, Th.; Chuine, I.; Jiguet, F.; Couvet, D.; Soussana, J.F.; Weimerskirsch, H.; Grosbois, V.; Bretagnolle, V

    2006-07-01

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  16. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Annina Sorg; Andreas Kääb; Andrea Roesch; Christof Bigler; Markus Stoffel

    2015-01-01

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers – and glaciers elsewhere – to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photograph...

  17. Histamine regulates the inflammatory response of the tunicate Styela plicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Erick; Gómez-González, Nuria E; Meseguer, José; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-10-01

    Histamine is stored inside hemocytes of the tunicate Styela plicata (Chordata, Tunicata, Ascidiacea), but no evidence on its role in the regulation of the immune response of this species has been reported. We examined whether histamine participated in the regulation of inflammation and host defense in S. plicata. The presence of histamine inside S. plicata hemocytes was confirmed by flow cytometry, and histamine release was detected by ELISA, after in vitro hemocyte stimulation with different PAMPs. In vitro hemocyte treatment with histamine, or specific histamine-receptor agonists, reduced their phagocytic ability. Injection of histamine into the tunic recruited hemocytes to the site of injection. Systemic injection of histamine, or the histamine-releasing agent compound 48/80, decreased the phagocytic ability of hemocytes. Histamine promoted the constriction of tunic hemolymph vessels in vivo, having a direct effect on vasoconstriction in tunic explants. These results provide for the first time clear evidence for the involvement of histamine in the regulation of inflammation and host defense in tunicates.

  18. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Davalos, Dimitrios; Biswas, Dipankar; Swanger, Sharon A.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel; Loth, Francis; Akassoglou, Katerina; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a “resting” state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an “activated” state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in vivo and elicits opposite effects on the motility of activated microglia in vitro through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. However, whether systemic inflammation affects microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo remains largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of mice, we show that injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at levels that can produce both clear neuroinflammation and some features of sepsis significantly reduced the rate of microglial response to laser-induced ablation injury in vivo. Under pro-inflammatory conditions, microglial processes initially retracted from the ablation site, but subsequently moved toward and engulfed the damaged area. Analyzing the process dynamics in 3D cultures of primary microglia indicated that only A2A, but not A1 or A3 receptors, mediate process retraction in LPS-activated microglia. The A2A receptor antagonists caffeine and preladenant reduced adenosine-mediated process retraction in activated microglia in vitro. Finally, administration of preladenant before induction of laser ablation in vivo accelerated the microglial response to injury following systemic inflammation. The regulation of rapid microglial responses to sites of injury by A2A receptors could have implications for their ability to respond to the neuronal death occurring under conditions of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24807189

  19. Hydrodynamic regulation of monocyte inflammatory response to an intracellular pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar J Evani

    Full Text Available Systemic bacterial infections elicit inflammatory response that promotes acute or chronic complications such as sepsis, arthritis or atherosclerosis. Of interest, cells in circulation experience hydrodynamic shear forces, which have been shown to be a potent regulator of cellular function in the vasculature and play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear forces due to blood flow in modulating the inflammatory response of cells to infection. Using an in vitro model, we analyzed the effects of physiological levels of shear stress on the inflammatory response of monocytes infected with chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen which causes bronchitis and is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We found that chlamydial infection alters the morphology of monocytes and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6. We also found that the exposure of chlamydia-infected monocytes to short durations of arterial shear stress significantly enhances the secretion of cytokines in a time-dependent manner and the expression of surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1. As a functional consequence, infection and shear stress increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under flow and in the activation and aggregation of platelets. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress enhances the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection, suggesting that mechanical forces may contribute to disease pathophysiology. These results provide a novel perspective on our understanding of systemic infection and inflammation.

  20. Gene regulation in the immediate-early response process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Shahram; Drabløs, Finn

    2016-09-01

    Immediate-early genes (IEGs) can be activated and transcribed within minutes after stimulation, without the need for de novo protein synthesis, and they are stimulated in response to both cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals. Extracellular signals are transduced from the cell surface, through receptors activating a chain of proteins in the cell, in particular extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and members of the RhoA-actin pathway. These communicate through a signaling cascade by adding phosphate groups to neighboring proteins, and this will eventually activate and translocate TFs to the nucleus and thereby induce gene expression. The gene activation also involves proximal and distal enhancers that interact with promoters to simulate gene expression. The immediate-early genes have essential biological roles, in particular in stress response, like the immune system, and in differentiation. Therefore they also have important roles in various diseases, including cancer development. In this paper we summarize some recent advances on key aspects of the activation and regulation of immediate-early genes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    AlShareef, Sahar A.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of the stress response by mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, Jose; Ortells, M Carmen; Tejedor, Sonia; Buxadé, Maria; López-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation that integrates inputs from growth factor receptors, nutrient availability, intracellular ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate), and a variety of stressors. Since early works in the mid-1990s uncovered the role of mTOR in stimulating protein translation, this kinase has emerged as a rather multifaceted regulator of numerous processes. Whereas mTOR is generally activated by growth- and proliferation-stimulating signals, its activity can be reduced and even suppressed when cells are exposed to a variety of stress conditions. However, cells can also adapt to stress while maintaining their growth capacity and mTOR function. Despite knowledge accumulated on how stress represses mTOR, less is known about mTOR influencing stress responses. In this review, we discuss the capability of mTOR, in particular mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), to activate stress-responsive transcription factors, and we outline open questions for future investigation.

  3. Global responses for recycling waste CRTs in e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai

    2016-11-01

    The management of used cathode ray tube (CRT) devices is a major problem worldwide due to rapid uptake of the technology and early obsolescence of CRT devices, which is considered an environment hazard if disposed improperly. Previously, their production has grown in step with computer and television demand but later on with rapid technological innovation; TVs and computer screens has been replaced by new products such as Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) and Plasma Display Panel (PDPs). This change creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete CRTs waste in developed countries and developing countries will be becoming major CRTs waste producers in the upcoming years. We studied that there is also high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as second-hand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. Moreover, the current global production of e-waste is estimated to be '41million tonnes per year' where a major part of the e-waste stream consists of CRT devices. This review article provides a concise overview of world's current CRTs waste scenario, namely magnitude of the demand and processing, current disposal and recycling operations.

  4. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  5. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-11

    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do.

  6. Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeanne

    2007-05-01

    With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

  7. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  8. Global absolute quantification reveals tight regulation of protein expression in single Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Arne H; Lindeboom, Rik G H; Perino, Matteo; van Heeringen, Simon J; Veenstra, Gert Jan C; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2014-09-01

    While recent developments in genomic sequencing technology have enabled comprehensive transcriptome analyses of single cells, single cell proteomics has thus far been restricted to targeted studies. Here, we perform global absolute protein quantification of fertilized Xenopus laevis eggs using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, quantifying over 5800 proteins in the largest single cell proteome characterized to date. Absolute protein amounts in single eggs are highly consistent, thus indicating a tight regulation of global protein abundance. Protein copy numbers in single eggs range from tens of thousands to ten trillion copies per cell. Comparison between the single-cell proteome and transcriptome reveal poor expression correlation. Finally, we identify 439 proteins that significantly change in abundance during early embryogenesis. Downregulated proteins include ribosomal proteins and upregulated proteins include basal transcription factors, among others. Many of these proteins do not show regulation at the transcript level. Altogether, our data reveal that the transcriptome is a poor indicator of the proteome and that protein levels are tightly controlled in X. laevis eggs.

  9. A review of progress towards understanding the transient global mean surface temperature response to radiative perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Ohgaito, Rumi; Kamae, Youichi

    2016-12-01

    The correct understanding of the transient response to external radiative perturbation is important for the interpretation of observed climate change, the prediction of near-future climate change, and committed warming under climate stabilization scenarios, as well as the estimation of equilibrium climate sensitivity based on observation data. It has been known for some time that the radiative damping rate per unit of global mean surface temperature increase varies with time, and this inconstancy affects the transient response. Knowledge of the equilibrium response alone is insufficient, but understanding the transient response of the global mean surface temperature has made rapid progress. The recent progress accompanies the relatively new concept of the efficacies of ocean heat uptake and forcing. The ocean heat uptake efficacy associates the temperature response induced by ocean heat uptake with equilibrium temperature response, and the efficacy of forcing compares the temperature response caused by non-CO2 forcing with that by CO2 forcing.

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of Arabidopsis in Response to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhulong Chan

    2012-01-01

    Salt stress is a major factor limiting agricultural productivity worldwide.Adaptations to salt stress include avoidance by reduced sodium uptake,sequestration of toxic sodium ions away from the cytoplasm,or production of compatible solutes or osmoprotectants to reduce molecular disruption.Approaches to engineer salt stress resistance have included regulation of ion transport through introduction of Na+/H+ antiporter; synthesis of compatible solutes; or the introduction of transcription factors regulating expression of stress-responsive genes.On the other hand,naturally occurring variation among wild-type populations of plants also can be used to understand plant adaptive responses to their environments.In this study,we compared phenotypic and transcriptomic effects of constitutive expression of genes intended to confer salt stress tolerance by three different mechanisms:a transcription factor,CBF3/DREB1a; a metabolic gene,M6PR,for mannitol biosynthesis; and the Na+/H+ antiporter,SOS1.In the absence of salt,M6PR and SOS1 lines performed comparably with wild type; CBF3 lines exhibited dwarfing as reported previously.All three transgenes conferred fitness advantage when subjected to 100 mmol/L NaCI in the growth chamber.CBF3 and M6PR affected transcription of numerous abiotic stress-related genes as measured by Affymetrix microarray analysis.M6PR additionally modified expression of biotic stress and oxidative stress genes.Transcriptional effects of SOS1 were smaller and primarily limited to redox-related genes.In addition,we compared natural variations in salt tolerance between Ler and Sha ecotypes based on their responses to salt treatments and the results indicated that Ler was salt-sensitive,but Sha,which obtained a truncated RAS1 protein,was salt-tolerant.Transcriptome analysis revealed that many genes involved in secondary metabolism,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis were mainly down-regulated by salinity effects,while transposable element genes,microRNA and

  11. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo;

    2015-01-01

    -dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses...... acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis....

  12. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: letter in response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil AL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Neil,1 Vaughan J Carr2,31Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 2Research Unit for Schizophrenia Epidemiology, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaIn reference to the recent systematic review by Chong et al1 on cost-of-illness studies in schizophrenia, we seek to highlight the limited scope and apparent inconsistencies embedded within this review. The review utilizes the term schizophrenia alone as the identifying disorder-related variable within its search strategy. Schizophrenia is the prototypical and most prevalent among the psychotic disorders, and schizophrenia is certainly used as a generic term in reference to the “schizophrenia-related disorders”, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 codes F20–F29. The most well-known example of such use is in the Global Burden of Disease studies.2–4 However, the reliance on this term as being all-inclusive is diminishing, as reflected in the chapter heading change from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV to DSM-V, namely “Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders” to “Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders”. Further, the overarchingterm psychotic disorders are increasingly being used in the recognition of the substantial clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic overlap between disorders within this group. Authors' reply Huey Yi Chong,1 Siew Li Teoh,1 David Bin-Chia Wu,1 Chiun-Fang Chiou,2 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,3–51School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Asia Pacific, Singapore; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4School of

  13. The global regulator LaeA controls production of citric acid and endoglucanases in Aspergillus carbonarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    The global regulatory protein LaeA is known for regulating the production of many kinds of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species, as well as sexual and asexual reproduction, and morphology. In Aspergillus carbonarius, it has been shown that LaeA regulates production of ochratoxin. We have ...... production or on cellulose or xylanase activity....

  14. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  16. Sa-Lrp from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a versatile, glutamine-responsive, and architectural transcriptional regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassart, Amelia; Van Wolferen, Marleen; Orell, Alvaro; Hong, Ye; Peeters, Eveline; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Charlier, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Sa-Lrp is a member of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp)-like family of transcriptional regulators in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Previously, we demonstrated the binding of Sa-Lrp to the control region of its own gene in vitro. However, the function and cofactor of Sa-Lrp remained an enigma. In this work, we demonstrate that glutamine is the cofactor of Sa-Lrp by inducing the formation of octamers and increasing the DNA-binding affinity and sequence specificity. In vitro protein-DNA interaction assays indicate that Sa-Lrp binds to promoter regions of genes with a variety of functions including ammonia assimilation, transcriptional control, and UV-induced pili synthesis. DNA binding occurs with a specific affinity for AT-rich binding sites, and the protein induces DNA bending and wrapping upon binding, indicating an architectural role of the regulator. Furthermore, by analyzing an Sa-lrp deletion mutant, we demonstrate that the protein affects transcription of some of the genes of which the promoter region is targeted and that it is an important determinant of the cellular aggregation phenotype. Taking all these results into account, we conclude that Sa-Lrp is a glutamine-responsive global transcriptional regulator with an additional architectural role.

  17. DMPD: Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation of genetranscription. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16753195 Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation of genetran...l) (.csml) Show Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation of genetranscription. PubmedI...D 16753195 Title Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation o

  18. "The Ideal Citizen", Globalization, and the Japanese Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the Fundamental Law on Education was revised and later the curriculum guidelines for Moral Education were revised accordingly; revisions concerned emphasis on individual responsibility, respect for life, environment, nation, and other countries, understanding of differences, and strengthe......In 2006 the Fundamental Law on Education was revised and later the curriculum guidelines for Moral Education were revised accordingly; revisions concerned emphasis on individual responsibility, respect for life, environment, nation, and other countries, understanding of differences......, and strengthening of moral capabilities in children. It has been common to view initiatives concerning Japanese moral education as conservative/traditionalist attempts to re-introduce pre-war practices. I would suggest that a more productive point of departure would be to look at it as “gate-keeping”, where what...... is considered basic and inalienable in Japanese culture and morality by those in a position of influence is kept safe. In this sense it concerns the “immunology” (Cowen) of moral education in Japan, but the other component of Cowen’s pair of terms, “permiology” must also be included. The contents of moral...

  19. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-06

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers--and glaciers elsewhere--to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s.

  20. Generating Global Brand Equity through Corporate Social Responsibility to Key Stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Lacomba, Anna; Atribo, Jo; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that socially responsible policies have positive short-term and long-term impact on equity of global brands. We find that corporate social responsibility towards all stakeholders, whether primary (customers, shareholders, employees and suppliers) or secondary (community), have

  1. Strategies for rapid global earthquake impact estimation: the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art for rapid earthquake impact estimation. It details the needs and challenges associated with quick estimation of earthquake losses following global earthquakes, and provides a brief literature review of various approaches that have been used in the past. With this background, the chapter introduces the operational earthquake loss estimation system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) known as PAGER (for Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response). It also details some of the ongoing developments of PAGER’s loss estimation models to better supplement the operational empirical models, and to produce value-added web content for a variety of PAGER users.

  2. Advances on the Responses of Root Dynamics to Increased Atmospheric CO2 and Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Plant roots dynamics responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, increased temperature and changed precipitation can be a key link between plant growth and long-term changes in soil organic matter and ecosystem carbon balance. This paper reviews some experiments and hypotheses developed in this area, which mainly include plant fine roots growth, root turnover, root respiration and other root dynamics responses to elevated CO2 and global climate change. Some recent new methods of studying root systems were also discussed and summarized. It holds herein that the assemblage of information about root turnover patterns, root respiration and other dynamic responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 and global climatic change can help to better understand and explore some new research areas. In this paper, some research challenges in the plant root responses to the elevated CO2 and other environmental factors during global climate change were also demonstrated.

  3. Phenological Responses to ENSO in the Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racault, M.-F.; Sathyendranath, S.; Menon, N.; Platt, T.

    2017-01-01

    Phenology relates to the study of timing of periodic events in the life cycle of plants or animals as influenced by environmental conditions and climatic forcing. Phenological metrics provide information essential to quantify variations in the life cycle of these organisms. The metrics also allow us to estimate the speed at which living organisms respond to environmental changes. At the surface of the oceans, microscopic plant cells, so-called phytoplankton, grow and sometimes form blooms, with concentrations reaching up to 100 million cells per litre and extending over many square kilometres. These blooms can have a huge collective impact on ocean colour, because they contain chlorophyll and other auxiliary pigments, making them visible from space. Phytoplankton populations have a high turnover rate and can respond within hours to days to environmental perturbations. This makes them ideal indicators to study the first-level biological response to environmental changes. In the Earth's climate system, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dominates large-scale inter-annual variations in environmental conditions. It serves as a natural experiment to study and understand how phytoplankton in the ocean (and hence the organisms at higher trophic levels) respond to climate variability. Here, the ENSO influence on phytoplankton is estimated through variations in chlorophyll concentration, primary production and timings of initiation, peak, termination and duration of the growing period. The phenological variabilities are used to characterise phytoplankton responses to changes in some physical variables: sea surface temperature, sea surface height and wind. It is reported that in oceanic regions experiencing high annual variations in the solar cycle, such as in high latitudes, the influence of ENSO may be readily measured using annual mean anomalies of physical variables. In contrast, in oceanic regions where ENSO modulates a climate system characterised by a seasonal

  4. Response of Vegetation in Northern China to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Huang, R.

    2009-05-01

    (Sophora japonica), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), yellow locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), and gingko (Ginkgo biloba) have also been pushing northward to Huhhot, (41 degree N)Chifeng (42 degree N) and Tongliao (43 degree N), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Alpine timberline has also been moved to higher altitude in Wutai Mt., Shanxi Province and Changbaishan Mt., Jilin Province. Although global warming seems to benefit agriculture in some cases, considering the decrease of wetness, the perspective is still uncertain. Drought and frost hazard are stress factors for the vegetation introduced to the northern areas. Chinese scholars are carefully watching the trend.

  5. RovA, a global regulator of Yersinia pestis, specifically required for bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathelyn, Jason S; Crosby, Seth D; Lathem, Wyndham W; Goldman, William E; Miller, Virginia L

    2006-09-05

    The pathogenic species of Yersinia contain the transcriptional regulator RovA. In Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica, RovA regulates expression of the invasion factor invasin (inv), which mediates translocation across the intestinal epithelium. A Y. enterocolitica rovA mutant has a significant decrease in virulence by LD(50) analysis and an altered rate of dissemination compared with either wild type or an inv mutant, suggesting that RovA regulates multiple virulence factors. Here, we show the involvement of RovA in the virulence of Yersinia pestis, which naturally lacks a functional inv gene. A Y. pestis DeltarovA mutant is attenuated approximately 80-fold by LD(50) and is defective in dissemination/colonization of spleens and lungs after s.c. inoculation. However, the DeltarovA mutant is only slightly attenuated when given via an intranasal or i.p. route, indicating a more important role for RovA in bubonic plague than pneumonic plague or systemic infection. Microarray analysis was used to define the RovA regulon. The psa locus was among the most highly down-regulated loci in the DeltarovA mutant. A DeltapsaA mutant had a significant dissemination defect after s.c. infection but only slight attenuation by the pneumonic-disease model, closely mimicking the virulence defect seen with the DeltarovA mutant. DNA-binding studies revealed that RovA specifically interacts with the psaE and psaA promoter regions, indicating a direct role for RovA in regulating this locus. Thus, RovA appears to be a global transcription factor in Y. pestis and, through its regulatory influence on genes such as psaEFABC, contributes to the virulence of Y. pestis.

  6. TetR-type transcriptional regulator VtpR functions as a global regulator in Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Häse, Claudia C

    2009-12-01

    Vibrio tubiashii, a causative agent of severe shellfish larval disease, produces multiple extracellular proteins, including a metalloprotease (VtpA), as potential virulence factors. We previously reported that VtpA is toxic for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. In this study, we show that extracellular protease production by V. tubiashii was much reduced by elevated salt concentrations, as well as by elevated temperatures. In addition, V. tubiashii produced dramatically less protease in minimal salts medium supplemented with glucose or sucrose as the sole carbon source than with succinate. We identified a protein that belongs to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators, VtpR, which showed high homology with V. cholerae HapR. We conclude that VtpR activates VtpA production based on the following: (i) a VtpR-deficient V. tubiashii mutant did not produce extracellular proteases, (ii) the mutant showed reduced expression of a vtpA-lacZ fusion, and (iii) VtpR activated vtpA-lacZ in a V. cholerae heterologous background. Moreover, we show that VtpR activated the expression of an additional metalloprotease gene (vtpB). The deduced VtpB sequence showed high homology with a metalloprotease, VhpA, from V. harveyi. Furthermore, the vtpR mutant strain produced reduced levels of extracellular hemolysin, which is attributed to the lower expression of the V. tubiashii hemolysin genes (vthAB). The VtpR-deficient mutant also had negative effects on bacterial motility and did not demonstrate toxicity to oyster larvae. Together, these findings establish that the V. tubiashii VtpR protein functions as a global regulator controlling an array of potential virulence factors.

  7. Improving ethanol tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Chong

    Full Text Available A major challenge in bioethanol fermentation is the low tolerance of the microbial host towards the end product bioethanol. Here we report to improve the ethanol tolerance of E. coli from the transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which is known to regulate over 400 genes in E. coli. Three ethanol tolerant CRP mutants (E1- E3 were identified from error-prone PCR libraries. The best ethanol-tolerant strain E2 (M59T had the growth rate of 0.08 h(-1 in 62 g/L ethanol, higher than that of the control at 0.06 h(-1. The M59T mutation was then integrated into the genome to create variant iE2. When exposed to 150 g/l ethanol, the survival of iE2 after 15 min was about 12%, while that of BW25113 was <0.01%. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-PCR on 444 CRP-regulated genes using OpenArray® technology revealed that 203 genes were differentially expressed in iE2 in the absence of ethanol, whereas 92 displayed differential expression when facing ethanol stress. These genes belong to various functional groups, including central intermediary metabolism (aceE, acnA, sdhD, sucA, iron ion transport (entH, entD, fecA, fecB, and general stress response (osmY, rpoS. Six up-regulated and twelve down-regulated common genes were found in both iE2 and E2 under ethanol stress, whereas over one hundred common genes showed differential expression in the absence of ethanol. Based on the RT-PCR results, entA, marA or bhsA was knocked out in iE2 and the resulting strains became more sensitive towards ethanol.

  8. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabolite control protein A (CcpA is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR and carbon catabolite activation (CCA, two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named crevar, has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA. It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of crevar can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of crevar is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of crevar shows potential importance for CcpA’s diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential crevar sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs, and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 crevar sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the crevar sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. DNA-responsive inflammasomes and their regulators in autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Divaker

    2012-03-01

    Upon sensing microbial and self-derived DNA, DNA sensors initiate innate immune responses. These sensors include the interferon (IFN)-inducible Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and PYHIN proteins. Upon sensing DNA, cytosolic (murine Aim2 and human AIM2) and nuclear (IFI16) PYHIN proteins recruit an adaptor protein (ASC) and pro-caspase-1 to form an inflammasome, which activates caspase-1. The activated caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to generate active forms. However, upon sensing cytosolic DNA, the IFI16 protein recruits STING to induce the expression of type I IFN. Recognition of self DNA by innate immune cells contributes to the production of increased levels of type I IFN. Given that the type I IFNs modulate the expression of inflammasome proteins and that the IFN-inducible proteins inhibit the activity of DNA-responsive inflammasomes, an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of DNA-responsive inflammasomes is likely to identify new therapeutic targets to treat autoimmune diseases.

  10. Bmp indicator mice reveal dynamic regulation of transcriptional response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Javier

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Bmp ligands are regulated at multiple levels, both extracellularly and intracellularly. Therefore, the presence of these growth factors is not an accurate indicator of Bmp signaling activity. While a common approach to detect Bmp signaling activity is to determine the presence of phosphorylated forms of Smad1, 5 and 8 by immunostaining, this approach is time consuming and not quantitative. In order to provide a simpler readout system to examine the presence of Bmp signaling in developing animals, we developed BRE-gal mouse embryonic stem cells and a transgenic mouse line that specifically respond to Bmp ligand stimulation. Our reporter identifies specific transcriptional responses that are mediated by Smad1 and Smad4 with the Schnurri transcription factor complex binding to a conserved Bmp-Responsive Element (BRE, originally identified among Drosophila, Xenopus and human Bmp targets. Our BRE-gal mES cells specifically respond to Bmp ligands at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml; and BRE-gal reporter mice, derived from the BRE-gal mES cells, show dynamic activity in many cellular sites, including extraembryonic structures and mammary glands, thereby making this a useful scientific tool.

  11. HFR1 is crucial for transcriptome regulation in the cryptochrome 1-mediated early response to blue light in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. They are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes as light sensors. Long Hypocotyl in Far-Red 1 (HFR1 has been identified as a positive regulator and a possible transcription factor in both blue and far-red light signaling in plants. However, the gene targets that are regulated by HFR1 in cryptochrome 1 (cry1-mediated blue light signaling have not been globally addressed. We examined the transcriptome profiles in a cry1- and HFR1-dependent manner in response to 1 hour of blue light. Strikingly, more than 70% of the genes induced by blue light in an HFR1-dependent manner were dependent on cry1, and vice versa. High overrepresentation of W-boxes and OCS elements were found in these genes, indicating that this strong cry1 and HFR1 co-regulation on gene expression is possibly through these two cis-elements. We also found that cry1 was required for maintaining the HFR1 protein level in blue light, and that the HFR1 protein level is strongly correlated with the global gene expression pattern. In summary, HFR1, which is fine-tuned by cry1, is crucial for regulating global gene expression in cry1-mediated early blue light signaling, especially for the function of genes containing W-boxes and OCS elements.

  12. Adaptation responses to climate change differ between global megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeson, Lucien; Maslin, Mark; Poessinouw, Martyn; Howard, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change, with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities to improve their resilience. Policymakers need to understand current adaptation spend to plan comprehensively and effectively. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined `adaptation economy', we analyse current climate change adaptation efforts in ten megacities. In all cases, the adaptation economy remains a small part of the overall economy, representing a maximum of 0.33% of a city's gross domestic product (here referred to as GDPc). Differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed, emerging and developing countries, ranging from #15 million to #1,600 million. Comparing key subsectors, we demonstrate the differences in adaptation profiles. Developing cities have higher proportional spend on health and agriculture, whereas developed cities have higher spend on energy and water. Spend per capita and percentage of GDPc comparisons more clearly show disparities between cities. Developing country cities spend half the proportion of GDPc and significantly less per capita, suggesting that adaptation spend is driven by wealth rather than the number of vulnerable people. This indicates that current adaptation activities are insufficient in major population centres in developing and emerging economies.

  13. Response of Land Use Planning in Less Developed Areas to Economic Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-nan

    2012-01-01

    Under the background of economic globalization, the development mechanisms of various regions face potential deep transformation, and the effective participation of less developed areas in China in economic globalization is of great significance to the sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. In this study, we summarized the characteristics and influences of economic globalization from the aspects of industrial recombination and transfer, competition, economic relevance and development modes, and analysed the opportunities and challenges of land use in less developed areas brought by economic globalization. Afterwards, based on the major problems of land use planning management in the middle of Jiangsu Province, we put forward some suggestion including management of planning process, balanced development of ecology and economy, strengtheningn planing use zoning, spatial agglomeration and protecting cultural diversity to response to economic globalization.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes response regulators important for stress tolerance and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallipolitis, B H; Ingmer, H

    2001-01-01

    Environmental sensing by two-component signal transduction systems is likely to play a role for growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes both during transmission in food products and within a host organism. Two-component systems typically consist of a membrane-associated sensor histidine...... kinase and a gene regulatory protein, the response regulator (RR). We have identified seven putative RR genes in L. monocytogenes LO28 by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. By insertional inactivation we obtained data suggesting that three of the putative RRs contribute to the pathogenicity...... of L. monocytogenes in mice. Strikingly, the mutants that were attenuated in virulence also had a decreased ability to grow in the presence of various stress conditions potentially encountered in an infection process. Thus, our data point to a connection between the ability of the putative two...

  15. Quorum sensing regulates the osmotic stress response in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Julia C; Rutherford, Steven T; Cong, Jian-Ping; Quinodoz, Sofia; Healy, James; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to monitor cell density and to alter behavior in response to fluctuations in population numbers. Previous studies with Vibrio harveyi have shown that LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator, activates and represses >600 genes. These include six genes that encode homologs of the Escherichia coli Bet and ProU systems for synthesis and transport, respectively, of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant used during osmotic stress. Here we show that LuxR activates expression of the glycine betaine operon betIBA-proXWV, which enhances growth recovery under osmotic stress conditions. BetI, an autorepressor of the V. harveyi betIBA-proXWV operon, activates the expression of genes encoding regulatory small RNAs that control quorum-sensing transitions. Connecting quorum-sensing and glycine betaine pathways presumably enables V. harveyi to tune its execution of collective behaviors to its tolerance to stress.

  16. Flexible parasympathetic responses to sadness facilitate spontaneous affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Fresco, David M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known. In a study of 178 undergraduate students, we evaluated whether parasympathetic flexibility in response to a sad film involving loss would enhance the effectiveness of regulatory strategies (reappraisal, distraction, and suppression) spontaneously employed to reduce negative affect during a 2-min uninstructed recovery period following the induction. Parasympathetic reactivity and recovery were indexed by fluctuations in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and high-frequency heart rate variability. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction were more effective in attenuating negative affect among individuals with more parasympathetic flexibility, particularly greater vagal augmentation during recovery, relative to individuals with less parasympathetic flexibility. In contrast, suppression was associated with less attenuation of negative affect, but only among individuals who also had less vagal withdrawal during the sad film. Alternative models provided partial support for reversed directionality, with reappraisal predicting greater parasympathetic recovery, but only when individuals also experienced greater reductions in negative affect. These results suggest that contextually appropriate parasympathetic reactivity and recovery may facilitate the success of affect regulation. Impairments in parasympathetic flexibility could confer risk for affective disorders due to attenuated capacity for effective self-regulation. © 2017 Society for

  17. Systematic dissection of roles for chromatin regulators in a yeast stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Weiner

    Full Text Available Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, we find that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles during gene induction/repression than they do in steady-state expression. Furthermore, by jointly analyzing the substrates (histone mutants and enzymes (chromatin modifier deletions we identify specific interactions between histone modifications and their regulators. Combining these functional results with genome-wide mapping of several histone marks in the same time course, we systematically investigated the correspondence between histone modification occurrence and function. We followed up on one pathway, finding that Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation primarily acts as a gene repressor during multiple stresses, specifically at genes involved in ribosome biosynthesis. Set1-dependent repression of ribosomal genes occurs via distinct pathways for ribosomal protein genes and ribosomal biogenesis genes, which can be separated based on genetic requirements for repression and based on chromatin changes during gene repression. Together, our dynamic studies provide a rich resource for investigating chromatin regulation, and identify a significant role for the "activating" mark H3K4me3 in gene repression.

  18. EEG-arousal regulation as predictor of treatment response in patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Anna-Lena; Stengler, Katarina; Jahn, Ina; Olbrich, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Aim of this study was to analyze whether electroencephalogram (EEG)-based CNS-arousal markers differ for patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that either respond or do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or their combination. Further the study aimed to identify specific response-predictors for the different therapy approaches. CNS-arousal from 51 unmedicated patients during fifteen-minute resting state was assessed using VIGALL (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig). Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores were used to assess response or non-response after three to six months following therapy (CBT, n=18; SSRI, n=11 or combination, n=22). Differences between Responders (R) and Non-Responders (NR) were identified using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) models. MANCOVA revealed that Responders spent significant less time at the highest CNS-arousal stage 0. Further, low amounts of the highest CNS-arousal stages were specifically predictive for a response to a combined treatment approach. The fact that CNS-arousal markers allowed discrimination between Responders and Non-Responders and also between Responders of different treatment arms underlines a possible clinical value of EEG-based markers. These results encourage further research on EEG-arousal regulation for determining pathophysiological subgroups for treatment response. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ozone promotes regeneration by regulating the inflammatory response in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kenan; Li, Yanhao; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Yiyue; Ma, Ning; Zeng, Qingle; Pang, Huajin; Wang, Chunyan; Xiao, Lijun; He, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Ozone is thought to advance wound healing by inhibiting inflammation, but the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been determined. Although the zebrafish is often used in regeneration experiments, there has been no report of zebrafish treated with ozonated water. We successfully established a zebrafish model of ozonated water treatment and demonstrate that ozonated water stimulates the regeneration of the zebrafish caudal fin, its mechanism, and time dependence. The growth rate of the caudal fin and the number of neutrophils migrating to the caudal fin wound after resection were higher in the experimental (ozonated) group than in the control group, preliminarily confirming that ozone-promoted regeneration is related to the stimulation of an early inflammatory response by ozone. Ozone modulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in two ways by regulating interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression. Therefore, ozone promotes tissue regeneration by regulating the inflammatory pathways. This effect of ozone in an experimental zebrafish model is demonstrated for the first time, confirming its promotion of wound healing and the mechanism of its effect in tissue regeneration. These results will open up new directions for ozone and regeneration research.

  20. Magnitude-dependent response of osteoblasts regulated by compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-qing; Geng, Yuan-ming; Liu, Ping; Huang, Xiang-yu; Li, Shu-yi; Liu, Chun-dong; Zhou, Zheng; Xu, Ping-ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of magnitude in adaptive response of osteoblasts exposed to compressive stress. Murine primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to compressive stress (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm2) in 3D culture. Cell viability was evaluated, and expression levels of Runx2, Alp, Ocn, Rankl, and Opg were examined. ALP activity in osteoblasts and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 cells co-cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells were assayed. Results showed that compressive stress within 5.0 g/cm2 did not influence cell viability. Both osteoblastic and osteoblast-regulated osteoclastic differentiation were enhanced at 2 g/cm2. An increase in stress above 2 g/cm2 did not enhance osteoblastic differentiation further but significantly inhibited osteoblast-regualted osteoclastic differentiation. This study suggested that compressive stress regulates osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation through osteoblasts in a magnitude-dependent manner. PMID:28317941

  1. Testosterone regulates tight junction proteins and influences prostatic autoimmune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S

    2011-06-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an autoimmune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology.

  2. Global analysis of a class of HIV models with immune response and antigenic variation

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Max O

    2008-01-01

    We study the global stability of two models for the HIV virus dynamics, that take into account the CTL immune response and antigenic variation. We show that both models are globally asymptotically stable, by using appropriate Lyapunov functions. For both models, we characterise the stable equilibrium points for the entire biologically relevant parameter range. In the model with antigenic variation, which can have a large number of equilibrium points, this allows us to determine what is the diversity of the persistent strains.

  3. The need for a global robotic response to coal mine rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, Sean

    2011-02-15

    The author writes about the the lack of effective robotic response specifically designed for mine rescue which would improve worker safety and diminish the risk of international embarrassment by governments and industry. An international consortium is needed in which the major coal mining countries and companies contribute to the development, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue system. This robotic system should be designed to allow transportation, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue, the author writes.

  4. Global stability for delay-dependent HTLV-I model with CTL immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We present a delay-dependent HTLV-I model with CTL immune response. The basic reproduction number is obtained for the existence of positive steady state. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, when the basic reproduction number is less than one, the infection-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable; when the basic reproduction number is greater than one, the infected steady state is globally asymptotically stable.

  5. GLOBAL ASYMPTOTICAL PROPERTIES FOR A DIFFUSED HBV INFECTION MODEL WITH CTL IMMUNE RESPONSE AND NONLINEAR INCIDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shaoli; Feng Xinlong; He Yinnian

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a diffused hepatitis B virus (HBV) model with CTLimmune response and nonlinear incidence for the control of viral infections.By means of different Lyapunov functions,the global asymptotical properties of the viral-free equilibrium and immune-free equilibrium of the model are obtained.Global stability of the positive equilibrium of the model is also considered.The results show that the free diffusion of the virus has no effect on the global stability of such HBV infection problem with Neumann homogeneous boundary conditions.

  6. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: response to authors’ reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil AL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Neil,1 Vaughan J Carr2,3 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, The University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 2Research Unit for Schizophrenia Epidemiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaFor clarification, we undertook bottom-up costing using individual participant data from the Low Prevalence Disorders Study in our costing study.1 We did not use the data reported in the study by Carr et al2 as asserted by Chong et al.3 Chong et al have thus misunderstood and thus misrepresented our methodology in both their systematic review4 and their response to our letter.5 Authors' reply  Huey Yi Chong,1 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1–41School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; 4School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia We thank Dr Neil and Professor Carr for their clarification on the data source used in their study.1 In this regard, we would like to highlight one of the most common challenges when conducting any systematic review, for example economic burden of schizophrenia in this case – the marked diversity in reporting among the included studies, which increases the likelihood of any potential misinterpretation. In convergence with a number of published systematic reviews of economic burden studies,2–5 there has been a consistent call for a more explicit reporting in various aspects of an economic burden study, thus readability and transparency can be enhanced. However, a standardized guide/checklist for conducting and reporting economic burden is yet to be available. On the final note, we strongly urge for the development of such a guidance document

  7. Phytoplankton niches, traits and eco-evolutionary responses to global environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchman, Elena; Edwards, Kyle F.; Klausmeier, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton are major primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and are sensitive to various aspects of global environmental change. They can respond through phenotypic plasticity, species sorting, genetic adaptation, or a combination of these processes. Here we present conceptual, experimental...... and theoretical ways to predict different phytoplankton responses to global change. Using phytoplankton ecological niches to predict their responses to multiple environmental stressors is a promising new approach. Functional traits of phytoplankton, such as resource utilization traits and tolerance curves...... for various environmental factors like temperature, can be used to define niches along major axes. Characterization of pairwise and higher dimension trade-offs among traits should help predict possible niche changes along multiple dimensions simultaneously. The potential for evolutionary responses to global...

  8. TRPV1 Regulates Stress Responses through HDAC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress causes changes in neurotransmission in the brain, thereby influencing stress-induced behaviors. However, it is unclear how neurotransmission systems orchestrate stress responses at the molecular and cellular levels. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel involved mainly in pain sensation, affects mood and neuroplasticity in the brain, where its role is poorly understood. Here, we show that Trpv1-deficient (Trpv1−/− mice are more stress resilient than control mice after chronic unpredictable stress. We also found that glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC 2 expression and activity are reduced in the Trpv1−/− mice and that HDAC2-regulated, cell-cycle- and neuroplasticity-related molecules are altered. Hippocampal knockdown of TRPV1 had similar effects, and its behavioral effects were blocked by HDAC2 overexpression. Collectively, our findings indicate that HDAC2 is a molecular link between TRPV1 activity and stress responses.

  9. Metabolic Context Regulates Distinct Hypothalamic Transcriptional Responses to Antiaging Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Stranahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is an essential relay in the neural circuitry underlying energy metabolism that needs to continually adapt to changes in the energetic environment. The neuroendocrine control of food intake and energy expenditure is associated with, and likely dependent upon, hypothalamic plasticity. Severe disturbances in energy metabolism, such as those that occur in obesity, are therefore likely to be associated with disruption of hypothalamic transcriptomic plasticity. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two well-characterized antiaging interventions, caloric restriction and voluntary wheel running, in two distinct physiological paradigms, that is, diabetic (db/db and nondiabetic wild-type (C57/Bl/6 animals to investigate the contextual sensitivity of hypothalamic transcriptomic responses. We found that, both quantitatively and qualitatively, caloric restriction and physical exercise were associated with distinct transcriptional signatures that differed significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. This suggests that challenges to metabolic homeostasis regulate distinct hypothalamic gene sets in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. A greater understanding of how genetic background contributes to hypothalamic response mechanisms could pave the way for the development of more nuanced therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic disorders that occur in diverse physiological backgrounds.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA in the regulation of innate immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunju Fang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitochondrion is known as the energy factory of the cell, which is also a unique mammalian organelle and considered to be evolved from aerobic prokaryotes more than a billion years ago. Mitochondrial DNA, similar to that of its bacterial ancestor’s, consists of a circular loop and contains significant number of unmethylated DNA as CpG islands. The innate immune system plays an important role in the mammalian immune response. Recent research has demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA activates several innate immune pathways involving TLR9, NLRP3 and STING signaling, which contributes to the signaling platforms and results in effector responses. In addition to facilitating antibacterial immunity and regulating antiviral signaling, mounting evidence suggests that mtDNA contributes to inflammatory diseases following cellular damage and stress. Therefore, in addition to its well-appreciated roles in cellular metabolism and energy production, mtDNA appears to function as a key member in the innate immune system. Here, we highlight the emerging roles of mtDNA in innate immunity.

  11. Governments, banks and global capital : the emergence of the global capital market and the politics of its regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Filipvic, M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis analyses the global capital market, as one of the most dynamic aspects of the world economy. Once the dollars have begun to circulate outside the US, the expansion of transnational banking could not be curtailed. In addition to Eurocurrencies, other external financial markets were created, providing a global structure for the whole range of instruments to be traded. Economic and political changes in the late 1970s and in the beginning of the 1980s contributed to a shift in financi...

  12. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  13. Evolutionary Transition from Pathogenicity to Commensalism: Global Regulator Mutations Mediate Fitness Gains through Virulence Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gunther; Crummenerl, Lena L; Gilbert, Felix; Mohr, Timm; Pfefferkorn, Roxana; Thänert, Robert; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-11-01

    Symbiotic interactions are indispensable for metazoan function, but their origin and evolution remain elusive. We use a controlled evolution experiment to demonstrate the emergence of novel commensal interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an initially pathogenic bacterium, and a metazoan host, Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that commensalism evolves through loss of virulence, because it provides bacteria with a double fitness advantage: Increased within-host fitness and a larger host population to infect. Commensalism arises irrespective of host immune status, as the adaptive path in immunocompromised C. elegans knockouts does not differ from that in wild type. Dissection of temporal dynamics of genomic adaptation for 125 bacterial populations reveals highly parallel evolution of incipient commensalism across independent biological replicates. Adaptation is mainly achieved through frame shift mutations in the global regulator lasR and nonsynonymous point mutations in the polymerase gene rpoB that arise early in evolution. Genetic knockouts of lasR not only corroborate its role in virulence attenuation but also show that further mutations are necessary for the fully commensal phenotype. The evolutionary transition from pathogenicity to commensalism as we observe here is facilitated by mutations in global regulators such as lasR, because few genetic changes cause pleiotropic effects across the genome with large phenotypic effects. Finally, we found that nucleotide diversity increased more quickly in bacteria adapting to immunocompromised hosts than in those adapting to immunocompetent hosts. Nevertheless, the outcome of evolution was comparable across host types. Commensalism can thus evolve independently of host immune state solely as a side-effect of bacterial adaptation to novel hosts.

  14. Microbial response to simulated global change is phylogenetically conserved and linked with functional potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Anthony S; Martiny, Adam C; Allison, Steven D; Berlemont, Renaud; Goulden, Michael L; Lu, Ying; Treseder, Kathleen K; Weihe, Claudia; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    The high diversity of microbial communities hampers predictions about their responses to global change. Here we investigate the potential for using a phylogenetic, trait-based framework to capture the response of bacteria and fungi to global change manipulations. Replicated grassland plots were subjected to 3+ years of drought and nitrogen fertilization. The responses of leaf litter bacteria and fungi to these simulated changes were significantly phylogenetically conserved. Proportional changes in abundance were highly correlated among related organisms, such that relatives with approximately 5% ribosomal DNA genetic distance showed similar responses to the treatments. A microbe's change in relative abundance was significantly correlated between the treatments, suggesting a compromise between numerical abundance in undisturbed environments and resistance to change in general, independent of disturbance type. Lineages in which at least 90% of the microbes shared the same response were circumscribed at a modest phylogenetic depth (τD 0.014-0.021), but significantly larger than randomized simulations predict. In several clades, phylogenetic depth of trait consensus was higher. Fungal response to drought was more conserved than was response to nitrogen fertilization, whereas bacteria responded equally to both treatments. Finally, we show that a bacterium's response to the manipulations is correlated with its potential functional traits (measured here as the number of glycoside hydrolase genes encoding the capacity to degrade different types of carbohydrates). Together, these results suggest that a phylogenetic, trait-based framework may be useful for predicting shifts in microbial composition and functioning in the face of global change.

  15. Btk regulates macrophage polarization in response to lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Ní Gabhann

    Full Text Available Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a strong inducer of inflammation and does so by inducing polarization of macrophages to the classic inflammatory M1 population. Given the role of Btk as a critical signal transducer downstream of TLR4, we investigated its role in M1/M2 induction. In Btk deficient (Btk (-\\- mice we observed markedly reduced recruitment of M1 macrophages following intraperitoneal administration of LPS. Ex vivo analysis demonstrated an impaired ability of Btk(-/- macrophages to polarize into M1 macrophages, instead showing enhanced induction of immunosuppressive M2-associated markers in response to M1 polarizing stimuli, a finding accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of STAT1 and enhanced STAT6 phosphorylation. In addition to STAT activation, M1 and M2 polarizing signals modulate the expression of inflammatory genes via differential activation of transcription factors and regulatory proteins, including NF-κB and SHIP1. In keeping with a critical role for Btk in macrophage polarization, we observed reduced levels of NF-κB p65 and Akt phosphorylation, as well as reduced induction of the M1 associated marker iNOS in Btk(-/- macrophages in response to M1 polarizing stimuli. Additionally enhanced expression of SHIP1, a key negative regulator of macrophage polarisation, was observed in Btk(-/- macrophages in response to M2 polarizing stimuli. Employing classic models of allergic M2 inflammation, treatment of Btk (-/- mice with either Schistosoma mansoni eggs or chitin resulted in increased recruitment of M2 macrophages and induction of M2-associated genes. This demonstrates an enhanced M2 skew in the absence of Btk, thus promoting the development of allergic inflammation.

  16. Is man responsible for global warming?; L'homme est-il responsable du rechauffement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, A

    2009-07-01

    According to politicians, ecologists and mass media, it is now certain that with our CO{sub 2} emissions, we are all responsible for a major global warming to come with dramatic consequences. But, is this affirmation indisputable? Are we all responsible for the rise of sea level and the summer thawing of the arctic ice shelf? Is this expected global warming without precedent? And is CO{sub 2}, necessary for life, the cause of our misfortune? The answers commonly claimed are maybe more complex in reality and the climate question more subtle than it looks like. This book tries to decode the wheels of the climate machine and the share of human responsibility in climate change. (J.S.)

  17. Flow regulation and river fragmentation in large basins due to global dam development (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.

    2013-12-01

    stem is still relatively unobstructed as is the case for the Mekong and the Salween River basin. We will present results from future dam building scenarios, which show strong deterioration of both flow regulation and fragmentation indices for the Mekong and the Salween River and further deterioration for the Red River if all currently planned dams will be in operation. At the global scale we will show past and current trends of fragmentation and flow regulation indices and compare our results to previous impact assessments. Our model is aimed at decision makers and researchers seeking to conduct comprehensive dam impact assessments, including ecological information, to derive more integrated and sustainable energy strategies.

  18. Characterizing regulated reservoirs dynamics in regional to global scale hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, E.; Yoon, Y.; Lee, H.; Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are widely used for water supply and flood control resulting in regulated release of outflows that are nonconcurrent with inflows. In hydrologic modeling applications, accounting for the regulated behavior of reservoirs distributed throughout a river system poses a significant challenge because detailed reservoir operation rules or strategies can be difficult or not possible to obtain. Building on this problem, this study addresses the science questions: Can we model reservoir water storage changes and outlet discharges based on satellite measurements of river water surface elevation and inundated area, and How does repeat cycle, mission duration and measurement uncertainty impact our ability to characterize reservoir behavior? A modeling framework suitable for regional to global applications and based on the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is presented. Although our framework can be combined with data assimilation techniques for real-time flood forecasting, our goal is to represent reservoir storage patterns in large-scale hydrologic models for simulating: (i) impacts of future climate and/or land cover conditions on water resources, and (ii) synthetic storm events (e.g., 100-yr flood) or event catalogs for flood hazard and risk assessments. In-situ and remotely sensed reservoir dynamics are presented for select locations in the Mississippi River Basin and used in the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model to simulate downstream flow dynamics.

  19. Global control of reaction wheel pendulum through energy regulation and extended linearization of the state variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Montoya-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and simulation of a global controller for the Reaction Wheel Pendulum system using energy regulation and extended linearization methods for the state feedback. The proposed energy regulation is based on the gradual reduction of the energy of the system to reach the unstable equilibrium point. The signal input for this task is obtained from the Lyapunov stability theory. The extended state feedback controller design is used to get a smooth nonlinear function that extends the region of operation to a bigger range, in contrast with the static linear state feedback obtained through the method of approximate linearization around an operating point. The general designed controller operates with a switching between the two control signals depending upon the region of operation; perturbations are applied in the control signal and the (simulated measured variables to verify the robustness and efficiency of the controller. Finally, simulations and tests using the model of the reaction wheel pendulum system, allow to observe the versatility and functionality of the proposed controller in the entire operation region of the pendulum.

  20. Model-based synthesis of locally contingent responses to global market signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rural livelihoods and the land systems on which they depend are increasingly influenced by distant markets through economic globalization. Place-based analyses of land and livelihood system sustainability must then consider both proximate and distant influences on local decision-making. Thus, advancing land change theory in the context of economic globalization calls for a systematic understanding of the general processes as well as local contingencies shaping local responses to global signals. Synthesis of insights from place-based case studies of land and livelihood change is a path forward for developing such systematic knowledge. This paper introduces a model-based synthesis approach to investigating the influence of local socio-environmental and agent-level factors in mediating land-use and livelihood responses to changing global market signals. A generalized agent-based modeling framework is applied to six case-study sites that differ in environmental conditions, market access and influence, and livelihood settings. The largest modeled land conversions and livelihood transitions to market-oriented production occurred in sties with relatively productive agricultural land and/or with limited livelihood options. Experimental shifts in the distributions of agents' risk tolerances generally acted to attenuate or amplify responses to changes in global market signals. Importantly, however, responses of agents at different points in the risk tolerance distribution varied widely, with the wealth gap growing wider between agents with higher or lower risk tolerance. These results demonstrate model-based synthesis is a promising approach to overcome many of the challenges of current synthesis methods in land change science, and to identify generalized as well as locally contingent responses to global market signals.

  1. Time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; Zhao, Xiang; Liang, Shunlin; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Kaicheng; Tang, Bijian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2015-09-01

    Climate conditions significantly affect vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems, the vegetation responses to climate vary considerably with the diverse spatial patterns and the time-lag effects, which are the most important mechanism of climate-vegetation interactive effects. Extensive studies focused on large-scale vegetation-climate interactions use the simultaneous meteorological and vegetation indicators to develop models; however, the time-lag effects are less considered, which tends to increase uncertainty. In this study, we aim to quantitatively determine the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors using the GIMMS3g NDVI time series and the CRU temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation datasets. First, this study analyzed the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors. Then, a multiple linear regression model and partial correlation model were established to statistically analyze the roles of different climatic factors on vegetation responses, from which the primary climate-driving factors for different vegetation types were determined. The results showed that (i) both the time-lag effects of the vegetation responses and the major climate-driving factors that significantly affect vegetation growth varied significantly at the global scale, which was related to the diverse vegetation and climate characteristics; (ii) regarding the time-lag effects, the climatic factors explained 64% variation of the global vegetation growth, which was 11% relatively higher than the model ignoring the time-lag effects; (iii) for the area with a significant change trend (for the period 1982-2008) in the global GIMMS3g NDVI (P effects is quite important for better predicting and evaluating the vegetation dynamics under the background of global climate change.

  2. Conservation of thiol-oxidative stress responses regulated by SigR orthologues in actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Sik; Dufour, Yann S.; Yoo, Ji Sun; Cho, Yoo-Bok; Park, Joo-Hong; Nam, Gi-Baeg; Kim, Hae Min; Lee, Kang-Lok; Donohue, Timothy J.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Summary Numerous thiol-reactive compounds cause oxidative stress where cells counteract by activation of survival strategies regulated by thiol-based sensors. In Streptomyces coelicolor, a model actinomycete, a sigma/antisigma pair SigR/RsrA controls the response to thiol-oxidative stress. To unravel its full physiological functions, chromatin immuno-precipitation combined with sequence and transcript analyses were employed to identify 108 SigR target genes in S. coelicolor and to predict orthologous regulons across actinomycetes. In addition to reported genes for thiol homeostasis, protein degradation and ribosome modulation, 64 additional operons were identified suggesting new functions of this global regulator. We demonstrate that SigR maintains the level and activity of the housekeeping sigma factor HrdB during thiol-oxidative stress, a novel strategy for stress responses. We also found that SigR defends cells against UV and thiol-reactive damages, in which repair UvrA takes a part. Using a refined SigR-binding sequence model, SigR orthologues and their targets were predicted in 42 actinomycetes. This revealed a conserved core set of SigR targets to function for thiol homeostasis, protein quality control, possible modulation of transcription and translation, flavin-mediated redox reactions, and Fe-S delivery. The composition of the SigR regulon reveals a robust conserved physiological mechanism to deal with thiol-oxidative stress from bacteria to human. PMID:22651816

  3. Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates hypothalamic nuclei that regulate food intake and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Milene de Oliveira Lara; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Kawakami, Suzi Emiko; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) results in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and in loss of body weight despite an apparent increase of food intake, reflecting increased energy expenditure. The flowerpot technique for PSD is an efficient paradigm for investigating the relationships among metabolic regulation and stress response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of 96 h of PSD on metabolism regulation, feeding behaviour and stress response by studying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and orexin (ORX) immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Once-daily assessments of body weight, twice-daily measurements of (spillage-corrected) food intake, and once-daily determinations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were made throughout PSD or at corresponding times in control rats (CTL). Immunoreactivity for CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and for ORX in the hypothalamic lateral area was evaluated at the end of the experimental period. PSD resulted in increased diurnal, but not nocturnal, food intake, producing no significant changes in global food intake. PSD augmented the immunoreactivity for CRH and plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, characterizing activation of the HPA axis. PSD also markedly increased the ORX immunoreactivity. The average plasma level of corticosterone correlated negatively with body weight gain throughout PSD. These results indicate that augmented ORX and CRH immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei may underlie some of the metabolic changes consistently described in PSD.

  4. Dual-site phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator impacts group a streptococcal global gene expression and pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Horstmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation relays are a major mechanism by which bacteria alter transcription in response to environmental signals, but understanding of the functional consequences of bacterial response regulator phosphorylation is limited. We sought to characterize how phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator (CovR protein from the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS influences GAS global gene expression and pathogenesis. CovR mainly serves to repress GAS virulence factor-encoding genes and has been shown to homodimerize following phosphorylation on aspartate-53 (D53 in vitro. We discovered that CovR is phosphorylated in vivo and that such phosphorylation is partially heat-stable, suggesting additional phosphorylation at non-aspartate residues. Using mass spectroscopy along with targeted mutagenesis, we identified threonine-65 (T65 as an additional CovR phosphorylation site under control of the serine/threonine kinase (Stk. Phosphorylation on T65, as mimicked by the recombinant CovR T65E variant, abolished in vitro CovR D53 phosphorylation. Similarly, isoallelic GAS strains that were either unable to be phosphorylated at D53 (CovR-D53A or had functional constitutive phosphorylation at T65 (CovR-T65E had essentially an identical gene repression profile to each other and to a CovR-inactivated strain. However, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E isoallelic strains retained the ability to positively influence gene expression that was abolished in the CovR-inactivated strain. Consistent with these observations, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E strains were hypervirulent compared to the CovR-inactivated strain in a mouse model of invasive GAS disease. Surprisingly, an isoalleic strain unable to be phosphorylated at CovR T65 (CovR-T65A was hypervirulent compared to the wild-type strain, as auto-regulation of covR gene expression resulted in lower covR gene transcript and CovR protein levels in the CovR-T65A strain. Taken together, these data

  5. AIDS: Ushering in a new era of shared responsibility for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Kent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the first time since AIDS erupted as worldwide emergency, global leaders, the scientific community, activists and people living with HIV are venturing to speak about the end to the pandemic. Signs of hope abound: over 8 million people are receiving life-saving treatment, the number of new infections is on significant decline, the remarkable evidence of treatment’s impact on preventing new infections and the aspiration of zero new HIV infections among children is firmly within grasp. This progress, won by people living with HIV and countries with support from partners such as the US programme PEPFAR, the Clinton Health Access Initiative and untold more, embodies global solidarity to bring about an AIDS-free generation. Shared responsibility and global solidarity represents a normative ideal to which both individual stakeholders and the global community must subscribe and embrace if our collective vision of an AIDS-free world is to be realised. The idea of shared responsibility and global solidarity needs to goes further than raising and investing resources and extend to the level of control countries take of their AIDS response. This editorial explores five areas that require further attention.

  6. Vibrio cholerae Response Regulator VxrB Controls Colonization and Regulates the Type VI Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS are used by bacteria to sense and respond to their environment. TCS are typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR. The Vibrio cholerae genome encodes 52 RR, but the role of these RRs in V. cholerae pathogenesis is largely unknown. To identify RRs that control V. cholerae colonization, in-frame deletions of each RR were generated and the resulting mutants analyzed using an infant mouse intestine colonization assay. We found that 12 of the 52 RR were involved in intestinal colonization. Mutants lacking one previously uncharacterized RR, VCA0566 (renamed VxrB, displayed a significant colonization defect. Further experiments showed that VxrB phosphorylation state on the predicted conserved aspartate contributes to intestine colonization. The VxrB regulon was determined using whole genome expression analysis. It consists of several genes, including those genes that create the type VI secretion system (T6SS. We determined that VxrB is required for T6SS expression using several in vitro assays and bacterial killing assays, and furthermore that the T6SS is required for intestinal colonization. vxrB is encoded in a four gene operon and the other vxr operon members also modulate intestinal colonization. Lastly, though ΔvxrB exhibited a defect in single-strain intestinal colonization, the ΔvxrB strain did not show any in vitro growth defect. Overall, our work revealed that a small set of RRs is required for intestinal colonization and one of these regulators, VxrB affects colonization at least in part through its regulation of T6SS genes.

  7. Vibrio cholerae Response Regulator VxrB Controls Colonization and Regulates the Type VI Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T; Ottemann, Karen M; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2015-05-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are used by bacteria to sense and respond to their environment. TCS are typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). The Vibrio cholerae genome encodes 52 RR, but the role of these RRs in V. cholerae pathogenesis is largely unknown. To identify RRs that control V. cholerae colonization, in-frame deletions of each RR were generated and the resulting mutants analyzed using an infant mouse intestine colonization assay. We found that 12 of the 52 RR were involved in intestinal colonization. Mutants lacking one previously uncharacterized RR, VCA0566 (renamed VxrB), displayed a significant colonization defect. Further experiments showed that VxrB phosphorylation state on the predicted conserved aspartate contributes to intestine colonization. The VxrB regulon was determined using whole genome expression analysis. It consists of several genes, including those genes that create the type VI secretion system (T6SS). We determined that VxrB is required for T6SS expression using several in vitro assays and bacterial killing assays, and furthermore that the T6SS is required for intestinal colonization. vxrB is encoded in a four gene operon and the other vxr operon members also modulate intestinal colonization. Lastly, though ΔvxrB exhibited a defect in single-strain intestinal colonization, the ΔvxrB strain did not show any in vitro growth defect. Overall, our work revealed that a small set of RRs is required for intestinal colonization and one of these regulators, VxrB affects colonization at least in part through its regulation of T6SS genes.

  8. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

    1997-01-01

    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  9. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2017-01-24

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  10. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2009-01-01

    identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our...... findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases....

  11. Islander innovation: A research and action agenda on local responses to global issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Local economies and livelihoods, cultures, and sustainability around the world are being challenged by wide ranging social and environmental changes. Despite many negative impacts, these changes also bring opportunities to initiate and implement innovations. Island communities are experiencing the forefront of much such action, particularly since they are often highly local and localised societies. Yet in many cases, global changes are being imposed without adequate support to the communities for dealing with those changes. The key question investigated by this paper is: How can local responses to global issues be improved for island communities? Examples of successes and problematic approaches, as well as those exhibiting both, are described in this paper. A research and action agenda on islander innovation is presented for researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners to highlight local responses to global issues.

  12. A Robust Response of Precipitation to Global Warming from CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. -M.; Wu, H. -T.; Kim, K. -M.

    2012-01-01

    How precipitation responds to global warming is a major concern to society and a challenge to climate change research. Based on analyses of rainfall probability distribution functions of 14 state-of-the-art climate models, we find a robust, canonical global rainfall response to a triple CO2 warming scenario, featuring 100 250% more heavy rain, 5-10% less moderate rain, and 10-15% more very light or no-rain events. Regionally, a majority of the models project a consistent response with more heavy rain events over climatologically wet regions of the deep tropics, and more dry events over subtropical and tropical land areas. Results suggest that increased CO2 emissions induce basic structural changes in global rain systems, increasing risks of severe floods and droughts in preferred geographic locations worldwide.

  13. Response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project," an article written by Barend Vlaardingerbroek, in which Vlaardingerbroek characterizes current practices of human rights education (HRE) as having an overriding agenda of activism, one that can draw on an ideologically-driven…

  14. Generating global brand equity through corporate social responsibility to key stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Anna; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Tribo, Josep A.; Verhoef, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that corporate social responsibility (CSR) to various stakeholders (customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, and community) has a positive effect on global brand equity (BE). In addition, policies aimed at satisfying community interests help reinforce the credibility of

  15. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B

    2016-09-20

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale-a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability.

  16. Generating global brand equity through corporate social responsibility to key stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Anna; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Tribo, Josep A.; Verhoef, Peter

    In this paper, we argue that corporate social responsibility (CSR) to various stakeholders (customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, and community) has a positive effect on global brand equity (BE). In addition, policies aimed at satisfying community interests help reinforce the credibility of

  17. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brugha; J. Kadzandira; J. Simbaya; P. Dicker; V. Mwapasa; A. Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conduct

  18. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R.; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale—a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability. PMID:27601643

  19. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  20. Global Agenda, Local Responses: Changing Education Governance in Hong Kong's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David K. K.

    2007-01-01

    Hong Kong has undergone a series of educational reforms since the mid 1990s in response to the tidal wave of globalisation. This article tries to examine the recent education reforms in Hong Kong's higher education within the global context, by putting into perspective a discussion of its policy implications of marketisation, privatisation and…

  1. The global gene expression response of Escherichia coli to L-phenylalanine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polen, T.; Kramer, M.; Bongaerts, J.; Wubbolts, M.; Wendisch, V.F.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the global gene expression changes of Escherichia coli due to the presence of different concentrations of phenylalanine or shikimate in the growth medium. The response to 0.5 g l(-1) phenylalanine primarily reflected a perturbed aromatic amino acid metabolism, in particular due to Ty

  2. Beyond Symbolic Responses to Private Politics: Examining Labor Standards Improvement in Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Worker rights advocates seeking to improve labor conditions in global supply chains have engaged in private political strategies prompting transnational corporations (TNCs) to adopt codes of conduct and monitor their suppliers for compliance, but it is not clear whether organizational structures established by TNCs to protect their reputations can actually raise labor standards. We extend the literature on private politics and organizational self-regulation by identifying several conditions u...

  3. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  4. Global output regulation of a class of lower triangular nonlinear systems with unknown control direction via output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranran

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the global output regulation problem of a class of lower triangular systems under measurement output feedback. A novel high-gain filter is proposed to estimate the unmeasured states of the systems. Furthermore, we integrate the robust stabilisation technique and Nussbaumgain technique to achieve asymptotic regulation when the control direction is unknown. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. IrrE, a global regulator of extreme radiation resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, enhances salt tolerance in Escherichia coli and Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, about 20% of cultivated land is now affected by salinity. Salt tolerance is a trait of importance to all crops in saline soils. Previous efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants have met with only limited success. Bacteria of the genus Deinococcus are known for their ability to survive highly stressful conditions, and therefore possess a unique pool of genes conferring extreme resistance. In Deinococcus radiodurans, the irrE gene encodes a global regulator responsible for extreme radioresistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using plate assays, we showed that IrrE protected E. coli cells against salt shock and other abiotic stresses such as oxidative, osmotic and thermal shocks. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that IrrE functions as a switch to regulate different sets of proteins such as stress responsive proteins, protein kinases, glycerol-degrading enzymes, detoxification proteins, and growth-related proteins in E. coli. We also used quantitative RT-PCR to investigate expression of nine selected stress-responsive genes in transgenic and wild-type Brassica napus plants. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing the IrrE protein can tolerate 350 mM NaCl, a concentration that inhibits the growth of almost all crop plants. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of IrrE, a global regulator for extreme radiation resistance in D. radiodurans, confers significantly enhanced salt tolerance in both E. coli and B. napus. We thus propose that the irrE gene might be used as a potentially promising transgene to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crop plants.

  6. Simulating global soil-CO2 flux and its response to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has been argued that increased soil respiration would become a major atmospheric source of CO2 in the event of global warming. The simple statistical models were developed based on a georeferenced database with 0.5°× 0.5° longitude/latitude resolution to simulate global soil-CO2 fluxes, to investigate climatic effects on these fluxes using sensitivity experiments, and to assess possible responses of soil-CO2 fluxes to various climate change scenarios. The statistical models yield a value of 69 PgC/a of global soil CO2 fluxes for current condition. Sensitivity experiments confirm that the fluxes are responsive to changes in temperature,precipitation and actual evapotranspiration, but increases in temperature and actual evapotranspiration affect soil-CO2 fluxes more than increases in precipitation. Using climatic change projections from four global circulation models, each corresponding to an equilibrium doubling of CO2, it can be found that the largest increases in soil-CO2 fluxes were associated with the boreal and tundra regions. The globally averaged soil-CO2 fluxes were estimated to increase by about 35 % above current values, providing a positive feedback to the greenhouse effect.

  7. Simulating global soil-CO2 flux and its response to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has been argued that increased soil respiration would become a major atmospheric source of CO2 in the event of global warming. The simple statistical models were developed based on a georeferenced database with 0.5° × 0.5° longitude/latitude resolution to simulate global soil-CO2 fluxes, to investigate climatic effects on these fluxes using sensitivity experiments, and to assess possible responses of soil-CO2 fluxes to various climate change scenarios. The statistical models yield a value of 69 PgC/a of global soil CO2 fluxes for current condition. Sensitivity experiments confirm that the fluxes are responsive to changes in temperature,precipitation and actual evapotranspiration, but increases in temperature and actual evapotranspiration affect soil-CO2 fluxes more than increases in precipitation. Using climatic change projections from four global circulation models, each corresponding to an equilibrium doubling of CO2, it can be found that the largest increases in soil-CO2 fluxes were associated with the boreal and tundra regions. The globally averaged soil-CO2 fluxes were estimated to increase by about 35 % above current values, providing a positive feedback to the greenhouse effect.

  8. Voluntourism and global health: preparing dental students for responsible engagement in international programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brittany; Benzian, Habib; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2013-10-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) estimates that nearly 25 percent of its predoctoral dental students have expressed an interest in global health, including traveling abroad to conduct research or to volunteer in a project. This article addresses the important differences between "voluntourism" (combined volunteering and tourism) and responsible engagement in global health, reports on a pilot workshop at HSDM to promote responsible volunteering, and provides a recommendation on how to address these issues in the context of a dental curriculum. The pilot Workshop for Ethical Volunteering in Global Health was designed as a discussion-based, interactive program that included lectures, small-group activities, and personal reflection. The aim of the workshop was to provide students with a systematic approach to ethical volunteering, critically reflecting on their motivation and attitudes related to conventional models of volunteering and facilitating alignment with principles of global health. Students participated in an anonymous written survey at the start and the close of the workshop. After the workshop, survey results demonstrated a significant increase in understanding the value of applying principles of global health when volunteering in order to avoid negative and unintended impacts on communities. All of the students reported that the workshop influenced the way they view volunteering in dentistry.

  9. Phosphorylation-independent activity of atypical response regulators of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Jennifer; Sickmann, Albert; Beier, Dagmar

    2005-05-01

    The genome of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori harbors a remarkably low number of regulatory genes, including three and five open reading frames encoding two-component histidine kinases and response regulators, respectively, which are putatively involved in transcriptional regulation. Two of the response regulator genes, hp1043 and hp166, proved to be essential for cell growth, and inactivation of the response regulator gene hp1021 resulted in a severe growth defect, as indicated by a small-colony phenotype. The sequences of the receiver domains of response regulators HP1043 and HP1021 differ from the consensus sequence of the acidic pocket of the receiver domain which is involved in the phosphotransfer reaction from the histidine kinase to the response regulator. Using a genetic complementation system, we demonstrated that the function of response regulator HP166, which is essential for cell growth, can be provided by a mutated derivative carrying a D52N substitution at the site of phosphorylation. We found that the atypical receiver sequences of HP1043 and HP1021 are not crucial for the function of these response regulators. Phosphorylation of the receiver domains of HP1043 and HP1021 is not needed for response regulator function and may not occur at all. Thus, the phosphorylation-independent action of these regulators differs from the well-established two-component paradigm.

  10. Comment on ‘An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Magee, Darrin

    2017-03-01

    In their article ‘An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales’ (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 015001), Grill et al utilized a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales. Using global dam data they developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, both based on river volume. Their results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in their future scenario, Grill et al find this number would rise to 93%, an effect they attribute largely to dam construction in the Amazon Basin. They also provide evidence for the importance of considering small- to medium-sized dams. We find this approach interesting and the analysis straightforward, but in this response note some limitations to the Asia-specific data on which the analysis is based. China and India are not only the two most populous countries, but are home to the vast majority of the world’s largest dams and reservoirs, numbers which will rapidly increase in the future. Grill et al however, limit their modeling and subsequent basin assessment (flow regulation and river fragmentation) to less than ten percent of existing and forthcoming dams in those two countries. While we suspect this is due to data limitations, it results in what we feel are significant misinterpretations of the future of dams and rivers across much of Asia.

  11. Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research: a global investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Jean-Paul; Baumgartner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing proc

  12. After the Global Fund: who can sustain the HIV/AIDS response in Peru and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ana B; Caceres, Carlos F; Spicer, Neil; Balabanova, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Peru has received around $70 million from Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Recent economic growth resulted in grant ineligibility, enabling greater government funding, yet doubts remain concerning programme continuity. This study examines the transition from Global Fund support to increasing national HIV/AIDS funding in Peru (2004-2012) by analysing actor roles, motivations and effects on policies, identifying recommendations to inform decision-makers on priority areas. A conceptual framework, which informed data collection, was developed. Thirty-five in-depth interviews were conducted from October to December 2011 in Lima, Peru, among key stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS work. Findings show that Global Fund involvement led to important breakthroughs in the HIV/AIDS response, primarily concerning treatment access, focus on vulnerable populations and development of a coordination body. Nevertheless, reliance on Global Fund financing for prevention activities via non-governmental organisations, compounded by lack of government direction and weak regional governance, diluted power and caused role uncertainty. Strengthening government and regional capacity and fostering accountability mechanisms will facilitate an effective transition to government-led financing. Only then can achievements gained from the Global Fund presence be maintained, providing lessons for countries seeking to sustain programmes following donor exit.

  13. Global proteomic analysis of protein acetylation affecting metabolic regulation in Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Kwang; Sim, Juhee; Kim, Sun Ju; Oh, Hye Ryeung; Nam, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sangkyu

    2016-02-01

    Daphnia (Daphnia pulex) is a small planktonic crustacean and a key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. It is generally used as a model organism to study environmental toxic problems. In the past decade, genomic and proteomic datasets of Daphnia have been developed. The proteomic dataset allows for the investigation of toxicological effects in the context of "Daphnia proteomics," resulting in greater insights for toxicological research. To exploit Daphnia for ecotoxicological research, information on the post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is necessary, as this is a critical regulator of biological processes. Acetylation of lysine (Kac) is a reversible and highly regulated PTM that is associated with diverse biological functions. However, a comprehensive description of Kac in Daphnia is not yet available. To understand the cellular distribution of lysine acetylation in Daphnia, we identified 98 acetylation sites in 65 proteins by immunoprecipitation using an anti-acetyllysine antibody and a liquid chromatography system supported by mass spectroscopy. We identified 28 acetylated sites related to metabolic proteins and six acetylated enzymes associated with the TCA cycle in Daphnia. From GO and KEGG enrichment analyses, we showed that Kac in D. pulex is highly enriched in proteins associated with metabolic processes. Our data provide the first global analysis of Kac in D. pulex and is an important resource for the functional analysis of Kac in this organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S.; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Hereme, Rasme

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species’ physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at high latitudes could

  15. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Hereme, Rasme; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species' physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at high latitudes could

  16. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. Acuña-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species’ physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at

  17. Canada's international response to HIV during times of global transition: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Canada's international response to HIV may be under threat given CIDA's new aid priorities that appear to exclude health. Drivers of this recent priority shift have been the influence of global aid trends among public sector donors and changes within the global HIV milieu itself. However, this is not the first time Canada has shifted in response to these two global trends. The era from 2000-2004 also witnessed dramatic changes in both the HIV field and in global thinking around international aid. As such, this article presents an evaluation of the Government of Canada's international response to HIV during the first era of transition (2000-2004) in order to derive lessons for decision-making around HIV in the current climate of change. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 key informants with expertise regarding Canada's international response to HIV over time. Analysis involved multiple readings of transcripts to identify descriptive codes and establish intimacy with the data. Descriptive codes were then collapsed into thematic categories using a process of inductive reasoning. Canada's international response to HIV was perceived to be exemplary at times (e.g. seminal funding to WHO's "3-by-5" strategy), but also inconsistent (e.g., underutilized technical assistance capacity) and non-strategic (e.g., contradiction between investing in training health providers while poaching professionals to bolster Canada's workforce). Lessons from the 2000-2004 era of transition focus on strategic investments, the inextricable connection between HIV and development and strategy coherence. These results highlight that it is more constructive to ensure that Canadian development responses in all areas engage with both the upstream drivers of HIV as well as the impacts of the epidemic itself in order to achieve the greatest results from international investment and the most effective contributions to the lives of the people that these endeavours seek to

  18. Global regulation of reactive oxygen species scavenging genes in alfalfa root and shoot under gradual drought stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Udvardi, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging in plants under drought stress have been studied intensively in recent years. Here we report a global analysis of gene expression for the major ROS generating and scavenging proteins in alfalfa root and shoot under gradual drought stress followed by one-day recovery. Data from two alfalfa varieties, one drought tolerant and one drought sensitive, were compared and no qualitative differences in ROS gene regulation between the two were found. Conserved, tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in response to drought were observed for several ROS-scavenging gene families, including ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and peroxiredoxin. In addition, differential gene expression within families was observed. Genes for the ROS-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase were generally induced under drought, while those for glycolate oxidase were repressed. Among the ROS-scavenging protein genes, Ferritin, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the majority of the glutathione peroxidase family members were induced under drought in both roots and shoots of both alfalfa varieties. In contrast, Fe-SOD, CC-type glutaredoxins, and thoiredoxins were downregulated.

  19. Confronting the Global Climate Response to Black Carbon Aerosols with its Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Kovilakam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) modulate global temperatures and the hydrological cycle as well as regional climate. However, their radiative forcing is not well-constrained observationally and recent estimates of just the direct forcing ranges from 0.08 to 1.27 W/m2 - the upper limits of which puts BC second only to carbon dioxide in terms of radiative forcing. Consequently, the climate impacts of these heterogeneous short-lived forcing agents are highly uncertain. To establish the uncertainty in the climate response to BC, we conduct a suite of idealized experiments with the DOE/NCAR CESM1.0 model with the atmosphere component (CAM4) coupled to a Slab Ocean Model (SOM) forced separately with increasing BC concentrations covering a large swath of the estimated range of current BC radiative forcing. We find that the increase in BC results in global warming - with a sensitivity of 0.22 K/W/m2 including the semi-direct effects, decrease in global precipitation - despite the increase in global temperatures, a northwards shift of the ITCZ - along with an increase in cross-equatorial southwards energy transport, tropical expansion in the Northern Hemisphere - associated with BC induced mid-latitude warming, and an increase in precipitation during the Indian Monsoons - with the enhancement of the meridional tropospheric gradient, among other responses. Further, these global responses are near-linear functions of the increase in BC concentration, suggesting that the climate response to BC aerosols can be readily estimated if the uncertainty in BC can be constrained.

  20. Linking above and belowground responses to global change at community and ecosystem scales.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoninka, Anita [Northern Arizona University; Wolf, Julie [Northern Arizona University; Bowker, Matt [Northern Arizona University; Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; JohnsonPhD, Dr Nancy C [Northern Arizona University

    2009-01-01

    Cryptic belowground organisms are difficult to observe and their responses to global changes are not well understood. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that interactions among above- and belowground communities may mediate ecosystem responses to global change. We used grassland mesocosms to manipulate the abundance of one important group of soil organisms, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and to study community and ecosystem responses to CO2 and N enrichment. After two growing seasons, biomass responses of plant communities were recorded, and soil community responses were measured using microscopy, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Ecosystem responses were examined by measuring net primary production (NPP), evapotranspiration, total soil organic matter (SOM), and extractable mineral N. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the causal relationships among treatments and response variables. We found that while CO2 and N tended to directly impact ecosystem functions (evapotranspiration and NPP, respectively), AM fungi indirectly impacted ecosystem functions by strongly influencing the composition of plant and soil communities. For example, the presence of AM fungi had a strong influence on other root and soil fungi and soil bacteria. We found that the mycotrophic status of the dominant plant species in the mesocosms determined whether the presence of AM fungi increased or decreased NPP. Mycotrophic grasses dominated the mesocosm communities during the first growing season, and thus, the mycorrhizal treatments had the highest NPP. In contrast, non-mycotrophic forbs were dominant during the second growing season and thus, the mycorrhizal treatments had the lowest NPP. The composition of the plant community strongly influenced soil N; and the composition of the soil organisms strongly influenced SOM accumulation in the mesocosms. These results show how linkages between above- and belowground communities

  1. Role of nitric oxide in the maintenance of pluripotency and regulation of the hypoxia response in stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Povea, Amparo; Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Salguero-Aranda, Carmen; Martín, Franz; Soria, Bernat; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R; Cahuana, Gladys M

    2015-04-26

    Stem cell pluripotency and differentiation are global processes regulated by several pathways that have been studied intensively over recent years. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule that affects gene expression at the level of transcription and translation and regulates cell survival and proliferation in diverse cell types. In embryonic stem cells NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation and survival, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not completely defined. NO is a physiological regulator of cell respiration through the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. Many researchers have been examining the role that NO plays in other aspects of metabolism such as the cellular bioenergetics state, the hypoxia response and the relationship of these areas to stem cell stemness.

  2. Role of nitric oxide in the maintenance of pluripotency and regulation of the hypoxia response in stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Povea, Amparo; Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Salguero-Aranda, Carmen; Martín, Franz; Soria, Bernat; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R; Cahuana, Gladys M

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell pluripotency and differentiation are global processes regulated by several pathways that have been studied intensively over recent years. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule that affects gene expression at the level of transcription and translation and regulates cell survival and proliferation in diverse cell types. In embryonic stem cells NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation and survival, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not completely defined. NO is a physiological regulator of cell respiration through the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. Many researchers have been examining the role that NO plays in other aspects of metabolism such as the cellular bioenergetics state, the hypoxia response and the relationship of these areas to stem cell stemness. PMID:25914767

  3. Genotype-dependent regulation of drought-responsive genes in tolerant and sensitive sugarcane cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Manassés Daniel; de Oliveira Silva, Roberta Lane; Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2017-10-30

    Drought is the most damaging among the major abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic studies allow a global overview of expressed genes, providing the basis for molecular markers development. Here, the HT-SuperSAGE technique allowed the evaluation of four drought-tolerant cultivars and four-sensitive cultivars, after 24h of irrigation suppression. We identified 9831 induced unitags from roots of the tolerant cultivars with different regulations by the -sensitive cultivars after the applied stress. These unitags allowed a proposal of 15 genes, whose expressed profiles were validated by RT-qPCR, evaluating each cultivar independently. These genes covered broad metabolic processes: ethylene stress attenuation (ACCD); root growth (β-EXP8); protein degradation [ubiquitination pathway (E2, 20SPβ4); plant proteases (AP, C13)]; oxidative detoxification (TRX); fatty acid synthesis (ACC); amino acid transport (AAT), and carbohydrate metabolism [glycolysis (PFK, TPI, FBA); TCA cycle (LDP, MDH); pentose phosphate pathway (TKT)]. The expressed profiles showed a genotype-dependent regulation of the target genes. Two drought-tolerant cultivars (SP83-2847; CTC6) presented each one, nine of the induced genes. Among the -sensitive cultivars, CTC13 induced only one, while SP90-1636 induced two genes. These genes should help breeders to identify accessions managing drought stress tolerance responses, showing better ethylene stress attenuation, energy allocation, amino acid transport, and protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Responses to Chronic Diseases: What Lessons Can Political Science Offer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Blouin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing and adopting a global response to address the rise of chronic diseases in both the industrial and developing world requires policymakers to engage in global health diplomacy. In the context of the recent United Nations’ High-Level Summit on Non-Communicable Diseases, the paper first reviews the rationale for collective action at the global level to address the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, given the perceived limited cross-border dimensions of NCDs. Secondly, based on the social sciences literature studying policymaking at the domestic and international level, this article highlights recommendations on how to engage during the main phases of the policy process: agenda-setting, policy development and adoption.

  5. The acid adaptive tolerance response in Campylobacter jejuni induces a global response, as suggested by proteomics and microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsaki, Athanasia; Murphy, Caroline; Barczynska, Alicja; Jordan, Kieran; Carroll, Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni CI 120 is a natural isolate obtained during poultry processing and has the ability to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) to acid + aerobic conditions in early stationary phase. Other strains tested they did not induce an ATR or they induced it in exponential phase. Campylobacter spp. do not contain the genes that encode the global stationary phase stress response mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genes that are involved in the C. jejuni CI 120 early stationary phase ATR, as it seems to be expressing a novel mechanism of stress tolerance. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to examine the expression profile of cytosolic proteins during the C. jejuni CI 120 adaptation to acid + aerobic stress and microarrays to determine the genes that participate in the ATR. The results indicate induction of a global response that activated a number of stress responses, including several genes encoding surface components and genes involved with iron uptake. The findings of this study provide new insights into stress tolerance of C. jejuni, contribute to a better knowledge of the physiology of this bacterium and highlight the diversity among different strains.

  6. Identification of a U/Zn/Cu responsive global regulatory two-component system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dan M; Overton, K Wesley; Liou, Megan J; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-12-30

    Despite the well-known toxicity of uranium (U) to bacteria, little is known about how cells sense and respond to U. The recent finding of a U-specific stress response in Caulobacter crescentus has provided a foundation for studying the mechanisms of U- perception in bacteria. To gain insight into this process, we used a forward genetic screen to identify the regulatory components governing expression of the urcA promoter (PurcA ) that is strongly induced by U. This approach unearthed a previously uncharacterized two-component system, named UzcRS, which is responsible for U-dependent activation of PurcA . UzcRS is also highly responsive to zinc and copper, revealing a broader specificity than previously thought. Using ChIP-seq, we found that UzcR binds extensively throughout the genome in a metal-dependent manner and recognizes a noncanonical DNA-binding site. Coupling the genome-wide occupancy data with RNA-seq analysis revealed that UzcR is a global regulator of transcription, predominately activating genes encoding proteins that are localized to the cell envelope; these include metallopeptidases, multidrug-resistant efflux (MDR) pumps, TonB-dependent receptors and many proteins of unknown function. Collectively, our data suggest that UzcRS couples the perception of U, Zn and Cu with a novel extracytoplasmic stress response.

  7. Hydraulic response and nitrogen retention in bioretention mesocosms with regulated outlets: part I--hydraulic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William C; Greenway, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    In bioretention systems used for stormwater treatment, runoff interception improves with increased infiltration rates. However, nitrogen retention improves with increased retention time or decreasing infiltration rates. These contrasting responses were analyzed in 240-L experimental mesocosms using a variety of media treatments. The mesocosms were vegetated, except for one barren control. Dual-stage outlets were installed to extend retention time and equalize hydraulic responses. One unregulated treatment was free-draining. This part 1 paper presents the media properties and hydraulic responses. The highly aggregated media had saturated hydraulic conductivities ranging from 20.7 to 59.6 cm/h in August 2008 (austral winter), which increased to 42.8 to 110.6 cm/h in March 2009 (austral summer). The outlet regulated mesocosms provided retention over 8 times longer than the free-draining mesocosms, while still being able to capture large events. The outlets provide adaptive management for bioretention design to improve both runoff capture and nitrogen retention.

  8. Copper stress induces a global stress response in Staphylococcus aureus and represses sae and agr expression and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan; Sitthisak, Sutthirat; Sengupta, Mrittika; Johnson, Miranda; Jayaswal, R K; Morrissey, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Copper is an important cofactor for many enzymes; however, high levels of copper are toxic. Therefore, bacteria must ensure there is sufficient copper for use as a cofactor but, more importantly, must limit free intracellular levels to prevent toxicity. In this study, we have used DNA microarray to identify Staphylococcus aureus copper-responsive genes. Transcriptional profiling of S. aureus SH1000 grown in excess copper identified a number of genes which fall into four groups, suggesting that S. aureus has four main mechanisms for adapting to high levels of environmental copper, as follows: (i) induction of direct copper homeostasis mechanisms; (ii) increased oxidative stress resistance; (iii) expression of the misfolded protein response; and (iv) repression of a number of transporters and global regulators such as Agr and Sae. Our experimental data confirm that resistance to oxidative stress and particularly to H2O2 scavenging is an important S. aureus copper resistance mechanism. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Eap and Emp proteins, which are positively regulated by Agr and Sae, are required for biofilm formation under low-iron growth conditions. Our transcriptional analysis has confirmed that sae, agr, and eap are repressed under high-copper conditions and that biofilm formation is indeed repressed under high-copper conditions. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for how copper films can prevent biofilm formation on catheters.

  9. A Canonical Response in Rainfall Characteristics to Global Warming: Projections by IPCC CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in rainfall characteristics induced by global warming are examined based on probability distribution function (PDF) analysis, from outputs of 14 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), CMIP (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models under various scenarios of increased CO2 emissions. Results show that collectively CMIP5 models project a robust and consistent global and regional rainfall response to CO2 warming. Globally, the models show a 1-3% increase in rainfall per degree rise in temperature, with a canonical response featuring large increase (100-250 %) in frequency of occurrence of very heavy rain, a reduction (5-10%) of moderate rain, and an increase (10-15%) of light rain events. Regionally, even though details vary among models, a majority of the models (>10 out of 14) project a consistent large scale response with more heavy rain events in climatologically wet regions, most pronounced in the Pacific ITCZ and the Asian monsoon. Moderate rain events are found to decrease over extensive regions of the subtropical and extratropical oceans, but increases over the extratropical land regions, and the Southern Oceans. The spatial distribution of light rain resembles that of moderate rain, but mostly with opposite polarity. The majority of the models also show increase in the number of dry events (absence or only trace amount of rain) over subtropical and tropical land regions in both hemispheres. These results suggest that rainfall characteristics are changing and that increased extreme rainfall events and droughts occurrences are connected, as a consequent of a global adjustment of the large scale circulation to global warming.

  10. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of Vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weixin; LIU Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Using satellite-observed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dada and station-observed surface air temperature anomalies for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), we analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics of vegetation variations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their correlations with global warming from 1982 to 2002. It is found that the late spring and early summer (May-June) are the months with the strongest responses of vegetation to global warming. Based on the Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) method, the study shows that the first REOF spatial pattern of average NDVI for May-June reveals the northern and southern zones with great inter-annual variations of vegetation, the northern zone from the eastern Kunlun Mountains to the southwestern Qilian Mountain and southern zone from the northern edge of the Himalayas eastward to the Hengduan Mountains. The vegetation, especially grassland, in the two zones increases significantly with global warming, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71 between the first REOF of May-June vegetation and the April-May surface air temperature anomaly in the NH during 1982-2002. A long-term increasing trend in May-June vegetation for the plateau region as a whole is also attributed mainly to global warming although there are considerable regional differences. The areas with low NDVI (grassland and shrubland) usually respond more evidently to global warming, especially since the 1990s, than those with moderate or high NDVI values.

  12. Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Changes in Earth's temperature have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a temperature sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear carbon-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic carbon emissions and global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term temperature sensitivity of global atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in global surface temperatures, which accelerate the release of carbon from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface carbon uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by global land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future changes.

  13. Early twentieth century response of the global atmospheric electric circuit to ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G.; Joshi, M.

    2012-04-01

    The global atmospheric electric circuit links charge separation in disturbed weather regions with current flow in the fair weather regions elsewhere. Variations in disturbed weather, such as the changes in lightning associated with Pacific ocean temperature anomalies, can be expected in turn to modify currents flowing in the global atmospheric electric circuit. Strengthening and weakening of the global circuit current has been observed* to follow El Niño and La Niña respectively, from northern hemisphere atmospheric electricity data obtained during the 1970s. Extending this relationship quantitatively into the first half of the twentieth century is pursued here, using surface data from multiple atmospheric electricity observatories including measurements from the southern hemisphere. The independent atmospheric electricity time series from the observatories show similar variations, which is a pre-requisite for inferring global circuit variations from surface measurement. Combining the measurements allows the global circuit sensitivity to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies to be derived during the earlier part of the twentieth century. * R.G. Harrison, M. Joshi, K. Pascoe, Inferring convective responses to El Niño with atmospheric electricity measurements at Shetland Environ Res Lett 6 (2011) 044028 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/6/4/044028/

  14. Soil Microbial Community Responses to Long-Term Global Change Factors in a California Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, K.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fungal and bacterial communities act as mediators of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycling, and interact with the aboveground plant community as both pathogens and mutualists. However, these soil microbial communities are sensitive to changes in their environment. A better understanding of the response of soil microbial communities to global change may help to predict future soil microbial diversity, and assist in creating more comprehensive models of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles. This study examines the effects of four global change factors (increased temperature, increased variability in precipitation, nitrogen deposition, and CO2 enrichment) on soil microbial communities at the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE), a full-factorial global change manipulative experiment on three hectares of California grassland. While similar studies have examined the effects of global change on soil microbial communities, few have manipulated more factors or been longer in duration than the JRGCE, which began field treatments in 1998. We find that nitrogen deposition, CO2 enrichment, and increased variability in precipitation significantly affect the structure of both fungal and bacterial communities, and explain more of the variation in the community structures than do local soil chemistry or aboveground plant community. Fungal richness is correlated positively with soil nitrogen content and negatively with soil water content. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which associate closely with herbaceous plants' roots and assist in nutrient uptake, decrease in both richness and relative abundance in elevated CO2 treatments.

  15. Strigolactones and the Regulation of Pea Symbioses in Response to Nitrate and Phosphate Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eloise Foo; Kaori Yoneyama; Cassandra J. Hugill; Laura J. Quittenden; James B. Reid

    2013-01-01

    New roles for the recently identified group of plant hormones,the strigolactones,are currently under active investigation.One of their key roles is to regulate plant symbioses.These compounds act as a rhizosphere signal in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and as a positive regulator of nodulation in legumes.The phosphorous and nitrogen status of the soil has emerged as a powerful regulator of strigolactone production.However,until now,the potential role of strigolactones in regulating mycorrhizal development and nodulation in response to nutrient deficiency has not been proven.In this paper,the role of strigolactone synthesis and response in regulating these symbioses is examined in pea (Pisum sativum L.).Pea is well suited to this study,since there is a range of well-characterized strigolactone biosynthesis and response mutants that is unique amongst legumes.Evidence is provided for a novel endogenous role for strigolactone response within the root during mycorrhizal development,in addition to the action of strigolactones on the fungal partner.The strigolactone response pathway that regulates mycorrhizal development also appears to differ somewhat from the response pathway that regulates nodulation.Finally,studies with strigolactone-deficient pea mutants indicate that,despite strong regulation of strigolactone production by both nitrogen and phosphate,strigolactones are not required to regulate these symbioses in response to nutrient deficiency.

  16. Push, pull, and reverse: self-interest, responsibility, and the global health care worker shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Katherine E; Siplon, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    The world is suffering from a dearth of health care workers, and sub-Saharan Africa, an area of great need, is experiencing the worst shortage. Developed countries are making the problem worse by luring health care workers away from the countries that need them most, while developing countries do not have the resources to stem the flow or even replace those lost. Postmodern philosopher Emmanuel Levinas offers a unique ethical framework that is helpful in assessing both the irresponsibility inherent in the current global health care situation and the responsibility and obligation held by the stakeholders involved in this global crisis. Drawing on Levinas' exploration of individual freedom and self-pursuit, infinite responsibility for the Other, and the potential emergence of a just community, we demonstrate its effectiveness in explaining the health care worker crisis, and we argue in favor of a variety of policy and development assistance measures that are grounded in an orientation of non-indifference toward Others.

  17. Post-transcriptional regulation on a global scale: form and function of Csr/Rsm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Tony; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Babitzke, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Originally described as a repressor of gene expression in the stationary phase of growth, CsrA (RsmA) regulates primary and secondary metabolic pathways, biofilm formation, motility, virulence circuitry of pathogens, quorum sensing and stress response systems by binding to conserved sequences in its target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or turnover. While the binding of CsrA to RNA is understood at an atomic level, new mechanisms of gene activation and repression by this protein are still emerging. In the γ-proteobacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) use molecular mimicry to sequester multiple CsrA dimers away from mRNA. In contrast, the FliW protein of Bacillus subtilis inhibits CsrA activity by binding to this protein, thereby establishing a checkpoint in flagellum morphogenesis. Turnover of CsrB and CsrC sRNAs in Escherichia coli requires a specificity protein of the GGDEF-EAL domain superfamily, CsrD, in addition to the housekeeping nucleases RNase E and PNPase. The Csr system of E. coli contains extensive autoregulatory circuitry, which governs the expression and activity of CsrA. Interaction of the Csr system with transcriptional regulatory networks results in a variety of complex response patterns. This minireview will highlight basic principles and new insights into the workings of these complex eubacterial regulatory systems.

  18. Regional and Global Climate Response to Anthropogenic SO2 Emissions from China in Three Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoar, M.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicholas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  19. Regional and Global Climate Response to Anthropogenic SO2 Emissions from China in Three Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoar, M.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicholas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  20. Regional and global temperature response to anthropogenic SO2 emissions from China in three climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoar, Matthew; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  1. Global Analysis of a Delayed Impulsive Lotka-Volterra Model with Holling III Type Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed impulsive Lotka-Volterra model with Holing III type functional response was established. With the help of Mawhin’s Continuation Theorem in coincidence degree theory, a sufficient condition is found for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the system under consideration. By applying the comparison theorem and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, the permanence and global attractivity of the model are proved. Two numerical simulations are also given to illustrate our main results.

  2. A growing global network’s role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Matthew C; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G.; Fukuda, Mark; Pavlin, Julie A; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Schnabel, David C.; Tobias, Steven; Tjaden, Jeffrey A; Joel M Montgomery; Faix, Dennis J.; Duffy, Mark R.; Cooper, Michael J.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Blazes, David L

    2011-01-01

    A cornerstone of effective disease surveillance programs comprises the early identification of infectious threats and the subsequent rapid response to prevent further spread. Effectively identifying, tracking and responding to these threats is often difficult and requires international cooperation due to the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by humans and animals. From Oct.1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 200...

  3. Responses of grassland production to single and multiple global environmental changes.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this century, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are expected to cause warmer surface temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. At the same time, reactive nitrogen is entering natural systems at unprecedented rates. These global environmental changes have consequences for the functioning of natural ecosystems, and responses of these systems may feed back to affect climate and atmospheric composition. Here, we rep...

  4. Policies, Actions and Effects for China s Forestry Response to Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a great concern of various countries, the public and science community, and forest plays an important role in mitigating climate change. The paper made a comprehensive analysis regarding the policy selections of China to promote forestry response to the global climate change, and elaborated the concrete actions and achievements in this regard. Policy selections include: 1) Reinforce tree planting and afforestation, increase the forested area and enhance the capacity of carbon sequestration...

  5. 5 CFR 875.107 - What are OPM's responsibilities as regulator under this Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 875.107 What are OPM's responsibilities as regulator under this Program... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are OPM's responsibilities...

  6. Plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine as an early response marker in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plattel, Wouter J.; van den Berg, Anke; Visser, Lydia; van der Graaf, Anne-Marijn; Pruim, Jan; Vos, Hans; Hepkema, Bouke; Diepstra, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine is a potential biomarker for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. To define its value as a marker to monitor treatment response, we correlated serial plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine levels with clinical response in newly diagnose

  7. DMPD: The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10669111 The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysa...ccharide. Qureshi ST, Gros P, Malo D. Inflamm Res. 1999 Dec;48(12):613-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The... Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. PubmedID 10669111 Title The

  8. Proactive Selective Inhibition Targeted at the Neck Muscles: This Proximal Constraint Facilitates Learning and Regulates Global Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; Bate, Brian; Harding, Pete; Cunningham, Ryan; Loram, Alison

    2017-04-01

    While individual muscle function is known, the sensory and motor value of muscles within the whole-body sensorimotor network is complicated. Specifically, the relationship between neck muscle action and distal muscle synergies is unknown. This work demonstrates a causal relationship between regulation of the neck muscles and global motor control. Studying violinists performing unskilled and skilled manual tasks, we provided ultrasound feedback of the neck muscles with instruction to minimize neck muscle change during task performance and observed the indirect effect on whole-body movement. Analysis of ultrasound, kinematic, electromyographic and electrodermal recordings showed that proactive inhibition targeted at neck muscles had an indirect global effect reducing the cost of movement, reducing complex involuntary, task-irrelevant movement patterns and improving balance. This effect was distinct from the effect of gaze alignment which increased physiological cost and reduced laboratory-referenced movement. Neck muscle inhibition imposes a proximal constraint on the global motor plan, forcing a change in highly automated sensorimotor control. The proximal location ensures global influence. The criterion, inhibition of unnecessary action, ensures reduced cost while facilitating task-relevant variation. This mechanism regulates global motor function and facilitates reinforcement learning to change engrained, maladapted sensorimotor control associated with chronic pain, injury and performance limitation.

  9. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health.

  10. Global gene expression during stringent response in Corynebacterium glutamicum in presence and absence of the rel gene encoding (pppGpp synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski Jörn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The stringent response is the initial reaction of microorganisms to nutritional stress. During stringent response the small nucleotides (pppGpp act as global regulators and reprogram bacterial transcription. In this work, the genetic network controlled by the stringent response was characterized in the amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results The transcriptome of a C. glutamicum rel gene deletion mutant, unable to synthesize (pppGpp and to induce the stringent response, was compared with that of its rel-proficient parent strain by microarray analysis. A total of 357 genes were found to be transcribed differentially in the rel-deficient mutant strain. In a second experiment, the stringent response was induced by addition of DL-serine hydroxamate (SHX in early exponential growth phase. The time point of the maximal effect on transcription was determined by real-time RT-PCR using the histidine and serine biosynthetic genes. Transcription of all of these genes reached a maximum at 10 minutes after SHX addition. Microarray experiments were performed comparing the transcriptomes of SHX-induced cultures of the rel-proficient strain and the rel mutant. The differentially expressed genes were grouped into three classes. Class A comprises genes which are differentially regulated only in the presence of an intact rel gene. This class includes the non-essential sigma factor gene sigB which was upregulated and a large number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism which were downregulated. Class B comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX in both strains, independent of the rel gene. A large number of genes encoding ribosomal proteins fall into this class, all being downregulated. Class C comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX only in the rel mutant. This class includes genes encoding putative stress proteins and global transcriptional regulators that might be

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY UNDER AGGRAVATION OF THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role and importance of corporate social responsibility as an important mechanism for overcoming the crisis of the welfare state and to mitigate the social problems caused by the world globalization processes. The experience of post-socialist countries, the Baltic States and Ukraine in this field is analyzed and barriers to effective implementation of CSR in the national economy are identified. The priority of the state policy to promote socially responsible business behavior in Ukraine is proved.

  12. Use of Different Mooring Models on Global Response Analysis of an Innovative Deep Draft Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Dongsheng; LI Binbin; OU Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The global responses of an innovative deep draft platform are investigated using catenary, semi-taut, and taut mooring models, respectively. The three mooring systems have the same arrangements and similar static restoring force characteristics. The dynamic coupling effects between the platform and the mooring systems are calculated in the time domain. Free-decay and 3-h simulations are conducted under 1-year and 100-year return period environmental conditions in the South China Sea. The mooring damping contributions, the response characteristics, and the mooring line tensions are investigated.

  13. The effect of the CCR5-delta32 deletion on global gene expression considering immune response and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütter Gero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural function of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 is poorly understood. A 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32 located on chromosome 3 results in a non-functional protein. It is supposed that this deletion causes an alteration in T-cell response to inflammation. For example, the presence of the CCR5-delta32 allele in recipients of allografts constitutes as an independent and protective factor associated with a decreased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and graft rejection. However, the mechanism of this beneficial effect of the deletion regarding GVHD is unknown. In this survey we searched for a CCR5-delta32 associated regulation of critical genes involved in the immune response and the development of GVHD. Methods We examined CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from bone marrow samples from 19 healthy volunteers for the CCR5-delta32 deletion with a genomic PCR using primers flanking the site of the deletion. Results 12 individuals were found to be homozygous for CCR5 WT and 7 carried the CCR5-delta32 deletion heterozygously. Global gene expression analysis led to the identification of 11 differentially regulated genes. Six of them are connected with mechanisms of immune response and control: LRG1, CXCR2, CCRL2, CD6, CD7, WD repeat domain, and CD30L. Conclusions Our data indicate that the CCR5-delta32 mutation may be associated with differential gene expression. Some of these genes are critical for immune response, in the case of CD30L probably protective in terms of GVHD.

  14. EMERGING TRENDS IN REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS FOR BIOSIMILARS: RECENT ADVANCES IN GLOBAL AND INDIAN REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Kalpesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biopharmaceutical drugs have outperformed the pharmaceutical market as a whole largely due to two factors: they address areas of clinical need that are unmanageable with conventional therapeutics (including cancers and they are able to command a premium price. With expiry of patent of many biopharmaceutical drugs, the potential of a sizeable market will attract several generic companies. However the process to develop essentially generic version of biopharmaceuticals (biosimilars is more complex than that of developing a generic copy of a chemical-based compound. These products are approved through an abbreviated route which relies on limited safety and efficacy data enabling the generic companies to keep the production costs low and pass on the price benefit to the patient and make the product affordable to the masses. There are no common regulatory pathways and many countries have published guidelines and it is still evolving in other countries. WHO (World Health Organization, Europe and recently USA have published guidelines for the development and marketing of biosimilar products. These products undergo extensive head to head comparability testing with the reference biopharmaceutical product to show their similarity to the reference product in terms of quality, efficacy and safety. Regulators and administrators of different countries need to strike a balance in cost-to-benefit versus risks that are perceived for these products, keeping in mind global regulatory issues. India's biotechnology industry has been growing towards new heights in conjunction with the economic evolution. The practical way forward for approval of biosimilars in India would have to be unique to the Indian context as it should balance the scientific aspects and consider needs and limitation of the country.

  15. Negative Regulation of IRF7 Activation by ATF4 Suggests a Cross Regulation Between the Interferon Responses and the Cellular Integrated Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Qiming; Deng, Hongying; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Tim M. Townes; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2010-01-01

    Cells react to viral infection by exhibiting interferon (IFN)-based innate immune responses and integrated stress responses, but little is known about the interrelationships between the two. We here report a linkage between these two host protective cellular mechanisms. We found that IRF7, the master regulator of type I IFN gene expression, interacts with ATF4, a key component of the integrated stress responses whose translation is induced by viral infection and various stresses. We have demo...

  16. Electromyographic response of global abdominal stabilizers in response to stable- and unstable-base isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen J; Bentley, Ian; Brooks, Darrell; Burrows, Mark P; Hurst, Howard T; Sinclair, Jonathan K

    2015-06-01

    Core stability training traditionally uses stable-base techniques. Less is known as to the use of unstable-base techniques, such as suspension training, to activate core musculature. This study sought to assess the neuromuscular activation of global core stabilizers when using suspension training techniques, compared with more traditional forms of isometric exercise. Eighteen elite level, male youth swimmers (age, 15.5 ± 2.3 years; stature, 163.3 ± 12.7 cm; body mass, 62.2 ± 11.9 kg) participated in this study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to determine the rate of muscle contraction in postural musculature, associated with core stability and torso bracing (rectus abdominus [RA], external obliques [EO], erector spinae [ES]). A maximal voluntary contraction test was used to determine peak amplitude for all muscles. Static bracing of the core was achieved using a modified "plank" position, with and without a Swiss ball, and held for 30 seconds. A mechanically similar "plank" was then held using suspension straps. Analysis of sEMG revealed that suspension produced higher peak amplitude in the RA than using a prone or Swiss ball "plank" (p = 0.04). This difference was not replicated in either the EO or ES musculature. We conclude that suspension training noticeably improves engagement of anterior core musculature when compared with both lateral and posterior muscles. Further research is required to determine how best to activate both posterior and lateral musculature when using all forms of core stability training.

  17. The Northern Hemisphere winter stationary wave response to global warming in CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Isla; Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Shaw, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    During the Northern Hemisphere winter, models tend to predict a poleward shifting of the zonal mean mid-latitude westerlies under anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Locally, however, changes in the stationary waves tend to dominate, resulting in considerable deviation from this around the longitude circle, with important implications for regional climate change. Past studies have demonstrated diversity in the stationary wave response to global warming and differ in their views of the mechanisms involved in producing it. Here we will explore the stationary wave response to global warming in the CMIP5 dataset and demonstrate a strong consensus on a wavenumber 5 stationary wave response with a particular phasing that contributes to hydroclimate change across North America and Europe, such as wetting on the west coast of the USA, drying in the south west USA and drying in the eastern Mediterranean. The mechanisms responsible for producing this multi-model mean response are explored using a stationary wave model. It is demonstrated that, to first order, it is produced by changes in the zonal mean basic state, in agreement with the majority of previous stationary wave modelling studies. The relative importance of different features of this basic state change such as Arctic amplification, enhanced tropical upper tropospheric warming, stratospheric cooling and their associated zonal mean zonal wind responses will be explored. Through an understanding of the mechanisms involved in this stationary wave response we can begin to assess our confidence in whether the real world will behave as the models do and understand any diversity among the modelled responses.

  18. MEG responses to the perception of global structure within glass patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Swettenham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of global form requires integration of local visual cues across space and is the foundation for object recognition. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG to study the location and time course of neuronal activity associated with the perception of global structure from local image features. To minimize neuronal activity to low-level stimulus properties, such as luminance and contrast, the local image features were held constant during all phases of the MEG recording. This allowed us to assess the relative importance of striate (V1 versus extrastriate cortex in global form perception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stimuli were horizontal, rotational and radial Glass patterns. Glass patterns without coherent structure were viewed during the baseline period to ensure neuronal responses reflected perception of structure and not changes in local image features. The spatial distribution of task-related changes in source power was mapped using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM, and the time course of activity within areas of maximal power change was determined by calculating time-frequency plots using a Hilbert transform. For six out of eight observers, passive viewing of global structure was associated with a reduction in 10-20 Hz cortical oscillatory power within extrastriate occipital cortex. The location of greatest power change was the same for each pattern type, being close to or within visual area V3a. No peaks of activity were observed in area V1. Time-frequency analyses indicated that neural activity was least for horizontal patterns. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude: (i visual area V3a is involved in the analysis of global form; (ii the neural signature for perception of structure, as assessed using MEG, is a reduction in 10-20 Hz oscillatory power; (iii different neural processes may underlie the perception of horizontal as opposed to radial or rotational structure; and (iv area V1 is not strongly activated by

  19. The Porphyromonas gingivalis ferric uptake regulator orthologue binds hemin and regulates hemin-responsive biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Butler

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative pathogen associated with the biofilm-mediated disease chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis biofilm formation is dependent on environmental heme for which P. gingivalis has an obligate requirement as it is unable to synthesize protoporphyrin IX de novo, hence P. gingivalis transports iron and heme liberated from the human host. Homeostasis of a variety of transition metal ions is often mediated in Gram-negative bacteria at the transcriptional level by members of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur superfamily. P. gingivalis has a single predicted Fur superfamily orthologue which we have designated Har (heme associated regulator. Recombinant Har formed dimers in the presence of Zn2+ and bound one hemin molecule per monomer with high affinity (Kd of 0.23 µM. The binding of hemin resulted in conformational changes of Zn(IIHar and residue 97Cys was involved in hemin binding as part of a predicted -97C-98P-99L- hemin binding motif. The expression of 35 genes was down-regulated and 9 up-regulated in a Har mutant (ECR455 relative to wild-type. Twenty six of the down-regulated genes were previously found to be up-regulated in P. gingivalis grown as a biofilm and 11 were up-regulated under hemin limitation. A truncated Zn(IIHar bound the promoter region of dnaA (PGN_0001, one of the up-regulated genes in the ECR455 mutant. This binding decreased as hemin concentration increased which was consistent with gene expression being regulated by hemin availability. ECR455 formed significantly less biofilm than the wild-type and unlike wild-type biofilm formation was independent of hemin availability. P. gingivalis possesses a hemin-binding Fur orthologue that regulates hemin-dependent biofilm formation.

  20. The Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response System (GEIS), a U.S. government tool for improved global biosurveillance: a review of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kevin L; Rubenstein, Jennifer; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Johns, Matthew C; Sanchez, Jose L; Meyer, William; Fukuda, Mark M; Blazes, David L

    2011-03-04

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009.

  1. Global pressures, specific responses: effects of nutrient enrichment in streams from different biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Joan; García-Berthou, Emili; Bauer, Delia E.; Castro, Maria I.; Cochero, Joaquín; Colautti, Darío C.; Cortelezzi, Agustina; Donato, John C.; Elosegi, Arturo; Feijoó, Claudia; Giorgi, Adonis; Gómez, Nora; Leggieri, Leonardo; Muñoz, Isabel; Rodrigues-Capítulo, Alberto; Romaní, Anna M.; Sabater, Sergi

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the effects of nutrient enrichment on three stream ecosystems running through distinct biomes (Mediterranean, Pampean and Andean). We increased the concentrations of N and P in the stream water 1.6-4-fold following a before-after control-impact paired series (BACIPS) design in each stream, and evaluated changes in the biomass of bacteria, primary producers, invertebrates and fish in the enriched (E) versus control (C) reaches after nutrient addition through a predictive-BACIPS approach. The treatment produced variable biomass responses (2-77% of explained variance) among biological communities and streams. The greatest biomass response was observed for algae in the Andean stream (77% of the variance), although fish also showed important biomass responses (about 9-48%). The strongest biomass response to enrichment (77% in all biological compartments) was found in the Andean stream. The magnitude and seasonality of biomass responses to enrichment were highly site specific, often depending on the basal nutrient concentration and on windows of ecological opportunity (periods when environmental constraints other than nutrients do not limit biomass growth). The Pampean stream, with high basal nutrient concentrations, showed a weak response to enrichment (except for invertebrates), whereas the greater responses of Andean stream communities were presumably favored by wider windows of ecological opportunity in comparison to those from the Mediterranean stream. Despite variation among sites, enrichment globally stimulated the algal-based food webs (algae and invertebrate grazers) but not the detritus-based food webs (bacteria and invertebrate shredders). This study shows that nutrient enrichment tends to globally enhance the biomass of stream biological assemblages, but that its magnitude and extent within the food web are complex and are strongly determined by environmental factors and ecosystem structure.

  2. Global patterns in lake ecosystem responses to warming based on the temperature dependence of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Benjamin M; Chandra, Sudeep; Dell, Anthony I; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M; Tamatamah, Rashid; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming is expected to have large effects on ecosystems in part due to the temperature dependence of metabolism. The responses of metabolic rates to climate warming may be greatest in the tropics and at low elevations because mean temperatures are warmer there and metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature (with exponents >1). However, if warming rates are sufficiently fast in higher latitude/elevation lakes, metabolic rate responses to warming may still be greater there even though metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature. Thus, a wide range of global patterns in the magnitude of metabolic rate responses to warming could emerge depending on global patterns of temperature and warming rates. Here we use the Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation, published estimates of activation energy, and time series of temperature from 271 lakes to estimate long-term (1970-2010) changes in 64 metabolic processes in lakes. The estimated responses of metabolic processes to warming were usually greatest in tropical/low-elevation lakes even though surface temperatures in higher latitude/elevation lakes are warming faster. However, when the thermal sensitivity of a metabolic process is especially weak, higher latitude/elevation lakes had larger responses to warming in parallel with warming rates. Our results show that the sensitivity of a given response to temperature (as described by its activation energy) provides a simple heuristic for predicting whether tropical/low-elevation lakes will have larger or smaller metabolic responses to warming than higher latitude/elevation lakes. Overall, we conclude that the direct metabolic consequences of lake warming are likely to be felt most strongly at low latitudes and low elevations where metabolism-linked ecosystem services may be most affected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Regulation and Supervision of The Global Financial System. A Proposal for Institutional Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, H.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    nternational financial markets are supervised primarily by national authorities. However, national authorities are inherently incapable to regulate and supervise seamless globalised financial markets. To the extent international regulators exist, they constitute a disorderly patchwork of

  4. Global biodiversity, stoichiometry and ecosystem function responses to human-induced C-N-P imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Sardans, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Ubach, Andreu; Bartrons, Mireia; Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Global change analyses usually consider biodiversity as a global asset that needs to be preserved. Biodiversity is frequently analysed mainly as a response variable affected by diverse environmental drivers. However, recent studies highlight that gradients of biodiversity are associated with gradual changes in the distribution of key dominant functional groups characterized by distinctive traits and stoichiometry, which in turn often define the rates of ecosystem processes and nutrient cycling. Moreover, pervasive links have been reported between biodiversity, food web structure, ecosystem function and species stoichiometry. Here we review current global stoichiometric gradients and how future distributional shifts in key functional groups may in turn influence basic ecosystem functions (production, nutrient cycling, decomposition) and therefore could exert a feedback effect on stoichiometric gradients. The C-N-P stoichiometry of most primary producers (phytoplankton, algae, plants) has been linked to functional trait continua (i.e. to major axes of phenotypic variation observed in inter-specific analyses of multiple traits). In contrast, the C-N-P stoichiometry of higher-level consumers remains less precisely quantified in many taxonomic groups. We show that significant links are observed between trait continua across trophic levels. In spite of recent advances, the future reciprocal feedbacks between key functional groups, biodiversity and ecosystem functions remain largely uncertain. The reported evidence, however, highlights the key role of stoichiometric traits and suggests the need of a progressive shift towards an ecosystemic and stoichiometric perspective in global biodiversity analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature Change of Shanghai and Its Response to Global Warming and Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Chu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai is the biggest metropolis in China, and its local temperature change is affected not only by global warming but also by urbanization. Integrating the Mann-Kendall test, EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition, Cross Wavelet Analysis and statistical methods, we studied the response of the local temperature change in Shanghai to global warming and urbanization. The results indicate that the local temperature at Shanghai present a significant warming trend under the background of global warming over the past 135 years. The local temperature at Shanghai displays 2-year, 6-year, 15-year, 23-year and 68-year periodic fluctuation, whereas global temperature shows 4-year, 9-year, 15-year, 23-year and 68-year cyclic variation. Although the two cycles are not exactly the same, they show some comparability. Urbanization facilitated the warming process of Shanghai. In the most recent 50 years, temperature difference between urban and suburban Shanghai has increased nearly 0.4 °C. The related indicators of urban development, such as population, built-up area, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, energy consumption and number of vehicles show significantly positive correlation with the temperature difference between urban and suburban area. In addition, the frequency of extreme high temperature has become higher, whereas the frequency of extreme low temperature has become lower over the most recent 55 years.

  6. Global transcriptional response of Staphylococcus aureus to rhein, a natural plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Xiang, Hua; Fan, Junwen; Wang, Dacheng; Yang, Feng; Guo, Na; Jin, Qi; Deng, Xuming

    2008-06-30

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most important pathogens in humans and animals, multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread, new agents are needed for the treatment of S. aureus. Rhein (RH), a natural plant product, has been reported to have potential antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, but the response mechanisms of S. aureus to RH are still poorly understood. RH showed good in vitro antibacterial activity against all 21 tested S. aureus strains in this experiment. We performed commercial Affymetrix GeneChips to determine the overall transcriptional response of S. aureus ATCC25923 triggered by the treatment of subinhibitory concentrations of RH at one time point 45 min. A total of 88 genes were identified to be differentially regulated by RH. Of these, 28 transporter genes were differentially regulated by RH; RH stress elevated the transcription of genes (srtB and isdABCDEFGI) encoding iron-regulated surface determinants system and genes (nrdIEF and nrdDG) involved in ribonucleotide reductase systems; but RH repressed genes (pflAB, nirBDR, narGH, ldh1, COL-SA0660, COL-SA2363 and COL-SA2386) responsible for anaerobic respiration and fermentation. To our knowledge, this genome-wide transcriptomics approach revealed first insights into the response of S. aureus to RH challenge.

  7. Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to respond to the question: What role can the sacred texts play in the construction of a Christian identity that is responsible to the Other in a pluralistic global world? The sacred texts of the Judaic-Christian tradition offer not only an understanding of the wholly otherness of God, but also form the basis of our understanding and perception of humanity (anthropology, the world and ourselves (personhood/identity. This understanding is constructed in the context of responding to the call of the wholly Other and the others. Identities are traditionally constructed through the identification and exclusion of differences (otherness, thus leading to an ethic of exclusion and responsibility only to oneself/ourselves. Yet these identity-forming texts harbour a persistent otherness, which challenges these traditional identities by interrupting them with a call to responsibility toward the other. The otherness harboured in these texts takes various forms, namely: The otherness of the ancient world to our world, the otherness of the transcendental Other, and the otherness of the text itself, as there is always a différance that has not yet been heard. These various forms of otherness, of our identity-forming texts, deconstruct our identity constructions, thus calling us to a continuous responsibility towards the other. This call could form the basis of a Christian identity and ethic of global cosmopolitan citizenship that is always responding to the eschatological interruption by the other, who is not yet present or who has not been offered presence.

  8. Cooperative Semi-Global Output Regulation of Nonlinear Strict-Feedback Multi-Agent Systems With Nonidentical Relative Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Youfeng

    2016-03-03

    In this paper, we study the cooperative semi-global output regulation problem for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback multi-agent systems, where the subsystems are assumed to have nonidentical relative degrees. We first introduce the so-called distributed internal model that converts our problem into the cooperative semi-global stabilization problem of the corresponding augmented system composed of the original multi-agent system and the internal model. We then put this augmented system into the general block lower triangular form, and develop the block semi-global backstepping technique to stabilize it. Comparing with some existing literatures, our design has removed the identical relative degree assumption, and hence applies to a much larger group of nonlinear multi-agent systems.

  9. Indirect field-oriented control of induction motors is globally asymptotically stable when used to regulate position in rigid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Victor M.; Santibáñez, Victor; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón

    2010-10-01

    In this note we prove, for the first time, that indirect field-oriented control of voltage-fed induction motors achieves global asymptotic stability when used to regulate position in rigid robots. This results in the simplest controller proposed until now to solve this problem. Our stability analysis considers inner current loops driven by linear PI controllers and an external position loop driven by a saturated PD controller.

  10. Chemokine regulation in response to beryllium exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Pardington, Paige E; Cary, Robert B; Sauer, Nancy N; Gupta, Goutam

    2006-02-01

    Exposure to beryllium (Be) induces a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction in the lungs of susceptible individuals, which leads to the onset of Be sensitivity and Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). Although some mechanistic aspects of CBD have begun to be characterized, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Be activates the host immune response. To gain insight into the cellular response to Be exposure, we have performed global microarray analysis using a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells (PBMC/DCs) from a non-CBD source to identify genes that are specifically upregulated in response to BeSO(4) stimulation, compared to a control metal salt, Al(2)(SO(4))(3). We identified a number of upregulated immunomodulatory genes, including several chemokines in the MIP-1 and GRO families. Using PBMC/DCs from three different donors, we demonstrate that BeSO(4) stimulation generally exhibits an increased rate of both chemokine mRNA transcription and release compared to Al(2)(SO(4))(3) exposure, although variations among the individual donors do exist. We show that MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta neutralizing antibodies can partially inhibit the ability of BeSO(4) to stimulate cell migration of PBMC/DCs in vitro. Finally, incubation of PBMC/DCs with BeSO(4) altered the binding of the transcription factor RUNX to the MIP-1 alpha promoter consensus sequence, indicating that Be can regulate chemokine gene activation. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which Be stimulation of PBMC/DCs can modulate the expression and release of different chemokines, leading to the migration of lymphocytes to the lung and the formation of a localized environment for development of Be disease in susceptible individuals.

  11. Predicting Climate Change using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O($10^5$) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting - at any lead time and in an ensemble sense - the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO$_2$ using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as their spatial patter...

  12. Global land carbon sink response to temperature and precipitation varies with ENSO phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Michalak, Anna M.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Berry, Joseph A.; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Fisher, Joshua B.; Cook, Robert B.; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; Lei, Huimin; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Peng, Shushi; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia

    2017-06-01

    Climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its consequent impacts on land carbon sink interannual variability have been used as a basis for investigating carbon cycle responses to climate variability more broadly, and to inform the sensitivity of the tropical carbon budget to climate change. Past studies have presented opposing views about whether temperature or precipitation is the primary factor driving the response of the land carbon sink to ENSO. Here, we show that the dominant driver varies with ENSO phase. Whereas tropical temperature explains sink dynamics following El Niño conditions (r TG,P = 0.59, p biosphere models captures these ENSO-phase-dependent responses, highlighting a key uncertainty in modeling climate impacts on the future of the global land carbon sink.

  13. 5.2 Ethics, equity and global responsibilities in oral health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobdell, Martin; Sinkford, Jeanne; Alexander, Charles

    2002-01-01

    situation raises certain ethical issues with regard to professional responsibilities. It also raises some important questions for dental education. This Section has chosen to focus its efforts on examining two issues: * What can be done within dental schools? * What can be done external to dental schools...... identified is the realization by students, and faculty/teaching staff of the quest of life-long learning against a background of the social and ethical responsibilities of health professionals. The conclusion of the group is that biology is not the sole determinant of health. Understanding the role of social......The charge of this Section is ethics and global responsibilities in oral health and disease. Oral health is determined by the same factors as those for general health. To a limited extent, the level of oral health care and dental education. The philosophy and organization of the health care system...

  14. Cell identity regulators link development and stress responses in the Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Jackson, Terry; Cui, Hongchang; Petricka, Jalean J; Busch, Wolfgang; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Benfey, Philip N

    2011-10-18

    Stress responses in plants are tightly coordinated with developmental processes, but interaction of these pathways is poorly understood. We used genome-wide assays at high spatiotemporal resolution to understand the processes that link development and stress in the Arabidopsis root. Our meta-analysis finds little evidence for a universal stress response. However, common stress responses appear to exist with many showing cell type specificity. Common stress responses may be mediated by cell identity regulators because mutations in these genes resulted in altered responses to stress. Evidence for a direct role for cell identity regulators came from genome-wide binding profiling of the key regulator SCARECROW, which showed binding to regulatory regions of stress-responsive genes. Coexpression in response to stress was used to identify genes involved in specific developmental processes. These results reveal surprising linkages between stress and development at cellular resolution, and show the power of multiple genome-wide data sets to elucidate biological processes.

  15. Engineers' Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C; Wilson, Denise

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student's writing on the human health and environmental impacts of "backyard" electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers of tomorrow associated engineers with responsibility for the electronic waste (e-waste) problem in some way. However, a number of responses suggested attempts to deflect responsibility away from engineers towards, for example, the government or the companies for whom engineers work. Still other students associated both engineers and non-engineers with responsibility, demonstrating the distributed/collective nature of responsibility that will be required to achieve a solution to the global problem of excessive e-waste. Building upon one element of a framework for care ethics adopted from the wider literature, these empirical findings are used to facilitate a preliminary, conceptual exploration of care-ethical responsibility within the context of engineering and e-waste recycling/disposal. The objective of this exploration is to provide a first step toward understanding how care-ethical responsibility applies to engineering. We also hope to seed dialogue within the engineering community about its ethical responsibilities on the issue. We conclude the paper with a discussion of its implications for engineering education and engineering ethics that suggests changes for educational policy and the practice of engineering.

  16. [Progress in global health response to the Post-2015 development agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Liu, Pei-long; Guo, Yan

    2013-06-18

    This research reviews the recent global health response to the Post-2015 development agenda setting. It discusses three burning issues during the on-going country consultation: how health can be fitted into the post-MDG agenda, the achievements and lessons learnt from Millennium Development Goals (MDG), and health related goals and indicators setting. It suggests that the relationship between health and development is dynamic, thus, health acts on not only the contributor to development but also the beneficiary and indicator of sustainable development. Though great achievements on health have been made since 2000, equity and human right remain challenges to the MDG. Universal Health Coverage and Healthy Life Expectancy are two potential goals for the post-MDG agenda. China has also been involved in this global process, but more actions should be taken to make its voice heard by the world.

  17. A decade of insights into grassland ecosystem responses to global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Grace, James B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Seabloom, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    Earth’s biodiversity and carbon uptake by plants, or primary productivity, are intricately interlinked, underlie many essential ecosystem processes, and depend on the interplay among environmental factors, many of which are being changed by human activities. While ecological theory generalizes across taxa and environments, most empirical tests of factors controlling diversity and productivity have been observational, single-site experiments, or meta-analyses, limiting our understanding of variation among site-level responses and tests of general mechanisms. A synthesis of results from ten years of a globally distributed, coordinated experiment, the Nutrient Network (NutNet), demonstrates that species diversity promotes ecosystem productivity and stability, and that nutrient supply and herbivory control diversity via changes in composition, including invasions of non-native species and extinction of native species. Distributed experimental networks are a powerful tool for tests and integration of multiple theories and for generating multivariate predictions about the effects of global changes on future ecosystems.

  18. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Manfred F.; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which—in turn—becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules. PMID:23868446

  19. Subject specific BOLD fMRI respiratory and cardiac response functions obtained from global signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahpour, Maryam; Refai, Hazem; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2013-05-15

    Subtle changes in either breathing pattern or cardiac pulse rate alter blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal (BOLD fMRI). This is problematic because such fluctuations could possibly not be related to underlying neuronal activations of interest but instead the source of physiological noise. Several methods have been proposed to eliminate physiological noise in BOLD fMRI data. One such method is to derive a template based on average multi-subject data for respiratory response function (RRF) and cardiac response function (CRF) by simultaneously utilizing an external recording of cardiac and respiratory waveforms with the fMRI. Standard templates can then be used to model, map, and remove respiration and cardiac fluctuations from fMRI data. Utilizing these does not, however, account for intra-subject variations in physiological response. Thus, performing a more individualized approach for single subject physiological noise correction becomes more desirable, especially for clinical purposes. Here we propose a novel approach that employs subject-specific RRF and CRF response functions obtained from the whole brain or brain tissue-specific global signals (GS). Averaging multiple voxels in global signal computation ensures physiological noise dominance over thermal and system noise in even high-spatial-resolution fMRI data, making the GS suitable for deriving robust estimations of both RRF and CRF for individual subjects. Using these individualized response functions instead of standard templates based on multi-subject averages judiciously removes physiological noise from the data, assuming that there is minimal neuronal contribution in the derived individualized filters. Subject-specific physiological response functions obtained from the GS better maps individuals' physiological characteristics.

  20. HrpA, a DEAH-box RNA helicase, is involved in global gene regulation in the Lyme disease spirochete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Salman-Dilgimen

    Full Text Available Spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis are obligate parasites that can only be found in a tick vector or a vertebrate host. The ability to survive in these two disparate environments requires up and downregulation of specific genes by regulatory circuits that remain largely obscure. In this work on the Lyme spirochete, B. burgdorferi, we show that a disruption of the hrpA gene, which encodes a putative RNA helicase, results in a complete loss in the ability of the spirochetes to infect mice by needle inoculation. Studies of protein expression in culture by 2D gels revealed a change in the expression of 33 proteins in hrpA clones relative to the wild-type parent. Quantitative characterization of protein expression by iTRAQ analysis revealed a total of 187 differentially regulated proteins in an hrpA background: 90 downregulated and 97 upregulated. Forty-two of the 90 downregulated and 65 of the 97 upregulated proteins are not regulated under any conditions by the previously reported regulators in B. burgdorferi (bosR, rrp2, rpoN, rpoS or rrp1. Downregulated and upregulated proteins also fell into distinct functional categories. We conclude that HrpA is part of a new and distinct global regulatory pathway in B. burgdorferi gene expression. Because an HrpA orthologue is present in many bacteria, its participation in global regulation in B. burgdorferi may have relevance in other bacterial species where its function remains obscure. We believe this to be the first report of a role for an RNA helicase in a global regulatory pathway in bacteria. This finding is particularly timely with the recent growth of the field of RNA regulation of gene expression and the ability of RNA helicases to modulate RNA structure and function.

  1. How antibodies use complement to regulate antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörman, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Ding, Zhoujie; Heyman, Birgitta

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies, forming immune complexes with their specific antigen, can cause complete suppression or several 100-fold enhancement of the antibody response. Immune complexes containing IgG and IgM may activate complement and in such situations also complement components will be part of the immune complex. Here, we review experimental data on how antibodies via the complement system upregulate specific antibody responses. Current data suggest that murine IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b upregulate antibody responses primarily via Fc-receptors and not via complement. In contrast, IgM and IgG3 act via complement and require the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) expressed on both B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Complement plays a crucial role for antibody responses not only to antigen complexed to antibodies, but also to antigen administered alone. Lack of C1q, but not of Factor B or MBL, severely impairs antibody responses suggesting involvement of the classical pathway. In spite of this, normal antibody responses are found in mice lacking several activators of the classical pathway (complement activating natural IgM, serum amyloid P component (SAP), specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin R1 (SIGN-R1) or C-reactive protein. Possible explanations to these observations will be discussed.

  2. Islet Xeno/transplantation and the risk of contagion: local responses from Canada and Australia to an emerging global technoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Myra

    2015-01-01

    This paper situates the public debate over the use of living animal organs and tissue for human therapies within the history of experimental islet transplantation. Specifically, the paper compares and contrasts the Canadian and Australian responses on xenotransplantation to consider what lessons can be learnt about the regulation of a complex and controversial biotechnology. Sobbrio and Jorqui described public engagement on xenotransplantation in these countries as 'important forms of experimental democracy.' While Canada experimented with a novel nation-wide public consultation, Australia sought public input within the context of a national inquiry. In both instances, the outcome was a temporary moratorium on all forms of clinical xenotransplantation comparable to the policies adopted in some European countries. In addition, the Australian xenotransplantation ban coincided with a temporary global ban on experimental islet allotransplantation in 2007. Through historical and comparative research, this paper investigates how public controversies over organ and tissue transplantation can inform our understanding of the mediation of interspeciality and the regulation of a highly contested technoscience. It offers an alternative perspective on the xenotransplantation controversy by exploring the ways in which coinciding moratoriums on islet allograft and xenograft challenge, complicate and confound our assumptions regarding the relationships between human and animal, between routine surgery and clinical experimentation, between biomedical science and social science, and between disease risks and material contagion.

  3. National Responsibility in Global Justice%全球正义中的民族责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes David Miller ’ s views on global justice , national responsibility and the establishment of glob-al justice bottom line and other issues .Global justice is a world of justice , because the world is made up many nation States with its own unique culture .The nation States can reasonably require a certain degree of political autonomy .But in reality , the absence of global government requires us must consider and understand global justice from a moderate and realistic per -spective.The global justice is not a strong cosmopolitan but there are still justice obligations across State and national boundaries.This responsibility can not completely bridge the justice gap but can narrow the gap .In the end, the poor peo-ple in the world will have more hopes , and their rights will be better protected .%分析了戴维·米勒关于全球正义、民族责任及确立全球正义底限等问题的观点。全球正义是一种世界正义,因为这个世界是由各具独特文化的诸多民族国家组成的,这些民族国家都能合理地要求相当程度的政治自主,但现实中全球政府的缺失要求必须从温和的角度和现实主义态度的视角考虑和理解全球正义;这种全球正义不是强式世界主义的,但仍存在着跨越国家和民族界限的正义义务,这种义务虽然不能完全弥合正义的鸿沟,但恰恰能缩小这一鸿沟,最终世界上的穷人会有更多的希望,而且他们的权利也会得到更好的保障。

  4. Mechanisms regulating osteoblast response to surface microtopography and vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bryan Frederick, Jr.

    A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between orthopaedic and dental implant surfaces with the surrounding host tissue is essential in the design of advanced biomaterials that better promote bone growth and osseointegration of implants. Dental implants with roughened surfaces and high surface energy are well known to promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro and promote increased bone-to-implant contact in vivo. In addition, increased surface roughness increases osteoblasts response to the vitamin D metabolite 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. However, the exact mechanisms mediating cell response to surface properties and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 are still being elucidated. The central aim of the thesis is to investigate whether integrin signaling in response to rough surface microtopography enhances osteoblast differentiation and responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. The hypothesis is that the integrin alpha5beta1 plays a role in osteoblast response to surface microtopography and that 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3 acts through VDR-independent pathways involving caveolae to synergistically enhance osteoblast response to surface roughness and 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3. To test this hypothesis the objectives of the studies performed in this thesis were: (1) to determine if alpha5beta 1 signaling is required for osteoblast response to surface microstructure; (2) to determine if increased responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3 requires the vitamin D receptor, (3) to determine if rough titanium surfaces functionalized with the peptides targeting integrins (RGD) and transmembrane proteoglycans (KRSR) will enhance both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and (4) to determine whether caveolae, which are associated with integrin and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 signaling, are required for enhance osteogenic response to surface microstructure and 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3. The results demonstrate that integrins, VDR, and caveolae play important roles in mediating osteoblast response to surface properties and 1alpha,25

  5. Regulating Extraction in Africa: Towards a Framework for Accountability in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Gamil Besada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how revenue flows from the extractive sector can have substantial multiplier effects on the rest of the economy in resource-endowed countries in the Global South. The aim is to demonstrate that in order to fully benefit from extraction practices, countries in the Global South must adopt measures to address issues such as weak governance, the exploitative practices of foreign investors, mismanagement, corruption, undervaluation of mineral assets, revenue mismanagement, and various forms of taxation manipulation and evasion. Through literature examples in various African countries, this research concludes that the Global South should focus on constructing national regulatory frameworks that emphasise revenue transparency.

  6. Dietary methyl content regulates opioid responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang DY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available De-Yong Liang,1,2 Yuan Sun,1,2 J David Clark1,2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, 2Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: Large interindividual differences in clinical responses to opioids and the variable susceptibility to abuse of this class of drugs make their use problematic. We lack a full understanding of the factors responsible for these differences. Dietary factors including methyl donor content have been noted to alter multiple physiological and behavioral characteristics of laboratory animals. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of dietary methyl donor content on opioid responses in mice. Methods: Groups of male C57BL/6J mice were treated with high and low methyl donor diets either in the perinatal period or after weaning. Analgesic responses to morphine, as well as tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and physical dependence were assessed. Results: Mice fed high and low methyl donor diets showed equal weight gain over the course of the experiments. Exposure to a high methyl donor diet in the perinatal period enhanced physical dependence. Dietary methyl donor content also altered analgesic responses to low doses of morphine when the dietary treatments were given to the mice after weaning. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia was unaltered by dietary methyl donor content. Conclusion: High and low methyl donor diet treatment has selective effects on opioid responses depending on the timing of exposure. These findings suggest that examination of DNA methylation patterns in specific brain regions linked to opioid analgesia and dependence may provide specific explanations for dietary effects on opioid responses. Keywords: opioid, methylation, tolerance, hyperalgesia, dependence

  7. Glutaredoxin Desensitizes Lens to Oxidative Stress by Connecting and Integrating Specific Signaling and Transcriptional Regulation for Antioxidant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of cataracts, and glutaredoxins (Grxs play a major protective role against oxidative stress in the lens. This study aimed to reveal the global regulatory network of Grx1. Methods: Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC was used in a proteome-wide quantitative approach to identify the Grx1 regulatory signaling cascades at a subcellular resolution in response to oxidative stress. Results: A total of 1,291 proteins were identified to be differentially expressed, which were further categorized into a variety of signaling cascades including redox regulation, apoptosis, cell cycle control, glucose metabolism, protein synthesis, DNA damage response, protein folding, proteasome and others. Thirteen key signaling node molecules representing each pathway were verified. Notably, the subunits of proteasome complexes, which play a pivotal role in preventing cytotoxicity via the degradation of oxidized proteins, were highly enriched by Grx1. By data-dependent network analysis, we found global functional links among these signaling pathways which elucidate how Grx1 integrates the operation of these regulatory networks in an interconnected way for H2O2-induced response. Conclusion: Our data provide a system-wide insight into the function of Grx1 and provide a basis for further mechanistic investigation of Grx1 in antioxidant responses in the lens.

  8. On Modeling the Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere Response to Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roble, R. G.; Solomon, S. C.

    2005-05-01

    Ice core records indicate that the temperature and composition of the atmosphere can change significantly over geologic times. These changes occur naturally, however, recently the releases of trace gases from human activity have been recognized to have a potential for causing a significant change in the climate of the Earth. Most of the effort in investigating the global response to these trace gases has been directed toward the troposphere and stratosphere. Studies have shown that the troposphere will warm and the stratosphere will cool as trace gas concentrations increase in the 21st century. Studies have also been made that suggest that the mesosphere and thermosphere could also cool and affect the compositional structure of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. We first review previous studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere response to trace gas increases. We then use both a global average model and the NCAR Thermosphere - Ionosphere - Mesosphere - Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) to investigate the atmospheric response to various scenarios of trace gas increases and compare the modeling results to the present day upper atmosphere and ionosphere structure. We will also discuss the key aeronomic processes that control the structure of the upper atmosphere as well as the extent to which these processes are known.

  9. Forced Migration and Global Responsibility for Health; Comment on “Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Bozorgmehr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments. First, the chronic neglect of the large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs in the discourses on the “refugee crisis” needs to be corrected in order to develop sustainable solutions with a framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Second, protection gaps in the global system of protection need to be effectively closed to resolve conflicts with border management and normative global health frameworks. Third, effective policies need to be developed and implemented to meet the health and humanitarian needs of forced migrants; at the same time, the solidarity crisis within the EU needs to be overcome. These stakes are high. EU countries, being committed to global health, should urgently address these areas.

  10. Forced Migration and Global Responsibility for Health Comment on "Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Razum, Oliver

    2016-11-05

    Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU) countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments. First, the chronic neglect of the large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the discourses on the "refugee crisis" needs to be corrected in order to develop sustainable solutions with a framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Second, protection gaps in the global system of protection need to be effectively closed to resolve conflicts with border management and normative global health frameworks. Third, effective policies need to be developed and implemented to meet the health and humanitarian needs of forced migrants; at the same time, the solidarity crisis within the EU needs to be overcome. These stakes are high. EU countries, being committed to global health, should urgently address these areas. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Regulation of lifespan, metabolism, and stress responses by the Drosophila SH2B protein, Lnk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Slack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila Lnk is the single ancestral orthologue of a highly conserved family of structurally-related intracellular adaptor proteins, the SH2B proteins. As adaptors, they lack catalytic activity but contain several protein-protein interaction domains, thus playing a critical role in signal transduction from receptor tyrosine kinases to form protein networks. Physiological studies of SH2B function in mammals have produced conflicting data. However, a recent study in Drosophila has shown that Lnk is an important regulator of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 signaling (IIS pathway during growth, functioning in parallel to the insulin receptor substrate, Chico. As this pathway also has an evolutionary conserved role in the determination of organism lifespan, we investigated whether Lnk is required for normal lifespan in Drosophila. Phenotypic analysis of mutants for Lnk revealed that loss of Lnk function results in increased lifespan and improved survival under conditions of oxidative stress and starvation. Starvation resistance was found to be associated with increased metabolic stores of carbohydrates and lipids indicative of impaired metabolism. Biochemical and genetic data suggest that Lnk functions in both the IIS and Ras/Mitogen activated protein Kinase (MapK signaling pathways. Microarray studies support this model, showing transcriptional feedback onto genes in both pathways as well as indicating global changes in both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, our data also suggest that Lnk itself may be a direct target of the IIS responsive transcription factor, dFoxo, and that dFoxo may repress Lnk expression. We therefore describe novel functions for a member of the SH2B protein family and provide the first evidence for potential mechanisms of SH2B regulation. Our findings suggest that IIS signaling in Drosophila may require the activity of a second intracellular adaptor, thereby yielding fundamental new insights into the

  12. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugha Ruairí

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART, while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective

  13. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-04-09

    As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. We conducted a small-scale, exploratory study combining (i) an in-depth review of publicly available data on pharmaceutical firms' CSR with (ii) interviews of representatives from 6 firms, purposively selected, from the highest earning pharmaceutical firms worldwide. Corporate social responsibility differed for each firm particularly with respect to how CSR is defined, organizational structures for managing CSR, current CSR activities, and motivations for CSR. Across the firms studied, the common CSR activities were: differential pharmaceutical pricing, strengthening developing country drug distribution infrastructure, mHealth initiatives, and targeted research and development. Primary factors that motivated CSR engagement were: reputational benefits, recruitment and employee satisfaction, better rankings in sustainability indices, entrance into new markets, long-term economic returns, and improved population health. In terms of CSR strategy, firms were at different points on a spectrum ranging from philanthropic donations to integrated systemic shared value business models. CSR is of increasing importance for multinational pharmaceutical firms yet understanding of the array of CSR strategies employed and their effects is nascent. Our study points to the need to (i) develop clearer and more standardized definitions of CSR in global health (2) strengthen indices to track CSR strategies and their public health effects in developing countries and (iii) undertake more country level studies that investigate how CSR engages with

  14. Regulation of mat responses by a differentiation MAPK pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheelarani Karunanithi

    Full Text Available Fungal species exhibit diverse behaviors when presented with extracellular challenges. Pathogenic fungi can undergo cell differentiation and biofilm formation in response to fluctuating nutrient levels, and these responses are required for virulence. In the model fungal eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation induces filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation. Both responses require the same signal transduction (MAPK pathway and the same cell adhesion molecule (Flo11 but have been studied under different conditions. We found that filamentous growth and mat formation are aspects of a related response that is regulated by the MAPK pathway. Cells in yeast-form mats differentiated into pseudohyphae in response to nutrient limitation. The MAPK pathway regulated mat expansion (in the plane of the XY-axis and substrate invasion (downward in the plane of the Z-axis, which optimized the mat's response to extracellular nutrient levels. The MAPK pathway also regulated an upward growth pattern (in the plane of the Z-axis in response to nutrient limitation and changes in surface rigidity. Upward growth allowed for another level of mat responsiveness and resembled a type of colonial chemorepulsion. Together our results show that signaling pathways play critical roles in regulating social behaviors in which fungal cells participate. Signaling pathways may regulate similar processes in pathogens, whose highly nuanced responses are required for virulence.

  15. Connecting the Dots: How U.S. Global Health Programs Can Improve International Health Regulation Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    health initiative (GHI) that seeks to improve specific health principles such as expanding disease treatment and improving maternal child health.27...of smallpox by the 1980s demonstrated the efficacy of global health measures and served as an example for other disease vaccination programs.82 In...files/documents/1864/USAID_50-Years- of-Global-Health.pdf. 82 Ibid., 23. 83 Ibid., 26—7. 84 Ibid., 59. 20 Child Survival Initiative, the Polio

  16. Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing...... countries. However, much less attention has been paid to the “dark side” of impact assessment – the ethical and political dilemmas that arise in the process of carrying out impact studies. This paper addresses this gap in literature, arguing that impact assessments of CSR standards may do more harm than...

  17. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The Global Stability of Predator-Prey System of Gause-Type with Holling Ⅲ Functional Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of global stability of the positive locally asymptotically stable equilibrium in a class of predator-prey system of Gause-type with Holling Ⅲ functional response. The Dulac's criterion is applied and liapunov functions are constructed to establish the global stability.

  19. Global transcriptional regulation by H-NS and its biological influence on the virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Baoshan; Zhang, Qiufen; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Aiping; Yao, Yu-Feng; Ni, Jinjing

    2016-08-22

    As a global transcriptional regulator, H-NS, the histone-like nucleoid-associated DNA-binding and bridging protein, plays a wide range of biological roles in bacteria. In order to determine the role of H-NS in regulating gene transcription and further find out the biological significance of this protein in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), we conducted transcriptome analysis of hns mutant by RNA sequencing. A total of 983 genes were identified to be regulated by H-NS in EHEC. 213 and 770 genes were down-regulated and up-regulated in the deletion mutant of hns, respectively. Interestingly, 34 of 97 genes on virulence plasmid pO157 were down-regulated by H-NS. Although the deletion mutant of hns showed a decreased survival rate in macrophage compared with the wild type strain, it exhibited the higher ability to colonize mice gut and became more virulent to BALB/c mice. The BALB/c mice infected with the deletion mutant of hns showed a lower survival rate, and a higher bacterial burden in the gut, compared with those infected with wild type strain, especially when the gut microbiota was not disturbed by antibiotic administration. These findings suggest that H-NS plays an important role in virulence of EHEC by interacting with host gut microbiota.

  20. Performance of Socially Responsible Stocks Portfolios – The Impact of Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Tripathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the effective and better implementation of CSR law, development of SRI market in the investment world is essential. Unless the investors turn socially responsible, CSR principles cannot be enforced in practice. This paper examines whether the companies that are socially responsible are performing better than general companies in terms of risk, return and various risk-adjusted measures during pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods. We find that despite having higher risk, socially responsible stocks portfolios generated significantly higher returns and hence outperformed other portfolios on the basis of all risk-adjusted measures, as well as net selectivity returns during crisis period. The results uphold even with the use of Fama-French three factor model for estimating excess returns. Besides augmenting existing literature, our results clearly corroborate the fact that investors can derive benefits by investing in socially responsible companies (especially in crisis period. The study supports the view that socially responsible products can be used as a safe investment vehicle by investors during adversity. Therefore, regulators, policy makers and mutual funds should construct and make available various socially responsible investment products to initiate the movement of socially responsible investing in India.

  1. Expanded roles of leucine-responsive regulatory protein in transcription regulation of the Escherichia coli genome: Genomic SELEX screening of the regulation targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Natsumi; Maeda, Michihisa; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) is a transcriptional regulator for the genes involved in transport, biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids in Escherichia coli. In order to identify the whole set of genes under the direct control of Lrp, we performed Genomic SELEX screening and identified a total of 314 Lrp-binding sites on the E. coli genome. As a result, the regulation target of Lrp was predicted to expand from the hitherto identified genes for amino acid metabolism to a set of novel target genes for utilization of amino acids for protein synthesis, including tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthases and rRNAs. Northern blot analysis indicated alteration of mRNA levels for at least some novel targets, including the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. Phenotype MicroArray of the lrp mutant indicated significant alteration in utilization of amino acids and peptides, whilst metabolome analysis showed variations in the concentration of amino acids in the lrp mutant. From these two datasets we realized a reverse correlation between amino acid levels and cell growth rate: fast-growing cells contain low-level amino acids, whilst a high level of amino acids exists in slow-growing cells. Taken together, we propose that Lrp is a global regulator of transcription of a large number of the genes involved in not only amino acid transport and metabolism, but also amino acid utilization. PMID:28348809

  2. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Souvik; Jiang, Rongrong

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP), which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3) were identified with improved tolerance via H(2)O(2) enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2)O(2) with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1), whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2)O(2) concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2)O(2) treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold), but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold). qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE) could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  3. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Basak

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3 were identified with improved tolerance via H(2O(2 enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2O(2 with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1, whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2O(2 concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2O(2 treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold, but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold. qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  4. An asymmetric heterodomain interface stabilizes a response regulator-DNA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Anoop; Kumar, Shivesh; Evrard, Amanda N.; Paul, Lake N.; Yernool, Dinesh A. [Purdue; (Duke-MED)

    2014-02-14

    Two-component signal transduction systems consist of pairs of histidine kinases and response regulators, which mediate adaptive responses to environmental cues. Most activated response regulators regulate transcription by binding tightly to promoter DNA via a phosphorylation-triggered inactive-to-active transition. The molecular basis for formation of stable response regulator–DNA complexes that precede the assembly of RNA polymerases is unclear. Here, we present structures of DNA complexed with the response regulator KdpE, a member of the OmpR/PhoB family. The distinctively asymmetric complex in an active-like conformation reveals a unique intramolecular interface between the receiver domain (RD) and the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of only one of the two response regulators in the complex. Structure–function studies show that this RD–DBD interface is necessary to form stable complexes that support gene expression. The conservation of sequence and structure suggests that these findings extend to a large group of response regulators that act as transcription factors.

  5. Concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Shu, Jocelyn; Hubbard, Alexa D; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-09-01

    This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine a novel aspect of emotion regulation in adolescent development: whether age predicts differences in both the concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response. In the first, active regulation, phase of the testing session, fMRI data were collected while 56 healthy individuals (age range: 10.50-22.92 years) reappraised aversive stimuli so as to diminish negative responses to them. After a short delay, the second, re-presentation, phase involved passively viewing the aversive images from the reappraisal task. During active regulation, older individuals showed greater drops in negative affect and inverse rostrolateral prefrontal-amygdala connectivity. During re-presentation, older individuals continued to show lasting reductions in the amygdala response to aversive stimuli they had previously reappraised, an effect mediated by rostrolateral PFC. These data suggest that one source of heightened emotionality in adolescence is a diminished ability to cognitively down-regulate aversive reactions.

  6. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, John S; Ren, Songyang; Liu, Philip T

    2009-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) enhances innate immunity by inducing the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP). In monocytes/macrophages, this occurs primarily in response to activation of TLR, that induce expression of the vitamin D receptor and localized...

  7. Development and regulation of response properties in spinal cord motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    vertebrates in terms of both phylogeny and ontogeny. Spinal motoneurons in adults are remarkably similar in many respects ranging from the resting membrane potential to pacemaker properties. Apart from the axolotls, spinal motoneurons from all species investigated have latent intrinsic response properties...

  8. Global Transcriptome Profiles of 'Meyer' Zoysiagrass in Response to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjun Wei

    Full Text Available A long green period is essential for a turfgrass species with high ornamental value and a wide area of use. Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp. Willd. are perennial turfgrass species popular in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, possessing many properties necessary to be economically useful turfgrass. They do not have a long green period because of cold sensitivity. A main focus in zoysiagrass research is to develop cold tolerant cultivars. Understanding the cold response in zoysiagrass is a fundamental area of research. In the present study, 'Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica, a widely cultivated variety in the genus, is used. We employed RNA-Seq to investigate genome-wide gene expression profiles in leaves under cold stress (4°C. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 206 million high-quality paired-end reads from three libraries (0 h, 2 h, and 72 h cold treatment at 4°C. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 46,412 unigenes were generated with an average length of 998 bp and an N50 of 1,522 bp. A total of 25,644 (55.2% unigenes were annotated by alignment with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and KOG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs were investigated using the RPKM method. A total of 756 DEGs were identified between 0 h and 2 h-cold treatment, with 522 up-regulated and 234 down-regulated; and 5327 DEGs were identified between 0 h and 72 h-cold treatment, with 2453 up-regulated and 2874 down-regulated. The expression profile of 15 DEGs selected randomly was confirmed with qRT-PCR. The results suggest that cold stress can induce desiccation and oxidative stress, inhibit photosynthesis and substance transport. In response to the stress, genes involved in proline synthesis, in starch hydrolysis, in methionine and ascorbic acid metabolism, in SOD activity, and in DREBs response pathway were up-regulated. GA metabolism, ABA and JA stimulus response were affected under cold

  9. Response of Southeast Asian Muslims to the increasingly globalized world: discourse and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iik Arifin Mansurnoor

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Habiéndose desarrollado a partir de una orientación global, el Islam en el sudeste asiático se ha vuelto global desde sus inicios. El sudeste musulmán de Asia siempre ha aceptado y participa