WorldWideScience

Sample records for response final progress

  1. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  2. Final Performance Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houldin, Joseph [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboor, Veronica [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    about assessing a company’s technical assets, broadening our view of the business to go beyond what they make or what NAICS code they have…to better understand their capacity, capability, and expertise, and to learn more about THEIR customers. Knowing more about the markets they serve can often provide insight into their level of technical knowledge and sophistication. Finally, in the spirit of realizing the intent of the Accelerator we strove to align and integrate the work and activities supported by the five funding agencies to leverage each effort. To that end, we include in the Integrated Work Plan a graphic that illustrates that integration. What follows is our summary report of the project, aggregated from prior reports.

  3. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed

  4. 1995 PVUSA progress report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1995, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions, and serves as the final report under Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s project management.

  5. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  6. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  7. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  8. Enforcement response policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenstein, D.

    1987-12-01

    The directive discusses the policy which updates guidance on classifying violations, selecting appropriate enforcement action in response to various RCRA violators, and taking Federal enforcement action in States with authorized programs.

  9. Startle Response in Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Meral E; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Coşkun, Tülin; Delil, Şakir; Pazarcı, Nevin; Özkara, Çiğdem; Yeni, Naz

    2017-03-01

    Cortical reflex myoclonus is a typical feature of progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) in which it is accompanied by other types of mostly drug-resistant seizures and progressive neurological signs. Although PME is characterized by cortical hyperexcitability, studies have demonstrated atrophy and degenerative changes in the brainstem in various types of PME. Thus, we have questioned whether any stimuli may trigger a hyperactive response of brainstem reticular formation in PME and investigated the startle reflex in individuals with PME. We recorded the auditory startle response (ASR) and the startle response to somatosensory inputs (SSS) in patients with PME, and compared the results with healthy volunteers and patients with other types of drug-resistant epilepsy. All patients were using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 12 were on multiple AEDs. The probability of ASR was significantly lower and mean onset latency was longer in patients with PME compared with other groups. SSS responses over all muscles were low in both the PME and drug-resistant epilepsy groups; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The presence of a response over the biceps brachii muscle was zero in the PME group and showed a borderline difference compared with the other groups. Decreased probability and prolonged latencies of ASR in PME indicate inhibition of reflex circuit. A trend for decreased responses of SSS suggests hypoactive SSS in both PME and other epilepsy groups. Hypoactive ASR in PME and hypoactive SSS in both PME and other epilepsies may be attributed to the degeneration of pontine reticular nuclei in PME and functional inhibition by AEDs in both disorders.

  10. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  11. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  13. 1993 annual final progress report: July 1992 through June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Chen, Z.; Sana, P.; Salami, J.; Doolittle, A.; Pang, A.; Pham, T. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    This is the first annual report since the Inauguration of the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Development (UCEP) at Georgia Tech. The essential objective of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced PV devices and materials, to provide training and enrich the educational experience of students in the field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE for achieving cost-effective and high efficiency PV devices. These objectives are to be accomplished through a combination of research and education. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments, including modeling, processing, and characterization of cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells; use of modeling and PCD measurements to develop a road map for progressing toward 20% multicrystalline and 25% single crystalline cells; the development of a novel PECVD SiN/SiO{sub 2} AR coating that also provides good surface passivation; PECVD deposited SiO{sub 2} films with record low S and D{sub it} at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface; and educational activities and accomplishments.

  14. 1993 annual final progress report: July 1992 through June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Chen, Z.; Sana, P.; Salami, J.; Doolittle, A.; Pang, A.; Pham, T. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    This is the first annual report since the Inauguration of the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Development (UCEP) at Georgia Tech. The essential objective of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced PV devices and materials, to provide training and enrich the educational experience of students in the field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE for achieving cost-effective and high efficiency PV devices. These objectives are to be accomplished through a combination of research and education. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments, including modeling, processing, and characterization of cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells; use of modeling and PCD measurements to develop a road map for progressing toward 20% multicrystalline and 25% single crystalline cells; the development of a novel PECVD SiN/SiO{sub 2} AR coating that also provides good surface passivation; PECVD deposited SiO{sub 2} films with record low S and D{sub it} at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface; and educational activities and accomplishments.

  15. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  16. Final Progress Report for Ionospheric Dusty Plasma In the Laboratory [Smokey Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-07-31

    “Ionospheric Dusty Plasma in the Laboratory” is a research project with the purpose of finding and reproducing the characteristics of plasma in the polar mesosphere that is unusually cold (down to 140 K) and contains nanometer-sized dust particles. This final progress report summarizes results from four years of effort that include a final year with a no-cost extension.

  17. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  18. Final Progress Report for FG02-89ER14030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Maureen R

    2011-10-26

    Intracellular Dynamics of Energy-Transducing Organelles. The location and interaction of intracellular organelles is important for exchange of substrate and product between compartments for optimum functioning of biochemical pathways and energy transduction. Plastids and stromules, tubular plastid extensions, are highly dynamic in many plant tissues. Stromules can connect two or more plastids and proteins and macromolecular complexes can be transferred between them. Stromules have been observed to form close contacts with other organelles, the plasma membrane, and can pass through channels in the nucleus. Chloroplasts move in response to light and mechanical stimulus. Especially in non-green cells, plastids change shape and position, and stromules extend and retract. Stromules appear to be involved in recycling of chloroplast proteins when photosynthesis is limited, through an autophagic process that results in degradation of portions of the stromal contents without complete destruction of the chloroplast. Mutations in several genes known to mediate chloroplast division result in altered stromule morphology in some cells. Plastid and stromule motility is mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. The possible role of myosins in chloroplast movement was investigated by labeling the cargo-binding tails of six Arabidopsis myosin XI proteins with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). The fluorescent proteins were found to localize to vesicles and peroxisomes. The portion of the myosin tail domain fused to YFP affected whether specific or non-specific localization was observed. In contrast to experiments in animal cells, movement of labeled organelles was not entirely inhibited by expression of defective myosin in which the motor domain was replaced with a fluorescent protein. None of the six myosin proteins tested labeled plastids or chloroplasts. However, the Arabidopsis myosin XI gene family expresses an additional seven myosins that await further examination. These experiments

  19. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  20. Research Progresses on Auxin Response Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Wei; Bai-Ming Cui; Yan-Li Ren; Juan-Hua Li; Wei-Bin Liao; Nan-Fei Xu; Ming Peng

    2006-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs), a family of transcription factors, have been discovered recently. The ARFs bind specifically to the auxin response elements (AuxREs) within promoters of primary auxin responsive genes and function as activators or repressors. The ARFs contain three domains, namely a conserved Nterminal DNA-binding domain, a non-conserved middle region, and a conserved C-terminal dirnerization domain. The ARFs can form a protein complex with auxin/indoleacetic acid through homodimerization or heterodimerization. The particular protein-protein interaction may play a key role in modulating the expression of early auxin responsive genes. The identification of ARF mutations in Arabidopsis helps to demonstrate/dissect the function of ARFs in the normal growth and development of plants. Phylogenetic analysis also reveals some interesting protein evolution points in the ARF family.

  1. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group in a rando......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...... in a randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: This study reports data from the intervention group ( n = 37). INTERVENTIONS: The protocol described supervised progressive resistance training of the operated leg two days/week in addition to home-based exercise five days/week and for 10 weeks. The relative load...... progressed from 12 repetition maximum to 8 repetition maximum during 10 weeks for the exercises: knee extension, hip abduction, -flexion and -extension. MAIN MEASURES: Training load in kilograms (kg) for each exercise, hip pain during, before and after exercise using the Visual Analog Scale and adverse...

  2. Incorporating Disciplinary Practices Into Characterizations of Progress in Responsive Teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Jennifer; Gupta, Ayush

    2015-01-01

    Responsive teaching, in which teachers adapt instruction based on close attention to the substance of students' ideas, is typically characterized along two dimensions: the level of detail at which teachers attend and respond to students' ideas, and the stance teachers take toward what they hear - evaluating for correctness vs. interpreting meaning. We propose that characterizations of progress in responsive teaching should also consider the disciplinary centrality of the practices teachers notice and respond to within student thinking. To illustrate what this kind of progress can look like, we present a case study of a middle school science teacher who implemented the "same" lesson on the motion of freely falling objects in two subsequent years. We argue that his primary shift in responsiveness stemmed from a shift in which disciplinary practices he preferentially noticed and foregrounded. He moved from a focus on causal factors or variables to a more scientifically productive focus on causal stories or expla...

  3. Nonlinear and Nonideal MHD. Final annual progress report, January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, James D

    2003-04-30

    This is the third and final annual progress report on the current 3-year ''Nonlinear and Nonideal MHD'' DoE grand DE-FG02-86ER53218 for the six months since the November 2002 progress report. During this grant year the funding level was $309k. The participating personnel and their approximate degree of funded involvement in this research project this grant year has been as follows: Professor J. D. Callen (PI, 1.8 months during academic year, 2.2 summer months); Professor C.C. Hegna (Co-PI: 2.3 months during academic year, 1.5 summer months); postdoc Dr. S. Gupta (100%); and graduate students A.L. Garcia-Perciante (50% RA) and X. Liu (50% RA).

  4. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Final progress report, July 1981-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.R.

    1981-11-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, and general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and through the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the final period from July 1981 to September 1981. This is the last quarterly progress report to be issued for this program.

  5. Extreme Performance Scalable Operating Systems Final Progress Report (July 1, 2008 - October 31, 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-10-31

    This is the final progress report for the FastOS (Phase 2) (FastOS-2) project with Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Oregon (UO). The project started at UO on July 1, 2008 and ran until April 30, 2010, at which time a six-month no-cost extension began. The FastOS-2 work at UO delivered excellent results in all research work areas: * scalable parallel monitoring * kernel-level performance measurement * parallel I/0 system measurement * large-scale and hybrid application performance measurement * onlne scalable performance data reduction and analysis * binary instrumentation

  6. Cell cycle progression in response to oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Brian; Druker, Jimena; Rocha, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia' or decreases in oxygen availability' results in the activation of a number of different responses at both the whole organism and the cellular level. These responses include drastic changes in gene expression, which allow the organism (or cell) to cope efficiently with the stresses associated with the hypoxic insult. A major breakthrough in the understanding of the cellular response to hypoxia was the discovery of a hypoxia sensitive family of transcription factors known as the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). The hypoxia response mounted by the HIFs promotes cell survival and energy conservation. As such, this response has to deal with important cellular process such as cell division. In this review, the integration of oxygen sensing with the cell cycle will be discussed. HIFs, as well as other components of the hypoxia pathway, can influence cell cycle progression. The role of HIF and the cell molecular oxygen sensors in the control of the cell cycle will be reviewed.

  7. Stromal response to Hedgehog signaling restrains pancreatic cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John J; Perera, Rushika M; Wang, Huaijun; Wu, Dai-Chen; Liu, X Shawn; Han, Shiwei; Fitamant, Julien; Jones, Phillip D; Ghanta, Krishna S; Kawano, Sally; Nagle, Julia M; Deshpande, Vikram; Boucher, Yves; Kato, Tomoyo; Chen, James K; Willmann, Jürgen K; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Beachy, Philip A

    2014-07-29

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most lethal of common human malignancies, with no truly effective therapies for advanced disease. Preclinical studies have suggested a therapeutic benefit of targeting the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which is activated throughout the course of PDA progression by expression of Hh ligands in the neoplastic epithelium and paracrine response in the stromal fibroblasts. Clinical trials to test this possibility, however, have yielded disappointing results. To further investigate the role of Hh signaling in the formation of PDA and its precursor lesion, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), we examined the effects of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Hh pathway activity in three distinct genetically engineered mouse models and found that Hh pathway inhibition accelerates rather than delays progression of oncogenic Kras-driven disease. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of Hh pathway activity affected the balance between epithelial and stromal elements, suppressing stromal desmoplasia but also causing accelerated growth of the PanIN epithelium. In striking contrast, pathway activation using a small molecule agonist caused stromal hyperplasia and reduced epithelial proliferation. These results indicate that stromal response to Hh signaling is protective against PDA and that pharmacologic activation of pathway response can slow tumorigenesis. Our results provide evidence for a restraining role of stroma in PDA progression, suggesting an explanation for the failure of Hh inhibitors in clinical trials and pointing to the possibility of a novel type of therapeutic intervention.

  8. Mechanistic insights into aging, cell cycle progression, and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Anthony Alan Harkness

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of an organism depends on the health of its cells. Throughout life cells are exposed to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, such as free radicals, generated through mitochondrial electron transport, and ultraviolet irradiation. The cell has evolved numerous mechanisms to scavenge free radicals and repair damage induced by these insults. One mechanism employed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to combat stress utilizes the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC, an essential multi-subunit ubiquitin-protein ligase structurally and functionally conserved from yeast to humans that controls progression through mitosis and G1. We have observed that yeast cells expressing compromised APC subunits are sensitive to multiple stresses and have shorter replicative and chronological lifespans. In a pathway that runs parallel to that regulated by the APC, members of the Forkhead box (Fox transcription factor family also regulate stress responses. The yeast Fox orthologues Fkh1 and Fkh2 appear to drive the transcription of stress response factors and slow early G1 progression, while the APC seems to regulate chromatin structure, chromosome segregation, and resetting of the transcriptome in early G1. In contrast, under non-stress conditions, the Fkhs play a complex role in cell cycle progression, partially through activation of the APC. Direct and indirect interactions between the APC and the yeast Fkhs appear to be pivotal for lifespan determination. Here we explore the potential for these interactions to be evolutionarily conserved as a mechanism to balance cell cycle regulation with stress responses.

  9. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-11-25

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.

  10. Research progress of extreme climate and its vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaolin; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The IPCC’s fifth assessment report indicates that climate warming is unquestionable, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events may increase, and extreme weather events can destroy the growth conditions of vegetation that is otherwise in a stable condition. Therefore, it is essential to research the formation of extreme weather events and its ecological response, both in terms scientific development and the needs of societal development. This paper mainly examines these issues from the following aspects: (1) the definition of extreme climate events and the methods of studying the associated response of vegetation; (2) the research progress on extreme climate events and their vegetation response; and (3) the future direction of research on extreme climate and its vegetation response.

  11. Research Progress in Tomato Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianing XU; Gang LIU; Liyun ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a kind of vegetable with high economic benefits in protected farmland.Accounting for 30% of vegetable planting area in the entire protected farmland,tomato plays an essential role in cultivation of protected vegetable.Different abiotic stresses have different degrees of influence on growth and development,yield,and fruit quality of tomatoes.Therefore,finding out life activity rules of tomatoes under different abiotic stresses will be of great significance to breeding for stress tolerance and increasing tomato yield and income.This paper made an overview of research progress in tomato responses to abiotic stress in growth and development,physiology and biochemistry,and gene regulation.

  12. Progress Report for DOE FG02-08ER64510 (Final, April 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Over the course of five years we have established a long-term array of warming chambers at Duke and Harvard Forest that simulate future conditions with regard to temperature. In these chambers, we have studied, ants, other animal taxa, fungi, bacteria and plants and their responses to the treatments. We have coupled these studies with lab experiments, large-scale observations, and models to contextualize our results. Finally, we have developed integrative models of the future distribution of species and their consequences as a result of warming in eastern North America and more generally.

  13. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, W.

    2013-01-01

    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  14. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  15. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  16. Responsiveness of muscle tone characteristics to progressive force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustalampi, Sirpa; Häkkinen, Arja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Weir, Adam; Ylinen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to measure muscle tone reliably, quickly and objectively using tonometers although they are not yet widely used. In clinical practice, it may be helpful if clinicians could assess the degree of contraction in different parts of a muscle without having to perform time-consuming electromyography measurements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of different muscle tone characteristics to progressively increased contraction force of quadriceps muscle. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age 39.9 years, 50% women) volunteered. Using 2 different tonometers various muscle viscoelastic properties were measured. The frequency (hertz), logarithmic decrement, and stiffness (newtons per meter) of damped mechanical oscillation of the muscle tissue and tissue compliance (millijoules) were registered from rectus femoris muscle at rest and 20, 40, 60, 80% of maximal voluntary contraction determined using dynamometry. All the values changed linearly with increasing force level. Compliance, oscillation stiffness, and frequency parameters showed large effect sizes (ESs ≥ 0.8). The standardized respoknse mean for compliance was 5.3 (4.8-5.7) mJ, for oscillation stiffness 1.8 (1.3-2.2) N·m(-1), frequency 1.1 (0.6-1.5) Hz, and decrement -0.6 (-1.0 to -0.2). The results indicate that the compliance and oscillation stiffness parameters showed the highest responsiveness and can thus best detect changes in muscle contraction state. The additional value of using tonometers to measure these properties in clinical practice should be investigated further.

  17. Retinoblastoma loss modulates DNA damage response favoring tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Seoane

    Full Text Available Senescence is one of the main barriers against tumor progression. Oncogenic signals in primary cells result in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS, crucial for protection against cancer development. It has been described in premalignant lesions that OIS requires DNA damage response (DDR activation, safeguard of the integrity of the genome. Here we demonstrate how the cellular mechanisms involved in oncogenic transformation in a model of glioma uncouple OIS and DDR. We use this tumor type as a paradigm of oncogenic transformation. In human gliomas most of the genetic alterations that have been previously identified result in abnormal activation of cell growth signaling pathways and deregulation of cell cycle, features recapitulated in our model by oncogenic Ras expression and retinoblastoma (Rb inactivation respectively. In this scenario, the absence of pRb confers a proliferative advantage and activates DDR to a greater extent in a DNA lesion-independent fashion than cells that express only HRas(V12. Moreover, Rb loss inactivates the stress kinase DDR-associated p38MAPK by specific Wip1-dependent dephosphorylation. Thus, Rb loss acts as a switch mediating the transition between premalignant lesions and cancer through DDR modulation. These findings may have important implications for the understanding the biology of gliomas and anticipate a new target, Wip1 phosphatase, for novel therapeutic strategies.

  18. [Responsiveness of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) to disease progression and therapeutic intervention in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Diego; Tang, Yongqiang; O'Neill, Gilmore

    2010-09-16

    The standard approach in relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been to measure therapeutic effects on clinical exacerbations and physical disability as determined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). However, measuring clinical relapses is not a viable option in the progressive forms of MS because of their low frequency. Therefore, the standard approach in clinical trials of progressive forms of MS has been to use the EDSS as primary outcome measure. We examined the responsiveness of the EDSS to disease progression and treatment effects in the context of clinical trials of secondary progressive (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS) MS and compared it to the three functional tasks of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC): the Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW), the 9 Hole PEG (9HP), and the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT). The effect size of the EDSS after two years on placebo was only 0.2-0.3 in both SPMS and PPMS, similar to the 9HP and the PASAT. In contrast, the effect size of the T25FW was much greater and driven to a large extent by subjects who could not complete the task. The EDSS shows poor responsiveness to both disease progression and treatment effects in SPMS and PPMS. The use of alternative primary outcome measures is recommended for therapeutic trials of progressive MS.

  19. Sharing responsibilities in fisheries management; Part 1 - Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van L.J.W.; Hoefnagel, E.W.J.; Schans, van der J.W.; Nielsen, J.R.; Christensen, A.; Sverdrup-Jensen, S.; Delaney, A.; Jentoft, S.; Mikalsen, K.; Karlsen, G.R.; Bodiguel, C.; Catanzano, J.; Suarez de Vivero, J.L.; Alba, I.M.; Domingues, S.R.; Rommel, D.

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the evaluation of the process of devolution of responsibilities in the current institutional landscape in European fisheries management. In particular the analysis focuses on how the present management systems contribute to good governance. We follow the criteria as suggested

  20. State and Employer: CERN faced with its responsibilities (final part)

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    “The Organization must assume its responsibilities without reservation in both of its roles: as a State for our social security system (pensions, health insurance) and as an Employer (salaries, careers, contracts, etc.).” This is the key message passed on to you at the staff meetings last month. Our previous two editorials presented in detail the pensions and health insurance issues and the preparation for the 2010 five-yearly review. In this third part we talk about the contract policy and MARS.

  1. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA: the progress towards the final pixel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, Claudio; Piro, Luigi; Cea, Donatella; Colasanti, Luca; Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Gatti, Flavio; Bagliani, Daniela; Biasotti, Michele; Corsini, Dario; Pizzigoni, Giulio; Torrioli, Guido; Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Perinati, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    "The Hot and Energetic Universe" is the scientific theme approved by the ESA SPC for a Large mission to be flown in the next ESA slot (2028th) timeframe. ATHENA is a space mission proposal tailored on this scientific theme. It will be the first X-ray mission able to perform the so-called "Integral field spectroscopy", by coupling a high-resolution spectrometer, the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), to a high performance optics so providing detailed images of its field of view (5' in diameter) with an angular resolution of 5" and fine energy-spectra (2.5eV@E<7keV). The X-IFU is a kilo-pixel array based on TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters providing high resolution spectroscopy in the 0.2-12 keV range. Some goals is the detection of faint and diffuse sources as Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) or galaxies outskirts. To reach its challenging scientific aims, it is necessary to shield efficiently the X-IFU instrument against background induced by external particles: the goal is 0.005 cts/cm^2/s/keV. This scientific requirement can be met by using an active Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) detector placed very close to X-IFU (~ 1 mm below). This is shown by our GEANT4 simulation of the expected background at L2 orbit. The CryoAC is a TES based detector as the X-IFU sharing with it thermal and mechanical interfaces, so increasing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the payload. It is a 2x2 array of microcalorimeter detectors made by Silicon absorber (each of about 80 mm^2 and 300 μm thick) and sensed by an Ir TES. This choice shows that it is possible to operate such a detector in the so-called athermal regime which gives a response faster than the X-IFU (< 30 μs), and low energy threshold (above few keV). Our consortium has developed and tested several samples, some of these also featured by the presence of Al-fins to efficiently collect the athermal phonons, and increased x-ray absorber area (up to 1 cm^2). Here the results of deep test

  2. FINAL Progress Report DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER15587

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Charles Buddie [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-11-03

    Catalysis Program - Viviane Schwartz Program Manager This Final Report discusses several archival journal articles that have been published that present and discuss the results that were discovered through this DOE grant.

  3. Development of Career Progression Systems for Employees in the Foodservice Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Restaurant Association, Chicago, IL.

    Firms representing four segments of the foodservice industry (institutional foodservice (9 jobs), commercial restaurants (19 jobs), hotel foodservice (100 jobs), and airline foodservice (10 jobs), participated in a career and training study to test the feasibility of designing and implementing career progression (c.p.) systems within these…

  4. Study of private enterprise development on the Raft River KGRA. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.J.; Brown, W.S.; Meldrum, P.D.

    1977-07-01

    Information, analysis, and conclusions based on the small for-profit venture business model are presented. The necessary tasks are described and progress is reviewed. Water availability and business analysis problems are described. Included in the appendix are materials on land availability, characterization of geothermal resources under Idaho law, and greenhouse analysis and geothermal applications. (MHR)

  5. National Assessment of Educational Progress Grade 12 Preparedness Research College Course Content Analysis Study: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Policy Improvement Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board is an independent, bipartisan organization that sets policy for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The Governing Board established the NAEP Program of 12th Grade Preparedness Research to assess what NAEP can report on the academic preparedness of 12th grade students entering college and…

  6. Low-dose fractionated radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for recurrent or progressive glioblastoma. Final report of a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, M.; Diletto, B.; Chiesa, S.; D' Agostino, G.R.; Gambacorta, M.A.; Ferro, M.; Valentini, V. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rome (Italy); Colosimo, C. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Maira, G.; Anile, C. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    Evaluated in this study were the feasibility and the efficacy of concurrent low dose fractionated radiotherapy (LD-FRT) and chemotherapy as palliative treatment for recurrent/progressive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Eligible patients had recurrent or progressive GBM, Karnofsky performance status ≥70, prior surgery, and standard radiochemotherapy treatment. Recurrence/progression disease during temozolomide (TMZ) received cisplatin (CDDP; 30 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1, 8, 15), fotemustine (FTM; 40 mg/m{sup 2} on days 2, 9, 16), and concurrent LD-FRT (0.3 Gy twice daily); recurrence/progression after 4 months from the end of adjuvant TMZ were treated by TMZ (150/200 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5) concomitant with LD-FRT (0.4 Gy twice daily). Primary endpoints were safety and toxicity. A total of 32 patients were enrolled. Hematologic toxicity G1-2 was observed in 18.7% of patients and G3-4 in 9.4%. One patient (3.1%) had complete response, 3 (9.4%) had partial response, 8 (25%) had stable disease for at least 8 weeks, while 20 patients (62.5%) experienced progressive disease. The clinical benefit was 37.5%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5 and 8 months, respectively. Survival rate at 12 months was of 27.8%. LD-FRT and chemotherapy for recurrent/progressive GBM have a good toxicity profile and clinical outcomes, even though further investigation of this novel palliative treatment approach is warranted. (orig.)

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  8. Final Report on Models, Periodic Progress, Report No D1.3, Globeman21, ESPRIT 26509

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Dahl; Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable D1.3 is the third and final deliverable of WP1 - Global Manufacturing Concept of the European part of the Globeman21 project. The report essentially presents the final models on generic Extended Enterprise Management (EEM) and generic Product Life Cycle Management (PLCM), a colle......This deliverable D1.3 is the third and final deliverable of WP1 - Global Manufacturing Concept of the European part of the Globeman21 project. The report essentially presents the final models on generic Extended Enterprise Management (EEM) and generic Product Life Cycle Management (PLCM......), a collection of practical experiences, and requirements for enhanced methods and tools for modelling. First, the deliverable outlines the GM21 understanding regarding extended enterprises and virtual enterprises. This is done by extracting and synthesising the essence of key definitions and concepts...... enterprise context. Through the set of recommended activities for individual life cycle phases of respectively the network entity, the VE entity, and the product entity of the Extended Enterprise Framework, the methodology supports realisation of extended enterprises. The time sequenced planning...

  9. 10 CFR 706.40 - Final responsibility of DOE in security matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.40 Final responsibility of DOE in security matters... collective bargaining between management and labor, insofar as DOE security regulations affect the collective... rules and regulations that affect the collective bargaining process. ...

  10. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. Status of the KLOE Electromagnetic Calorimeter: final optimization, progress in construction and first calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Caloi, R.; Cabibbo, G.; Campana, P.; Cervelli, F.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Di Falco, S.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, S.W.; Incagli, M.; Kim, W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Miscetti, S.; Murtas, F.; Scuri, F.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Woelfle, S.; Zhang, J.Q. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy)]|[Institute of High Energy Physics of Academica Sinica, Beijing (China)]|[Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell`INFN, Frascati (Italy)]|[Physics Department, Columbia University, New York (United States)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Pisa (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Roma I (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Roma II (Italy)]|[Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Sezione INFN, ISS, Roma (Italy)]|[Physics Department, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Trieste/Udine (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    The design and the status of construction of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter are described in this report. 18 out of 24 barrel modules have been fully assembled and more than 50% of the end-cap modules are built. All experimental specifications are fulfilled as shown by the test beam results of the final size prototype. Since the quality of fibers and photomultipliers have gone through improvements, the final calorimeter performances will exceed our expectations. The main parameters of each calorimeter module (light yield, attenuation length and time resolution) are fully surveyed using cosmic rays. Extrapolating the results to electromagnetic showers, a time resolution of 55 ps/{radical}(E(GeV)) and a resolution of 0.9 cm/{radical}(E(GeV)) on the coordinate along the fibers are obtained. An energy resolution of 4.7%/{radical}(E(GeV)) can also be quoted. (orig.).

  12. Final Report on Models, Periodic Progress, Report No D1.3, Globeman21, ESPRIT 26509

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Dahl; Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable D1.3 is the third and final deliverable of WP1 - Global Manufacturing Concept of the European part of the Globeman21 project. The report essentially presents the final models on generic Extended Enterprise Management (EEM) and generic Product Life Cycle Management (PLCM...... accomplished during the GM21EU project. Especially the Extended Enterprise Framework should be accentuated as a key concept of WP1. Building on ISO/DIS 15704 GERAM, the framework constitutes a generic reference model for extended enterprises and hereunder for EEM and PLCM issues. The Extended Enterprise...... classification schema for work preparation in extended enterprises. The classification schema is applied as support for a mapping of the EEM and PLCM pilot projects onto the Extended Enterprise Framework. By mapping the industrial pilot work onto a common reference model experiences have been collected from GM21...

  13. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  14. Reconstructing the temporal progression of HIV-1 immune response pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddhartha; Arrais, Joel; Venkatachari, Narasimhan J.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Most methods for reconstructing response networks from high throughput data generate static models which cannot distinguish between early and late response stages. Results: We present TimePath, a new method that integrates time series and static datasets to reconstruct dynamic models of host response to stimulus. TimePath uses an Integer Programming formulation to select a subset of pathways that, together, explain the observed dynamic responses. Applying TimePath to study human response to HIV-1 led to accurate reconstruction of several known regulatory and signaling pathways and to novel mechanistic insights. We experimentally validated several of TimePaths’ predictions highlighting the usefulness of temporal models. Availability and Implementation: Data, Supplementary text and the TimePath software are available from http://sb.cs.cmu.edu/timepath Contact: zivbj@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307624

  15. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  16. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  17. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  18. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  19. Responsive Environment Program Brooklyn, N.Y., Sept. 1968-June 1969: The Talking Typewriter. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Benjamin L.; Litwin, Zelda

    This progress report covers a 6-month period in the second year of an experimental research project to test the utility of the Edison Responsive Environment Talking Typewriter as a major tool for teaching both initial and remedial reading to educationally disadvantaged youth. Conducted in six schools in Brooklyn, New York, the study included…

  20. Theoretical studies in nuclear structure. Final progress report, June 1, 1991--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshalek, E.R.

    1997-06-01

    The general purview of the project is the theory of collective motion in atomic nuclei. The chief aim is to elucidate the phenomena of (1) anharmonic multiphonon excitations, and (2) collective tilted rotation, both of which are topics of considerable current interest. In the primary stage of an investigation it is often necessary to develop appropriate mathematical tools, as was the case here. In the next stage, the formalism must be tested on simple soluble models. The work described here is mainly concerned with these two stages. The final stage of realistic applications will require more time, manpower and, of course, the necessary funding. Some planning for this last stage has been carried out and anticipated problems axe briefly discussed. As it turns out, both of the above topics can be approached within the unified framework of a theorem that I developed, called the Cranking Bifurcation Theorem (CBT) to be described below. The CBT can be regarded as an outgrowth of the boson expansion method, which provides a general, and, in principal, exact formalism for treating collective excitations. We begin with a brief discussion of the CBT and then continue on to the applications.

  1. Novel catalysts for methane activation. Final progress report, September 30, 1992--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Du, Y.; Wu, H.J.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B.

    1996-06-11

    This final report summarizes the results of our research under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92112, Novel Catalysts for Methane Activation. In this research we prepared and tested fullerene soots for converting methane into higher hydrocarbons. We conducted the methane conversions using dehydrocoupling conditions, primarily in the temperature regimes of 600{degrees}-1000{degrees}C and atmospheric pressures. The research was divided into three sections. The first section focused on comparing fullerene soots with other forms of carbon such as acetylene black and Norit-A. We found that the fullerene soot was indeed more reactive than the other forms of carbon. However, due to its high reactivity, it was not selective. The second section focused on the effect of metals on the reactivity of the soots, including both transition metals and alkali metals. We found that potassium could enhance the selectivities of fullerene soot to higher hydrocarbons, but the effect was unique to fullerene soot and did not improve the performance of other forms of carbon. The third part focused on the use of co-feeds for methane activation to enhance the selectivities and lower the temperature threshold of methane activation.

  2. Environment-driven responses in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghika, J; Tennis, M; Growdon, J; Hoffman, E; Johnson, K

    1995-05-01

    The neurological signs and behaviors that accompany degenerative diseases associated with fronto-striatal dysfunction are incompletely described. We observed several novel environmentally-driven behaviors in seven patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). All patients had cognitive deficits with greatest impairments on tests of frontal lobe function, and frontal lobe cerebral perfusion was significantly reduced in 4 of the 5 who had single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans. Visual grasping, in which a patient's gaze was attracted to an incidental object in the environment such as a TV set or mirror, was preeminent. Once fixed, there was inability to release the gaze and shift to another object. In other instances, removing a table placed in front of a patient or unbuckling of his seat belt would make him stand up, which was impossible on command. Similarly, playing music would induce rhythmic foot beating, which was never obtained on command. There were compulsive utilization behaviors, such as repetitively picking up and replacing the telephone for no apparent reason. As expected, there were signs of heightened facial reflexes, grasp reflexes, apraxia of eyelid opening, echolalia and echopraxia. We postulate that these stimuli-oriented behaviors stem from parietal lobe disinhibition due to fronto-striatal dysfunction.

  3. Stopping rules employing response rates, time to progression, and early progressive disease for phase II oncology trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffin John R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response rate (RR, the most common early means of assessing oncology drugs, is not suitable as the sole endpoint for phase II trials of drugs which induce disease stability but not regression. Time to progression (TTP may be more sensitive to such agents, but induces recruitment delays in multistage studies. Early progressive disease (EPD is the earliest signal of time to progression, but is less intuitive to investigators, To study drugs with unknown anti-tumour effect, we designed the Combination Stopping Rule (CSR, which allows investigators to establish a hypothesis using RR and TTP, while the program also employs early progressive disease (EPD to assess for drug inactivity during the first stage of study accrual. Methods A computer program was created to generate stopping rules based on specified error rates, trial size, and RR and median TTP of interest and disinterest for a two-stage phase II trial. Rules were generated for stage II such that the null hypothesis (Hnul was rejected if either RR or TTP met desired thresholds, and accepted if both did not. Assuming an exponential distribution for progression, EPD thresholds were determined based on specified TTP values. Stopping rules were generated for stage I such that Hnul was accepted and the study stopped if both RR and EPD were unacceptable. Results Patient thresholds were generated for RR, median TTP, and EPD which achieved specified error rates and which allowed early stopping based on RR and EPD. For smaller proportional differences between interesting and disinteresting values of RR or TTP, larger trials are required to maintain alpha error, and early stopping is more common with a larger first stage. Conclusion Stopping rules are provided for phase II trials for drugs which have either a desirable RR or TTP. In addition, early stopping can be achieved using RR and EPD.

  4. A review of progress towards understanding the transient global mean surface temperature response to radiative perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Ohgaito, Rumi; Kamae, Youichi

    2016-12-01

    The correct understanding of the transient response to external radiative perturbation is important for the interpretation of observed climate change, the prediction of near-future climate change, and committed warming under climate stabilization scenarios, as well as the estimation of equilibrium climate sensitivity based on observation data. It has been known for some time that the radiative damping rate per unit of global mean surface temperature increase varies with time, and this inconstancy affects the transient response. Knowledge of the equilibrium response alone is insufficient, but understanding the transient response of the global mean surface temperature has made rapid progress. The recent progress accompanies the relatively new concept of the efficacies of ocean heat uptake and forcing. The ocean heat uptake efficacy associates the temperature response induced by ocean heat uptake with equilibrium temperature response, and the efficacy of forcing compares the temperature response caused by non-CO2 forcing with that by CO2 forcing.

  5. Final Progress Report for the NASA Inductrack Model Rocket Launcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, L S; Post, R F; Martinez-Frias, J

    2001-06-27

    The Inductrack magnetic levitation system, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was studied for its possible use for launching rockets. Under NASA sponsorship, a small model system was constructed at the Laboratory to pursue key technical aspects of this proposed application. The Inductrack is a passive magnetic levitation system employing special arrays of high-field permanent magnets (Halbach arrays) on the levitating cradle, moving above a ''track'' consisting of a close-packed array of shorted coils with which are interleaved with special drive coils. Halbach arrays produce a strong spatially periodic magnetic field on the front surface of the arrays, while canceling the field on their back surface. Relative motion between the Halbach arrays and the track coils induces currents in those coils. These currents levitate the cradle by interacting with the horizontal component of the magnetic field. Pulsed currents in the drive coils, synchronized with the motion of the carrier, interact with the vertical component of the magnetic field to provide acceleration forces. Motional stability, including resistance to both vertical and lateral aerodynamic forces, is provided by having Halbach arrays that interact with both the upper and the lower sides of the track coils. At present, a 7.8 meter track composed of drive and levitation coils has been built and the electronic drive circuitry performs as designed. A 9 kg cradle that carries the Halbach array of permanent magnets has been built. A mechanical launcher is nearly complete which will provide an initial cradle velocity of 9 m/s into the electronic drive section. We have found that the drag forces from the levitation coils were higher than in our original design. However, measurements of drag force at velocities less than 1 m/s are exactly as predicted by theory. Provided here are recommended design changes to improve the track's performance so that a final velocity of 40

  6. Biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of progression, and treatment responses in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With the growing awareness of the impact of chronic back pain and axial spondyloarthritis and recent breakthroughs in genetics and the development of novel treatments which may impact best on early disease, the need for markers that can facilitate early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a bad outcome has never been greater. The genetic basis of ankylosing spondylitis has been considerably advanced, and HLA-B27 testing has a role in the diagnosis. Knowledge is still incomplete of the rest of the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility, and it is likely premature to use extensive genetic testing (other than HLA-B27) for diagnosis. Serum and plasma biomarkers have been examined extensively in assessing disease activity, treatment response, and as predictors or radiographic severity. For assessing disease activity, other than C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the most work has been in examining cytokines (particularly interleukin 17 and 23), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) markers (particularly MMP3). For assessing those at the highest risk for radiographic progression, biomarkers of bony metabolism, cartilage and connective tissue degradation products, and adipokines have been most extensively assessed. The problem is that no individual biomarkers has been reproducibly shown to assess disease activity or predict outcome, and this area still remains an unmet need, of relevance to industry stakeholders, to regulatory bodies, to the healthcare system, to academic investigators, and finally to patients and providers. PMID:25939520

  7. Biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of progression, and treatment responses in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveille, John D

    2015-06-01

    With the growing awareness of the impact of chronic back pain and axial spondyloarthritis and recent breakthroughs in genetics and the development of novel treatments which may impact best on early disease, the need for markers that can facilitate early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a bad outcome has never been greater. The genetic basis of ankylosing spondylitis has been considerably advanced, and HLA-B27 testing has a role in the diagnosis. Knowledge is still incomplete of the rest of the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility, and it is likely premature to use extensive genetic testing (other than HLA-B27) for diagnosis. Serum and plasma biomarkers have been examined extensively in assessing disease activity, treatment response, and as predictors or radiographic severity. For assessing disease activity, other than C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the most work has been in examining cytokines (particularly interleukin 17 and 23), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) markers (particularly MMP3). For assessing those at the highest risk for radiographic progression, biomarkers of bony metabolism, cartilage and connective tissue degradation products, and adipokines have been most extensively assessed. The problem is that no individual biomarkers has been reproducibly shown to assess disease activity or predict outcome, and this area still remains an unmet need, of relevance to industry stakeholders, to regulatory bodies, to the healthcare system, to academic investigators, and finally to patients and providers.

  8. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  9. The effect of conditional probability of chord progression on brain response: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual.

  10. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, Valeri [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-05-29

    The research in this program involves theoretical investigations of electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene and its derivatives, such as bi-layer graphene, graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures, strained graphene, as well as graphene on various surfaces. One line of research has been development of theoretical models that support graphene’s large array of possible technological applications. For example one of our goals has been the understanding of surface plasmons and spin relaxation mechanisms in graphene, related to novel optoelectronics and spintronics applications. Our current research focus is on understanding the role of correlations in graphene under mechanical deformations, such as strain. The main goal is to describe the mutual interplay between strain and electron-electron interactions which could lead to the formation of novel elec- tronic phases with strongly modified electronic, magnetic and optical properties. This direction of research contributes to deeper understanding of interactions in graphene and related atomically-thin materials - a subject at the forefront of research on graphene and its derivatives.

  11. Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; R.C. Greenlund

    2002-12-31

    Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide product with little salt and no hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gas generating capability, which, if isolated from high alkali conditions, would pose no reactivity concerns. The US aluminum industry has historically, along with the steel industry, been a leader in recycling metal. The findings from this project, increased metal recovery, improved salt recycling, and demonstrated end uses for oxide residues, will go a long way in helping the aluminum industry obtain 100% material utilization and zero discharge.

  12. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Herbert J

    2012-02-06

    The BIOMOL grant was for 'Local System Support for PDB Biological Unit Search and Display' to augment Rasmol's [Bernstein 2000] [Sayle, Milner-White 1995] existing macromolecular display functions with new capabilities by taking advantage of recent increases in local computing power in order to move functionality that is now scattered among various local and remote systems into one local package. Work included new algorithms for molecular surface display, an extended format for Protein Data Bank Entries, work on issues relating to the integration of multiple diffraction images formats.

  13. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Herbert J

    2012-02-06

    The BIOMOL grant was for 'Local System Support for PDB Biological Unit Search and Display' to augment Rasmol's [Bernstein 2000] [Sayle, Milner-White 1995] existing macromolecular display functions with new capabilities by taking advantage of recent increases in local computing power in order to move functionality that is now scattered among various local and remote systems into one local package. Work included new algorithms for molecular surface display, an extended format for Protein Data Bank Entries, work on issues relating to the integration of multiple diffraction images formats.

  14. Response to Disturbance and Abundance of Final State: a Measure for Complexity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Dan; WANG Wen-Xiu; JIANG Yu-Mei; HE Yue; HE Da-Ren

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new definition of complexity. The definition shows that when a system evolves to a final state via a transient state, its complexity depends on the abundance of both the final state and transient state. The abundance of the transient state may be described by the diversity of the response to disturbance. We hope that this definition can describe a clear boundary between simple systems and complex systems by showing that all the simple systems have zero complexity, and all the complex systems have positive complexity. Some examples of the complexity calculations are presented, which supports our hope.

  15. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  16. Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Wang, Zhiguo; Prange, Micah P.; Wu, Dangxin

    2014-12-01

    This Final Report presents work carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators” (Project number: PL10-Scin-theor-PD2Jf) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project was divided into four tasks: 1) Electronic response functions (ab initio data model) 2) Electron-hole yield, variance, and spatial distribution 3) Ab initio calculations of information carrier properties 4) Transport of electron-hole pairs and scintillation efficiency Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the four tasks is provided in this Final Report. Furthermore, published peer-reviewed articles based on the work carried under this project are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  17. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  18. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  19. Measurement and apportionment of radon source terms for modeling indoor environments. Final progress report, March 1990--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, N.H.

    1992-12-31

    During the present 2 1/2 year contract period, we have made significant Progress in modeling the source apportionment of indoor {sup 222}Rn and in {sup 222}Rn decay product dosimetry. Two additional areas were worked on which we believe are useful for the DOE Radon research Program. One involved an analysis of the research house data, grouping the hourly house {sup 222}Rn measurements into 2 day, 7 day and 90 day intervals to simulate the response of passive monitors. Another area requiring some attention resulted in a publication of 3 years of our indoor/outdoor measurements in a high-rise apartment. Little interest has been evinced in apartment measurements yet 20% of the US population lives in multiple-family dwellings, not in contact with the ground. These data together with a summary of all other published data on apartments showed that apartments have only about 50% greater {sup 222}Rn concentration than the measured outdoor {sup 222}Rn. Apartment dwellers generally represent a low risk group regarding {sup 222}Rn exposure. The following sections describe the main projects in some detail.

  20. Potential biomarkers to follow the progression and treatment response of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disatnik, Marie-Hélène; Joshi, Amit U; Saw, Nay L; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Leavitt, Blair R; Qi, Xin; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-11-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic disease caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein resulting in selective neuronal loss. Although genetic testing readily identifies those who will be affected, current pharmacological treatments do not prevent or slow down disease progression. A major challenge is the slow clinical progression and the inability to biopsy the affected tissue, the brain, making it difficult to design short and effective proof of concept clinical trials to assess treatment benefit. In this study, we focus on identifying peripheral biomarkers that correlate with the progression of the disease and treatment benefit. We recently developed an inhibitor of pathological mitochondrial fragmentation, P110, to inhibit neurotoxicity in HD. Changes in levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and inflammation markers in plasma, a product of DNA oxidation in urine, mutant huntingtin aggregates, and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in muscle and skin tissues were all noted in HD R6/2 mice relative to wild-type mice. Importantly, P110 treatment effectively reduced the levels of these biomarkers. Finally, abnormal levels of mtDNA were also found in plasma of HD patients relative to control subjects. Therefore, we identified several potential peripheral biomarkers as candidates to assess HD progression and the benefit of intervention for future clinical trials.

  1. The Systemic Inflammatory Response in Patients with Appendicitis: a Progressive Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Marcelo A

    2015-12-01

    The systemic inflammatory response has been described in patients with appendicitis. However, its progression from onset of symptoms to diagnosis has not been characterized. The specific purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the systemic inflammatory response to appendicitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred eighty-three patients were studied, divided into four groups from onset of symptoms to diagnosis. The primary outcome measure was to determine the systemic inflammatory response to appendicitis according to the established groups of time intervals. The secondary outcome measure was the analysis of C-reactive protein for the same purpose. The variables of the systemic inflammatory response, according to diagnostic intervals, showed non-significant differences in white blood cell count. The temperature rose constantly after 48 h, reaching its peak after 72 h (p = 0.001), and the respiratory rate rose after 73 h (p inflammatory response criteria (p inflammatory response to appendicitis is progressive, being more marked along the timeline from onset of symptoms to diagnosis.

  2. Kinetics of disease progression and host response in a rat model of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbane, Florent; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Gowen, Brian B; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Plague, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, primarily affects rodents but is also an important zoonotic disease of humans. Bubonic plague in humans follows transmission by infected fleas and is characterized by an acute, necrotizing lymphadenitis in the regional lymph nodes that drain the intradermal flea bite site. Septicemia rapidly follows with spread to spleen, liver, and other organs. We developed a model of bubonic plague using the inbred Brown Norway strain of Rattus norvegicus to characterize the progression and kinetics of infection and the host immune response after intradermal inoculation of Y. pestis. The clinical signs and pathology in the rat closely resembled descriptions of human bubonic plague. The bacteriology; histopathology; host cellular response in infected lymph nodes, blood, and spleen; and serum cytokine levels were analyzed at various times after infection to determine the kinetics and route of disease progression and to evaluate hypothesized Y. pestis pathogenic mechanisms. Understanding disease progression in this rat infection model should facilitate further investigations into the molecular pathogenesis of bubonic plague and the immune response to Y. pestis at different stages of the disease.

  3. High-response hybrid quantum dots- 2D conductor phototransistors: recent progress and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablon, Kimberly A.; Sergeev, Andrei; Najmaei, Sina; Dubey, Madan

    2017-03-01

    Having been inspired by the tremendous progress in material nanoscience and device nanoengineering, hybrid phototransistors combine solution processed colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with graphene or two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials. Novel detectors demonstrate ultrahigh photoconductive gain, high and selective photoresponse, low noise, and very high responsivity in visible- and near-infrared ranges. The outstanding performance of phototransistors is primarily due to the strong, selective, and size tunable absorption of QDs and fast charge transfer in 2D high mobility conductors. However, the relatively small mobility of QD nanomaterials was a technological barrier, which limited the operating rate of devices. Very recent innovations in detector design and significant progress in QD ligand engineering provide effective tools for further qualitative improvements. This article reviews the recent progress in material science, nanophysics, and device engineering related to hybrid phototransistors. Detectors based on various QD nanomaterials and several 2D conductors are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of various nanomaterials for applications in hybrid phototransistors are identified. We also benchmark the experimental characteristics with model results that establish interrelations and tradeoffs between detector characteristics, such as responsivity, dark and noise currents, the photocarrier lifetime, response, and noise bandwidths. We have shown that the most recent phototransistors demonstrate performance limited by the fundamental generation recombination noise in high gain devices. Interrelation between the dynamic range of the detector and the detector sensitivity is discussed. The review is concluded with a brief discussion of the remaining challenges and possible significant improvements in the performance of hybrid phototransistors.

  4. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  5. Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: similarities between tumors and wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Y Chang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer invasion and metastasis have been likened to wound healing gone awry. Despite parallels in cellular behavior between cancer progression and wound healing, the molecular relationships between these two processes and their prognostic implications are unclear. In this study, based on gene expression profiles of fibroblasts from ten anatomic sites, we identify a stereotyped gene expression program in response to serum exposure that appears to reflect the multifaceted role of fibroblasts in wound healing. The genes comprising this fibroblast common serum response are coordinately regulated in many human tumors, allowing us to identify tumors with gene expression signatures suggestive of active wounds. Genes induced in the fibroblast serum-response program are expressed in tumors by the tumor cells themselves, by tumor-associated fibroblasts, or both. The molecular features that define this wound-like phenotype are evident at an early clinical stage, persist during treatment, and predict increased risk of metastasis and death in breast, lung, and gastric carcinomas. Thus, the transcriptional signature of the response of fibroblasts to serum provides a possible link between cancer progression and wound healing, as well as a powerful predictor of the clinical course in several common carcinomas.

  6. Responsiveness and predictive value of EDSS and MSFC in primary progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragt, J J; Thompson, A J; Montalban, X; Tintoré, M; Río, J; Polman, C H; Uitdehaag, B M J

    2008-03-25

    We studied the responsiveness and predictive value of two widely used clinical outcome measures that document multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression-the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC)-in patients with primary progressive (PP) MS. Disease course in PPMS shows less fluctuation than in relapsing remitting (RR) MS. In a group of 161 patients with PPMS, EDSS and MSFC were performed at three timepoints. To assess responsiveness, mean change scores and variances were plotted against baseline scores and effect sizes were calculated. Predictive value was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) of 1-year changes to predict changes over 2 years. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the predictive value of short-term worsening on EDSS and MSFC. Responsiveness of both EDSS and MSFC was shown to be limited and mean changes were highly dependent on the baseline scores. Effect sizes for EDSS and MSFC were small and inconclusive (0.239 and 0.161). The predictive value of a short-term worsening (baseline to year 1) to predict worsening in the long term (baseline to year 2) was expressed for EDSS by a sensitivity of 0.55 and a LR+ of 8.64. For MSFC, sensitivity was 0.68 and LR+ was 3.14. However, short-term worsening was a poor predictor of subsequent worsening (year 1 to year 2) for EDSS (LR+ 1.06) and this relationship was actually inverse for MSFC (LR+ 0.61). In this study over a period of 2 years in primary progressive multiple sclerosis, the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) was less responsive than the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The predictive value of neither EDSS nor MSFC was very powerful.

  7. Application of finite element, global polynomial, and kriging response surfaces in Progressive Lattice Sampling designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMERO,VICENTE J.; SWILER,LAURA PAINTON; GIUNTA,ANTHONY A.

    2000-04-25

    This paper examines the modeling accuracy of finite element interpolation, kriging, and polynomial regression used in conjunction with the Progressive Lattice Sampling (PLS) incremental design-of-experiments approach. PLS is a paradigm for sampling a deterministic hypercubic parameter space by placing and incrementally adding samples in a manner intended to maximally reduce lack of knowledge in the parameter space. When combined with suitable interpolation methods, PLS is a formulation for progressive construction of response surface approximations (RSA) in which the RSA are efficiently upgradable, and upon upgrading, offer convergence information essential in estimating error introduced by the use of RSA in the problem. The three interpolation methods tried here are examined for performance in replicating an analytic test function as measured by several different indicators. The process described here provides a framework for future studies using other interpolation schemes, test functions, and measures of approximation quality.

  8. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin. Final progress report, May 1, 1990--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1992-12-31

    The multistage theory of carcinogenesis specifies that cells progress to cancer through a series of discrete, irreversible genetic alterations, but data on radiation-induced cancer incidence in rat skin suggests that an intermediate repairable alteration may occur. Data are presented on cancer induction in rat skin exposed to an electron beam (LET=0.34 keV/{mu}), a neon ion beam (LET=45) or an argon ion beam (LET=125). The rats were observed for tumors at least 78 weeks with squamous and basal cell carcinomas observed. The total cancer yield was fitted by the quadratic equation, and the equation parameters were estimated by linear regression for each type of radiation. Analysis of the DNA from the electron-induced carcinomas indicated that K-ras and/or c-myc oncogenes were activated. In situ hybridization indicated that the cancers contain subpopulations of cells with differing amounts of c-myc and H-ras amplification. The results are consistent with the idea that ionizing radiation produces stable, carcinogenically relevant lesions via 2 repairable events at low LET and via a non-repairable linked event pathway at high LET; either pathway may advance the cell by 1 stage. The proliferative response of rat epidermis following exposure to ionizing radiation was quantified by injection of {sup 14}C-thymidine. The return of these cells to S-phase a second time was detected by a second label ({sup 3}H). When the labeled cells were in G1-phase, the dorsal skin was irradiated with X-rays. All labeling indices were determined. The {sup 14}C labeling index was constant and unaffected by the radiation. The proportion of all cells entering S-phase averaged 3.5% at 18 hr and increased after 44, 52 and 75 hr to average levels of 11.8%, 5. 3%, and 6.6% at 0, 10 and 25 Gy respectively. The proportion of S-phase cells labeled with {sup 14}C increased after 42 hr and remained relatively constant thereafter.

  9. Interactions of CO{sub 2} with temperature and other climate variables: Response of vegetation. Final report, September 1, 1988--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acock, B.; Kimball, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    The current project was initiated in 1991, and full details of the scope of the project are contained in the original proposal. that original proposal was reviewed and approved for three years funding. Progress made in 1991-92 and 1992-93 was described in annual Progress Reports and Statements of Work. This document summarizes progress made over the duration of the project, but with an emphasis on the final year`s (1993-94) results. Several of the important experiments are ongoing, to the extent that alternative funding could be arranged, and analyses of data from several of the earlier completed experiments is continuing. Therefore, this Final Report is also intermediary in nature, and additional results from this project will be reported in the open literature in the future. The overall objectives of the project were: (1) to examine experimentally, for major crop species, the interacting effects of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and water availability on plant growth and development, (2) to model these interactions, and (3) to continue developing physiologically-based mechanistic models for predicting crop response to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and future global climate change.

  10. Final Technical Progress Report; Closeout Certifications; CSSV Newsletter Volume I; CSSV Newsletter Volume II; CSSV Activity Journal; CSSV Final Financial Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Johnny L [PI; Geter, Kerry [Division of Business and Finance

    2013-08-23

    This Project?s third year of implementation in 2007-2008, the final year, as designated by Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), in cooperation with the National Association of Mathematicians (NAM) Inc., in an effort to promote research and research training programs in computational science ? scientific visualization (CSSV). A major goal of the Project was to attract the energetic and productive faculty, graduate and upper division undergraduate students of diverse ethnicities to a program that investigates science and computational science issues of long-term interest to the Department of Energy (DoE) and the nation. The breadth and depth of computational science?scientific visualization and the magnitude of resources available are enormous for permitting a variety of research activities. ECSU?s Computational Science-Science Visualization Center will serve as a conduit for directing users to these enormous resources.

  11. The adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress response to lipotoxicity in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Flores-Keown, Brieanna; Zhao, Fei; Klimecki, Walter T; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress from simple steatosis to severe, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 7%-14% of the U.S. population through a second "hit" in the form of increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are triggered when high levels of lipids and misfolded proteins alter ER homeostasis creating a lipotoxic environment within NAFLD livers. The objective of this study was to determine the coordinate regulation of ER stress-associated genes in the progressive stages of human NAFLD. Human liver samples categorized as normal, steatosis, NASH (Fatty), and NASH (Not Fatty) were analyzed by individual Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST microarrays, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. A gene set enrichment analysis was performed on autophagy, apoptosis, lipogenesis, and ER stress/UPR gene categories. An enrichment of downregulated genes in the ER stress-associated lipogenesis and ER stress/UPR gene categories was observed in NASH. Conversely, an enrichment of upregulated ER stress-associated genes for autophagy and apoptosis gene categories was observed in NASH. Protein expression of the adaptive liver response protein STC2 and the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP-1s) were significantly elevated among NASH samples, whereas other downstream ER stress proteins including CHOP, ATF4, and phosphorylated JNK and eIF2α were not significantly changed in disease progression. Increased nuclear accumulation of total XBP-1 protein was observed in steatosis and NASH livers. The findings reveal the presence of a coordinated, adaptive transcriptional response to hepatic ER stress in human NAFLD.

  12. Evaluation of tumor response, disease control, progression-free survival, and time to progression as potential surrogate end points in metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burzykowski, Tomasz; Buyse, Marc; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.; Sledge, George; Carmichael, James; Lueck, Hans-Joachim; Mackey, John R.; Nabholtz, Jean-Marc; Paridaens, Robert; Biganzoli, Laura; Jassem, Jacek; Bontenbal, Marijke; Bonneterre, Jacques; Chan, Stephen; Basaran, Gul Atalay; Therasse, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Overall survival (OS) can be observed only after prolonged follow-up, and any potential effect of first-line therapies on OS may be confounded by the effects of subsequent therapy. We investigated whether tumor response, disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), or time to progressio

  13. Procedures for Handling Retaliation Complaints Under Section 31307 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    On March 16, 2016, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the U.S. Department of Labor (Department) issued an interim final rule (IFR) that provided procedures for the Department's processing of complaints under the employee protection (retaliation or whistleblower) provisions of Section 31307 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). The IFR established procedures and time frames for the handling of retaliation complaints under MAP-21, including procedures and time frames for employee complaints to OSHA, investigations by OSHA, appeals of OSHA determinations to an administrative law judge (ALJ) for a hearing de novo, hearings by ALJs, review of ALJ decisions by the Administrative Review Board (ARB) (acting on behalf of the Secretary of Labor) and judicial review of the Secretary's final decision. It also set forth the Department's interpretations of the MAP-21 whistleblower provisions on certain matters. This final rule adopts, without change, the IFR.

  14. Characterisation of the histone methyltransferase SET8 in cell cycle progression and the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine

    2008-01-01

    component of the replication fork, further supporting the involvement of SET8 in replication, suggesting that SET8 may be required to support replication fork progression. Finally, we showed that SET8 was rapidly degraded by DNA damage such as UV and ionizing radiation (IR), which was accompanied...... by a decrease in H4K20me1. The removal of SET8 could be rescued by addition of a proteasomal inhibitor. Combined with data showing in vivo ubiquitylation of SET8, we suggest that the degradation of SET8 is mediated via the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. Collectively, these data suggest that SET8, during normal...... cellular homeostasis, has a role in supporting the chromatin structure to facilitate DNA replication. However, when cells are challenged by DNA damage efficient repair may be dependent on rapid degradation of SET8 and a reduction of the monomethyl mark on histone H4 lysine 20....

  15. The BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity response to progressive hypercapnia in young and elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhogal, Alex A.; De Vis, Jill B.; Siero, Jeroen C.W.

    2016-01-01

    to broaden our interpretation of the BOLD-CVR response. Significant age-related differences were observed. Grey matter CVR at 7 mm Hg above resting PetCO2 was lower amongst elderly (0.19 ± 0.06%ΔBOLD/mm Hg) as compared to young subjects (0.26 ± 0.07%ΔBOLD/mm Hg). White matter CVR at 7 mm Hg above baseline...... PetCO2 showed no significant difference between young (0.04 ± 0.02%ΔBOLD/mm Hg) and elderly subjects (0.05 ± 0.03%ΔBOLD/mm Hg). We saw no significant differences in the BOLD signal response to progressive hypercapnia between male and female subjects in either grey or white matter. The observed...

  16. Disease Progression Mediated by Egr-1 Associated Signaling in Response to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Deindl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When cellular reducing enzymes fail to shield the cell from increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS, oxidative stress arises. The redox state is misbalanced, DNA and proteins are damaged and cellular transcription networks are activated. This condition can lead to the initiation and/or to the progression of atherosclerosis, tumors or pulmonary hypertension; diseases that are decisively furthered by the presence of oxidizing agents. Redox sensitive genes, like the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1, play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Apart from inducing apoptosis, signaling partners like the MEK/ERK pathway or the protein kinase C (PKC can activate salvage programs such as cell proliferation that do not ameliorate, but rather worsen their outcome. Here, we review the currently available data on Egr-1 related signal transduction cascades in response to oxidative stress in the progression of epidemiologically significant diseases. Knowing the molecular pathways behind the pathology will greatly enhance our ability to identify possible targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Progression-free survival, post-progression survival, and tumor response as surrogate markers for overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Imai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effects of first-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS might be confounded by subsequent therapies in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We examined whether progression-free survival (PFS, post-progression survival (PPS, and tumor response could be valid surrogate endpoints for OS after first-line chemotherapies for patients with extensive SCLC using individual-level data. Methods: Between September 2002 and November 2012, we analyzed 49 cases of patients with extensive SCLC who were treated with cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy. The relationships of PFS, PPS, and tumor response with OS were analyzed at the individual level. Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that PPS was strongly correlated with OS (r = 0.97, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.94, PFS was moderately correlated with OS (r = 0.58, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.24, and tumor shrinkage was weakly correlated with OS (r = 0.37, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.13. The best response to second-line treatment, and the number of regimens employed after progression beyond first-line chemotherapy were both significantly associated with PPS ( p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: PPS is a potential surrogate for OS in patients with extensive SCLC. Our findings also suggest that subsequent treatment after disease progression following first-line chemotherapy may greatly influence OS.

  18. Different decision deficits impair response inhibition in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Rittman, Timothy; Nombela, Cristina; Fois, Alessandro; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Barker, Roger A; Hughes, Laura E; Rowe, James B

    2016-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease have distinct underlying neuropathology, but both diseases affect cognitive function in addition to causing a movement disorder. They impair response inhibition and may lead to impulsivity, which can occur even in the presence of profound akinesia and rigidity. The current study examined the mechanisms of cognitive impairments underlying disinhibition, using horizontal saccadic latencies that obviate the impact of limb slowness on executing response decisions. Nineteen patients with clinically diagnosed progressive supranuclear palsy (Richardson's syndrome), 24 patients with clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy control subjects completed a saccadic Go/No-Go task with a head-mounted infrared saccadometer. Participants were cued on each trial to make a pro-saccade to a horizontal target or withhold their responses. Both patient groups had impaired behavioural performance, with more commission errors than controls. Mean saccadic latencies were similar between all three groups. We analysed behavioural responses as a binary decision between Go and No-Go choices. By using Bayesian parameter estimation, we fitted a hierarchical drift-diffusion model to individual participants' single trial data. The model decomposes saccadic latencies into parameters for the decision process: decision boundary, drift rate of accumulation, decision bias, and non-decision time. In a leave-one-out three-way classification analysis, the model parameters provided better discrimination between patients and controls than raw behavioural measures. Furthermore, the model revealed disease-specific deficits in the Go/No-Go decision process. Both patient groups had slower drift rate of accumulation, and shorter non-decision time than controls. But patients with progressive supranuclear palsy were strongly biased towards a pro-saccade decision boundary compared to Parkinson's patients and controls. This indicates a prepotency of

  19. Clinical value of MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-hong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the MRI abnormalities and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and Parkinson's disease (PD. Methods Seventeen patients with PSP and 17 gender and age matched patients with PD were studied with cranial MRI examinations and results of acute madopar responsiveness test, and the clinical manifestations of PSP were summarized. Results The atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum and hummingbird sign was demonstrated in all of the PSP patients in our study, but was not observed in the PD patients. The areas of the midbrain on mid-sagittal MRI in PSP patients [(77.35 ± 15.30 mm2] were significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(142.35 ± 31.49 mm2]. The average ratio of the area of the midbrain to the area of pons in the patients with PSP [(14.31 ± 2.47%] was significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(24.08 ± 4.73%; P = 0.000, for all]. According to the result of acute madopar responsiveness test, the maximum Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Ⅲ improvement rate of 2 patients with PSP and 16 patients with PD was more than 30% (χ2 = 23.142, P = 0.000. Conclusion The assessment of the mid-sagittal MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test may be a useful method to differentiate PSP from PD.

  20. Cyclosporine induces progressive attenuation of baroreceptor heart rate response and cumulative pressor response in conscious unrestrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Hossam A; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2003-06-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) use is associated with hypertension and reduced baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In this study, we investigated whether CsA attenuation of BRS is 1) dependent on treatment regimen, and 2) causative of the pressor response. Furthermore, we investigated whether a reduction in plasma testosterone contributes to BRS attenuation caused by short-term CsA administration. The effects of the clinically used CsA formulation (15 mg/kg/day i.v. for 5 days) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, BRS, and body weight were investigated in conscious rats. CsA caused reproducible pressor responses (15.1 +/- 3.0 mm Hg) starting after the first dose and continuing through the 5 days of the study. BRS and baseline MAP were inversely related in the CsA group because of a progressive reduction in BRS, which started on day 2 and reached approximately 50% of baseline on day 5 and a cumulative elevation in MAP. The inverse BRS and MAP responses required daily administration of CsA because neither response was evident throughout the 5-day observation period after a single dose of CsA. Plasma testosterone levels were similar in all groups, whereas the body weight decreased approximately 10% in the CsA group on day 5. These findings suggest 1) CsA attenuation of BRS is relatively rapid and cumulative; 2) the attenuation of BRS may contribute to the delayed, but not to the acute, pressor elicited by CsA; and 3) the cumulative reduction in BRS caused by short-term (5-day) CsA treatment is not testosterone-related.

  1. Final Progress Report for Collaborative Research: Aging of Black Carbon during Atmospheric Transport: Understanding Results from the DOE’s 2010 CARES and 2012 ClearfLo Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Subramanian, R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Over the course of this project, we have analyzed data and samples from the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) campaign, as well as conducted or participated in laboratory experiments designed to better understand black carbon mixing state and climate-relevant properties. The laboratory campaigns took place at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Carnegie Mellon University to study various climate-relevant aerosol properties of different sources of soot mixing with secondary organic aerosol precursors. Results from some of these activities were summarized in the previous progress report. This final report presents the manuscripts that have been published (many in the period since the last progress report), lists presentations at different conferences based on grant-related activities, and presents some results that are likely to be submitted for publication in the near future.

  2. Fusion reactor systems studies. Progress report for the period November 1, 1996--October 31, 1997, and final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.; Blanchard, J.P.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1997-08-01

    During FY97, the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute personnel have participated in the ARIES-RS and the ARIES-ST projects. The main areas of effort are: (1) neutronics analysis; (2) shielding of components and personnel; (3) neutron wall loading distribution; (4) radiation damage to in-vessel components; (5) components lifetimes; (6) embrittled materials designs issues; (7) stress and structural analysis; (8) activation, LOCA, and safety analysis; (9) support and fabrication of components; (10) vacuum system; and (11) maintenance. Progress made in these areas are summarized.

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT. SECOND PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOTKIN, LASSAR G.; MCSWEENEY, JOSEPH

    THE SECOND PROGRESS REPORT OF A PROJECT UTILIZING A COMPLEX TEACHING MACHINE, THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT, TO STUDY THE ACQUISITION OF BEGINNING READING SKILLS BY 5-YEAR-OLDS FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS IS PRESENTED. THE FIRST REPORT DESCRIBED THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT AND DISCUSSED THE PROGRAMING DEVELOPED…

  4. Radiation Promotes Colorectal Cancer Initiation and Progression by Inducing Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Bozeman, Ronald; Kaisani, Aadil; Kim, Wanil; Zhang, Lu; Richardson, James A.; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy is becoming more common since protons induce more precise DNA damage at the tumor site with reduced side effects to adjacent normal tissues. However, the long-term biological effects of proton irradiation in cancer initiation compared to conventional photon irradiation are poorly characterized. In this study, using a human familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome susceptible mouse model, we show that whole body irradiation with protons are more effective in inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses (SIR) which are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression. After proton irradiation, a subset of SIR genes (Troy, Sox17, Opg, Faim2, Lpo, Tlr2 and Ptges) and a gene known to be involved in invasiveness (Plat), along with the senescence associated gene (P19Arf) are markedly increased. Following these changes loss of Casein kinase Iα (CKIα) and induction of chronic DNA damage and TP53 mutations are increased compared to x-ray irradiation. Proton irradiation also increases the number of colonic polyps, carcinomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CDDO-EA, reduces proton irradiation associated SIR and tumorigenesis. Thus, exposure to proton irradiation elicits significant changes in colorectal cancer initiation and progression that can be mitigated using CDDO-EA. PMID:26477319

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  6. The Final 24-Item Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaires (EOSQ-24): Validity, Reliability and Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Williams, Brendan; Park, Howard Y; Yoshimachi, Julie Y; Roye, Benjamin D; Roye, David P; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Emans, John; Skaggs, David; Smith, John T; Vitale, Michael G

    2016-06-13

    The goal of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treatment is to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients and to reduce the burden on their parents or caregivers. The purpose of this study is to develop and finalize the 24-item Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire (EOSQ-24), and examine the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the EOSQ-24 in measuring patients' HRQoL, the burden on their caregivers, and the burden on their caregiver's finances. The study also established aged-matched normative values for the EOSQ-24. The EOSQ-24 was administered to caregivers of male and female patients aged 0 to 18 years with EOS. Patients with EOS are diagnosed before 10 years of age. Criterion validity was investigated by measuring agreement between its scores and pulmonary function testing. Construct validity was established by comparing values across different etiology groups using the known-group method, and measuring internal consistency reliability. Content validity was confirmed by reviewing caregiver and health provider ratings for the relativity and clarity of the EOSQ-24 questions. Test-retest reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients. Responsiveness of the EOSQ-24 before and after surgical interventions was also investigated. Age-matched, healthy patients, without spinal deformity, were enrolled to establish normative EOSQ-24 values. The pulmonary function subdomain score in the EOSQ-24 was positively correlated with pulmonary function testing values, establishing criterion validity. The EOSQ-24 scores for neuromuscular patients were significantly decreased compared with idiopathic or congenital/structural patients, demonstrating known-group validity. Internal consistency reliability of patients' HRQoL was excellent (0.92), but Family Burden was questionable (0.64) indicating that Parental Burden and Financial Burden should be in separate domains. All 24 EOSQ items were rated as essential and clear, confirming content

  7. Final Progress Report: FRACTURE AND SUBCRITICAL DEBONDING IN THIN LAYERED STRUCTURES: EXPERIMENTS AND MULTI-SCALE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold H. Dauskardt

    2005-08-30

    Final technical report detailing unique experimental and multi-scale computational modeling capabilities developed to study fracture and subcritical cracking in thin-film structures. Our program to date at Stanford has studied the mechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack-growth in structural ceramics at high temperature, bulk and thin-film glasses in selected moist environments where we demonstrated the presence of a true mechanical fatigue effect in some glass compositions. We also reported on the effects of complex environments and fatigue loading on subcritical cracking that effects the reliability of MEMS and other micro-devices using novel micro-machined silicon specimens and nanomaterial layers.

  8. Hormone mediation of immune responses in the progression of diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soory, M

    2002-04-01

    The crucial role of the immune response is common to diabetes mellitus (DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease. This review identifies advances in this field and exciting paradigms in their management. Uncontrolled hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are detrimental to cell structure and function. Altered host resistance such as defective migration of PMN, impaired phagocytosis and an exaggerated inflammatory response to microbial products also compromises healing in uncontrolled diabetic patients, further compromised in smokers. Nicotine has well documented effects on the immune response, cell adhesion proteins and apoptosis which affect the severity of disease presentation and response to treatment. Rheumatoid arthritis is a multifactorial disease that results in severe destruction of synovial cartilage and bone. Local secretion of large amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1 due to activation of immunocompetent cells characterises the pathophysiology of RA. This has lead to the emergence of TNF-alpha inhibitors such as etanercept and infliximab in its management. Periodontal disease has a microbial aetiology. But it is similar to RA, in its cyclical pattern of destruction associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can persist after removal of the antigenic stimulus. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) have been used as an adjunct to mechanical removal of bacterial antigen, in the management of periodontal disease. The non-reproductive functions of steroid hormones include effects on immunocompetent cells, fibroblasts and osteoblasts, which affect the initiation and progression of inflammatory diseases. Hormone replacement therapy could be another facet in a multifaceted treatment approach in these patients, where indicated.

  9. Fibronectin Matrix Remodeling in the Regulation of the Inflammatory Response within the Lung: An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the Inflammatory Response within the Lung: An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paula J. McKeown-Longo, Ph.D...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fibronectin Matrix Remodeling in the Regulation of the 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0755 Inflammatory Response within...hypothesis that force dependent unfolding of fibronectin in the tumor stroma drives an inflammatory response within the lung tumor microenvironment

  10. Positron tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies. Final progress report, April 15, 1989--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The overall objective of this research is to develop methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Enhancement of MAb tumor localization by hyperthermia also was proposed. Studies were to have been performed with both {sup 18}F and {sup 124}I; however, the lack of its availability (until quite recently) prevented experiments with {sup 124}I. Instead, two additional lines of inquiry were initiated in which they utilized aspects of the radiofluorination chemistries originally developed for MAbs for labeling chemotactic peptides and meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) analogues with {sup 18}F. This final report summarizes the original specific aims and the main research accomplishments in studies of mouse, dog and human models.

  11. Fuselage Versus Subcomponent Panel Response Correlation Based on ABAQUS Explicit Progressive Damage Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kevin E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis performed in this study substantiates the need for high fidelity vehicle level progressive damage analyses (PDA) structural models for use in the verification and validation of proposed sub-scale structural models and to support required full-scale vehicle level testing. PDA results are presented that capture and correlate the responses of sub-scale 3-stringer and 7-stringer panel models and an idealized 8-ft diameter fuselage model, which provides a vehicle level environment for the 7-stringer sub-scale panel model. Two unique skin-stringer attachment assumptions are considered and correlated in the models analyzed: the TIE constraint interface versus the cohesive element (COH3D8) interface. Evaluating different interfaces allows for assessing a range of predicted damage modes, including delamination and crack propagation responses. Damage models considered in this study are the ABAQUS built-in Hashin procedure and the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage procedure implemented through a VUMAT user subroutine using the ABAQUS/Explicit code.

  12. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6 for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs.

  13. 78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final... Macmillan in United States v. Apple, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV-2826 (DLC), which was filed in the... for the Southern District of New York UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff, v. APPLE, INC., et...

  14. Construction of a genome-wide human BAC-Unigene resource. Final progress report, 1989--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, C.S.; Xu, R.X.; Wang, M. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes (non-redundant, unigene sets of cDNA representing EST clusters) are available for human alone. A total of 44,000 Unigene cDNA clones have been supplied by Research Genetics. Unigenes, or cDNAs are excellent resource for map building for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms -- as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDNA clones -- thus making library screening by colony hybridization as well as pooled library PCR possible. The authors have developed an efficient and robust procedure to screen genomic libraries with large number of DNA probes. Secondly, the linkage and order of expressed sequences, or genes are highly conserved among human, mouse and other mammalian species. Therefore, mapping with cDNA markers rather than random anonymous STSs will greatly facilitate comparative, evolutionary studies as well as physical map building. They have currently deconvoluted over 10,000 Unigene probes against a 4X coverage human BAC clones from the approved library D by high density colony hybridization method. 10,000 batches of Unigenes are arrayed in an imaginary 100 X 100 matrix from which 100 row pools and 100 column pools are obtained. Library filters are hybridized with pooled probes, thus reducing the number of hybridization required for addressing the positives for each Unigene from 10,000 to 200. Details on the experimental scheme as well as daily progress report is posted on the Web site (http://www.tree.caltech.edu).

  15. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, {gamma}-interferon ({gamma}IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to {gamma}IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by {gamma}IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of {sup 238}PU, {sup 24l}Am, and {sup 228}Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by {gamma}IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a {gamma}IFN failure by the host to induce host {gamma}IFN production.

  16. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, [gamma]-interferon ([gamma]IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to [gamma]IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by [gamma]IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of [sup 238]PU, [sup 24l]Am, and [sup 228]Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by [gamma]IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a [gamma]IFN failure by the host to induce host [gamma]IFN production.

  17. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, {gamma}-interferon ({gamma}IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to {gamma}IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by {gamma}IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of {sup 238}PU, {sup 24l}Am, and {sup 228}Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by {gamma}IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a {gamma}IFN failure by the host to induce host {gamma}IFN production.

  18. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, [gamma]-interferon ([gamma]IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to [gamma]IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by [gamma]IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of [sup 238]PU, [sup 24l]Am, and [sup 228]Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by [gamma]IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a [gamma]IFN failure by the host to induce host [gamma]IFN production.

  19. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Final technical progress report No. 11, [October 1--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-20

    Task 3 provides detailed characterization of fuel properties of the test coals and in-depth evaluation of their performance characteristics under controlled pilot-scale combustion testing. Results from this task provide fundamental information required to develop some of the improved algorithms for the CQE. Both bench-scale fuel characterization and test furnace performance evaluations are being performed under this task. All pilot-scale combustion tests under this task have been completed. Topical reports for the coals evaluated under the Public Service Oklahoma`s Northeastern Unit 4 and Northern States Power`s King Unit 1 test series have been issued. Work continued during the past quarter on preparation of the final report for the Mississippi Power Company`s Watson Unit 4 tests (to be completed first quarter 1993) and analyzing pilot-scale combustion data from the Alabama Power Company`s Gaston tests; a topical report for the Gaston study will also be issued in 1993. Bench-scale testing and data analyses continued in support of the development of the slagging and fouling models. Data obtained from the analysis of samples of deposits, inflame solids, fly ash, and coal from CQE pilot-scale and drop tube combustion tests were evaluated for use in devising and verifying the slagging and fouling algorithms.

  20. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Final progress report, 1 January 1991--31 March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1994-10-04

    In the course of this research the authors found that the anionic alkynyl complex [Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 3}]{sup {minus}} can be generated in situ by the addition of two equivalents of n-BuLi to a solution of the carbene complex Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{double_bond}C(OMe)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}. It was also found that the highly nucleophilic propynyl complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-Me]{sup {minus}} reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of BF{sub 3}{center_dot}Et{sub 2}O to give, after quenching with MeOH, a series of cationic vinylcarbyne complexes of the general form [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{triple_bond}C-C(Me){double_bond}C(R)(R{prime})]BF{sub 4}. The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}R]{sup +} [M = Re, R = H, M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph] have been found to undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}C(H)R. The authors have also investigated reactions relevant to the halide promoted Fe and Ru catalyzed carbonylation of nitroaromatics. The final part of this work has involved investigations of metal-oxo complexes.

  1. Final design and progress of WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott; Abrams, Don Carlos; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Middleton, Kevin; Benn, Chris; Dee, Kevin; Sayède, Frédéric; Lewis, Ian; Pragt, Johannes; Pico, Sergio; Walton, Nic; Rey, Jeurg; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Peñate, José; Lhome, Emilie; Agócs, Tibor; Alonso, José; Terrett, David; Brock, Matthew; Gilbert, James; Schallig, Ellen; Ridings, Andy; Guinouard, Isabelle; Verheijen, Marc; Tosh, Ian; Rogers, Kevin; Lee, Martin; Steele, Iain; Stuik, Remko; Tromp, Niels; Jaskó, Attila; Carrasco, Esperanza; Farcas, Szigfrid; Kragt, Jan; Lesman, Dirk; Kroes, Gabby; Mottram, Chris; Bates, Stuart; Rodriguez, Luis Fernando; Gribbin, Frank; Delgado, José Miguel; Herreros, José Miguel; Martin, Carlos; Cano, Diego; Navarro, Ramon; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, Jim; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; Murphy, David; Worley, Clare; Bassom, Richard; O'Mahoney, Neil; Bianco, Andrea; Zurita, Christina; ter Horst, Rik; Molinari, Emilio; Lodi, Marcello; Guerra, José; Martin, Adrian; Vallenari, Antonella; Salasnich, Bernardo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Jin, Shoko; Hill, Vanessa; Smith, Dan; Drew, Janet; Poggianti, Bianca; Pieri, Mat; Dominquez Palmero, Lillian; Farina, Cecilia

    2016-08-01

    We present the Final Design of the WEAVE next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), together with a status update on the details of manufacturing, integration and the overall project schedule now that all the major fabrication contracts are in place. We also present a summary of the current planning behind the 5-year initial phase of survey operations. WEAVE will provide optical ground-based follow up of ground-based (LOFAR) and space-based (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU facility utilizing a new 2-degree prime focus field of view at the WHT, with a buffered pick-and-place positioner system hosting 1000 multi-object (MOS) fibres, 20 integral field units, or a single large IFU for each observation. The fibres are fed to a single (dual-beam) spectrograph, with total of 16k spectral pixels, located within the WHT GHRIL enclosure on the telescope Nasmyth platform, supporting observations at R 5000 over the full 370-1000nm wavelength range in a single exposure, or a high resolution mode with limited coverage in each arm at R 20000. The project is now in the manufacturing and integration phase with first light expected for early of 2018.

  2. Central receiver solar thermal power system, phase 1. Quarterly progress report (final) for period ending June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-01

    During this report period, the major program activities were aimed toward the fabrication of the three major research experiments and continued evaluation of the Pilot Plant performance and operating modes. The detail designs were completed early in this period. Effort was continued in the evaluation of Pilot Plant start transients. Both warm and hot starts from thermal storage were evaluated as was a cold start from the Receiver. In the Collector Subsystem Experiment the heliostat structures and drive mechanisms were completed and delivered. The detail design of the 5 MW Receiver Experiment was completed at Foster Wheeler. In the Thermal Storage Subsystem the detail design of the experiment was completed early in the period. A final selection of the heat transport media was made with Hitec selected as the molten salt and Caloria HT-43 selected as the hydrocarbon oil. During this period Bechtel continued its efforts in the optimization of the Electrical Power Generation Subsystem. Work was also continued on the completion of data that will be used in the Electrical Power Generation Subsystem analytical model being prepared by Martin as a part of the overall Pilot Plant Simulation Model. (WDM)

  3. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Final progress report, 1 January 1987--31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1998-07-10

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is a leading dose-limiting effect of radiation exposure. The thyroid and mammary glands are among the most sensitive human tissues to radiogenic initiation of cancer, and there is a profoundly higher risk of neoplastic initiation in these glands among individuals irradiated before or during puberty than among those exposed in later life. The authors developed unique quantitative experimental models to investigate and characterize the cells of origin of thyroid and mammary cancers and the effects of radiation on them (C185). To study these progenitor cells in vivo it is necessary to have a system by which their concentrations, total numbers and responses to radiation and other factors can be measured. It is a truism that not all cells in a tissue are equally sensitive to neoplastic initiation. They reasoned that the progenitor cells are most likely members of that subpopulation that is necessary to maintenance of normal tissue cell numbers and to repair and replacement after tissue damage. They further reasoned that such cells would likely be responsive to specific mitogenic stimulation by hormones. On the basis of these considerations, they developed quantitative rat thyroid and mammary epithelial cell transplantation systems.

  4. In mice, tuberculosis progression is associated with intensive inflammatory response and the accumulation of Gr-1 cells in the lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Lyadova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb results in different clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic containment to rapidly progressing tuberculosis (TB. The mechanisms controlling TB progression in immunologically-competent hosts remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these mechanisms, we analyzed TB progression in a panel of genetically heterogeneous (A/SnxI/St F2 mice, originating from TB-highly-susceptible I/St and more resistant A/Sn mice. In F2 mice the rates of TB progression differed. In mice that did not reach terminal stage of infection, TB progression did not correlate with lung Mtb loads. Nor was TB progression correlated with lung expression of factors involved in antibacterial immunity, such as iNOS, IFN-gamma, or IL-12p40. The major characteristics of progressing TB was high lung expression of the inflammation-related factors IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-11 (p<0.0003; CCL3, CCL4, CXCL2 (p<0.002; MMP-8 (p<0.0001. The major predictors of TB progression were high expressions of IL-1beta and IL-11. TNF-alpha had both protective and harmful effects. Factors associated with TB progression were expressed mainly by macrophages (F4-80(+ cells and granulocytes (Gr-1(hi/Ly-6G(hi cells. Macrophages and granulocytes from I/St and A/Sn parental strains exhibited intrinsic differences in the expression of inflammatory factors, suggesting that genetically determined peculiarities of phagocytes transcriptional response could account for the peculiarities of gene expression in the infected lungs. Another characteristic feature of progressing TB was the accumulation in the infected lungs of Gr-1(dim cells that could contribute to TB progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a population of immunocompetent hosts, the outcome of TB depends on quantitatively- and genetically-controlled differences in the intensity of inflammatory responses, rather than being a direct consequence of mycobacterial colonization. Local

  5. Classifying Glioblastoma Multiforme Follow-Up Progressive vs. Responsive Forms Using Multi-Parametric MRI Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion-Mărgineanu, Adrian; Van Cauter, Sofie; Sima, Diana M.; Maes, Frederik; Sunaert, Stefan; Himmelreich, Uwe; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is discriminating between tumor progression and response to treatment based on follow-up multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data retrieved from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Materials and Methods: Multi-parametric MRI data consisting of conventional MRI (cMRI) and advanced MRI [i.e., perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) and diffusion kurtosis MRI (DKI)] were acquired from 29 GBM patients treated with adjuvant therapy after surgery. We propose an automatic pipeline for processing advanced MRI data and extracting intensity-based histogram features and 3-D texture features using manually and semi-manually delineated regions of interest (ROIs). Classifiers are trained using a leave-one-patient-out cross validation scheme on complete MRI data. Balanced accuracy rate (BAR)–values are computed and compared between different ROIs, MR modalities, and classifiers, using non-parametric multiple comparison tests. Results: Maximum BAR–values using manual delineations are 0.956, 0.85, 0.879, and 0.932, for cMRI, PWI, DKI, and all three MRI modalities combined, respectively. Maximum BAR–values using semi-manual delineations are 0.932, 0.894, 0.885, and 0.947, for cMRI, PWI, DKI, and all three MR modalities combined, respectively. After statistical testing using Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn-Šidák analysis we conclude that training a RUSBoost classifier on features extracted using semi-manual delineations on cMRI or on all MRI modalities combined performs best. Conclusions: We present two main conclusions: (1) using T1 post-contrast (T1pc) features extracted from manual total delineations, AdaBoost achieves the highest BAR–value, 0.956; (2) using T1pc-average, T1pc-90th percentile, and Cerebral Blood Volume (CBV) 90th percentile extracted from semi-manually delineated contrast enhancing ROIs, SVM-rbf, and RUSBoost achieve BAR–values of 0.947 and 0.932, respectively. Our findings show that AdaBoost, SVM-rbf, and

  6. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loferski, J.J. (ed.)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  7. Microfluidic culture models to study the hydrodynamics of tumor progression and therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Cara; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-08-01

    The integration of tissue engineering strategies with microfluidic technologies has enabled the design of in vitro microfluidic culture models that better adapt to morphological changes in tissue structure and function over time. These biomimetic microfluidic scaffolds accurately mimic native 3D microenvironments, as well as permit precise and simultaneous control of chemical gradients, hydrodynamic stresses, and cellular niches within the system. The recent application of microfluidic in vitro culture models to cancer research offers enormous potential to aid in the development of improved therapeutic strategies by supporting the investigation of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis under physiologically relevant flow conditions. The intrinsic material properties and fluid mechanics of microfluidic culture models enable high-throughput anti-cancer drug screening, permit well-defined and controllable input parameters to monitor tumor cell response to various hydrodynamic conditions or treatment modalities, as well as provide a platform for elucidating fundamental mechanisms of tumor physiology. This review highlights recent developments and future applications of microfluidic culture models to study tumor progression and therapeutic targeting under conditions of hydrodynamic stress relevant to the complex tumor microenvironment.

  8. Different ventilatory responses to progressive maximal exercise test performed with either the arms or legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. T. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare respiratory responses, focusing on the time-domain variability of ventilatory components during progressive cardiopulmonary exercise tests performed on cycle or arm ergometers. METHODS: The cardiopulmonary exercise tests were conducted on twelve healthy volunteers on either a cycle ergometer or an arm ergometer following a ramp protocol. The time-domain variabilities (the standard deviations and root mean squares of the successive differences of the minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate were calculated and normalized to the number of breaths. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the timing of breathing throughout the exercise when the cycle and arm ergometer measurements were compared. However, the arm exercise time-domain variabilities for the minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate were significantly greater than the equivalent values obtained during leg exercise. CONCLUSION: Although the type of exercise does not influence the timing of breathing when dynamic arm and leg exercises are compared, it does influence time-domain ventilatory variability of young, healthy individuals. The mechanisms that influence ventilatory variability during exercise remain to be studied.

  9. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs, without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60 after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24. Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which

  10. Crosstalk between the unfolded protein response and NF-κB-mediated inflammation in the progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Ali, Zahraa; Cruz, Gaile L; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory response is emerging as an important therapeutic target in progressive chronic kidney disease. A key transcription factor in the induction of chronic inflammation is NF-κB. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can initiate this NF-κB signaling phenomenon and thereby induce chronic kidney disease progression. A key factor influencing chronic kidney disease progression is proteinuria and this condition has now been demonstrated to induce sustained UPR activation. This review details the crosstalk between the UPR and NF-κB pathways as pertinent to chronic kidney disease. We present potential tools to study this phenomenon as well as potential therapeutics that are emerging to regulate the UPR. These therapeutics may prevent inflammation specifically induced in the kidney due to proteinuria-induced sustained UPR activation.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT. FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOTKIN, LASSAR G.; MCSWEENEY, JOSEPH

    A FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT IS PRESENTED. THE ACQUISITION OF A SEQUENCE OF COMPLEX BEGINNING READING SKILLS IS EXAMINED. MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES ARE DISCUSSED. THE FOLLOWING HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED IN FIELD STUDIES--(1) THE EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES…

  12. Minimum essential coverage and other rules regarding the shared responsibility payment for individuals. Final regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    This document contains final regulations relating to the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the TRICARE Affirmation Act and Public Law 111-173 (collectively, the Affordable Care Act). These final regulations provide individual taxpayers with guidance under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code on the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage and rules governing certain types of exemptions from that requirement.

  13. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Vaughan T. J.

    2013-10-18

    sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  14. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients have a preserved cytomegalovirus-specific antibody response despite progressive hypogammaglobulinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Vanura

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is characterized by progressive hypogammaglobulinemia predisposing affected patients to a variety of infectious diseases but paradoxically not to cytomegalovirus (CMV disease. Moreover, we found reactivity of a panel of CLL recombinant antibodies (CLL-rAbs encoded by a germ-line allele with a single CMV protein, pUL32, despite differing antibody binding motifs. To put these findings into perspective, we studied prospectively relative frequency of viremia, kinetics of total and virus-specific IgG over time, and UL32 genetic variation in a cohort of therapy-naive patients (n=200. CMV-DNA was detected in 3% (6/200 of patients. The decay of total IgG was uniform (mean, 0.03; SD, 0.03 and correlated with that of IgG subclasses 1-4 in the paired samples available (n=64; p<0.001. Total CMV-specific IgG kinetics were more variable (mean, 0,02; SD, 0,06 and mean decay values differed significantly from those of total IgG (p=0.034. Boosts of CMV-specific antibody levels were observed in 49% (22/45 of CMV-seropositive patients. In contrast, VZV- and EBV-specific IgG levels decayed in parallel with total IgG levels (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively. VZV-specific IgG even became undetectable in 18% (9/50 of patients whereas CMV-specific ones remained detectable in all seropositive patients. The observed CMV-specific IgG kinetics were predicated upon the highly divergent kinetics of IgG specific for individual antigens - glycoprotein B-specific IgG were boosted in 51% and pUL32-specific IgG in 32% of patients. In conclusion, CLL patients have a preserved CMV-specific antibody response despite progressive decay of total IgG and IgG subclasses. CMV-specific IgG levels are frequently boosted in contrast to that of other herpesviruses indicative of a higher rate of CMV reactivation and antigen-presentation. In contrast to the reactivity of multiple different CLL-rAbs with pUL32, boosts of humoral immunity are triggered

  15. The molecular and cellular response of normal and progressed human bronchial epithelial cells to HZE particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Larsen, Jill

    We have used a model of non-oncogenically immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells to determine the response of such cells to particles found outside the protection of the earth’s electromagnetic field. We have identified an enhanced frequency of cellular transformation, as measured by growth in soft agar, for both 56Fe and 28Si (1 GeV/n) that is maximal (4-6 fold) at 0.25 Gy and 0.40 Gy, respectively. At 4 months post-irradiation 38 individual soft agar clones were isolated. These clones were characterized extensively for cellular and molecular changes. Gene expression analysis suggested that these clones had down-regulated several genes associated with anti-oxidant pathways including GLS2, GPX1 and 4, SOD2, PIG3, and NQO1 amongst others. As a result, many of these transformed clones were exposed to high levels of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS), although there appeared not to be any enhanced mitochondrial ROS. DNA repair pathways associated with ATM/ATR signaling were also upregulated. However, these transformants do not develop into tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice, suggesting that they have not progressed sufficiently to become oncogenic. Therefore we chose 6 soft agar clones for continuous culture for an additional 14 months. Amongst the 6 clones, only one clone showed any significant change in phenotype. Clone 3kt-ff.2a, propagated for 18 months, were 2-fold more radioresistant, had a shortened doubling time and the background rate of transformation more than doubled. Furthermore, the morphology of transformed clones changed. Clones from this culture are being compared to the original clone as well as the parental HBEC3KT and will be injected into immune-compromised mice for oncogenic potential. Oncogenically progressed HBECs, HBEC3KT cells that overexpress a mutant RAS gene and where p53 has been knocked down, designated HBEC3KTR53, responded quite differently to HZE particle exposure. First, these cells are more

  16. Stress responses of subsurface bacteria. Final report, June 1, 1995--February 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesbro, W.

    1998-07-01

    Five questions were investigated in this research: (1) can subsurface bacteria and phylogenetically related surface strains be cultured on a single carbon/energy substrate; (2) is the behavior of subsurface bacteria the same as phylogenetically related surface strains when both are subjected to progressive, chronic carbon/energy source starvation; (3) which phyllogenetic groups survive better; (4) do other factors affect survival in the degree that phyllogeny does (5) do dormant forms appear during starvation; (6) is ppGpp present in subsurface bacteria and what is its persistence in carbon/energy starvation?

  17. Endoscopic characteristics and levodopa responsiveness of swallowing function in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Tobias; Oelenberg, Stephan; Teismann, Inga; Hamacher, Christina; Lohmann, Hubertus; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Dziewas, Rainer

    2010-07-15

    Dysphagia is a frequent and early symptom in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) predisposing patients to aspiration pneumonia. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has emerged as a valuable apparative tool for objective evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia. This is the first study using FEES to investigate the nature of swallowing impairment in PSP. Eighteen consecutive PSP patients (mean age 69.7 +/- 9.0 years) were included. The salient findings of FEES in PSP patients were compared with those of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In 7 PSP patients, a standardized FEES protocol was performed to explore levodopa (L-dopa) responsiveness of dysphagia. Most frequent abnormalities detected by FEES were bolus leakage, delayed swallowing reflex, and residues in valleculae and piriformes. Aspiration events with at least one food consistency occurred in nearly 30% of PSP patients. Significant pharyngeal saliva pooling was observed in 4 PSP patients. We found no difference of salient endoscopic findings between PSP and PD patients. Endoscopic dysphagia severity in PSP correlated positively with disease duration, clinical disability, and cognitive impairment. No correlation was found with dysarthria severity. In early PSP patients, swallowing dysfunction was solely characterized by liquid leakage with the risk of predeglutitive aspiration during the oral phase of swallowing. Two PSP patients showed relevant improvement of swallowing function after L-dopa challenge. Chin tuck-maneuver, hard swallow, and modification of food consistency were identified as the most effective therapeutic interventions. In conclusion, FEES assessment can deliver important findings for the diagnosis and refined therapy of dysphagia in PSP patients.

  18. Selective progressive response of soil microbial community to wild oat roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Brodie, E.L.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Andersen, G.L.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Roots moving through soil enact physical and chemical changes that differentiate rhizosphere from bulk soil, and the effects of these changes on soil microorganisms have long been a topic of interest. Use of a high-density 16S rRNA microarray (PhyloChip) for bacterial and archaeal community analysis has allowed definition of the populations that respond to the root within the complex grassland soil community; this research accompanies previously reported compositional changes, including increases in chitinase and protease specific activity, cell numbers and quorum sensing signal. PhyloChip results showed a significant change in 7% of the total rhizosphere microbial community (147 of 1917 taxa); the 7% response value was confirmed by16S rRNA T-RFLP analysis. This PhyloChip-defined dynamic subset was comprised of taxa in 17 of the 44 phyla detected in all soil samples. Expected rhizosphere-competent phyla, such as Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were well represented, as were less-well-documented rhizosphere colonizers including Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Nitrospira. Richness of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria decreased in soil near the root tip compared to bulk soil, but then increased in older root zones. Quantitative PCR revealed {beta}-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria present at about 10{sup 8} copies of 16S rRNA genes g{sup -1} soil, with Nitrospira having about 10{sup 5} copies g{sup -1} soil. This report demonstrates that changes in a relatively small subset of the soil microbial community are sufficient to produce substantial changes in function in progressively more mature rhizosphere zones.

  19. Selective progressive response of soil microbial community to wild oat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Kristen M; Brodie, Eoin L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Lindow, Steven E; Firestone, Mary K

    2009-02-01

    Roots moving through soil induce physical and chemical changes that differentiate rhizosphere from bulk soil, and the effects of these changes on soil microorganisms have long been a topic of interest. The use of a high-density 16S rRNA microarray (PhyloChip) for bacterial and archaeal community analysis has allowed definition of the populations that respond to the root within the complex grassland soil community; this research accompanies compositional changes reported earlier, including increases in chitinase- and protease-specific activity, cell numbers and quorum sensing signal. PhyloChip results showed a significant change compared with bulk soil in relative abundance for 7% of the total rhizosphere microbial community (147 of 1917 taxa); the 7% response value was confirmed by16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. This PhyloChip-defined dynamic subset was comprised of taxa in 17 of the 44 phyla detected in all soil samples. Expected rhizosphere-competent phyla, such as Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were well represented, as were less-well-documented rhizosphere colonizers including Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Nitrospira. Richness of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria decreased in soil near the root tip compared with bulk soil, but then increased in older root zones. Quantitative PCR revealed rhizosphere abundance of beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria at about 10(8) copies of 16S rRNA genes per g soil, with Nitrospira having about 10(5) copies per g soil. This report demonstrates that changes in a relatively small subset of the soil microbial community are sufficient to produce substantial changes in functions observed earlier in progressively more mature rhizosphere zones.

  20. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  1. Shorebird Project Final Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented the habitats, hydrology, vegetation communities and weather patterns that create or destroy shorebird habitat. This project examined shorebird...

  2. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, December 22, 1993--March 21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-06-01

    The overall goal of this research is the development of advanced water-soluble copolymers for use in enhanced oil recovery. This report summarizes technical progress for the following tasks: advanced copolymer synthesis; and characterization of molecular structure of copolymers.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Stimuli-Responsive Affinity: Progress and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Yue Ma; Jianmin Pan; Zihui Meng; Guoqing Pan; Börje Sellergren

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (SR-MIPs) have attracted considerable research interest in recent years due to the potential applications in drug delivery, biotechnology and separation sciences. This review comprehensively summarizes various SR-MIPs, including the design and applications of thermo-responsive MIPs, pH-responsive MIPs, photo-responsive MIPs, biomolecule-responsive MIPs and ion-responsive MIPs. Besides the development of current SR-MIPs, the advanta...

  4. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  5. The usefulness of CorvisST Tonometry and the Ocular Response Analyzer to assess the progression of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Murata, Hiroshi; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST) and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) measurements were carried out in 105 eyes of 69 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients had axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and eight visual fields (VF)s with the Humphrey Field Analyzer. VF progression was summarized using a time trend analysis of mean total deviation (mTD) and the association between mTD progression rate and a number of ocular parameters (including CST and ORA measurements) was assessed using mixed linear regression analysis. The optimal model of VF progression selected based on the corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) included ORA’s corneal hysteresis (CH) parameter as well as a number of CST measurements: mTD progression rate = 1.2-0.070 * mean GAT + 0.090 * CH-1.5 * highest concavity deformation amplitude with CST + 9.4 * A1 deformation amplitude with CST-0.05 * A2 length with CST (AICc = 125.8). Eyes with corneas that experience deep indentation at the maximum deformation, shallow indentation at the first applanation and wide indentation at the second applanation in the CST measurement are more likely to experience faster rates of VF progression.

  6. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  7. Rapidly-progressive catatonia responsive to zolpidem in a patient with ovarian teratoma-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Edilberto; McDade, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatric symptoms and catatonia are key components of the clinical presentation of paraneoplastic encephalitis; additionally symptoms can be long-lasting and often difficult to treat. We report a 73-year-old patient with rapidly progressive catatonia not responsive to immunotherapy, tumor resection, electroconvulsive therapy, or benzodiazepines who had significant improvement after zolpidem administration. This report suggests that zolpidem is an option in the treatment of patients with refractory catatonia and paraneoplastic encephalitis.

  8. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  9. Global progress and potentially effective policy responses to reduce maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, Michael T; Say, Lale

    2012-10-01

    Reducing maternal mortality within significant margins is a global imperative that reflects attainment of development goals. Progress in reducing maternal mortality, in particular among countries with notably high maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), has been substantially slower than the Millennium Development Goal target of an annual rate of 5.5% decline. The latest UN maternal mortality estimates show a reduction in MMR in a number of countries between 1990 and 2008. Understanding the factors associated with progress in countries that have reduced maternal mortality provides other countries and development partners with opportunities to consider and implement policies and interventions that could help accelerate progress. This paper reviews 6 countries that have demonstrated marked progress. The policies that have been effective include innovative financing measures; investment in human resources both in terms of strengthening pre-service education and emphasizing in-service training for healthcare providers; strengthening obstetric care by enhancing infrastructure and upgrading equipment, as well as improving quality of services; and investing in the broader determinants of maternal mortality, particularly family planning and women's education and socioeconomic empowerment. This range of actions, which includes a combination of facility and community-based approaches, provides a list of potentially effective strategies that could be considered when developing programs in other countries with slower progress. Strong political will and multistakeholder involvement and interventions are key in the development and implementation of these policies and actions.

  10. STRUCTURAL FLUCTUATIONS, ELECTRICAL RESPONSE AND THE RELIABILITY OF NANOSTRUCTURES (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Rous; Ellen D. Williams; Michael S. Fuhrer

    2006-07-31

    The goal of the research supported by DOE-FG02-01ER45939 was to synthesize a number of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the relationship between morphological fluctuations, the electrical response and the reliability (failure) of metallic nanostructures. The primary focus of our work was the study of metallic nanowires which we regard as prototypical of nanoscale interconnects. Our research plan has been to link together these materials properties and behaviors by understanding the phenomenon of, and the effects of electromigration at nanometer length scales. The thrust of our research has been founded on the concept that, for nanostructures where the surface-to-volume ratio is necessarily high, surface diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism that governs the fluctuations, electrical properties and failure modes of nanostructures. Our approach has been to develop experimental methods that permit the direct imaging of the electromagnetic distributions within nanostructures, their structural fluctuations and their electrical response. This experimental research is complemented by a parallel theoretical and computational program that describes the temporal evolution of nanostructures in response to current flow.

  11. LDRD final report on adaptive-responsive nanostructures for sensing applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2005-11-01

    Functional organic nanostructures such as well-formed tubes or fibers that can easily be fabricated into electronic and photonic devices are needed in many applications. Especially desirable from a national security standpoint are nanostructures that have enhanced sensitivity for the detection of chemicals and biological (CB) agents and other environmental stimuli. We recently discovered the first class of highly responsive and adaptive porphyrin-based nanostructures that may satisfy these requirements. These novel porphyrin nanostructures, which are formed by ionic self-assembly of two oppositely charged porphyrins, may function as conductors, semiconductors, or photoconductors, and they have additional properties that make them suitable for device fabrication (e.g., as ultrasensitive colorimetric CB microsensors). Preliminary studies with porphyrin nanotubes have shown that these nanostructures have novel optical and electronic properties, including strong resonant light scattering, quenched fluorescence, and electrical conductivity. In addition, they are photochemically active and capable of light-harvesting and photosynthesis; they may also have nonlinear optical properties. Remarkably, the nanotubes and potentially other porphyrin nanostructure are mechanically responsive and adaptive (e.g., the rigidity of the micrometers-long nanotubes is altered by light, ultrasound, or chemicals) and they self-heal upon removal the environmental stimulus. Given the tremendous degree of structural variation possible in the porphyrin subunits, additional types of nanostructures and greater control over their morphology can be anticipated. Molecular modification also provides a means of controlling their electronic, photonic, and other functional properties. In this work, we have greatly broadened the range of ionic porphyrin nanostructures that can be made, and determined the optical and responsivity properties of the nanotubes and other porphyrin nanostructures. We have

  12. Inter-Individual Variability in Human Response to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocke, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In order to investigate inter-individual variability in response to low-dose ionizing radiation, we are working with three models, 1) in-vivo irradiated human skin, for which we have a realistic model, but with few subjects, all from a previous project, 2) ex-vivo irradiated human skin, for which we also have a realistic model, though with the limitations involved in keeping skin pieces alive in media, and 3) MatTek EpiDermFT skin plugs, which provides a more realistic model than cell lines, which is more controllable than human samples.

  13. Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility, Interim Response Action, Final Implementation Document for Decommissioning, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-18

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF THE IRA 2. SITE INVENTORY - TANKS, PIPING, BUILDINGS, ASBEST , DEBRIS, DRUMS 3. PLAN OF ACTION - TRANSFER OF UNTREATED WASTEWATER...Response Action (IRA) H at thte Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility (HBSF) located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Commerce City , Colorado. It was...LOCATION MAP Commerce CIty , Colorado 1A U) Cl)) zr LU .i I 0< 9< z (’ICM ..w co ai >. r 0) IC., Z C’) ________________0 W jl cor cliB destruction of

  14. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women’s Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key points In our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate. Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying. The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  15. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  16. Grassland/atmosphere response to changing climate: Coupling regional and local scales. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughenour, M.B.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Pielke, R.A.; Eastman, J.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the response of grassland ecosystems to atmospheric change at regional and site scales, and to develop multiscaled modeling systems to relate ecological and atmospheric models with different spatial and temporal resolutions. A menu-driven shell was developed to facilitate use of models at different temporal scales and to facilitate exchange information between models at different temporal scales. A detailed ecosystem model predicted that C{sub 3} temperate grasslands wig respond more strongly to elevated CO{sub 2} than temperate C{sub 4} grasslands in the short-term while a large positive N-PP response was predicted for a C{sub 4} Kenyan grassland. Long-term climate change scenarios produced either decreases or increases in Colorado plant productivity (NPP) depending on rainfall, but uniform increases in N-PP were predicted in Kenya. Elevated CO{sub 2} is likely to have little effect on ecosystem carbon storage in Colorado while it will increase carbon storage in Kenya. A synoptic climate classification processor (SCP) was developed to evaluate results of GCM climate sensitivity experiments. Roughly 80% agreement was achieved with manual classifications. Comparison of lx and 2xCO{sub 2} GCM Simulations revealed relatively small differences.

  17. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15

    Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on responses of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these response for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes of A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in response to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth distribution of

  18. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  19. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15

    Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on responses of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these response for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes of A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in response to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth distribution of

  20. Percutaneous cholecystostomy for gallbladder perforation : early response and final outcome in 10 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Lee, Mi Suk [Namwon Medical Center, Namwon (Korea, Republic of ); Kim, Jin; Kowk, Hyo Seong; Lee, Sang Young; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo [Chonbuk Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Han, Hyeun Young; Chung, Jin Young [Eulgi Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) as a therapeutic maneuver for patients with spontaneous gallbladder (GB) perforation. All procedures were technically successful, and no major procedure-related complications occurred. Eight patients (80%) responded favorably to PC. One, who did not respond, underwent emergency cholecystectomy next day due to worsening peritonitis, and the other who failed to respond within 72hr showed delayed response after drainage of a coexistent liver abscess at seven days after the procedure. A patient who responded to PC experience catheter dislodgement four days after the procedure but reinsertion was not required. Five of eight patients who responded positively underwent elective cholecystecomy after the improvement of clinical symptoms, and the three remaining patients improved without further surgery. (author). 23 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Final Report. The Role of RUB (related to ubiquitin) Family of Proteins in the Hormone Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callis, Judy [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-22

    The Rub pathway is a conserved protein modification pathway. RUB (called Rubp1 in budding yeast, Nedd8 in animals and RUB in plants) is a ubiquitin-like 76-amino acid protein. It covalently attaches to protein using an enzymatic machinery analogous to the enzymes that attach ubiquitin to its substrate proteins. However, the nature of the complement of Rub-modified proteins in organisms was not clear. From bioinformatics analyses, one can identify a Rub activating enzymes and Rub conjugating enzymes. However, in many cases, their biochemical properties were not described. In DOE-funded work, we made major advances in our understanding of the Rub pathway in yeast and plants, work that is applicable to other organisms as well. There is a multi-subunit enzyme called SCF in all eukaryotes. The SCF consists of several subunits that serve as a scaffold (the cullin, SKP and RBX subunits) and one subunit that interacts with the substrate. This cullin protein (called Cdc53p in yeast and CULLIN 1 in plants and animals) was a known Rub target. In this work, we identified additional Rub targets in yeast as the other cullin-like proteins Cul3p and Rtt101p. Additionally we described the conservation of the Rub pathway because plant RUB1 can conjugated to yeast Cdc53p- in yeast. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized the Rub activating enzymes and showed that they are not biochemically equivalent. We also showed that the Rub pathway is essential in plants and characterized plants with reduced levels of rub proteins. These plants are affected in multiple developmental processes. We discovered that they over-produce ethylene as dark-grown seedlings. We characterized a mutant allele of CULLIN1 in Arabidopsis with impaired interaction with RBX and showed that it is unstable in vivo. We used our knowledge of monitoring protein degradation to map the degradation determinants in a plant transcription factor. Finally, we took a mass spectrometric approach to identify

  2. Association between Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses and disease progression in HIV-1 subtype B infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yang; LI Tai-sheng; XIE Jing; HAN Yang; QIU Zhi-feng; ZUO Ling-yan; Thomas Mourez; WANG Ai-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The correlation between HIV-1 Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses and markers of HIV-1 disease progression still remains unclear. This study analysed and compared the role of HIV-1 Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses in patients with different disease status.Methods Two groups of patients with HIV-1 subtype B infection were selected according to CD4 count and clinical manifestations: long-term nonprogresssors (LTNPs, n = 20) and advanced progressors (Aps, CD4 count <500 cells/μ1, n = 34). Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses were studied by interferon- γ ELISpot assay against 3 pools of HIV-Nef peptides.Results Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses did not correlate with viral load or CD4 count in all patients and no significant differences were found in the magnitude of Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses between groups LTNPs and Aps (670 SFC/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells vs 1107 SFC/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells,P = 0.255). Further comparisons showed that there were also no significant correlations observed in group LTNPs,but Nef-specific CD8 T cells correlated negatively with viral load (r = -0.397, P = 0.020) and positively with CD4 count (r = 0.364, P = 0.034) in group Aps.Conclusion These data suggest that different correlation patterns between Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses and disease progression exist in LTNPs and Aps. Although a negative association was observed with concurrent plasma HIV RNA in Aps, Nef-specific CD8 T-cell responses might fail to play a protective role in different stages of HIV- 1 infection.

  3. Assessment of private sector anticipatory response to greenhouse gas market development : Final analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrister, D.; Marsh, D.; Varilek, M. [Natsource LLC, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-05-07

    Some active markets in greenhouse gases are beginning to emerge, which will lead to actual data concerning market performance becoming available and rendering the prediction of future prices for global greenhouse gas reductions more accurate. Market participants use studies as a starting point for the calibration of their understanding then seize opportunities in the external market and therefore refine their price expectations. In addition, they attempt to outperform their competitors. In this study, the authors reviewed the results of some of the most recent economic modeling results, synthesized pricing data, assessed the price and risk expectations of a broad range of corporate market players and examined their response strategies. The authors also took advantage of their expertise as market brokers to offer their views. The representatives of 35 companies operating in Canada, the United States, Japan, the European Union and Russia were interviewed for this study. Their price expectations were just over 5 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2005 before the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and raised to an average of 11 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2010. The major assumption was that the Kyoto Protocol would begin to take effect in 2002, and also that the United States would fail to ratify the Protocol. The respondents believed that some demand would force state and/or local programs to be implemented for a carbon reduction program. Poorly harmonized or delayed national policies, the potential costs of the Clean Development Mechanism projects and national pressure to take action at home are some of the concerns expressed which could prevent prices from becoming fully efficient. 41 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Final Report Systems Level Analysis of the Function and Adaptive Responses of Methanogenic Consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2015-03-09

    performance of DIET may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. These studies have significantly modified conceptual models for carbon and electron flow in methane-producing environments and have developed a computational framework for predictive modeling the influence of environmental perturbations on methane-producing microbial communities. The results have important implications for modeling the response of methane-producing microbial communities to climate change as well as for the bioenergy strategy of converting wastes and biomass to methane.

  5. Predicted Hematologic and Plasma Volume Responses Following Rapid Ascent to Progressive Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    06-1998; xx-06-1998; xx-xx-1998. 2. REPORT TYPE. State the type of report, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis ...Rossander L, Swolin.B.: Iron metabolism and "sports anemia :. II. A hematological comparison of elite runners and control subjects. Acta.Med.Scand

  6. Disease Progression, Response to ACEI/ATRA Therapy and Influence of ACE Gene in IgA Nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keng-Thye Woo; Yeow-Kok Lau; Yi Zhao; Fang-E Liu; Hwee-Boon Tan; Eng-Keng Tan; Fook-Chong Stephanie; Choong-Meng Chan; Kok-Seng Wong

    2007-01-01

    Various studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism may play a role in the progression to end stage renal failure (ESRF) in patients with IgA nephritis (IgAN). In this randomized controlled trial, patients were followed up for 5 years to determine their long-term renal outcome to ACEI/ATRA therapy and to ascertain if their ACE gene profile could play a role in determining their response to therapy. Seventy-five patients with IgAN were enlisted. Thirty-seven were on ACEI/ATRA therapy for 62±5 months and thirty-eight were untreated and served as controls. All patients had their ACE gene ID polymorphism genotyped. Compared to controls, treated patients had lower serum creatinine (p<0.001), lower proteinuria (p<0.002) and fewer numbers progressing to ESRF (p<0.002). Among patients with genotype Ⅱ, there were less ESRF in the treatment group when compared to the untreated control group (p<0.02). The advantage of therapy was not seen in patients with ID or DD genotypes. ACEI/ATRA therapy was found to be effective in retarding disease progression in IgAN with years to ESRF significantly extended in patients at all levels of renal function, including patients whose outcome were ESRF. Genotyping showed better response to therapy only for those with genotype Ⅱ.The common mechanism is probably through lower levels of ACE, glomerular pressure and proteinuria resulting in reduced renal damage and retardation of progression to ESRF.

  7. Osteoblastic response as a healing reaction to chemotherapy mimicking progressive disease in patients with small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stattaus, Joerg [University Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, West German Cancer Center, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Hahn, Steffen; Forsting, Michael; Ladd, Susanne C. [University Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, West German Cancer Center, Essen (Germany); Gauler, Thomas; Eberhardt, Wilfried [University Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Internal Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Center, Essen (Germany); Mueller, Stefan P. [University Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, Essen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The osteoblastic response (OR) phenomenon as a healing reaction during effective chemotherapy - defined by the appearance of new osteoblastic bone lesions while disease response in other tumor sites was well documented - has previously been described for breast and prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate this phenomenon that could erroneously be interpreted as progressive disease in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and to establish guidelines for interpretation of follow-up computed tomography (CT) examinations in this situation. Twenty-four patients with newly diagnosed SCLC and bone metastases were retrospectively included in this study. The characteristics of bone lesions in CT examinations were correlated with bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging, if available. In target lesions the CT density quantified in Hounsfield units (HU) was evaluated at baseline and during follow-up. New osteoblastic lesions occurred during follow-up in 17 of 24 patients. OR was proven in 4 patients and considered most likely in 11 patients; mean density increase in target lesions was 153 HU. The study indicates that osteoblastic response as a healing reaction seems to occur in the majority of patients with SCLC and bone metastases and should not be misinterpreted as progressive disease. (orig.)

  8. Changes in JC virus-specific T cell responses during natalizumab treatment and in natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly R Perkins

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML induced by JC virus (JCV is a risk for natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Here we characterize the JCV-specific T cell responses in healthy donors and natalizumab-treated MS patients to reveal functional differences that may account for the development of natalizumab-associated PML. CD4 and CD8 T cell responses specific for all JCV proteins were readily identified in MS patients and healthy volunteers. The magnitude and quality of responses to JCV and cytomegalovirus (CMV did not change from baseline through several months of natalizumab therapy. However, the frequency of T cells producing IL-10 upon mitogenic stimulation transiently increased after the first dose. In addition, MS patients with natalizumab-associated PML were distinguished from all other subjects in that they either had no detectable JCV-specific T cell response or had JCV-specific CD4 T cell responses uniquely dominated by IL-10 production. Additionally, IL-10 levels were higher in the CSF of individuals with recently diagnosed PML. Thus, natalizumab-treated MS patients with PML have absent or aberrant JCV-specific T cell responses compared with non-PML patients, and changes in T cell-mediated control of JCV replication may be a risk factor for developing PML. Our data suggest further approaches to improved monitoring, treatment and prevention of PML in natalizumab-treated patients.

  9. Pathophysiologic responses of sheep to brief high level nitrogen dioxide exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Snapper, J.R.; Sturgis, J.W.; Rayburn, D.B.; Dodd, K.T.

    1992-12-31

    The cardiopulmonary response to short-duration, high- concentration nitrogen dioxide (N02) was examined in conscious domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Six intubated animals in each of three groups were administered or approximately 100 or 500 ppm NO2. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, pulmonary mechanics, blood gases and hematologic variables were measured immediately before and after exposure and at 1, 4 and 24 h after exposure. Minute ventilation was monitored during exposure, and a pulmonary histopathologic examination was performed 24 h postexposure. Negligible effects were observed in the control group. Exposure to 100 ppm NO2 caused a modest increase in minute ventilation during exposure, and an increased number of leukocytes were found within interalveolar capillaries upon histologic examination. Exposure to 500 ppm NO2 induced immediate and profound lung irritant responses characterized by increases in lung resistance, respiratory rate and minute ventilation. The exposure was marked by a statistically significant, but small, mixed-venous methemoglobin increase. Pulmonary function progressively deteriorated in the 24-h period following exposure to 500 ppm NO2, and a significant arterial oxygen tension reducting and pulmonary artery pressure increase occurred at 24 h post exposure. Histologic examination after 500 ppm NO2 revealed patchy lobular exudation and accumulation of leukocytes in alveolar sacs and interalveolar capillaries.

  10. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy predicts radiotherapy response and time-to-progression in high-grade gliomas after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jin-rong; JIANG Tao; DAI Jian-ping; LI Hai-liang; LUO Jun-peng; LI Shao-wu; AI Lin; JIANG Tian-zi

    2012-01-01

    Background Reliable early prediction response to therapy and time-to-progression (TTP) remain an important goal of high-grade gliomas (HGGs) research.Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been applied with variable success in clinical application,and we hypothesize that 1H-MRS in predictive value should perform well as a marker of TTP in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) after surgery.Methods 1H-MRS was performed before surgery on 25 patients who had undergone resection of HGGs; then the ratios of lipid/creatine (Lip/Cr) and myo-inositol/creatine (ml/Cr) were determined in the solid tumor.RT response was classified as follows:complete resolution (CR),partial response (PR),stable disease (SD),and progressive disease (PD) by comparison of pre-treatment and post-radiotherapy scans.TTP was defined at the time to radiographic progression by MacDonald criteria.Correlation was evaluated between the ratios of Lip/Cr,ml/Cr and treatment response,TTP.The chi-square test and Pearson correlation test were used for data analyses.Results Multivariate analysis revealed that the prognostic value of spectroscopic variables was independent of age,sex,WHO histologic grade,extent of surgery,and Karnofsky score (KPS).The correlation between the ratios of lipid/Cr and TTP was significant (r=0.894,P=0.000),and between the ratios of ml/Cr and TTP was also significant (r=0.891,P=0.000).As predicted,RT response correlated significantly with TTP (r=0.59,P=0.002):median TTP was 49.9 days for patients with PD compared with 202.7 days for SD,208.0 days for PR,and 234.5 days for CR.Conclusion The ratios of Lip/Cr and ml/Cr of the solid tumor region before surgery could provide important information in predicting RT response and TTP in patients with HGGs treated by radiation alone after surgery.

  12. microRNA Expression in Sentinel Nodes from Progressing Melanoma Patients Identifies Networks Associated with Dysfunctional Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vallacchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node biopsy (SNB is a main staging biomarker in melanoma and is the first lymph node to drain the tumor, thus representing the immunological site where anti-tumor immune dysfunction is established and where potential prognostic immune markers can be identified. Here we analyzed microRNA (miR profiles in archival tumor-positive SNBs derived from melanoma patients with different outcomes and performed an integrated analysis of transcriptional data to identify deregulated immune signaling networks. Twenty-six miRs were differentially expressed in melanoma-positive SNB samples between patients with disease progression and non-progressing patients, the majority being previously reported in the regulation of immune responses. A significant variation in miR expression levels was confirmed in an independent set of SNB samples. Integrated information from genome-wide transcriptional profiles and in vitro assessment in immune cells led to the identification of miRs associated with the regulation of the TNF receptor superfamily member 8 (TNFRSF8 gene encoding the CD30 receptor, a marker increased in lymphocytes of melanoma patients with progressive disease. These findings indicate that miRs are involved in the regulation of pathways leading to immune dysfunction in the sentinel node and may provide valuable markers for developing prognostic molecular signatures for the identification of stage III melanoma patients at risk of recurrence.

  13. Evaluation of bioluminescent imaging for noninvasive monitoring of colorectal cancer progression in the liver and its response to immunogene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Aparicio Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioluminescent imaging (BLI is based on the detection of light emitted by living cells expressing a luciferase gene. Stable transfection of luciferase in cancer cells and their inoculation into permissive animals allows the noninvasive monitorization of tumor progression inside internal organs. We have applied this technology for the development of a murine model of colorectal cancer involving the liver, with the aim of improving the pre-clinical evaluation of new anticancer therapies. Results A murine colon cancer cell line stably transfected with the luciferase gene (MC38Luc1 retains tumorigenicity in immunocompetent C57BL/6 animals. Intrahepatic inoculation of MC38Luc1 causes progressive liver infiltration that can be monitored by BLI. Compared with ultrasonography (US, BLI is more sensitive, but accurate estimation of tumor mass is impaired in advanced stages. We applied BLI to evaluate the efficacy of an immunogene therapy approach based on the liver-specific expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12. Individualized quantification of light emission was able to determine the extent and duration of antitumor responses and to predict long-term disease-free survival. Conclusion We show that BLI is a rapid, convenient and safe technique for the individual monitorization of tumor progression in the liver. Evaluation of experimental treatments with complex mechanisms of action such as immunotherapy is possible using this technology.

  14. Final report on EUROMET PR-K2.b: Comparison on spectral responsivity (300 nm to 1000 nm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joaquin; Pons, Alicia; Blattner, Peter; Dubard, Jimmy; Bastie, Jean; Litwiniuk, Lukasz; Pietrzykowski, Jerzy; Smid, Marek; Mihai, Sim; Bos, Daniel; Gran, Jarle; Bazkir, Ozcan; Fäldt, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the results of the regional comparison EUROMET PR-K2.b (registered in the KCDB under the identifier EURAMET.PR-K2.b). Ten laboratories took part in it, including the pilot. In general the results are consistent, with a few exceptions as explained in the report. The comparison gives international linkage in spectral responsivity from 300 nm to 1000 nm to seven European laboratories: Bundesamt für Metrologie und Akkreditierung (METAS), Norwegian Metrology and Accreditation Service (Justervesenet), Central Office of Measures (GUM), National Institute of Metrology (INM-Romania), Optics Laboratory of TUBITAK-UME (UME), Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) and Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP). Three laboratories provided the link to CCPR-K2.b: Bureau National de Metrologie (BNM-INM/CNAM), Instituto de Optica 'Daza de Valdés' (IO-CSIC, acting as pilot) and NMi Van Swinden Laboratorium BV (NMi-VSL). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of x irradiation at the cellular level that lead ultimately to either malignant transformation or cell death. Experimental results consistent with the primer hypothesis for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes are reported. It was found that oligonucleotides can be inserted en bloc into newly synthesized RNA. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were continued by successfully synthesizing an amidate and beginning NMR studies on the interactions between its nucleic acid and amino acid moieties. In studies on radiation induced giant cells in 3T3 cells growing in culture, it was demonstrated that conditions which potentiate potential lethal damage repair and those which prevent radiation induced giant cell formation exist. In an examination of the in vitro effects of vasopressin, no direct effect was found of vasopressin on radiation sensitivity and significant effects of radiation on lysosomal enzyme activity in cultured cells were found.

  16. Reporter gene imaging of immune responses to cancer: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Immune responses to cancer are dynamic processes which take place through the concerted activity of innate and adaptive cell populations. In order to fully understand the efficacy of immune therapies for cancer, it is critical to understand how the treatment modulates the function of each cell type involved in the anti-tumor immune response. Molecular imaging is a versatile method for longitudinal studies of cellular localization and function. The development of reporter genes for tracking cell movement and function was a powerful addition to the immunologist's toolbox. This review will highlight the advances and challenges in the use of reporter gene imaging to track immune cell localization and function in cancer.

  17. Participant Leadership in Adult Basic Education: Negotiating Academic Progress and Leadership Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Brendaly; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the conflicts and challenges that student leaders in adult basic education and literacy programs experience in balancing their leadership responsibilities with academic endeavours. Based upon a case study of an adult basic education student leadership council in New York City, the article shows that leadership activities can…

  18. Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory responses to fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-09-06

    Inflammatory responses are involved in mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanisms whereby inflammatory responses contribute to loss of dopaminergic neurons in fipronil (FPN)-treated rats. After stereotaxic injection of FPN in the substantia nigra (SN), the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and the levels of TH expression in the SN decreased at 7days, and a significant decrease was observed at 14days with a subsequent reduction in striatal TH expression. Decreases in dopamine (DA) levels, however, began at 3days post-injection, preceding the changes in TH expression. In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly increased at 3days and persisted for up to 14days post-lesion; these changes in GFAP expression appeared to be inversely correlated with TH expression. Furthermore, we found that FPN administration induced an inflammatory response characterized by increased levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which was mediated by activated microglia following infusion of FPN unilaterally into the SN. Intranigral injection of FPN underwent an inflammatory response with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, indicating that pesticides may have important implication for the study of PD. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TRANSCRIPTOMIC CHANGES DRIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PROGRESSIVE DROUGHT STRESS AND REHYDRATION IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eIovieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a major crop in the Mediterranean basin, where the cultivation in the open field is often vulnerable to drought. In order to adapt and survive to naturally occurring cycles of drought stress and recovery, plants employ a coordinated array of physiological, biochemical and molecular responses. Transcriptomic studies on tomato responses to drought and subsequent recovery are few in number. As the search for novel traits to improve the genetic tolerance to drought increases, a better understanding of these responses is required. To address this need we designed a study in which we induced two cycles of prolonged drought stress and a single recovery by rewatering in tomato. In order to dissect the complexity of plant responses to drought, we analyzed the physiological responses (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence, abscisic acid (ABA and proline contents. In addition to the physiological and metabolite assays, we generated transcriptomes for multiple points during the stress and recovery cycles. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes between the conditions has revealed potential novel components in stress response. The observed reduction in leaf gas exchanges and efficiency of the photosystem PSII was concomitant with a general down-regulation of genes belonging to the photosynthesis, light harvesting and photosystem I and II category induced by drought stress. Gene ontology (GO categories such as cell proliferation and cell cycle were also significantly enriched in the down-regulated fraction of genes upon drought stress, which may contribute to explain the observed growth reduction. Several histone variants were also repressed during drought stress, indicating that chromatin associated processes are also affected by drought. As expected, ABA accumulated after prolonged water deficit, driving the observed enrichment of stress related GOs in the up-regulated gene fractions, which included

  20. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  1. Review and Response to the Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report presents the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) review of and response to the final report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The response includes a statement of NHLBI's involvement in health research, and descriptions of what steps can be taken to solve the…

  2. Change in contrast enhancement of HCC on 1-month follow-up CT after local radiotherapy: An early predictor of final treatment response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dichoi@skku.edu; Lim, Do Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byung Chul; Paik, Seung Woon [Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in contrast enhancement of HCC on 1-month follow-up CT after local radiotherapy (RT) as an early predictor of final treatment response. Materials: Fifty patients who underwent local RT for HCCs had both pre-RT and post-RT CT scans including 1-month follow-up CT. We assessed the final treatment response by using the change in maximal tumor size on 6-12-month follow-up CT scan after RT. We also evaluated the change in tumor enhancement between pre-RT and 1-month follow-up CT scans. Results: A final treatment response was achieved in 27 (54%) of 50 patients, who showed either a complete response (n = 11) or a partial response (n = 16). Compared with non-responsive patients (n = 23), responsive patients showed a significant decrease in tumor enhancement on 1-month follow-up CT after RT in both objective and subjective analyses (each P < 0.001). Conclusion: The change in contrast enhancement of HCC seen on the 1-month follow-up CT in patients after local RT may be used as an early predictor of final treatment response.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Dampening Arthritis Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent stem cells that are able to immunomodulate cells from both the innate and the adaptive immune systems promoting an anti-inflammatory environment. During the last decade, MSCs have been intensively studied in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal model of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Based on these studies, MSCs are currently widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA characterized by complex deregulation of the immune systems. However, the therapeutic properties of MSCs in arthritis are still controverted. These controversies might be due to the diversity of MSC sources and isolation protocols used, the time, the route and dose of MSC administration, the variety of the mechanisms involved in the MSCs suppressive effects, and the complexity of arthritis pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of the interactions between MSCs and the different immune cells associated with arthritis pathogenesis and the possible means described in the literature that could enhance MSCs therapeutic potential counteracting arthritis development and progression.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Dampening Arthritis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, R. A.; Djouad, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that are able to immunomodulate cells from both the innate and the adaptive immune systems promoting an anti-inflammatory environment. During the last decade, MSCs have been intensively studied in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal model of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Based on these studies, MSCs are currently widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) characterized by complex deregulation of the immune systems. However, the therapeutic properties of MSCs in arthritis are still controverted. These controversies might be due to the diversity of MSC sources and isolation protocols used, the time, the route and dose of MSC administration, the variety of the mechanisms involved in the MSCs suppressive effects, and the complexity of arthritis pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of the interactions between MSCs and the different immune cells associated with arthritis pathogenesis and the possible means described in the literature that could enhance MSCs therapeutic potential counteracting arthritis development and progression. PMID:27847522

  5. Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, S K; Clifford, S C; Wanek, W; Jones, H G; Popp, M

    2001-07-01

    The physiological basis of drought resistance in Ziziphus rotundifolia Lamk., which is an important, multipurpose fruit tree of the northwest Indian arid zone, was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Three irrigation regimes were imposed over a 34-day period: an irrigation treatment, a gradual drought stress treatment (50% of water supplied in the irrigation treatment) and a rapid drought stress treatment (no irrigation). Changes in gas exchange, water relations, carbon isotope composition and solute concentrations of leaves, stems and roots were determined. The differential rate of stress development in the two drought treatments did not result in markedly different physiological responses, but merely affected the time at which they were expressed. The initial response to decreasing soil water content was reduced stomatal conductance, effectively maintaining predawn leaf water potential (Psi(leaf)), controlling water loss and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency, while optimizing carbon gain during drought. Carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of leaf tissue sap provided a more sensitive indicator of changes in short-term water-use efficiency than delta13C of bulk leaf tissue. As drought developed, osmotic potential at full turgor decreased and total solute concentrations increased in leaves, indicating osmotic adjustment. Decreases in leaf starch concentrations and concomitant increases in hexose sugars and sucrose suggested a shift in carbon partitioning in favor of soluble carbohydrates. In severely drought-stressed leaves, high leaf nitrate reductase activities were paralleled by increases in proline concentration, suggesting an osmoprotective role for proline. As water deficit increased, carbon was remobilized from leaves and preferentially redistributed to stems and roots, and leaves were shed, resulting in reduced whole-plant transpiration and enforced dormancy. Thus, Z. rotundifolia showed a range of responses to different drought intensities

  6. Progress toward developing a practical societal response to severe convection (2005 EGU Sergei Soloviev Medal Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Doswell III

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of severe convection in the context of geophysical hazards is given. Societal responses to geophysical hazards depend, in part, on the ability to forecast the events and the degree of certainty with which forecasts can be made. In particular, the spatio-temporal specificity and lead time of those forecasts are critical issues. However, societal responses to geophysical hazards are not only dependent on forecasting. Even perfect forecasts might not be sufficient for a meaningful societal response without the development of considerable infrastructure to allow a society to respond properly and in time to mitigate the hazard. Geophysical hazards of extreme magnitude are rare events, a fact that tends to make funding support for appropriate preparations difficult to obtain. Focusing on tornadoes as a prototypical hazard from severe convective storms, the infrastructure for dealing with them in the USA is reviewed. Worldwide implications of the experience with severe convective storms in the USA are discussed, with an emphasis on its relevance to the situation in Europe.

  7. Generally Covariant Maxwell Theory for Media with a Local Response: Progress since 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, Friedrich W; Obukhov, Yuri N

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, it became more and more popular for engineers, physicists, and mathematicians alike to put the Maxwell equations into a generally covariant form. This is particularly useful for understanding the fundamental structure of electrodynamics (conservation of electric charge and magnetic flux). Moreover, it is ideally suited for applying it to media with local (and mainly linear) response behavior. We try to collect the new knowledge that grew out of this development. We would like to ask the participants of EMTS 2016 to inform us of work that we may have overlooked in our review.

  8. Role of Gene Methylation in Antitumor Immune Response: Implication for Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Redondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunosurveillance theory has emphasized the role of escape mechanisms in tumor growth. In this respect, a very important factor is the molecular characterization of the mechanisms by which tumor cells evade immune recognition and destruction. Among the many escape mechanisms identified, alterations in classical and non-classical HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens class I and class II expression by tumor cells are of particular interest. In addition to the importance of HLA molecules, tumor-associated antigens and accessory/co-stimulatory molecules are also involved in immune recognition. The loss of HLA class I antigen expression and of co-stimulatory molecules can occur at genetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Epigenetic defects are involved in at least some mechanisms that preclude mounting a successful host-antitumor response involving the HLA system, tumor-associated antigens, and accessory/co-stimulatory molecules. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of methylation in the regulation of molecules involved in the tumor immune response.

  9. Role of Gene Methylation in Antitumor Immune Response: Implication for Tumor Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alfonso; Castro-Vega, Isabel [Department of Immunology, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Campus Universitario Teatinos S/N, 29010 Malaga (Spain); Redondo, Maximino, E-mail: mredondo@hcs.es [Department of Biochemistry, CIBER ESP, Hospital Costa del Sol, Marbella, Málaga, Carretera de Cadiz km 187, 29603 (Spain)

    2011-03-29

    Cancer immunosurveillance theory has emphasized the role of escape mechanisms in tumor growth. In this respect, a very important factor is the molecular characterization of the mechanisms by which tumor cells evade immune recognition and destruction. Among the many escape mechanisms identified, alterations in classical and non-classical HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens) class I and class II expression by tumor cells are of particular interest. In addition to the importance of HLA molecules, tumor-associated antigens and accessory/co-stimulatory molecules are also involved in immune recognition. The loss of HLA class I antigen expression and of co-stimulatory molecules can occur at genetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Epigenetic defects are involved in at least some mechanisms that preclude mounting a successful host-antitumor response involving the HLA system, tumor-associated antigens, and accessory/co-stimulatory molecules. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of methylation in the regulation of molecules involved in the tumor immune response.

  10. Nonpathogenic strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum trigger progressive bean defense responses during appressorium-mediated penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Laugé, Richard; Langin, Thierry

    2005-08-01

    The fungal bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum differentiates appressoria in order to penetrate bean tissues. We showed that appressorium development in C. lindemuthianum can be divided into three stages, and we obtained three nonpathogenic strains, including one strain blocked at each developmental stage. H18 was blocked at the appressorium differentiation stage; i.e., no genuine appressoria were formed. H191 was blocked at the appressorium maturation stage; i.e., appressoria exhibited a pigmentation defect and developed only partial internal turgor pressure. H290 was impaired in appressorium function; i.e., appressoria failed to penetrate into bean tissues. Furthermore, these strains could be further discriminated according to the bean defense responses that they induced. Surprisingly, appressorium maturation, but not appressorium function, was sufficient to induce most plant defense responses tested (superoxide ion production and strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins). However, appressorium function (i.e., entry into the first host cell) was necessary for avirulence-mediated recognition of the fungus.

  11. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation induced by low doses of low LET radiation, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Leslie Redpath, Ph.D.

    2006-01-23

    The goal of this project was to investigate mechanisms underlying the adaptive response seen following exposure of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells to low doses of low LET radiation. It was proposed to investigate the contributions of three possible mechanisms. These were: 1. Upregulation of cellular antioxidant status. 2. Upregulation of DNA repair. 3. Upregulation of gap junction intracellular communication. We have completed the study of the role of upregulation of reduced glutathione (GSH) as a possible mechanism underlying our observed suppression of transformation frequency at low radiation doses. We have also completed our study of the possible role of upregulation of DNA repair in the observed adaptive response against neoplastic transformation. We concluded that upregulation of DNA repair may be more important in modulating transformation at the higher dose. A manuscript describing the above studies has been submitted published in Carcinogenesis 24:1961-1965, 2003. Finally, we have completed two studies of the possible role of upregulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in modulating transformation frequency at low doses of low LET radiation. This research was published in Radiation Research 162:646-654, 2004. In order to optimize the opportunity for GJIC, we then carried out a study where confluent cultures were irradiated. The results indicated, that while the degree of low dose suppression was somewhat reduced compared to that seen for subconfluent cultures, it was not completely absent. This research has been submitted for publication. Our research program was of sufficient interest to generate two invited reviews, and five invited presentations.

  13. [Progress in global health response to the Post-2015 development agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Liu, Pei-long; Guo, Yan

    2013-06-18

    This research reviews the recent global health response to the Post-2015 development agenda setting. It discusses three burning issues during the on-going country consultation: how health can be fitted into the post-MDG agenda, the achievements and lessons learnt from Millennium Development Goals (MDG), and health related goals and indicators setting. It suggests that the relationship between health and development is dynamic, thus, health acts on not only the contributor to development but also the beneficiary and indicator of sustainable development. Though great achievements on health have been made since 2000, equity and human right remain challenges to the MDG. Universal Health Coverage and Healthy Life Expectancy are two potential goals for the post-MDG agenda. China has also been involved in this global process, but more actions should be taken to make its voice heard by the world.

  14. Pseudoprogression, radionecrosis, inflammation or true tumor progression? challenges associated with glioblastoma response assessment in an evolving therapeutic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Chung, Caroline; Pope, Whitney B; Boxerman, Jerrold L; Kaufmann, Timothy J

    2017-04-05

    The wide variety of treatment options that exist for glioblastoma, including surgery, ionizing radiation, anti-neoplastic chemotherapies, anti-angiogenic therapies, and active or passive immunotherapies, all may alter aspects of vascular permeability within the tumor and/or normal parenchyma. These alterations manifest as changes in the degree of contrast enhancement or T2-weighted signal hyperintensity on standard anatomic MRI scans, posing a potential challenge for accurate radiographic response assessment for identifying anti-tumor effects. The current review highlights the challenges that remain in differentiating true disease progression from changes due to radiation therapy, including pseudoprogression and radionecrosis, as well as immune or inflammatory changes that may occur as either an undesired result of cytotoxic therapy or as a desired consequence of immunotherapies.

  15. Beta-endorphin neuron regulates stress response and innate immunity to prevent breast cancer growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipak K; Zhang, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Body and mind interact extensively with each other to control health. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic neurobehavioral stress can promote various tumor growth and progression. The biological reaction to stress involves a chemical cascade initiated within the central nervous system and extends to the periphery, encompassing the immune, endocrine, and autonomic systems. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, such as what happens in the "fight or flight" response, downregulates tumor-suppressive genes, inhibits immune function, and promotes tumor growth. On the other hand, an optimistic attitude or psychological intervention helps cancer patients to survive longer via increase in β-endorphin neuronal suppression of stress hormone levels and sympathetic outflows and activation of parasympathetic control of tumor suppressor gene and innate immune cells to destroy and clear tumor cells.

  16. Sequential Dysfunction and Progressive Depletion of Candida albicans-Specific CD4 T Cell Response in HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of immune control over opportunistic infections can occur at different stages of HIV-1 (HIV disease, among which mucosal candidiasis caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans is one of the early and common manifestations in HIV-infected human subjects. The underlying immunological basis is not well defined. We have previously shown that compared to cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific CD4 cells, C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells are highly permissive to HIV in vitro. Here, based on an antiretroviral treatment (ART naïve HIV infection cohort (RV21, we investigated longitudinally the impact of HIV on C. albicans- and CMV-specific CD4 T-cell immunity in vivo. We found a sequential dysfunction and preferential depletion for C. albicans-specific CD4 T cell response during progressive HIV infection. Compared to Th1 (IFN-γ, MIP-1β functional subsets, the Th17 functional subsets (IL-17, IL-22 of C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more permissive to HIV in vitro and impaired earlier in HIV-infected subjects. Infection history analysis showed that C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more susceptible to HIV in vivo, harboring modestly but significantly higher levels of HIV DNA, than CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected individuals with ongoing CD4 depletion demonstrated that C. albicans-specific CD4 T-cell response was preferentially and progressively depleted. Taken together, these data suggest a potential mechanism for earlier loss of immune control over mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients and provide new insights into pathogen-specific immune failure in AIDS pathogenesis.

  17. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechancial insult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2008-07-29

    explosive near the trajectory of the impactor. The damage is manifest as surface area through the creation of cracks and fragments, and also as porosity through the separation of crack faces and isolation of the fragments. Open porosity permits a flame to spread easily and so ignite the surface area that was created. The surface area itself leads to in increase in the mass-burning rate. As the kinetic energy and power of the insult increases, the degree of damage and the volume of damage both increase. Upon a localized ignition, the flame spreads to envelop the damaged volume, and the pressure rises at an accelerated rate until neither mechanical strength nor inertial confinement can successfully contain the pressure. The confining structure begins to expand. This reduces the pressure and may even extinguish the flame. Both the mass of explosive involved and the rate at which the gas is produced contribute to each of several different measures of violence. Such measures include damage to the confinement, the velocity and fragment size distributions from what was the confinement, and air blast. Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of the various phenomena described above. Our model comprises several interacting elements. The production of damage, the ignition criterion, the mass rate of burning (reaction rate), the equations of state and constitutive models of the solid explosive reactant (unburned) and gas products, flame propagation in damaged reactant, and the progressive failure of the confinement are all elements of the model. The model is intended for implementation in a general-purpose simulation program (hydrocode) that solves the partial differential equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in conjunction with equations of state and strength.

  18. Evolution of the health sector response to HIV in Myanmar: progress, challenges and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Htun Nyunt; Hone, San; Fujita, Masami; Maw-Naing, Amaya; Boonto, Krittayawan; Jacobs, Marjolein; Phyu, Sabe; Bollen, Phavady; Cheung, Jacquie; Aung, Htin; Aung Sang, May Thu; Myat Soe, Aye; Pendse, Razia; Murphy, Eamonn

    2016-11-28

    Critical building blocks for the response to HIV were made until 2012 despite a series of political, social and financial challenges. A rapid increase of HIV service coverage was observed from 2012 to 2015 through collaborative efforts of government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Government facilities, in particular, demonstrated their capacity to expand services for antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, tuberculosis and HIV co-infection and methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT). After nearly three decades into the response to HIV, Myanmar has adopted strategies to provide the right interventions to the right people in the right places to maximise impact and cost efficiency. In particular, the country is now using strategic information to classify areas into high-, medium- and low-HIV burden and risk of new infections for geographical prioritisation - as HIV remains concentrated among key population (KP) groups in specific geographical areas. Ways forward include: •Addressing structural barriers for KP to access services, and identifying and targeting KPs at higher risk;•Strengthening the network of public facilities, NGOs and general practitioners and introducing a case management approach to assist KPs and other clients with unknown HIV status, HIV-negative clients and newly diagnosed clients to access the health services across the continuum to increase the number of people testing for HIV and to reduce loss to follow-up in both prevention and treatment;•Increasing the availability of HIV testing and counselling services for KPs, clients of female sex workers (FSW), and other populations at risk, and raising the demand for timely testing including expansion of outreach and client-initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services;•Monitoring and maximising retention from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation and expanding quality HIV laboratory services, especially viral load

  19. Interactions of CO{sub 2} with temperature and other climate variables: response of vegetation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipling, E.B.

    1995-02-28

    The overall objectives of this project were: (1) to examine experimentally, for major crop species, the interacting effects of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and water availability on plant growth and development, (2) to model these interactions, and (3) to continue developing physiologically-based mechanistic models for predicting crop response to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and future global climate change. To meet these objectives, controlled-environment studies were conducted on cotton, lemon, rice, and soybean and a long-term open-top chamber study was continued on orange. Much progress was made on development of plant growth models for cotton, wheat, rice, and soybean. In addition, there were two special modeling efforts which have the potential for contributing to all of the crop models. These efforts are concerned with modeling root growth and physical and chemical processes in soil and with modeling the effect of stomatal aperture on photosynthesis and transpiration rates as a function of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit. The root growth and soil process modeling is important because it enables us to estimate the water available to the plant. The modeling of effects of stomatal aperture on photosynthesis and transpiration rates enables them to estimate dry weight gain and water use by the plant. These are both important components of the interaction of CO{sub 2} concentration with temperature and water availability. The work on stomatal aperture, photosynthesis, and transpiration has the added benefit of allowing us to improve predictions of energy partitioning by the terrestrial biosphere. The lack of realistic energy partitioning is a serious deficiency of the present general circulation models which are used to predict how climate will change. An additional important aspect of the rice experiments is a study of methane emissions of paddy-grown (i.e., flooded) rice grown under two levels of CO{sub 2} and three

  20. MiR-27b targets PPARγ to inhibit growth, tumor progression and the inflammatory response in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-J; Drakaki, A; Iliopoulos, D; Struhl, K

    2012-08-16

    The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)γ pathway is involved in cancer, but it appears to have both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions. In neuroblastoma cells, miR-27b targets the 3' untranslated region of PPARγ and inhibits its mRNA and protein expression. miR-27b overexpression or PPARγ inhibition blocks cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in mouse xenografts. PPARγ activates expression of the pH regulator NHE1, which is associated with tumor progression. Lastly, miR-27b through PPARγ regulates nuclear factor-κB activity and transcription of inflammatory target genes. Thus, in neuroblastoma, miR-27b functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the tumor-promoting function of PPARγ, which triggers an increased inflammatory response. In contrast, in breast cancer cells, PPARγ inhibits NHE1 expression and the inflammatory response, and it functions as a tumor suppressor. We suggest that the ability of PPARγ to promote or suppress tumor formation is linked to cell type-specific differences in regulation of NHE1 and other target genes.

  1. The United Nations Global Compact Progress Reports as Management Control Instruments for Social Responsibility at Spanish Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Wigmore-Álvarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and social responsibility (SR have emerged as a new way of managing all types of organizations. It is necessary that the resulting policy be integrated transversely in the control processes. The environment is especially demanding of higher education institutions (HEIs and universities when it comes to behaving in a socially responsible manner due to their great influence in society. Many universities have adhered to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC principles to prove their commitment and gain legitimacy. The Communication on Progress (COP is a management tool that helps to understand the level of implementation of the principles. Furthermore, COP analysis aids in establishing a process of continuous improvement in the management of the impacts that institutions have on their stakeholders. The aim of this study was to analyze the Spanish universities that have joined the Global Compact. Through a descriptive methodology, we identified the aspects that reflect this commitment and how this is integrated into their operational and educational processes. The results have shown that it is necessary to promote the integration of different international initiatives to guide the SR of universities. There are deficiencies in their SR management systems that prevent them from being more transparent, and it was found that in some cases, they are not aware of the implications the commitment can have in developed countries.

  2. Progress and perspectives on the role of RPE cell inflammatory responses in the development of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suofu Qin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Suofu Qin, Gerard A RodriguesRetinal Disease Research, Department of Biological Sciences, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The etiology of AMD remains poorly understood and no treatment is currently available for the atrophic form of AMD. Atrophic AMD has been proposed to involve abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, which lies beneath the photoreceptor cells and normally provides critical metabolic support to these light-sensing cells. Cumulative oxidative stress and local inflammation are thought to represent pathological processes involved in the etiology of atrophic AMD. Studies of tissue culture and animal models reveal that oxidative stress-induced injury to the RPE results in a chronic inflammatory response, drusen formation, and RPE atrophy. RPE degeneration in turn causes a progressive degeneration of photoreceptors, leading to the irreversible loss of vision. This review describes some of the potential major molecular and cellular events contributing to RPE death and inflammatory responses. In addition, potential target areas for therapeutic intervention will be discussed and new experimental therapeutic strategies for atrophic AMD will be presented.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, danger signals, complement, inflammation, retinal pigment epithelial cells

  3. Experimental verification of a progressive damage model for composite laminates based on continuum damage mechanics. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Timothy William

    1994-01-01

    Progressive failure is a crucial concern when using laminated composites in structural design. Therefore the ability to model damage and predict the life of laminated composites is vital. The purpose of this research was to experimentally verify the application of the continuum damage model, a progressive failure theory utilizing continuum damage mechanics, to a toughened material system. Damage due to tension-tension fatigue was documented for the IM7/5260 composite laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables, respectively, to predict stiffness loss. A damage dependent finite element code qualitatively predicted trends in transverse matrix cracking, axial splits and local stress-strain distributions for notched quasi-isotropic laminates. The predictions were similar to the experimental data and it was concluded that the continuum damage model provided a good prediction of stiffness loss while qualitatively predicting damage growth in notched laminates.

  4. Progresses of Electric Field Responsive Hydrogel%电场响应性水凝胶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘根起; 赵晓鹏; 程永清; 靖伟伟

    2006-01-01

      智能水凝胶是具有感知、处理和执行功能的新型“软”、“湿”材料,可对外界环境的微小变化或刺激作出敏感的响应。本文介绍了电场响应性水凝胶的研究进展,电场响应性水凝胶在电场作用下的溶胀、收缩和弯曲形变以及其在化学阀、药物控制释放系统、人工肌肉、驱动器、调光材料等高新技术领域的应用研究现状,并指出了目前电场响应性水凝胶研究中存在的主要问题。%  Intelligent hydrogels are novel soft and wet materials, which have the ability to perform sensing, proceeding and actuating function, and show the abilities of changing volume and shape reversibly in response to environmental stimulus. This article reviewed the research progress of electric field responsive hydrogels, described their swelling, shrinking and bending deformation in electric field, and presented their applications in chemical valves, controlled drug delivery devices, artificial muscles, actuators, modulated optical materials,etc. The current limitation of electric field responsive hydrogels was also discussed.

  5. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  6. Learning progressions from a sociocultural perspective: response to "co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses a case for a different, socio-cultural way of looking at learning progressions as treated in the next generation science standards (NGSS) as described by Ralph Cordova and Phyllis Balcerzak's paper "Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action". The paper is interesting for a number of reasons, and in this response I will identify different aspects of the paper and link the points made to my own research, and that of colleagues, as complementary perspectives. First, the way that the science curriculum is conceived as an expanding experience that moves from the classroom into the community, across subjects, and across time, links to theoretical positions on disciplinary literacies and notions of learning as apprenticeship into the discursive tools, or `habits of mind' as the authors put it, that underpin disciplinary practice. Second, the formulation of progression through widening communities of practice is a strong feature of the paper, and shows how children take on the role of scientists through this expanding exposure. I will link this approach to some of our own work with school—community science partnerships, drawing on the construct of boundary crossing to tease out relations between school science and professional practice. Third, the demonstration of the expansion of the children's view of what scientists do is well documented in the paper, illustrated by Figure 13 for instance. However I will, in this response, try to draw out and respond to what the paper is saying about the nature of progression; what the progression consists of, over what temporal or spatial dimensions it progresses, and how it can productively frame curriculum processes.

  7. Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Monitoring Response to Chemotherapy and Predicting Progression-Free Survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping Cheng; Ying Yan; Xiang-yi Wang; Yuan-li Lu; Yan-hua Yuan; Xiao-li Wang; Jun Jia; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore RT-PCR method to set up the examination platform for detecting circulating tumor cells(CTC) in peripheral blood from metastatic breast cancer patients.The primary endpoint is to find out the correlation of existence of CTC with clinical responses and progression-free survival (PFS).Methods: The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was serially diluted into the peripheral blood from 45 healthy donors to set up the sensitivity of RT-PCR assay.The expression of CK19 mRNA was amplified from both 49 patients and 45 healthy donors respectively.The CK19 protein quantity from plasma was measured by competitive inhibition ELISA assay.Results: The sensitivity of RT-PCR could reach 1/106-107 white blood cells with specificity of 95.6%.The objective response rate(ORR) of patients with CK19 mRNA-negative undertaken one cycle chemotherapy was significantly higher than those with positive(P<0.0001).PFS among CK19 mRNA-negative patients was also increased,although there was no significance(P=0.098).The results of ELISA assay showed that CK19 protein was decreased significantly after one cycle chemotherapy,which gave rise to a little higher ORR(P=0.015) and increased PFS(P=0.016).Conclusion: Patients with unamplified CK19 mRNA after one cycle chemotherapy could achieve better radiographic evaluation and increased PFS,which was showed to be of consistency with the CK19 protein assay among the patients treated.

  8. MGMT promoter methylation is associated with temozolomide response and prolonged progression-free survival in disseminated cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Rainer; Jewell, Rosalyn; van den Oord, Joost J; Wolter, Pascal; Stierner, Ulrika; Lindholm, Christer; Hertzman Johansson, Carolina; Lindén, Diana; Johansson, Hemming; Frostvik Stolt, Marianne; Walker, Christy; Snowden, Helen; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Hansson, Johan; Egyházi Brage, Suzanne

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the predictive and prognostic value of O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) inactivation by analyses of promoter methylation in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with cutaneous melanoma treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) or temozolomide (TMZ) were performed. The patient cohorts consisted of Belgian and Swedish disseminated melanoma patients. Patients were subdivided into those receiving single-agent treatment with DTIC/TMZ (cohort S, n = 74) and those treated with combination chemotherapy including DTIC/TMZ (cohort C, n = 79). Median follow-up was 248 and 336 days for cohort S and cohort C, respectively. MGMT promoter methylation was assessed by three methods. The methylation-related transcriptional silencing of MGMT mRNA expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Response to chemotherapy and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were correlated to MGMT promoter methylation status. MGMT promoter methylation was detected in tumor biopsies from 21.5 % of the patients. MGMT mRNA was found to be significantly lower in tumors positive for MGMT promoter methylation compared to tumors without methylation in both treatment cohorts (p MGMT promoter methylation in cohort S (p = 0.0005), but did not reach significance in cohort C (p = 0.16). Significantly longer PFS was observed among patients with MGMT promoter-methylated tumors (p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified presence of MGMT promoter methylation as an independent variable associated with longer PFS. Together, this implies that MGMT promoter methylation is associated with response to single-agent DTIC/TMZ and longer PFS in disseminated cutaneous melanoma.

  9. Longitudinal analysis of Prototheca zopfii-specific immune responses: correlation with disease progression and carriage in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Uwe; Hensel, Andreas

    2003-03-01

    In order to characterize the humoral and cellular immune responses to bovine mammary protothecosis, serum and whey samples obtained from 72 dairy cows assigned to four different clinical stages of infection were examined for specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques. Milk samples were analyzed for the total numbers of excreted algal cells and somatic cells. After characterization of the course of immune induction in bovine protothecal mastitis, a long-term sentinel study was performed in an affected herd in order to investigate disease progression. A total of 61 dairy cows with protothecal mastitis were examined for shedding of algae cells and for local immune responses three times in 6-month intervals. During acute and chronic stages of protothecosis, significantly elevated specific antibody activities in sera were detected. A strong correlation of whey immunoglobulin A (IgA) and whey IgG1 antibody activity with the total counts of somatic cells in milk was observed, whereas only a weak correlation of whey IgA and whey IgG1 concentrations to the number of algal cells excreted with the milk was seen. Our results from the sentinel long-term study of infected cows revealed that 70.5% of the persistently infected animals were continuously shedding the pathogen. About 4.9% of the animals showed an intermittent shedding, whereas 18% of the cows were tested culturally negative throughout the study. It can be assumed that Prototheca zopfii mastitis in dairy cows is maintained on the herd level by subclinically infected alga-shedding cows.

  10. Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer:Monitoring Response to Chemotherapy and Predicting Progression-Free Survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping Cheng; Ying Yan; Xiang-yi Wang; Yuan-li Lu; Yan-hua Yuan; Xiao-li Wang; Jun Jia; Jun Ren

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of this study is to explore RT-PCR method to set up the examination platform for detecting circulating tumor cells(CTC)in peripheral blood from metastatic breast cancer patients.The primary endpoint is to find out the correlation of existence of CTC with clinical responses and progression-free survival(PFS).Methods:The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was serially diluted into the peripheral blood from 45 healthy donors to set up the sensitivity of RT-PCR assay.The expression of CK19 mRNA was amplified from both 49patients and 45 healthy donors respectively.The CK19 protein quantity from plasma was measured by competitive inhibition ELISA assay.Results:The sensitivity of RT-PCR could reach 1/106-107 white blood cells with specificity of 95.6%.The objective response rate(ORR)of patients with CK19 mRNA-negative undertaken one cycle chemotherapy was significantly higher than those with positive(P<0.0001).PFS among CK19 mRNA-negative patients was also increased,although there was no significance(P=0.098).The results of ELISA assay showed that CK19 protein was decreased significantly after one cycle chemotherapy,which gave rise to a little higher ORR(P=0.015)and increased PFS(P=0.016).Conclusion:Patients with unamplified CK19 mRNA after one cycle chemotherapy could achieve better radiographic evaluation and increased PFS,which was showed to be of consistency with the CK19 protein assay among the patients treated.

  11. Multiple Functions of the RNA-Binding Protein HuR in Cancer Progression, Treatment Responses and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein, HuR, is a member of the Hu family of RNA-binding proteins. Over the past decade, this ubiquitously expressed protein has been extensively investigated in cancer research because it is involved in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation in many cell types. HuR activity and function is associated with its subcellular distribution, transcriptional regulation, translational and post-translational modifications. HuR regulation of target mRNAs is based on the interaction between the three specific domains of HuR protein and one or several U- or AU-rich elements (AREs in the untranslated region of target mRNAs. A number of cancer-related transcripts containing AREs, including mRNAs for proto-oncogenes, cytokines, growth factors, and invasion factors, have been characterized as HuR targets. It has been proposed that HuR has a central tumorigenic activity by enabling multiple cancer phenotypes. In this review, we comprehensively survey the existing evidence with regard to the diverse functions of HuR in caner development and progression. The current data also suggest that HuR might be a novel and promising therapeutic target and a marker for treatment response and prognostic evaluation.

  12. Mutation Analysis Identifies GUCY2D as the Major Gene Responsible for Autosomal Dominant Progressive Cone Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiratschky, Veronique B. D.; Wilke, Robert; Renner, Agnes B.; Kellner, Ulrich; Vadalà, Maria; Birch, David G.; Wissinger, Bernd; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kohl, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Heterozygous mutations in the GUCY2D gene, which encodes the membrane-bound retinal guanylyl cyclase-1 protein (RetGC-1), have been shown to cause autosomal dominant inherited cone degeneration and cone–rod degeneration (adCD, adCRD). The present study was a comprehensive screening of the GUCY2D gene in 27 adCD and adCRD unrelated families of these rare disorders. Methods Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing as well as PCR and subsequent restriction length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). Haplotype analysis was performed in selected patients by using microsatellite markers. Results GUCY2D gene mutations were identified in 11 (40%) of 27 patients, and all mutations clustered to codon 838, including two known and one novel missense mutation: p.R838C, p.R838H, and p.R838G. Haplotype analysis showed that among the studied patients only two of the six analyzed p.R838C mutation carriers shared a common haplotype and that none of the p.R838H mutation carriers did. Conclusions GUCY2D is a major gene responsible for progressive autosomal dominant cone degeneration. All identified mutations localize to codon 838. Haplotype analysis indicates that in most cases these mutations arise independently. Thus, codon 838 is likely to be a mutation hotspot in the GUCY2D gene. PMID:18487367

  13. Progress report for the project: Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Benes, S.E.; Phelps, S.P.; Loeffler, A.T.

    1990-09-01

    This progress report details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) performance regarding the projects Comparison of the Response of Mature Branches and Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to Atmospheric Pollution'' and Effects of Ozone, acid Precipitation, and Their Interactions on Mature Branches and Seedlings of Ponderosa Pine'' for the months of November 1989 to June 1990. During the last eight months, we have initiated ozone and acid precipitation exposures, and we began intensive growth, morphological, and physiological measurements. During these major physiological measurement periods, we measured photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, respiration, antioxidant activity, pigmentation, and foliar nutrient concentration. We have also concluded the analysis of our branch autonomy experiment, which we conducted in the fall. We determined that virtually no carbon is exported among branches in close proximity to one another. This conclusion assists in validating the approach of using branches and branch exposure chambers as a means of assessing the effects of air pollution on mature trees of Ponderosa pine. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are responsible for tumor promoting effect of TGF-β in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Pang, Yanli; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Achyut, B R; Heger, Christopher; Goldsmith, Paul K; Lonning, Scott; Yang, Li

    2012-12-01

    One great challenge in our understanding of TGF-β cancer biology and the successful application of TGF-β-targeted therapy is that TGF-β works as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. The underlying mechanisms for its functional change remain to be elucidated. Using 4T1 mammary tumor model that shares many characteristics with human breast cancer, particularly its ability to spontaneously metastasize to the lungs, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells are important mediators in TGF-β regulation of mammary tumor progression. Depletion of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells diminished the antitumor effect of TGF-β neutralization. Two mechanisms were involved: first, treatment with TGF-β neutralization antibody (1D11) significantly decreased the number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in tumor tissues and premetastatic lung. This is mediated through increased Gr-1+CD11b+ cell apoptosis. In addition, 1D11 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines and Arginase 1. Interestingly, the number and property of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in peripheral blood/draining lymph nodes correlated with tumor size and metastases in response to 1D11 treatment. Our data suggest that the efficacy of TGF-β neutralization depends on the presence of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and these cells could be good biomarkers for TGF-β-targeted therapy.

  15. Studies of the Stimulus Specificity, Response Specificity, Process Specificity, and Task Specificity of the Behavioral Bioassay Phenomenon. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, William G.

    If biochemical substrates and mechanisms could be identified, progress might be made in the detection and remediation of certain learning and memory disabilities. "Memory transfer" or "behavioral bioassay" methodology is a new technique developed for this purpose. It uses the behavior recipient animals to detect whatever chemicals are synthesized…

  16. Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-κB in human prostate cell lines. Differential time-dependent responses in cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B.; Collado, Beatriz; Bajo, Ana M.; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto,Juan C.; Carmena, María J.

    2007-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-?B in human prostate cell lines. Differential time-dependent responses in cancer progression SPAIN (Fernandez-Martinez, Ana B.) SPAIN Received: 2006-09-11 Revised: 2007-01-11 Accepted: 2007-01-11

  17. Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.E.

    1998-10-01

    From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.

  18. Cell cycle and aging, morphogenesis, and response to stimuli genes are individualized biomarkers of glioblastoma progression and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southey Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is a complex multifactorial disorder that has swift and devastating consequences. Few genes have been consistently identified as prognostic biomarkers of glioblastoma survival. The goal of this study was to identify general and clinical-dependent biomarker genes and biological processes of three complementary events: lifetime, overall and progression-free glioblastoma survival. Methods A novel analytical strategy was developed to identify general associations between the biomarkers and glioblastoma, and associations that depend on cohort groups, such as race, gender, and therapy. Gene network inference, cross-validation and functional analyses further supported the identified biomarkers. Results A total of 61, 47 and 60 gene expression profiles were significantly associated with lifetime, overall, and progression-free survival, respectively. The vast majority of these genes have been previously reported to be associated with glioblastoma (35, 24, and 35 genes, respectively or with other cancers (10, 19, and 15 genes, respectively and the rest (16, 4, and 10 genes, respectively are novel associations. Pik3r1, E2f3, Akr1c3, Csf1, Jag2, Plcg1, Rpl37a, Sod2, Topors, Hras, Mdm2, Camk2g, Fstl1, Il13ra1, Mtap and Tp53 were associated with multiple survival events. Most genes (from 90 to 96% were associated with survival in a general or cohort-independent manner and thus the same trend is observed across all clinical levels studied. The most extreme associations between profiles and survival were observed for Syne1, Pdcd4, Ighg1, Tgfa, Pla2g7, and Paics. Several genes were found to have a cohort-dependent association with survival and these associations are the basis for individualized prognostic and gene-based therapies. C2, Egfr, Prkcb, Igf2bp3, and Gdf10 had gender-dependent associations; Sox10, Rps20, Rab31, and Vav3 had race-dependent associations; Chi3l1, Prkcb, Polr2d, and Apool had therapy-dependent associations

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila as an agent of infection in alligators. Phase I, final report. Progress report, September 1, 1976--September 30, 1977, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorden, R.W.; Esch, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental alligators were exposed to various concentrations of young, washed cells of Aeromonas hydrophila under controlled conditions. Responses of all alligators were monitored on the basis of: observations of external lesions; immunoglobulin production; blood chemistry and hematology; bacteriology, parasitology, and pathology of internal organs, skeletal muscle and external lesions at necropsy. The findings are summarized.

  20. Immunity and immune response, pathology and pathologic changes: progress and challenges in the immunopathology of yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Juarez A S; Pagliari, Carla; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Duarte, Maria I S; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2013-09-01

    Yellow fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever, which affects people living in Africa and South America and is caused by the yellow fever virus, the prototype species in the Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family). Yellow fever virus infection can produce a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infection or oligosymptomatic illness to severe disease with a high fatality rate. In this review, we focus in the mechanisms associated with the physiopathology of yellow fever in humans and animal models. It has been demonstrated that several factors play a role in the pathological outcome of the severe form of the disease including direct viral cytopathic effect, necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocyte cells in the midzone, and a minimal inflammatory response as well as low-flow hypoxia and cytokine overproduction. New information has filled several gaps in the understanding of yellow fever pathogenesis and helped comprehend the course of illness. Finally, we discuss prospects for an immune therapy in the light of new immunologic, viral, and pathologic tools.

  1. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 7, January 1, 1992-- March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-06-09

    Work in this quarter focused on completing (1) the final batch of pilot-scale disk pellets, (2) storage, handling, and transportation evaluation, (3) pellet reslurrying and atomization studies, and (4) cost estimation for pellet and slurry production. Disk pelletization of Elkhorn coal was completed this quarter. Pellets were approximately 1/2- to 3/4-in. in diameter. Pellets, after thermal curing were strong and durable and exceeded the pellet acceptance criteria. Storage and handling tests indicate a strong, durable pellet can be prepared from all coals, and these pellets (with the appropriate binder) can withstand outdoor, exposed storage for at least 4 weeks. Pellets in unexposed storage show no deterioration in pellet properties. Real and simulated transportation tests indicate truck transportation should generate less than 5 percent fines during transport. Continuous reslurrying testing and subsequent atomization evaluation were performed this quarter in association with University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources. Four different slurries of approximately 55-percent-solids with viscosities below 500 cP (at 100 sec{sup {minus}1}) were prepared. Both continuous pellet-to-slurry production and atomization testing was successfully demonstrated. Finally, an in depth evaluation of the cost to prepare pellets, transport, handle, store, and convert the pellet into Coal Water Fuel (CWF) slurries was completed. Cost of the pellet-CWF option are compared with the cost to directly convert clean coal filter cake into slurry and transport, handle and store it at the user site. Findings indicate that in many circumstances, the pellet-CWF option would be the preferred choice. The decision depends on the plant size and transportation distance, and to a lesser degree on the pelletization technique and the coal selected.

  2. Association of sustained virologic response with reduced progression to liver cirrhosis in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng CW

    2016-03-01

    difference in 3-year cumulative incidence of liver cirrhosis was 24.8% greater for patients without SVR (35.2%, 95% CI: 13.0–57.5, P=0.012 compared with those with SVR (10.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–17.7. There was a trend of a higher baseline aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index score in patients who progressed to liver cirrhosis compared with those who did not progress (2.1±1.2 vs 1.6±1.3, P=0.055, but the difference failed to reach significance by Cox regression (adjusted HR: 1.285, 95% CI: 0.921–1.791, P=0.14. Conclusion: An SVR following PEG-IFN combination treatment can reduce the risk of liver cirrhosis in elderly CHC patients. Keywords: hepatitis C, sustained virologic response, pegylated interferon, ribavirin, liver cirrhosis

  3. HLA Alleles Associated with Delayed Progression to AIDS Contribute Strongly to the Initial CD8(+ T Cell Response against HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Altfeld

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the immunodominance patterns of HIV-1-specific T cell responses during primary HIV-1 infection and the reasons for human lymphocyte antigen (HLA modulation of disease progression.In a cohort of 104 individuals with primary HIV-1 infection, we demonstrate that a subset of CD8(+ T cell epitopes within HIV-1 are consistently targeted early after infection, while other epitopes subsequently targeted through the same HLA class I alleles are rarely recognized. Certain HLA alleles consistently contributed more than others to the total virus-specific CD8(+ T cell response during primary infection, and also reduced the absolute magnitude of responses restricted by other alleles if coexpressed in the same individual, consistent with immunodomination. Furthermore, individual HLA class I alleles that have been associated with slower HIV-1 disease progression contributed strongly to the total HIV-1-specific CD8(+ T cell response during primary infection.These data demonstrate consistent immunodominance patterns of HIV-1-specific CD8(+ T cell responses during primary infection and provide a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of specific HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 disease progression.

  4. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phases 2 and 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goals of this program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: {gt} 47% efficiency (HHV); NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {gt} 10% NSPS; coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all sold wastes benign; and cost of electricity 90% of present plant. Work reported herein is from Task 1.3 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design, Task 2,2 HITAF Air Heater, and Task 2.4 Duct Heater Design. The impact on cycle efficiency from the integration of various technology advances is presented. The criteria associated with a commercial HIPPS plant design as well as possible environmental control options are presented. The design of the HITAF air heaters, both radiative and convective, is the most critical task in the program. In this report, a summary of the effort associated with the radiative air heater designs that have been considered is provided. The primary testing of the air heater design will be carried out in the UND/EERC pilot-scale furnace; progress to date on the design and construction of the furnace is a major part of this report. The results of laboratory and bench scale activities associated with defining slag properties are presented. Correct material selection is critical for the success of the concept; the materials, both ceramic and metallic, being considered for radiant air heater are presented. The activities associated with the duct heater are also presented.

  5. Plasma cytokine response, lipid peroxidation and NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle following maximum progressive swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Cleto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine lipid peroxidation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle and the plasma cytokine profile following maximum progressive swimming. Adult male Swiss mice (N = 15 adapted to the aquatic environment were randomly divided into three groups: immediately after exercise (EX1, 3 h after exercise (EX2 and control. Animals from the exercising groups swam until exhaustion, with an initial workload of 2% of body mass attached to the tail. Control mice did not perform any exercise but were kept immersed in water for 20 min. Maximum swimming led to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in skeletal muscle, as indicated by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS levels (4062.67 ±1487.10 vs 19,072.48 ± 8738.16 nmol malondialdehyde (MDA/mg protein, control vs EX1. Exercise also promoted NF-κB activation in soleus muscle. Cytokine secretion following exercise was marked by increased plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels 3 h post-exercise (P < 0.05. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels were reduced following exercise and remained reduced 3 h post-exercise (P < 0.05. Plasma levels of other cytokines investigated, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin-12 (IL-12, were not altered by exercise. The present findings showed that maximum swimming, as well as other exercise models, led to lipid peroxidation and NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle and increased plasma IL-6 levels. The plasma cytokine response was also marked by reduced IL-10 levels. These results were attributed to exercise type and intensity.

  6. Soluble common gamma chain exacerbates COPD progress through the regulation of inflammatory T cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Byunghyuk Lee,1 Eunhee Ko,1 Jiyeon Lee,2 Yuna Jo,1 Hyunju Hwang,1 Tae Sik Goh,1,3 Myungsoo Joo,2 Changwan Hong1 1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 2Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Cigarette smoking (CS is a major cause of considerable morbidity and mortality by inducing lung cancer and COPD. COPD, a smoking-related disorder, is closely related to the alteration of immune system and inflammatory processes that are specifically mediated by T cells. Soluble common gamma chain (sγc has recently been identified as a critical regulator of the development and differentiation of T cells. We examined the effects of sγc in a cigarette smoke extract (CSE mouse model. The sγc level in CSE mice serum is significantly downregulated, and the cellularity of lymph node (LN is systemically reduced in the CSE group. Overexpression of sγc enhances the cellularity and IFNγ production of CD8 T cells in LN and also enhances Th1 and Th17 differentiation of CD4 T cells in the respiratory tract. Mechanistically, the downregulation of sγc expression mediated by CSE is required to prevent excessive inflammatory T cell responses. Therefore, our data suggest that sγc may be one of the target molecules for the control of immunopathogenic progresses in COPD. Keywords: COPD, T cell, soluble common gamma chain, cytokine

  7. Is the way an oil spill response is reported in the media important for the final perception of the clean-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Ashwell, D; Low, S I; Morgan, K J; Pearson, H E

    2016-03-15

    This research investigates the media coverage during the C/V Rena grounding in New Zealand (NZ), in 2011, to analyze if information reported in printed media is important for the final perception of the overall oil spill response. We took all articles available from NZ's largest circulated newspaper and the regional newspaper closest to the incident and analyzed the themes within each article; the article's tone (positive, neutral or negative); the time of the report relative to incident events and any differences between the regional and national papers. This analysis indicates that oil spills are reported and perceived as inherently negative incidents. However, along with coordinating an effective spill response, fast, factual and frequent media releases and increased effect in media liaison in areas of response with high public intrinsic value such as oiled wildlife response can significantly influence tone of media coverage and likely overall public perception.

  8. Solution of two-dimensional, two-region electromagnetic ground response. Final report, March-August 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlberg, I.

    1989-03-01

    A solution for the two-dimensional, two-region electromagnetic ground response was developed that relates the surface components of the electric field to the surface components of the magnetic field. This has been accomplished by deriving a universal functional form for a dimensionless Green's function. The Green's function provides increasingly more accurate approximations to the response for each successive reflection from the second layer. This result would appear to provide simplification and reduced computer running time in the numerical modelling of the HABEMP when the ground response is coupled to finite-difference methods for solving the atmospheric part of the problem.

  9. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Boothman

    1999-08-11

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.

  10. [FY 2015 progress report]: Bird Communities of Coniferous Forests in the Acadian Region: Their Responses to Management and Habitat Associations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This FY2015 progress report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The goal of the project is to examine...

  11. [FY 2014 progress report]: Bird Communities of Coniferous Forests in the Acadian Region: Their Responses to Management and Habitat Associations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This FY2014 progress report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The goal of the project is to examine...

  12. ECOG is as independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy, overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Álvarez, Rocío; Martin-Aguilar, Ana; Silva, Juan A.; De La Garza-Salazar, Jaime G.; Ruiz-García, Erika; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.; La Vega, Horacio Astudillo-De

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether age, gender, functional status, histology, tumor location, number of metastases, and levels of the tumor markers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin, are poor prognostic factors for the response to chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. A total of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site that was histologically confirmed, and treated with chemotherapy in the Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, ‘Century XXI’ IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico during the period between January 2002 to December 2009, were carefully selected for the present study. The analysis of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site revealed that the liver was the organ with the highest frequency of metastases (33.5%). The objective response rates to chemotherapy were ~30.2%. Notably, ECOG was an important predictor of response to chemotherapy (P=0.008). The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months. Upon multivariate analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Scale of Performance Status was observed as an independent predictor of progression (P<0.0001). The median overall survival was 14.2 months. The ECOG was also an independent predictor of mortality (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the data from the present study have demonstrated that ECOG is an independent predictor of a poor response to chemotherapy, lower overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site. PMID:28515916

  13. Maintenance or Emergence of Chronic Phase Secondary Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses after Loss of Acute Phase Immunodominant Responses Does Not Protect SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques from Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shannon Keckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV- infected rhesus macaque is the preferred animal model for vaccine development, but the correlates of protection in this model are not completely understood. In this paper, we document the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to SIV and its effects on viral evolution in an effort to identify events associated with disease progression regardless of MHC allele expression. We observed the evolution of epitopes targeted by CTLs in a group of macaques that included long-term nonprogressing (LTNP, slowly progressing (SP, normally progressing (NP, and rapidly progressing (RP animals. Collectively, our data (1 identify novel CTL epitopes from an SP animal that are not restricted by known protective alleles, (2 illustrate that, in this small study, RP and NP animals accrue more mutations in CTL epitopes than in SP or LTNP macaques, and (3 demonstrate that the loss of CTL responses to immunodominant epitopes is associated with viral replication increases, which are not controlled by secondary CTL responses. These findings provide further evidence for the critical role of the primary cell-mediated immune responses in the control of retroviral infections.

  14. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsalata, P

    1988-07-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties, were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting thorium and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body, and uranium series radionuclides at the Osamu Utsumi open pit uranium mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent plutonium, the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent americium and curium, and uranium (VI) as an analogue for transuranics with stable oxidation states above IV, e.g., Pu(VI). Part 2 includes our final measurement results for naturally occurring light rare earth elements (REE's include La, Ce, Nd, and SM), U-series and Th-series radionuclides in adult farm animal tissues, feeds and soils. Our findings on soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CR's) and the comparative behavior of these elements in farm animals raised under natural conditions by local farmers are presented. Part 3 summarizes our findings to date on the distribution and mobilization of Th-232, light rare earth elements (LREE), U-238 and Ra-228 in the MF basin. Estimates of first order, present day, mobilization rate constants resulting from ground water solubilization and seepage/stream transport are calculated using revised inventory estimates for the occurrence of these elements in the ore body and annual flux estimates for the transport of these elements away from the ore body. 151 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of George Air Force Base, California. Volume 2. Public Comments and Responses, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    evening, end thenk you for the 14 the extent that it cen, In terms of the economic opprtun - is Opportunity to address you. Iau speaking in my capacity...will result in safe sit*s MA will met threat .. "ater Quality, the health Ni safety of the puhlic mswov the Onviremt.Finally. go haee as eceegmc... threat to Public bealth and the cleanup &actiond on a aites-pecific basis. No are also concerned environment. This listing is boed" on actual Wnd potential

  16. The analysis of progress CSR good practices areas in logistic companies based on reports “Responsible Business in Poland. Good Practices” in 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna TUROŃ; Golba, Dagmara; Piotr CZECH

    2015-01-01

    The article presented the analysis of progress CSR good practices areas in logistic companies. Authors considered areas of good practices, which were reported by DB Schenker and Raben Group to “Responsible Business in Poland. Good Practices” from 2010 to 2014. The authors also verified the occurrence of niche in logistic CSR areas, which could be used by the other companies that starts their CSR activities.

  17. The analysis of progress CSR good practices areas in logistic companies based on reports “Responsible Business in Poland. Good Practices” in 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna TUROŃ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presented the analysis of progress CSR good practices areas in logistic companies. Authors considered areas of good practices, which were reported by DB Schenker and Raben Group to “Responsible Business in Poland. Good Practices” from 2010 to 2014. The authors also verified the occurrence of niche in logistic CSR areas, which could be used by the other companies that starts their CSR activities.

  18. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress; Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act.

  19. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities.

  20. Finally Making Good on the Promise of Qualitative Research in Special Education? A Response to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In this response to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…

  1. Finally Making Good on the Promise of Qualitative Research in Special Education? A Response to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In this response to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…

  2. A Project to Develop and Evaluate a Computerized System for Instructional Response Analysis; Project SIRA. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, J.A., Jr.

    Project SIRA (System for Instructional Response Analysis) used a systems approach to develop a complete range of programs and techniques both for evaluation of student performance and for evaluation and revision of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) lesson material. By use of the PLATO computer-based instructional hardware system at the…

  3. Research Progress on Plant Physiological Processes in Response to Climate Change%植物对气候变化生理响应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彩云; 许新桥; 马月萍; 孙振元; 冯世强

    2012-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, human activities, especially in the developed countries, have consumed a great amount of resources and energy in the process of industrialization, which have resulted in the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the air and triggered the global climate change. The change has not only brought severe challenges to human survival and development, but also imposed impacts on the physiological processes of plants. The influences on plant physiological processes by enriching CO2, changing climate factors and environmental stress factors have attracted wide concerns of scientists. This paper attempted to classify and analyze the national and international research on the influence of climate change on plant physiological processes carried out in recent years, and described the research progress of plant physiological response to CO2, temperature and moisture. Finally, the future research directions were prospected.%自工业革命以来,人类活动尤其是发达国家在工业化过程中消耗大量资源、能源,造成大气中温室气体浓度增加,引起全球范围内的气候变化,给人类的生存和发展带来严峻挑战,也对植物的生理过程产生了影响。关于CO2浓度升高及其与气候因子和环境胁迫因子对植物生理过程的影响已引起各国科学家广泛关注。文中就近年来气候变化对植物生理过程的影响国内外研究进行归类和分析,介绍了植物对CO2、温度、水分等因素变化的响应过程研究进展,并提出对进一步研究的展望。

  4. Relation of the enhancement of entorhinal tetanic responses by 50-Hz amygdala stimulation to the progression of kindling in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Hirayama, K; Murata, R; Matsuura, S

    1995-10-01

    We recorded entorhinal tetanic responses to 50-Hz kindling stimulations applied at the amygdala in conscious rats, which produced facilitation and depression during the train pulses, in order to analyze the relationship of the changes in the tetanic responses to the development of both after-discharges (ADs) and behavioral seizures. Facilitation was always produced in the earlier tetanic responses and was followed by depression which reached a quasi-steady level in the later tetanic responses during each kindling stimulation. To estimate the changes in magnitude of the excitatory synaptic activation in the tetanic responses, with reference to the development of seizure stages, tetanic responses which produced the same behavioral seizure stage in each rat were averaged and the area between the negative (excitatory) potentials and the baseline of the averaged tetanic response was measured in terms of mV x ms. Magnitudes of the averaged negative components were significantly enhanced with an increase in the order of seizure stages in eight rats (P kindling stimulations also increased with an increase in the order of seizure stages, indicating long term potentiation of the responses by kindling stimulations. We concluded from the results that the enhancement of facilitation of the excitatory synaptic activation and the reduction of the inhibitory synaptic activation in entorhinal tetanic responses by 50-Hz amygdala kindling stimulation is involved in the electrophysiological source of the progression of kindling epilepsy.

  5. Final Technical Report [Scalable methods for electronic excitations and optical responses of nanostructures: mathematics to algorithms to observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Yousef

    2014-03-19

    The master project under which this work is funded had as its main objective to develop computational methods for modeling electronic excited-state and optical properties of various nanostructures. The specific goals of the computer science group were primarily to develop effective numerical algorithms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT). There were essentially four distinct stated objectives. The first objective was to study and develop effective numerical algorithms for solving large eigenvalue problems such as those that arise in Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The second objective was to explore so-called linear scaling methods or Methods that avoid diagonalization. The third was to develop effective approaches for Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT). Our fourth and final objective was to examine effective solution strategies for other problems in electronic excitations, such as the GW/Bethe-Salpeter method, and quantum transport problems.

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of HIV on HCV Immune Responses and Its Association with Liver Disease Progression in a Unique Plasma Donor Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Ushani S.; Lawrence, Tessa M.; Peng, Yan-Chun; Liu, Jinghua; Xu, Keyi; Hu, Ke; Qin, Ling; Liu, Ning; Sun, Huanqin; Yan, Hui-Ping; Repapi, Emmanouela; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Thimme, Robert; McKeating, Jane A.; Dong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-1 infected patients. Our understanding of the impact of HIV infection on HCV specific immune responses and liver disease outcome is limited by the heterogeneous study populations with genetically diverse infecting viruses, varying duration of infection and anti-viral treatment. Methods Viral-specific immune responses in a cohort of 151 HCV mono- and HIV co-infected former plasma donors infected with a narrow source of virus were studied. HCV and HIV specific T cell responses were correlated with clinical data. Results HIV-1 accelerated liver disease progression and decreased HCV specific T cell immunity. The magnitude of HCV specific T cell responses inversely correlated with lower HCV RNA load and reduced liver injury as assessed by non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis. HIV co-infection reduced the frequency of HCV specific CD4+ T cells with no detectable effect on CD8+ T cells or neutralizing antibody levels. Conclusion Our study highlights the impact of HIV co-infection on HCV specific CD4+ T cell responses in a unique cohort of patients for both HCV and HIV and suggests a crucial role for these cells in controlling chronic HCV replication and liver disease progression. PMID:27455208

  7. Association of Myxovirus Resistance Gene Promoter Polymorphism with Response to Combined Interferon Treatment and Progression of Liver Disease in Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader El Din, Noha Gamal; Salum, Ghada M; Anany, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Marwa Khalil; Dawood, Reham Mohamed; Zayed, Naglaa; El Abd, Yasmine S; El-Shenawy, Reem; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphism at the -88 myxovirus resistance (MxA) gene promoter region in relation to the status of hepatitis C virus (HCV) progression and response to combined interferon (IFN) in chronic HCV Egyptian patients. One hundred ten subjects were enrolled in the study; 60 HCV genotype 4-infected patients who underwent combined IFN therapy and 50 healthy individuals. All subjects were genotyped for -88 MxA polymorphism by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. There was an increasing trend of response to combined IFN treatment as 34.9% of GG, 64.3% of GT, and 66.7% of TT genotypes were sustained responders (P=0.05). The T allele was significantly affecting the response rate more than G allele (P=0.032). Moreover, the hepatic fibrosis score and hepatitis activity were higher in GG genotypes compared with the GT and TT genotypes. The multivariate analysis showed that the MxA GG genotype was an independent factor increasing the no response to IFN therapy (P=0.04, odds ratio [OR] 3.822, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.056-11.092), also MxA G allele (P=0.0372, OR 2.905, 95% CI 1.066-7.919). MxA -88 polymorphism might be a potential biomarker to predict response to IFN and disease progression in chronic HCV-infected patients.

  8. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with effective braces: early response to trunk asymmetry may avoid curvature progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, J; Dingeldey, E; Wagner, F; Rezai, G; Nahr, K

    2014-07-01

    Vertical posture of the growing child requires minute central nervous control mechanisms in order to maintain symmetry of the torso in its various activities. Scoliosis describes a constant deviation in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes from the dynamic symmetry of the trunk. Early intervention with effective bracing, physiotherapy and sports can reverse curve progression during growth spurts, once these are identified in screening. Modern braces have a derotating and reducing effect (mirror effect) on asymmetric body volumes, thus influencing the growing torso and restoring lasting symmetry. Recent data support the use of braces to reverse progressing scoliosis.

  9. Behavioral Responses Of Fish To A Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Mutlipe Operational Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shen, Haixue [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Rao, Shivanesh [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goodwin, Andy [United States Army Engineer R & D Center, Vicksburg, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    There is significant interest in the interaction of aquatic organisms with current-based marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. Determining the potential impacts of MHK devices on fish behavior is critical to addressing the environmental concerns that could act as barriers to the permitting and deployment of MHK devices. To address these concerns, we use field monitoring and fish behavior models to characterize the behavioral responses of fish to MHK turbines and infer potential stimuli that may have elicited the observed behavioral changes.

  10. Study of air pollution: Effects of ozone on neuropeptide-mediated responses in human subjects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boushey, H.A.

    1991-11-01

    The study examined the hypothesis that ozone inactivates the enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, responsible for limiting the effects of neuropeptides released from afferent nerve endings. Cough response of capsaicin solution delivered from a nebulizer at 2 min. intervals until two or more coughs were produced. Other endpoints measured included irritative symptoms as rated by the subjects on a nonparametric scale, spirometry, of each concentration of ozone were compared to those of filtered air in a single-blind randomized sequence. The results indicate that a 2 h. exposure to 0.4 ppm of ozone with intermittent light exercise alters the sensitivity of airway nerves that mediate the cough response to inhaled materials. This dose of ozone also caused a change in FEV1. A lower level of ozone, 0.02 ppm, caused a change in neither cough threshold nor FEV1, even when the duration of exposure was extended to three hours. The findings are consistent with the author's hypothesis that ozone may sensitize nerve endings in the airways by inactivating neutral endopeptidase, an enzyme that regulates their activity, but they do not demonstrate that directly examining an effect directly mediated by airway nerves allows detection of effects of ozone at doses below those causing effects detected by standard tests of pulmonary function.

  11. Final technical report. Can microbial functional traits predict the response and resilience of decomposition to global change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Steven D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The role of specific micro-organisms in the carbon cycle, and their responses to environmental change, are unknown in most ecosystems. This knowledge gap limits scientists’ ability to predict how important ecosystem processes, like soil carbon storage and loss, will change with climate and other environmental factors. The investigators addressed this knowledge gap by transplanting microbial communities from different environments into new environments and measuring the response of community composition and carbon cycling over time. Using state-of-the-art sequencing techniques, computational tools, and nanotechnology, the investigators showed that microbial communities on decomposing plant material shift dramatically with natural and experimentally-imposed drought. Microbial communities also shifted in response to added nitrogen, but the effects were smaller. These changes had implications for carbon cycling, with lower rates of carbon loss under drought conditions, and changes in the efficiency of decomposition with nitrogen addition. Even when transplanted into the same conditions, microbial communities from different environments remained distinct in composition and functioning for up to one year. Changes in functioning were related to differences in enzyme gene content across different microbial groups. Computational approaches developed for this project allowed the conclusions to be tested more broadly in other ecosystems, and new computer models will facilitate the prediction of microbial traits and functioning across environments. The data and models resulting from this project benefit the public by improving the ability to predict how microbial communities and carbon cycling functions respond to climate change, nutrient enrichment, and other large-scale environmental changes.

  12. Fallen angels or risen apes? A tale of the intricate complexities of imbalanced immune responses in the pathogenesis and progression of immune-mediated and viral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Omusiro Ondondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive immune responses directed against foreign pathogens, self-antigens or commensal microflora can cause cancer establishment and progression if the execution of tight immuno-regulatory mechanisms fails. On the other hand, induction of potent tumour antigen-specific immune responses together with stimulation of the innate immune system is a pre-requisite for effective antitumour immunity, and if suppressed by the strong immuno-regulatory mechanisms can lead to cancer progression. Therefore, it is crucial that the inevitable co-existence of these fundamental, yet conflicting roles of immune-regulatory cells is carefully streamlined as imbalances can be detrimental to the host. Infection with chronic persistent viruses is characterised by severe immune dysfunction resulting in T cell exhaustion and sometimes deletion of antigen-specific T cells. More often this is due to increased immuno-regulatory processes which are triggered to down-regulate immune responses and limit immunopathology. However, such heightened levels of immune disruption cause a concomitant loss of tumour immune-surveillance and create a permissive microenvironment for cancer establishment and progression, as demonstrated by increased incidences of cancer in immunosuppressed hosts. Paradoxically, while some cancers arise as a consequence of increased immuno-regulatory mechanisms that inhibit protective immune responses and impinge on tumour surveillance, other cancers arise due to impaired immuno-regulatory mechanisms and failure to limit pathogenic inflammatory responses. This intricate complexity, where immuno-regulatory cells can be beneficial in certain immune settings but detrimental in other settings underscores the need for carefully formulated interventions to equilibrate the balance between immuno-stimulatory and immuno-regulatory processes.

  13. First-line temozolomide chemotherapy in progressive low-grade astrocytomas after radiotherapy: molecular characteristics in relation to response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, W.; Dubbink, H.J.; Zonnenberg, C.B.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Postma, T.J.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F.H.; Kros, J.M.; Kouwenhoven, M.C.; Marion, R. van; Heuvel, I. van; Holt, B. van der; Bromberg, J.E.; Sillevis Smitt, P.A.; Dinjens, W.N.; Bent, M.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies examined the effect of temozolomide (TMZ) in recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) after surgery, none of which included a homogeneous and sufficiently sized group of patients with progression after radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated a cohort of 58 patients treated with TMZ for progr

  14. First-line temozolomide chemotherapy in progressive low-grade astrocytomas after radiotherapy: Molecular characteristics in relation to response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Taal (Walter); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); B.A. Zonnenberg; T.J. Postma (Tjeerd); J. Gijtenbeek (Johanna); W. Boogerd (Willem); F.H. Groenendijk (Floris); J.M. Kros (Johan); M.C.M. Kouwenhoven (Mathilde); R. van Marion (Ronald); I. van Heuvel (Irene); B. van der Holt (Bronno); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); P.A. Smitt (Peter); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); M.J. van den Bent (Martin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOnly a few studies examined the effect of temozolomide (TMZ) in recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) after surgery, none of which included a homogeneous and sufficiently sized group of patients with progression after radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated a cohort of 58 patients treated with T

  15. The wound inflammatory response exacerbates growth of pre-neoplastic cells and progression to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio, Nicole; Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Ward, Laura Chloe;

    2015-01-01

    There is a long-standing association between wound healing and cancer, with cancer often described as a "wound that does not heal". However, little is known about how wounding, such as following surgery, biopsy collection or ulceration, might impact on cancer progression. Here, we use a translucent...

  16. Self-Evaluation and Pre-Speech Planning: A Strategy for Sharing Responsibility for Progress in the Speech Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Linda A.

    Speech class teachers can implement a pre- and post-speech strategy, using pre-speech and self-evaluation forms, to help students become active in directing their own progress, and acknowledge their own accomplishments. Every speech is tape-recorded in class. Students listen to their speeches later and fill in the self-evaluation form, which asks…

  17. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The overall objective of this research was to document current patterns of CO{sub 2} flux in selected locations of the circumpolar arctic, and to develop the information necessary to predict how these fluxes may be affected by climate change. In fulfillment of these objectives, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured at several sites on the North Slope of Alaska during the 1990--94 growing season (June--August) to determine the local and regional patterns of seasonal CO{sub 2} exchange. In addition, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured in the Russian and Icelandic Arctic to determine if the patterns of CO{sub 2} exchange observed in Arctic Alaska were representative of the circumpolar Arctic, while cold-season CO{sub 2} flux measurements were carried out during the 1993--94 winter season to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux not accounted for by the growing season measurements. Manipulations of soil water table depth and surface temperature, which were identified from the extensive measurements as being the most important variables in determining the magnitude and direction of net CO{sub 2} exchange, were carried out during the 1993--94 growing seasons in tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Finally, measurements of CH{sub 4} flux were also measured at several of the North Slope study sites during the 1990--91 growing seasons.

  18. MicroRNA-224 is associated with colorectal cancer progression and response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy by KRAS-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwatia, E B; Chakravarty, P; Carey, F A; Weidlich, S; Steele, R J C; Munro, A J; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers arise from benign adenomas, although not all adenomas progress to cancer and there are marked interpatient differences in disease progression. We have previously associated KRAS mutations with disease progression and reduced survival in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: We used TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) qRT–PCR analysis to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in normal colorectal mucosa, adenomas and cancers and in isogeneic KRAS WT and mutant HCT116 cells, and used a variety of phenotypic assays to assess the influence of miRNA expression on KRAS activity, chemosensitivity, proliferation and invasion. Results: MicroRNA-224 was differentially expressed in dysplastic colorectal disease and in isogeneic KRAS WT and mutant HCT116 cells. Antagomir-mediated miR-224 silencing in HCT116 KRAS WT cells phenocopied KRAS mutation, increased KRAS activity and ERK and AKT phosphorylation. 5-FU chemosensitivity was significantly increased in miR-224 knockdown cells, and in NIH3T3 cells expressing KRAS and BRAF mutant proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of predicted miR-224 target genes predicted altered cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes that were experimentally confirmed in miR-224 knockdown cells. Conclusions: We describe a novel mechanism of KRAS regulation, and highlight the clinical utility of colorectal cancer-specific miRNAs as disease progression or clinical response biomarkers. PMID:25919696

  19. Hipomelanose macular progressiva: estudo epidemiológico e resposta terapêutica à fototerapia Progressive macular hypomelanosis: an epidemiological study and therapeutic response to phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A hipomelanose macular progressiva é uma dermatose comum em diferentes continentes. Sua causa é desconhecida e os tratamentos propostos são pouco eficazes. OBJETIVOS: Determinar aspectos epidemiológicos da hipomelanose macular progressiva em pacientes atendidos num setor de fototerapia, no período de 1997 a 2008, e avaliar a resposta terapêutica com PUVA ou UVBNB. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 84 pacientes com Hipomelanose Macular Progressiva. Após 16 sessões de fototerapia, a resposta terapêutica foi definida: I=inalterado, MD=melhora discreta(0.05. A maioria (81% dos pacientes obteve 50% ou mais de repigmentação e 65% tiveram cura ou MI. Entretanto, 72% apresentaram recorrência das lesões. CONCLUSÃO: A ausência de pacientes, com mais de 40 anos, sugere que a Hipomelanose Macular Progressiva seja uma doença autolimitada. Tanto PUVA como UVB NB são opções terapêuticas, porém não impedem a recidiva da doença.BACKGROUND: Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common dermatosis in various continents. Its cause is unknown and proposed treatments have had little effect. OBJECTIVES: To determine epidemiological aspects of progressive macular hypomelanosis in patients referred to a phototherapy clinic between 1997 and 2008 and to evaluate therapeutic response to PUVA (psoralen + UVA photochemotherapy or narrowband UVB phototherapy. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis were evaluated. After 16 phototherapy sessions, therapeutic response was classified as: unchanged, slightly improved (<50% of repigmentation, moderately improved (50-79% of repigmentation, much improved (80-99% or cured (100%. After a minimum of three months, patients whose response was classified as cured or much improved were contacted by telephone to evaluate the persistence of the therapeutic response. RESULTS: Most of the patients were women (79% and white (85%. Age at onset of progressive macular hypomelanosis ranged

  20. Linking real time and location in scheduling demand-responsive transit. Final report, October 1993-October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetter, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current study builds on the experience of the study team with asessing the viability of the application of GPS to paratransit and fixed-route buses in a mid-sized city, Des Moines. That project provided the basis for the actual investment of Des Moines Metro in a GPS for its paratransit fleet. In this study the focus shifts to rural and small-town demand-responsive properties. The assumption is that these systems are not smaller versions of the urban system, but distinctive forms of transit with very different needs and operating parameters. The question is whether smart technologies that relate to systems operation are viable in this setting. In this cotext, viability is determined not so much in terms of technical feasibility but in terms of overall costs and benefits.

  1. Final Technical Report: Response of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Associated Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter C

    2002-08-15

    This research incorporated an integrated hierarchical approach in space, time, and levels of biological/ecological organization to help understand and predict ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2} and concomitant environmental change. The research utilized a number of different approaches, and collaboration of both PER and non-PER investigators to arrive at a comprehensive, integrative understanding. Central to the work were the CO{sub 2}-controlled, ambient Lit, Temperature controlled (CO{sub 2}LT) null-balance chambers originally developed in the arctic tundra, which were re-engineered for the chaparral with treatment CO{sub 2} concentrations of from 250 to 750 ppm CO{sub 2} in 100 ppm increments, replicated twice to allow for a regression analysis. Each chamber was 2 meters on a side and 2 meters tall, which were installed over an individual shrub reprouting after a fire. This manipulation allowed study of the response of native chaparral to varying levels of CO{sub 2}, while regenerating from an experimental burn. Results from these highly-controlled manipulations were compared against Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulations, in an area adjacent to the CO{sub 2}LT null balance greenhouses. These relatively short-term results (5-7 years) were compared to long-term results from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) surrounding natural CO{sub 2} springs in northern Italy, near Laiatico, Italy. The springs lack the controlled experimental rigor of our CO{sub 2}LT and FACE manipulation, but provide invaluable validation of our long-term predictions.

  2. Synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression: analysis of a proof-of-concept randomised clinical trial of cytokine blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rooney, Terence

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression during biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with active RA entered a randomised study of anakinra 100 mg\\/day, administered as monotherapy or in combination with pegsunercept 800 microg\\/kg twice a week. Arthroscopic synovial tissue biopsies were obtained at baseline and two further time points. Following immunohistochemical staining, selected mediators of RA pathophysiology were quantified using digital image analysis. Selected mediators were also measured in the serum. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were randomly assigned: 11 received monotherapy and 11 combination therapy. American College of Rheumatology 20, 50 and 70 response rates were 64%, 64% and 46% with combination therapy and 36%, 9% and 0% with monotherapy, respectively. In synovial tissue, T-cell infiltration, vascularity and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) expression demonstrated significant utility as biomarkers of disease activity and therapeutic response. In serum, interleukin 6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were most useful in this regard. An early decrease in serum levels of TIMP-1 was predictive of the later therapeutic outcome. Pretreatment tissue levels of T-cell infiltration and the growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor\\/TGFbeta, and serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, TIMP-1, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor types I and II and IL-18 correlated with radiographic progression. CONCLUSIONS: Synovial tissue analysis identified biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression. Biomarker expression in tissue was independent of the levels measured in the serum.

  3. The FGFR4-G388R single-nucleotide polymorphism alters pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor progression and response to mTOR inhibition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Stefano; Zheng, Lei; Hassan, Manal; Phan, Alexandria T; Woodhouse, Linda J; Yao, James C; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), also known as islet cell tumors, exhibit a wide range of biologic behaviors ranging from long dormancy to rapid progression. Currently, there are few molecular biomarkers that can be used to predict recurrence/metastasis or response to therapy. This study examined the predictive and prognostic value of a single nucleotide polymorphism substituting an arginine (R) for glycine (G) in codon 388 of the FGFR4 transmembrane domain. We established the FGFR4 genotype of 71 patients with pNETs and correlated genotype with biologic behavior. We created an in vivo model of pNET with BON1 cells and transfected them with either FGFR4-G388 or FGFR4-R388 to determine the mechanism of action and to examine response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. We then validated the predictive results of experimental studies in a group of patients treated with everolimus. FGFR4-R388 is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior in patients with pNETs with a statistically significant higher risk of advanced tumor stage and liver metastasis. Using an orthotopic mouse xenograft model, we show that FGFR4-R388 promotes tumor progression by increasing intraperitoneal spread and metastatic growth within the liver. Unlike FGFR4-G388, FGFR4-R388 BON1 tumors exhibited diminished responsiveness to everolimus. Concordantly, there was a statistically significant reduction in response to everolimus in patients with FGFR4-R388. Our findings highlight the importance of the FGFR4 allele in pNET progression and identify a predictive marker of potential therapeutic importance in this disease.

  4. ESG-CET Final Progress Title

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Middleton

    2011-10-06

    Drawing to a close after five years of funding from DOE's ASCR and BER program offices, the SciDAC-2 project called the Earth System Grid (ESG) Center for Enabling Technologies has successfully established a new capability for serving data from distributed centers. The system enables users to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers and software. The ESG software - now known as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) - has attracted a broad developer base and has been widely adopted so that it is now being utilized in serving the most comprehensive multi-model climate data sets in the world. The system is used to support international climate model intercomparison activities as well as high profile U.S. DOE, NOAA, NASA, and NSF projects. It currently provides more than 25,000 users access to more than half a petabyte of climate data (from models and from observations) and has enabled over a 1,000 scientific publications.

  5. Biorefinery Demonstration Project Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, David [University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc., Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    In this project we focused on various aspects of biorefinery technology development including algal-biorefinery technology, thermochemical conversion of biomass to bio-oils and biochar; we tested characteristics and applications of biochars and evaluated nutrient cycling with wastewater treatment by the coupling of algal culture systems and anaerobic digestion. Key results include a method for reducing water content of bio-oil through atomized alcohol addition. The effect included increasing the pH and reducing the viscosity and cloud point of the bio-oil. Low input biochar production systems were evaluated via literature reviews and direct experimental work. Additionally, emissions were evaluated and three biochar systems were compared via a life cycle analysis. Attached growth systems for both algal cultivation and algal harvesting were found to be superior to suspended growth cultures. Nutrient requirements for algal cultivation could be obtained by the recycling of anaerobic digester effluents, thus experimentally showing that these two systems could be directly coupled. Twenty-two journal articles and six intellectual property applications resulted from the cumulative work that this project contributed to programmatically.

  6. Water & Aqueous Solutions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-08-09

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Water & Aqueous Solutions was held at Holderness School, New Hampshire, 8/4/02 thru 8/9/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  7. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-02-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Holiday Inn, Ventura, California, 2/16-21/03. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  8. Innovative conservation housing. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttle, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new passive solar thermal storage brick was developed and tested. A new insulating curtain concept was developed to assist in passive solar heating and cooling. A steel truss was designed to replace the wood truss in solar attic applications where the wood truss typically suffers some 50% loss of structural strength. Improvements were made of the dry composting toilet and grey water recycling for homes. An algae cultivation system was created for production of food, feed, fertilizer, or biomass as needed for home, farm, or industry. New concepts were explored in the areas of economy shelter, solar hot water heating, home generation of electricity, edible landscapes and other home food production, growing of fiber crops for cottage industry, storage, insulation, solar cooking, and solar refrigeration. (LEW)

  9. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  10. Response of a tundra ecosytem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The overall objective of this research was to document current patterns of CO{sub 2} flux in selected locations of the circumpolar arctic, and to develop the information necessary to predict how these fluxes may be affected by climate change. In fulfillment of these objectives, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured at several sites on the North Slope of Alaska during the 1990-94 growing season (June-August) to determine the local and regional patterns, of seasonal CO{sub 2} exchange. In addition, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured in the Russian and Icelandic Arctic to determine if the patterns of CO{sub 2} exchange observed in Arctic Alaska were representative of the circumpolar arctic, while cold-season CO{sub 2} flux measurements were carried out during the 1993-94 winter season to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux not accounted for by the growing season measurements. Manipulations of soil water table depth and surface temperature, which were identified from the extensive measurements as being the most important variables in determining the magnitude and direction of net CO{sub 2} exchange, were carried out during the 1993-94 growing seasons in tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Finally, measurements of CH{sub 4} flux were also measured at several of the North Slope study sites during the 1990-91 growing seasons. Measurements were made on small (e.g. 0.5 m{sup 2}) plots using a portable gas-exchange system and cuvette. The sample design allowed frequent measurements of net CO{sub 2} exchange and respiration over diurnal and seasonal cycles, and a large spatial extent that incorporated both locally and regionally diverse tundra surface types. Measurements both within and between ecosystem types typically extended over soil water table depth and temperature gradients, allowing for the indirect analysis of the effects of anticipated climate change scenarios on net CO{sub 2} exchange. In situ experiments provided a direct means for testing hypotheses.

  11. On the road to becoming a responsible leader: A simulation-based training approach for final year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Huber, Marion

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There is a need for young physicians to take a responsible role in clinical teams, comparable to a leadership role. However, today’s medical curricula barely consider the development of leadership competencies. Acquisition of leadership skills are currently a by-product of medical education, even though it seems to be a competency relevant for physicians’ success. Therefore, an innovative leadership training program for young physicians was developed and validated. Training conceptualisation were based upon Method: The training consists of four sessions (3-4 hours each and provided evidence-based lectures of leadership theory and effective leader behaviors, interactive training elements and a simulation-based approach with professional role players focusing on interprofessional collaboration with care staff. Training evaluation was assessed twice after completion of the program (=37. Assessments included items from validated and approved evaluation instruments regarding diverse learning outcomes (satisfaction/reaction, learning, self-efficacy, and application/transfer and transfer indicators. Furthermore, training success predictors were assessed based on stepwise regression analysis. In addition, long-term trainings effects and behavioral changes were analysed. Results: Various learning outcomes are achieved (self-reported training satisfaction, usefulness of the content and learning effects and results show substantial transfer effects of the training contents and a strengthened awareness for the leadership role (e.g. self-confidence, ideas dealing with work-related problems in a role as responsible physician. We identified competence of trainer, training of applied tools, awareness of job expectations, and the opportunity to learn from experiences of other participants as predictors of training success. Additionally, we found long-term training effects and participants reported an increase in specific

  12. Switching to nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase with molecular suboptimal response to frontline imatinib: SENSOR final results and BIM polymorphism substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Koichi; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Kimura, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Itaru; Hata, Tomoko; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Saito, Shigeki; Hino, Masayuki; Tadokoro, Seiji; Meguro, Kuniaki; Hyodo, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masahide; Kubo, Kohmei; Tsukada, Junichi; Kondo, Midori; Aoki, Makoto; Okada, Hikaru; Yanada, Masamitsu; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-12-01

    Optimal management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase with suboptimal molecular response (MR) to frontline imatinib is undefined. We report final results from SENSOR, which evaluated efficacy/safety of nilotinib in this setting. A substudy assessed whether BIM polymorphisms impacted response to nilotinib. In this single-arm, multicenter study, Japanese patients with suboptimal MR per European LeukemiaNet 2009 criteria (complete cytogenetic response, but not major MR [MMR]) after ≥18 months of frontline imatinib received nilotinib 400mg twice daily for 24 months. MR, BCR-ABL1 mutations/variants, and BIM polymorphisms were evaluated in a central laboratory. Primary endpoint was the MMR rate at 12 months (null hypothesis of 40%). Of 45 patients (median exposure, 22.08 months), 39 completed the study and six discontinued. At 12 and 24 months, 51.1% (95% CI, 35.8%-66.3%) and 66.7% (95% CI, 51.0%-80.0%) achieved MMR, respectively. Cumulative MMR incidence by 24 months was 75.6%. Of 40 patients analyzed, 10 of 12 (83.3%) with and 17 of 28 (60.7%) without BIM polymorphisms achieved MMR at 24 months. The safety profile was manageable with dose reductions and interruptions. Nilotinib provided clinical benefit for patients with suboptimal response to imatinib, and BIM polymorphisms did not influence MMR achievement. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01043874.

  13. Sustained systemic response paralleled with ovarian metastasis progression by sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Is this an anti-angiogenic potentiation of cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam K Mete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell cancer is associated with poor prognosis and survival and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therapeutic targeting of molecular pathways for tumor angiogenesis and other specific activation mechanisms offers improved tumor response and prolonged survival. A 48-year-old, female patient presented with large right renal mass with features suggesting of renal cell cancer without metastasis on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT. Right radical nephrectomy was done. After 9 months of surgery, she got metastasis in lung, liver and ovary. The patient received sunitinib via an expanded access program. After eight 6-week cycles of sunitinib, a reassessment CT scan confirmed an excellent partial response with the almost complete disappearance (90% of liver and lung metastasis but the adnexal mass had increased in size (>10 times and the possibility was thought of second malignancy. Excision of the mass performed. Histopathology of the mass depicted metastatic renal cell cancer. There is possibility of a ′site-specific anti-angiogenic potentiation mechanism′ of malignancy in relation to sunitinib based upon the preclinical studies, in reference to the index case. Regression of one site with concurrent progression is possible. The exact mechanism of site-specific response, especially organ specific progression by vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in metastatic renal cell cancer warrants further study.

  14. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-03-01

    To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was -37.9% in the active and -17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. © 2014 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Clonal progression during the T cell-dependent B cell antibody response depends on the immunoglobulin DH gene segment repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad eTrad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the Ig H chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA. We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered D-DFS and D-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion as well as class switch recombination indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response.

  16. The Impact of HCV Infection Duration on HIV Disease Progression and Response to cART amongst HIV Seroconverters in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Inshaw

    Full Text Available The effect of HCV infection on HIV disease progression remains unclear; the effect of HCV infection duration on HIV disease progression is unknown.We used data from a cohort of HIV seroconverters to investigate the effect of HCV infection duration on time from HIV seroconversion to CD4 4 years. We additionally compared CD4 cell decline following HCV infection to that of mono-infected individuals with similar HIV infection duration by fitting a random effects model. In a separate analysis, we used linear mixed models to we examine the effect of HCV infection and its duration on CD4 increase over 48 weeks following cART.Of 1655 individuals, 97 (5.9% were HCV co-infected. HCV4 years respectively, compared to mono-infected individuals. However, we found no evidence of an association for those with HCV>2 years (all p>0.89. Individuals experienced a somewhat greater decrease in CD4 count following HCV infection lasting 13 months, relative to individuals with HIV alone, (estimate = -3.33, 95% CI [-7.29, 0.63] cells/mm3 per month, p = 0.099. Of 1502 initiating cART, 106 (7.1% were HCV co-infected, with no evidence of HCV duration at cART being associated with immunological response (p = 0.45.The impact of HCV co-infection on HIV disease progression appears to be restricted to the first year after HCV infection.

  17. Responses to comments received on the draft final report of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The Task Force solicited comments on its Draft Final Report from a variety of sources. Letters were sent to over 400 individuals who had expressed interest in the interest in the Department`s radioactive waste, management programs, a notice was placed in the Federal Register, the morning session of the January 1993 meeting of the full Secretary of Energy Advisory Board was given over to discussion of the draft, and Task Force members and staff presented the effort at several professional meetings. Altogether 32 written comments were received. They are reproduced here, followed in each case by the Task Force`s response to specific suggestions made to improve the draft. (The panel did not respond to comments that simply reflected policy preferences or that praised the group`s effort.) With one exception, those specific suggestions are highlighted and given a letter designation from {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}Z{close_quotes}. The Task Force`s responses, written in the Fall 1993, are labeled in a like manner. For the one exception, a comments submitted by Judy Treichel, the Task Force`s response is printed on copies of her annotated pages.

  18. Response to diet-induced obesity produces time-dependent induction and progression of metabolic osteoarthritis in rat knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kelsey H; Hart, David A; Reimer, Raylene A; Seerattan, Ruth A; Herzog, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Obesity, and corresponding chronic-low grade inflammation, is associated with the onset and progression of knee OA. The origin of this inflammation is poorly understood. Here, the effect of high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet induced obesity (DIO) on local (synovial fluid), and systemic (serum) inflammation is evaluated after a 12-week obesity induction and a further 16-week adaptation period. For 12-weeks of obesity induction, n = 40 DIO male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed a HFS diet while the control group (n = 14) remained on chow. DIO rats were allocated to prone (DIO-P, top 33% based on weight change) or resistant (DIO-R, bottom 33%) groups at 12-weeks. Animals were euthanized at 12- and after an additional 16-weeks on diet (28-weeks). At sacrifice, body composition and knee joints were collected and assessed. Synovial fluid and sera were profiled using cytokine array analysis. At 12-weeks, DIO-P animals demonstrated increased Modified Mankin scores compared to DIO-R and chow (p = 0.026), and DIO-R had higher Mankin scores compared to chow (p = 0.049). While numerous systemic and limited synovial fluid inflammatory markers were increased at 12-weeks in DIO animals compared to chow, by 28-weeks there were limited systemic differences but marked increases in local synovial fluid inflammatory marker concentrations. Metabolic OA may manifest from an initial systemic inflammatory disturbance. Twelve weeks of obesity induction leads to a unique inflammatory profile and induction of metabolic OA which is altered after a further 16-weeks of obesity and HFS diet intake, suggesting that obesity is a dynamic, progressive process. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1010-1018, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fiscal year 1996 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Tenth annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Public Law 99-499), which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting remedial investigation and feasibility studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial actions. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located.

  20. The endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response in gliomagenesis, tumor progression and as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñaranda Fajardo, Natalia; Meijer, Coby; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress disrupts among others protein homeostasis in cells leading to the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that is crucial for restoring this balance and cell survival. Hypoxia, reactive oxygen species and nutrient deprivation, conditions commonly present i

  1. Final Results of the IELSG-19 Randomized Trial of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: Improved Event-Free and Progression-Free Survival With Rituximab Plus Chlorambucil Versus Either Chlorambucil or Rituximab Monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Emanuele; Conconi, Annarita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Bouabdallah, Reda; Tucci, Alessandra; Vitolo, Umberto; Martelli, Maurizio; Pettengell, Ruth; Salles, Gilles; Sebban, Catherine; Guillermo, Armando Lopez; Pinotti, Graziella; Devizzi, Liliana; Morschhauser, Franck; Tilly, Hervé; Torri, Valter; Hohaus, Stefan; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Zachée, Pierre; Bosly, André; Haioun, Corinne; Stelitano, Caterina; Bellei, Monica; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Moreau, Anne; Jack, Andrew; Campo, Elias; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Cavalli, Franco; Johnson, Peter; Thieblemont, Catherine

    2017-06-10

    Purpose There is no consensus on the optimal systemic treatment of patients with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The IELSG-19 phase III study, to our knowledge, was the first such study to address the question of first-line treatment in a randomized trial. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were initially randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive either chlorambucil monotherapy (6 mg/m(2)/d orally on weeks 1 to 6, 9 to 10, 13 to 14, 17 to 18, and 21 to 22) or a combination of chlorambucil (same schedule as above) and rituximab (375 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1 of weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 17, and 21). After the planned enrollment of 252 patients, the protocol was amended to continue with a three-arm design (1:1:6 ratio), with a new arm that included rituximab alone (same schedule as the combination arm) and with a final sample size of 454 patients. The main end point was event-free survival (EFS). Analysis of chlorambucil versus the combination arm was performed and reported separately before any analysis of the third arm. Results At a median follow-up of 7.4 years, addition of rituximab to chlorambucil led to significantly better EFS (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.77). EFS at 5 years was 51% (95% CI, 42 to 60) with chlorambucil alone, 50% (95% CI, 42 to 59) with rituximab alone, and 68% (95% CI, 60 to 76) with the combination ( P = .0009). Progression-free survival was also significantly better with the combination ( P = .0119). Five-year overall survival was approximately 90% in each arm. All treatments were well tolerated. No unexpected toxicities were recorded. Conclusion Rituximab in combination with chlorambucil demonstrated superior efficacy in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; however, improvements in EFS and progression-free survival did not translate into longer overall survival.

  2. Calpain-2 expression is associated with response to platinum based chemotherapy, progression-free and overall survival in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Sarah J; Safuan, Sabreena; Woolston, Caroline M; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek; Deen, Suha; Chan, Stephen Y; Martin, Stewart G

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is routinely treated with surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Resistance is a major obstacle in the efficacy of this chemotherapy regimen and the ability to identify those patients at risk of developing resistance is of considerable clinical importance. The expression of calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin were determined using standard immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 154 primary ovarian carcinomas from patients subsequently treated with platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. High levels of calpain-2 expression was significantly associated with platinum resistant tumours (P = 0.031). Furthermore, high expression of calpain-2 was significantly associated with progression-free (P = 0.049) and overall survival (P = 0.006) in this cohort. The association between calpain-2 expression and overall survival remained significant in multivariate analysis accounting for tumour grade, stage, optimal debulking and platinum sensitivity (hazard ratio = 2.174; 95% confidence interval = 1.144–4.130; P = 0.018). The results suggest that determining calpain-2 expression in ovarian carcinomas may allow prognostic stratification of patients treated with surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. The findings of this study warrant validation in a larger clinical cohort. PMID:22435971

  3. Alcohol Consumption, Progression of Disease and Other Comorbidities, and Responses to Antiretroviral Medication in People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela G. Neuman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the possible connection between alcohol consumption and adherence to medicine used to treat human deficiency viral (HIV infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has a positive influence on longevity in patients with HIV, substantially reducing morbidity and mortality, including resource-poor settings such as South Africa. However, in a systematic comparison of HAART outcomes between low-income and high-income countries in the treatment of HIV-patients, mortality was higher in resource-poor settings. Specifically, in South Africa, patients often suffer from concomitant tuberculosis and other infections that may contribute to these results. Alcohol influences the use of medicine for opportunistic infections (e.g., pneumonia, tuberculosis, or coinfections HIV-hepatitis viruses-B (HBV and C (HCV, cytomegalovirus, or herpes simplex virus. Furthermore, alcohol use may negatively impact on medication adherence contributing to HIV progression. The materials used provide a data-supported approach. They are based on analysis of published (2006–2011 world literature and the experience of the authors in the specified topic. Intended for use by health care professionals, these recommendations suggest approaches to the therapeutic and preventive aspects of care. Our intention was to fully characterize the quality of evidence supporting recommendations, which are reflecting benefit versus risk, and assessing strength or certainty.

  4. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  5. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lanoix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB. Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF, rifapentine (RPT, pyrazinamide (PZA, linezolid (LZD, sutezolid (PNU or metronidazole (MTZ for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes.

  6. Interaction of infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum and physical stress in juvenile chinook salmon: Physiological responses, disease progression, and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally infected juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), in order to compare the physiological responses of Rs-infected and Rs-noninfected fish to a series of multiple, acute stressors and to determine whether exposure to these stressors worsens the infection and leads to increased mortality. After subjecting groups of fish to a waterborne challenge of Rs, we sampled them biweekly to monitor infection levels, mortality, and some stress-related physiological changes. As infections worsened, fish developed decreased hematocrits and blood glucose levels and increased levels of cortisol and lactate, indicating that BKD is stressful, particularly during the later stages. Eight weeks after the challenge, when fish had moderate to high infection levels, we subjected them, along with unchallenged control fish, to three 60-s bouts of hypoxia, struggling, and mild agitation that were separated by 48-72 h. Our results indicate that the imposition of these stressors on Rs-infected fish did not lead to higher infection levels or increased mortality when compared with diseased fish that did not receive the stressors. Furthermore, the kinetics of plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate over a 24-h period following each application of the stressor were similar between fish with moderate to high Rs infections and those that had low or no detectable infection. Some differences in the stress responses of these two groups did exist, however. Most notably, fish with moderate to high Rs infections had higher titers of cortisol and lactate prior to each application of the stressor and also were unable to consistently elicit a significant hyperglycemia in response to the stressors. Collectively, our results should be important in understanding the impact that BKD has on the survival of juvenile salmonids, but we caution that our results represent the combined effects of one

  7. The innate immune response to coxsackievirus B3 predicts progression to cardiovascular disease and heart failure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyimba Jennifer A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men are at an increased risk of dying from heart failure caused by inflammatory heart diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. We previously showed that macrophages in the spleen are phenotypically distinct in male compared to female mice at 12 h after infection. This innate immune profile mirrors and predicts the cardiac immune response during acute myocarditis. Methods In order to study sex differences in the innate immune response, five male and female BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 or phosphate buffered saline and their spleens were harvested 12 h later for microarray analysis. Gene expression was determined using an Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Significant gene changes were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or ELISA. Results During the innate immune response to CVB3 infection, infected males had higher splenic expression of genes which are important in regulating the influx of cholesterol into macrophages, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and the macrophage scavenger receptor compared to the infected females. We also observed a higher expression in infected males compared to infected females of squalene synthase, an enzyme used to generate cholesterol within cells, and Cyp2e1, an enzyme important in metabolizing cholesterol and steroids. Infected males also had decreased levels of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO, which binds PLA2 and is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis, as well as decreased expression of the androgen receptor (AR, which indicates receptor activation. Gene differences were not due to increased viral replication, which was unaltered between sexes. Conclusions We found that, compared to females, male mice had a greater splenic expression of genes which are important for cholesterol metabolism and activation of the AR at 12 h after infection. Activation of the AR has been linked to

  8. Joint research and development and exchange of technology on toxic material emergency response between LLNL and ENEA. 1985 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Caracciolo, R.

    1986-01-31

    For the past six years, the US Department of Energy, LLNL, and the ENEA, Rome, Italy, have participated in cooperative studies for improving a systems approach to an emergency response following nuclear accidents. Technology exchange between LLNL and the ENEA was initially confined to the development, application, and evaluation of atmospheric transport and diffusion models. With the emergence of compatible hardware configurations between LLNL and ENEA, exchanges of technology and ideas for improving the development and implementation of systems are beginning to emerge. This report describes cooperative work that has occurred during the past three years, the present state of each system, and recommendations for future exchanges of technology.

  9. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  10. Monitoring Disease Progression and Therapeutic Response in a Disseminated Tumor Model for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma by Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe Köberle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xenograft tumor models are widely studied in cancer research. Our aim was to establish and apply a model for aggressive CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, enabling us to monitor tumor growth and shrinkage in a noninvasive manner. By stably transfecting a luciferase expression vector, we created two bioluminescent human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines, Jeko1(luci and OCI-Ly3(luci, that are CD20 positive, a prerequisite to studying rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody. To investigate the therapy response in vivo, we established a disseminated xenograft tumor model injecting these cell lines in NOD/SCID mice. We observed a close correlation of bioluminescence intensity and tumor burden, allowing us to monitor therapy response in the living animal. Cyclophosphamide reduced tumor burden in mice injected with either cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Rituximab alone was effective in OCI-Ly3(luci-injected mice and acted additively in combination with cyclophosphamide. In contrast, it improved the therapeutic outcome of Jeko1(luci-injected mice only in combination with cyclophosphamide. We conclude that well-established bioluminescence imaging is a valuable tool in disseminated xenograft tumor models. Our model can be translated to other cell lines and used to examine new therapeutic agents and schedules.

  11. Progressive reduction in NE Atlantic intermediate water ventilation prior to Heinrich events: Response to NW European ice sheet instabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, V. L.; Hall, I. R.; Zahn, R.; Scourse, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    We present high-resolution benthic δ13C records from intermediate water depth core site MD01-2461 (1153 m water depth), from the Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic, spanning 43 to 8 kyr B.P. At an average proxy time step of 160 ± 56 years this core provides information on the linkage between records from the Portuguese Margin and high-latitude North Atlantic basin, allowing additional insights into North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) variability during millennial-scale climatic events of the last glacial. Together, these records document both discrete and progressive reductions in Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water (GNAIW) formation preceding Heinrich (H) events 1, 2, and 4, recorded through the apparent interchange of glacial northern and southern-sourced intermediate water signatures along the European Margin. Close coupling of NW European ice sheet (NWEIS) instability and GNAIW formation is observed through transient advances of SCW along the European margin concurrent with pulses of ice-rafted debris and meltwater release into the NE Atlantic between 27 and 16 kyr B.P., when the NWEIS was at maximum extent and proximal to Last Glacial Maximum convection zones in the open North Atlantic. It is such NWEIS instability and meltwater forcing that may have triggered reduced North Atlantic THC prior to collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet at H1 and H2. Precursory reduction in GNAIW formation prior to H4 may also be inferred. However, limited NWEIS ice volume prior to H4 and convection occurring in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea require that if a meltwater trigger is invoked, as appears to be the case at H1 and H2, the source of meltwater prior to H4 is elsewhere, likely higher-latitude ice sheets. Clarification of the sequencing and likely mechanisms of precursory decrease of the North Atlantic THC support theories of H event initiation relating to ice shelf growth during cold periods associated with reduced North Atlantic THC and subsequent ablation

  12. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of cationic antimicrobial peptides against gram-positives: Current progress made in understanding the mode of action and the response of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Omardien

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been proposed as a novel class of antimicrobials that could aid the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The mode of action of AMPs as acting on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane has often been presented as an enigma and there are doubts whether the membrane is the sole target of AMPs. Progress has been made in clarifying the possible targets of these peptides, which is reported in this review with as focus gram-positive vegetative cells and spores. Numerical estimates are discussed to evaluate the possibility that targets, other than the membrane, could play a role in susceptibility to AMPs. Concerns about possible resistance that bacteria might develop to AMPs are addressed. Proteomics, transcriptomics and other molecular techniques are reviewed in the context of explaining the response of bacteria to the presence of AMPs and to predict what resistance strategies might be. Emergent mechanisms are cell envelope stress responses as well as enzymes able to degrade and/or specifically bind (and thus inactivate AMPs. Further studies are needed to address the broadness of the AMP resistance and stress responses observed.

  14. EFFECTS OF THE TYPE 2 DIABETES-ASSOCIATED PPARG P12A POLYMORPHISM ON PROGRESSION TO DIABETES AND RESPONSE TO TROGLITAZONE †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Jose C.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Sun, Maria W.; Bayley, Nick; Kahn, Steven E.; Shamoon, Harry; Hamman, Richard F.; Knowler, William C.; Nathan, David M.; Altshuler, David

    2008-01-01

    Context The common P12A polymorphism in PPARG (a target for thiazolidinedione medications) has been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes. Objective We examined whether PPARG P12A affects progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to diabetes, or responses to preventive interventions (lifestyle, metformin or troglitazone versus placebo). Patients 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. Design We performed Cox regression analysis using genotype at PPARG P12A, intervention, and their interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence. We also genotyped five other PPARG variants implicated in the response to troglitazone and assessed their effect on insulin sensitivity at one year. Results Consistent with prior cross-sectional studies, P/P homozygotes at PPARG P12A appeared more likely to develop diabetes than alanine carriers (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.99–1.57, P=0.07), with no interaction of genotype with intervention. There was a significant interaction of genotype with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (P=0.03 and 0.002 respectively), with the alanine allele conferring less protection in more obese individuals. Neither PPARG P12A nor five other variants significantly affected the impact of troglitazone on insulin sensitivity in 340 participants at one year. Conclusions The proline allele at PPARG P12A increases risk for diabetes in persons with IGT, an effect modified by BMI. In addition, PPARG P12A has little or no effect on the beneficial response to troglitazone. PMID:17213274

  15. Research Progress in Magnetic Responsive Shape Memory Polymers%磁致形状记忆聚合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑曙光; 朱光明; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    Research progresses in magnetic responsive shape memory polymers were reviewed, including poly (lactic acid), polycaprolactone, and polyurethane. The application of magnetic responsive shape memory polymers in biomedical engineering was introduced, including drug delivery, orthopaedic, fracture fixation, and stroke. The developing trend of magnetic responsive shape memory polymers was also outlooked.%综述了磁致形状记忆聚合物的研究进展,包括磁致形状记忆聚乳酸、聚己内酯和聚氨酯等,并介绍了磁致形状记忆聚合物在生物医学工程上的应用,包括在药物缓释中的应用、在矫形外科和骨折固定中的应用和在人体中风治疗方面的应用等,同时展望了磁致形状记忆聚合物的发展前景。

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides against Gram-Positives: Current Progress Made in Understanding the Mode of Action and the Response of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omardien, Soraya; Brul, Stanley; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as a novel class of antimicrobials that could aid the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The mode of action of AMPs as acting on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane has often been presented as an enigma and there are doubts whether the membrane is the sole target of AMPs. Progress has been made in clarifying the possible targets of these peptides, which is reported in this review with as focus gram-positive vegetative cells and spores. Numerical estimates are discussed to evaluate the possibility that targets, other than the membrane, could play a role in susceptibility to AMPs. Concerns about possible resistance that bacteria might develop to AMPs are addressed. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and other molecular techniques are reviewed in the context of explaining the response of bacteria to the presence of AMPs and to predict what resistance strategies might be. Emergent mechanisms are cell envelope stress responses as well as enzymes able to degrade and/or specifically bind (and thus inactivate) AMPs. Further studies are needed to address the broadness of the AMP resistance and stress responses observed.

  17. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou Cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers Cedex (France)

    2004-03-07

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  18. Genetic risk of progression to type 2 diabetes and response to intensive lifestyle or metformin in prediabetic women with and without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Florez, Jose C; Dabelea, Dana; Franks, Paul W; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; Kim, Catherine; Knowler, William C; Christophi, Costas A; Ratner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial investigated rates of progression to diabetes among adults with prediabetes randomized to treatment with placebo, metformin, or intensive lifestyle intervention. Among women in the DPP, diabetes risk reduction with metformin was greater in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with women without GDM but with one or more previous live births. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We asked if genetic variability could account for these differences by comparing β-cell function and genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated from 34 diabetes-associated loci, between women with and without histories of GDM. RESULTS β-Cell function was reduced in women with GDM. The GRS was positively associated with a history of GDM; however, the GRS did not predict progression to diabetes or modulate response to intervention. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that a diabetes-associated GRS is associated with development of GDM and may characterize women at risk for development of diabetes due to β-cell dysfunction.

  19. The Effect of Oseltamivir on the Disease Progression of Lethal Influenza A Virus Infection: Plasma Cytokine and miRNA Responses in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethal influenza A virus infection leads to acute lung injury and possibly lethal complications. There has been a continuous effort to identify the possible predictors of disease severity. Unlike earlier studies, where biomarkers were analyzed on certain time points or days after infection, in this study biomarkers were evaluated over the entire course of infection. Circulating proinflammatory cytokines and/or miRNAs that track with the onset and progression of lethal A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 influenza A virus infection and their response to oseltamivir treatment were investigated up to 10 days after infection. Changes in plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-6, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ and several candidate miRNAs were profiled. Among the cytokines analyzed, IL-6 and KC/GRO cytokines appeared to correlate with peak viral titer. Over the selected 48 miRNAs profiled, certain miRNAs were up- or downregulated in a manner that was dependent on the oseltamivir treatment and disease severity. Our findings suggest that IL-6 and KC/GRO cytokines can be a potential disease severity biomarker and/or marker for the progression/remission of infection. Further studies to explore other cytokines, miRNAs, and lung injury proteins in serum with different subtypes of influenza A viruses with varying disease severity may provide new insight into other unique biomarkers.

  20. Challenges relating to solid tumour brain metastases in clinical trials, part 1: patient population, response, and progression. A report from the RANO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nancy U; Lee, Eudocia Q; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J; Baumert, Brigitta G; Brown, Paul D; Camidge, D Ross; Chang, Susan M; Dancey, Janet; Gaspar, Laurie E; Harris, Gordon J; Hodi, F Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Linskey, Mark E; Macdonald, David R; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H; van den Bent, Martin J; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wen, Patrick Y

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic outcomes for patients with brain metastases need to improve. A critical review of trials specifically addressing brain metastases shows key issues that could prevent acceptance of results by regulatory agencies, including enrolment of heterogeneous groups of patients and varying definitions of clinical endpoints. Considerations specific to disease, modality, and treatment are not consistently addressed. Additionally, the schedule of CNS imaging and consequences of detection of new or progressive brain metastases in trials mainly exploring the extra-CNS activity of systemic drugs are highly variable. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group is an independent, international, collaborative effort to improve the design of trials in patients with brain tumours. In this two-part series, we review the state of clinical trials of brain metastases and suggest a consensus recommendation for the development of criteria for future clinical trials.

  1. Definitions for response and progression in ovarian cancer clinical trials incorporating RECIST 1.1 and CA 125 agreed by the Gynecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustin, Gordon John Sampson; Vergote, Ignace; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    the serum marker CA 125 and has specified the situations where these criteria should be used. However, the publications did not include detailed definitions, nor were they written to accommodate the new version of Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria (version 1.1) now available....... Thus, we recommend that the definitions described later in detail are incorporated into clinical trial protocols to maintain consistency. The criteria for defining progression are now acceptable in clinical trials of recurrent disease as they have since been validated (Pujade-Lauraine, personal...... communication, 2010). The GCIG requests that data from all clinical trials using these definitions are made available to GCIG trial centers so that continual validation and improvement can be accomplished. These definitions were developed from analyzing patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and have not yet...

  2. Accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia: evaluation of clinical criteria as predictors of survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fiorini Furtado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published criteria defining the accelerated phase in chronic myeloid leukemia are heterogeneous and little is known about predictors of poor outcome.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 139 subjects in the accelerated phase of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib at a single center in Brazil. The objective was to identify risk factors for survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase in this population. The factors analyzed were: blasts 10-29%, basophils ≥ 20%, platelets > 1 × 106/µL or 1 × 105/µL in the peripheral blood, as well as clonal evolution, splenomegaly, hemoglobin 12 months (p-value = 0.030.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that patients with the above risk factors have a worse prognosis. This information can guide the therapy to be used.

  3. 快速响应聚合物光子晶体研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS OF FAST-RESPONSIVE POLYMER PHOTONIC CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利彬; 王京霞; 宋延林

    2012-01-01

    响应性光子晶体以其亮丽的结构色彩及光学信号对外场刺激的响应性变化,在化学传感、智能显示等领域具有重要的应用前景.本文综述了快速响应聚合物光子晶体的研究进展.首先从原理上阐述了影响溶胀型光子晶体响应速率的因素,系统总结了针对不同因素提高其响应速率的研究工作,着重探讨了溶胀型光子晶体水凝胶的尺寸、聚合物链段的物理化学性能(包括多孔结构和亲疏水性)、凝胶网络的交联度等因素对响应速率的影响.同时也简要介绍了影响非溶胀型响应性光子晶体,如光、电、磁、机械力等外场诱导体系折光指数变化的响应性光子晶体的响应速率的因素.最后展望了响应性光子晶体的热点研究方向.这些工作对于提高光子晶体的响应速率,发展其在实时分析、在线检测等领域的应用具有重要意义.%Responsive colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) are of great importance for the extended applications in the fields of chemical sensing, smart display and so on, owing to the visible structure color/optic signal change to exterior stimuli. This paper presented the research progress about the improvement of the response rate of swell-responsive polymer PCs,which covered the responsive mechanism and critical influencing factors, including dimension of PC hydrogel,physical structure/chemical properties of polymer chains and crosslinking degree of gel network. In addition, response rate of non-swollen PCs with other response types, such as magnetic, electric, optical or mechanical response were also involved. Understanding the performance of these PCs will be helpful for the development of novel and advanced responsive systems.

  4. Using SAR and GPS for Hazard Management and Response: Progress and Examples from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S. H.; Agram, P. S.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Milillo, G.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Polet, J.; Cruz, J.

    2014-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech project to automate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. We have built a prototype SAR and GPS data system that forms the foundation for hazard monitoring and response capability, as well as providing imaging capabilities important for science studies. Together, InSAR and GPS have the ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution. For earthquakes, this deformation provides information that is complementary to seismic data on location, geometry and magnitude of earthquakes. Accurate location information is critical for understanding the regions affected by damaging shaking. Regular surface deformation measurements from SAR and GPS are useful for monitoring changes related to many processes that are important for hazard and resource management such as volcanic deformation, groundwater withdrawal, and landsliding. Observations of SAR coherence change have a demonstrated use for damage assessment for hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. These damage assessment maps can be made from imagery taken day or night and are not affected by clouds, making them valuable complements to optical imagery. The coherence change caused by the damage from hazards (building collapse, flooding, ash fall) is also detectable with intelligent algorithms, allowing for rapid generation of damage assessment maps over large areas at fine resolution, down to the spatial scale of single family homes. We will present the progress and results we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed constellation of X-band SAR satellites. Since the beginning of our project with ASI, our team has imaged deformation and coherence change caused by many natural hazard events around the world. We will present progress on our

  5. Processes of community development and responses of ecosystems to climate change. Progress report, September 28, 1988--September 27, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.

    1989-05-26

    Our studies focus on attempting to understand the role of decomposer-primary producer linkages in successional dynamics. We are testing a series of hypotheses that relate changes in plant species composition during succession to changes in activity and structure of the soil microfloral and faunal community, dynamics of soil organic matter, and availability of soil nutrients. As these successional patterns are identified, they are being applied to understanding specific processes and mechanics involved in ecosystem development during recovery from moderate and severe disturbances. These findings are then being used in conjunction with simulation models to assess potential effects of climate change on ecosystems. Our research involves field studies in northwestern Colorado and southeastern Washington, laboratory studies, and simulation modeling. Ongoing projects include studies of response patterns of primary producer and soil microbial communities to nutrient additions (N, P, and sucrose), the function of mycorrhizal fungi in plant community development, and the dynamics of litter decomposition under semiarid conditions. New studies are being implemented to investigate the significance of nutrient transfers from VAM fungi to plants and plant-root exudate interactions, and to relate this to understanding their roles in succession.

  6. Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to global change. Progress report, September 1, 1989--August 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.F.; Harley, P.; Hilbert, D.W.; Kemp, P.R.; Cornelius, J.M.; Tenhunen, J.D.

    1990-05-03

    An initiated close collaboration with experimentalists at Kansas State University that will provide data necessary to models of response to global change. This collaboration also includes co-operative experimental work carried out by staff at SERG that expands the range of ecosystem level processes measured in the open top chambers at Manhatan, Kansas. Several factors suggest that close co-operation between our two groups will be especially advantageous for the realization of the broad goals of the DOE CO{sub 2} consortium: (1) The experimental effort is very extensive, chambers and smaller closed chambers are experiments will provide information at levels. (2) We have been in close contact with the Kansas State group for some time and are beginning a major addition to the open chamber studies this summer. Consequently, we will be present at the field site for much of the summer, working directly with the group. (3) Several members of our group have extensive experience working in grasslands and our ecosystem model is currently well structured to handle grassland simulations.

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  9. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems. Final Report of the Princeton Power Systems Development of the 100kW Demand Response Inverter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Heavener, Paul (Princeton Power Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; Hammell, Darren (Princeton Power Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ); Holveck, Mark (Princeton Power Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ); David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, electric utilities, academic institutions and the private sector. Recognizing the need to diversify the nation's energy portfolio, the SEGIS effort focuses on specific technologies needed to facilitate the integration of large-scale solar power generation into the nation's power grid Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) awarded a contract to Princeton Power Systems, Inc., (PPS) to develop a 100kW Advanced AC-link SEGIS inverter prototype under the Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for near-term commercial applications. This SEGIS initiative emphasizes the development of advanced inverters, controllers, communications and other balance-of-system components for photovoltaic (PV) distributed power applications. The SEGIS Stage 3 Contract was awarded to PPS on July 28, 2010. PPS developed and implemented a Demand Response Inverter (DRI) during this three-stage program. PPS prepared a 'Site Demonstration Conference' that was held on September 28, 2011, to showcase the cumulative advancements. This demo of the commercial product will be followed by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., certification by the fourth quarter of 2011, and simultaneously the customer launch and commercial production sometime in late 2011 or early 2012. This final report provides an overview of all three stages and a full-length reporting of activities and accomplishments in Stage 3.

  10. Probing genetic control of swine responses to PRRSV infection: current progress of the PRRS host genetics consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunney Joan K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the role of host genetics in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection, and the effects of PRRS on pig health and related growth, are goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC. Methods The project uses a nursery pig model to assess pig resistance/susceptibility to primary PRRSV infection. To date, 6 groups of 200 crossbred pigs from high health farms were donated by commercial sources. After acclimation, the pigs were infected with PRRSV in a biosecure facility and followed for 42 days post infection (dpi. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dpi for serum and whole blood RNA gene expression analyses; weekly weights were recorded for growth traits. All data have been entered into the PHGC relational database. Genomic DNAs from all PHGC1-6 pigs were prepared and genotyped with the Porcine SNP60 SNPchip. Results Results have affirmed that all challenged pigs become PRRSV infected with peak viremia being observed between 4-21 dpi. Multivariate statistical analyses of viral load and weight data have identified PHGC pigs in different virus/weight categories. Sera are now being compared for factors involved in recovery from infection, including speed of response and levels of immune cytokines. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are underway to identify genes and chromosomal locations that identify PRRS resistant/susceptible pigs and pigs able to maintain growth while infected with PRRSV. Conclusions Overall, the PHGC project will enable researchers to discover and verify important genotypes and phenotypes that predict resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV infection. The availability of PHGC samples provides a unique opportunity to continue to develop deeper phenotypes on every PRRSV infected pig.

  11. Adaptation in Response of Excitation and Inhibition Factors of Angiogenesis after 4 Weeks of Progressive Resistant Training in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Karami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The sport activity is an important factor affecting the capillary density and angiogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are the most important stimulative regulators in the angiogenesis. In addition, endostatin is one of the inhibitors of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation in the responses of the angiogenesis inhibition and stimulating factors after 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 20 healthy and inactive male students, aged between 20 and 25 years, who were residents of Tehran University Dormitory, were studied in the first semester of the academic year 2015-16. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=10 per group. 4-week resistive exercises were done three sessions per week. Blood-sampling was done before and 48 hours after the last exercise session. VEGF, NO, and endostatin were then measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using independent and dependent T tests, as well as Pearson correlation coefficient test. Findings: In experimental group, VEGF and No significantly increased at the posttest stage than the pretest (p=0.001. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in control group (p>0.05. In both experimental and control groups, endostatin level did not significantly increase at the posttest stage than the pretest (p>0.05. In addition, VEGF and NO were the only variables that were significantly correlated (p=0.016; r=0.82. Conclusion: 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men significantly affect the angiogenes stimulating factors, i. e. VEGF and NO, while such exercises do not significantly affect the angiogenesis inhibition factor, i. e. endostatin.

  12. EGFR mutations are associated with favorable intracranial response and progression-free survival following brain irradiation in non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with increased radiosensitivity in vitro. However, the results from clinical studies regarding the radiosensitivity in NSCLC with mutant EGFR are inconclusive. We retrospectively analyzed our NSCLC patients who had been regularly followed up by imaging studies after irradiation for brain metastases, and investigated the impact of EGFR mutations on radiotherapy (RT). Methods Forty-three patients with brain metastases treated with RT, together with EGFR mutation status, demographics, smoking history, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, tumor characteristics, and treatment modalities, were included. Radiological images were taken at 1 to 3 months after RT, and 3 to 6 months thereafter. Radiographic response was evaluated by RECIST criteria version 1.1 according to the intracranial images before and after RT. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to correlate EGFR mutation status and other clinical features with intracranial radiological progression-free survival (RPFS) and overall survival (OS). Results The median follow-up duration was 15 months. Patients with mutant EGFR had higher response rates to brain RT than those with wild-type EGFR (80% vs. 46%; p = 0.037). Logistic regression analysis showed that EGFR mutation status is the only predictor for treatment response (p = 0.032). The median intracranial RPFS was 18 months (95% CI = 8.33-27.68 months). In Cox regression analysis, mutant EGFR (p = 0.025) and lower RPA class (p = 0.026) were associated with longer intracranial RPFS. EGFR mutation status (p = 0.061) and performance status (p = 0.076) had a trend to predict OS. Conclusions Mutant EGFR in NSCLC patients is an independent prognostic factor for better treatment response and longer intracranial RPFS following RT for brain metastases. PMID:23110940

  13. Research progress in response strategies to smallpox bioterrorism%生物恐怖视角下的天花应对策略研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2013-01-01

    Emergency prevention and control of smallpox transmission in the context of bioterrorism require effective response strategies. This paper began by describing the general process of computational experiments on smallpox response strategies. Then,the current achievement of this method was summarized in terms of the experimental environment, the computational model and intervention strategies. Finally, problems with smallpox response strategy simulation and directions of further research were discussed.%生物恐怖视角下天花传播的应急防控需要科学的应对策略.本文首先介绍天花应对策略计算实验的一般过程,然后从实验环境、计算模型及干预策略3个方面总结当前的研究及取得的进展,并就天花应对策略模拟存在的问题及进一步研究方向进行讨论.

  14. Dynamic characteristics of laser Doppler flowmetry signals obtained in response to a local and progressive pressure applied on diabetic and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    In the biomedical field, the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique is a non-invasive method to monitor skin perfusion. On the skin of healthy humans, LDF signals present a significant transient increase in response to a local and progressive pressure application. This vasodilatory reflex response may have important implications for cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers. The present work analyses the dynamic characteristics of these signals on young type 1 diabetic patients, and on healthy age-matched subjects. To obtain accurate dynamic characteristic values, a de-noising wavelet-based algorithm is first applied to LDF signals. All the de-noised signals are then normalised to the same value. The blood flow peak and the time to reach this peak are then calculated on each computed signal. The results show that a large vasodilation is present on signals of healthy subjects. The mean peak occurs at a pressure of 3.2 kPa approximately. However, a vasodilation of limited amplitude appears on type 1 diabetic patients. The maximum value is visualised, on the average, when the pressure is 1.1 kPa. The inability for diabetic patients to increase largely their cutaneous blood flow may bring explanations to foot ulcers.

  15. MALDI-MS-Based Profiling of Serum Proteome: Detection of Changes Related to Progression of Cancer and Response to Anticancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pietrowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based analyses of the low-molecular-weight fraction of serum proteome allow identifying proteome profiles (signatures that are potentially useful in detection and classification of cancer. Several published studies have shown that multipeptide signatures selected in numerical tests have potential values for diagnostics of different types of cancer. However due to apparent problems with standardization of methodological details, both experimental and computational, none of the proposed peptide signatures analyzed directly by MALDI/SELDI-ToF spectrometry has been approved for routine diagnostics. Noteworthy, several components of proposed cancer signatures, especially those characteristic for advanced cancer, were identified as fragments of blood proteins involved in the acute phase and inflammatory response. This indicated that among cancer biomarker candidates to be possibly identified by serum proteome profiling were rather those reflecting overall influence of a disease (and the therapy upon the human organism, than products of cancer-specific genes. Current paper focuses on changes in serum proteome that are related to response of patient’s organism to progressing malignancy and toxicity of anticancer treatment. In addition, several methodological issues that affect robustness and interlaboratory reproducibility of MS-based serum proteome profiling are discussed.

  16. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  17. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  18. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Edward [Univ. of Oklahoma

    2014-04-28

    The progress over the course of the grant period was excellent. We went from 3-D test codes to full 3-D production codes. We studied several SNe Ia. Most of the support has gone for the 3 years of support of OU graduate student Brian Friesen, who is now mature in his fourth year of research. It is unfortunate that there will be no further DOE support to see him through to the completion of his PhD.

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no response. These letters were generally in support of the facility.

  20. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed.

  1. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  2. Rebuttal Finale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    2011-01-01

    Professor Mark Lemley wrote an article about the Myth of the sole inventor, to which we provided a critique, with an executive summary of the critique published here on IPWatchdog.com. On October 9, 2011, he wrote a response to our critique, and this is our reply. In his October 9 response, Lemley...

  3. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issen, Kathleen [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    2017-06-05

    This project employed a continuum approach to formulate an elastic constitutive model for Castlegate sandstone. The resulting constitutive framework for high porosity sandstone is thermodynamically sound, (i.e., does not violate the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics), represents known material constitutive response, and is able to be calibrated using available mechanical response data. To authenticate the accuracy of this model, a series of validation criteria were employed, using an existing mechanical response data set for Castlegate sandstone. The resulting constitutive framework is applicable to high porosity sandstones in general, and is tractable for scientists and researchers endeavoring to solve problems of practical interest.

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  5. Telmisartan reduces progressive accumulation of cellular amyloid beta and phosphorylated tau with inflammatory responses in aged spontaneously hypertensive stroke resistant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Tomoko; Lukic, Violeta; Kozuki, Miki; Wada, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Deguchi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Yoshio; Kamiya, Tatsushi; Abe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    In addition to reducing the level of blood pressure (BP), telmisartan was expected to show the long-term neuroprotective effects preventing accumulation of cellular amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (pτ) by ameliorating neuroinflammation. We examined effects of telmisartan on cellular Aβ and pτ with inflammatory responses in the brain of a spontaneously hypertensive stroke resistant (SHR-SR) rat by giving either telmisartan at 0 (vehicle), .3 mg/kg/day or 3 mg/kg/day, orally, from 3 months of age and performed immunohistologic analysis at 6, 12, and 18 months. Compared with normotensive Wistar rats, numbers of Aβ- and pτ-positive neurons in the cerebral cortex progressively increased with age until 18 months in the SHR-SR rats, as did the numbers of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive microglia, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-positive neurons, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)-positive neurons. Low-dose telmisartan significantly decreased the numbers of Aβ- and pτ-positive neuron as well as the numbers of TNF-α-positive neurons, Iba-1-positive microglia, and MCP-1-positive neurons at 6, 12, and 18 months. High-dose telmisartan reduced BP and showed a further reduction of cellular Aβ and pτ. The present study suggests that accumulation of cellular Aβ and pτ and the inflammatory responses were decreased via improving metabolic syndrome with low-dose telmisartan and improving both metabolic syndrome and hypertension with high-dose telmisartan. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination of baseline metabolic tumour volume and early response on PET/CT improves progression-free survival prediction in DLBCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaeel, N.G.; Smith, Daniel [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Clinical Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Dunn, Joel T.; Phillips, Michael; Barrington, Sally F. [King' s College London, PET Imaging Centre at St Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Moeller, Henrik [King' s College London, Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Fields, Paul A.; Wrench, David [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Haematology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The study objectives were to assess the prognostic value of quantitative PET and to test whether combining baseline metabolic tumour burden with early PET response could improve predictive power in DLBCL. A total of 147 patients with DLBCL underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before and after two cycles of RCHOP. Quantitative parameters including metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured, as well as the percentage change in these parameters. Cox regression analysis was used to test the relationship between progression-free survival (PFS) and the study variables. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis determined the optimal cut-off for quantitative variables, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The median follow-up was 3.8 years. As MTV and TLG measures correlated strongly, only MTV measures were used for multivariate analysis (MVA). Baseline MTV (MTV-0) was the only statistically significant predictor of PFS on MVA. The optimal cut-off for MTV-0 was 396 cm{sup 3}. A model combing MTV-0 and Deauville score (DS) separated the population into three distinct prognostic groups: good (MTV-0 < 400; 5-year PFS > 90 %), intermediate (MTV-0 ≥ 400+ DS1-3; 5-year PFS 58.5 %) and poor (MTV-0 ≥ 400+ DS4-5; 5-year PFS 29.7 %) MTV-0 is an important prognostic factor in DLBCL. Combining MTV-0 and early PET/CT response improves the predictive power of interim PET and defines a poor-prognosis group in whom most of the events occur. (orig.)

  7. FIP1L1-PDGFRα alone or with other genetic abnormalities reveals disease progression in chronic eosinophilic leukemia but good response to imatinib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin-na; CHEN Sai-juan; PAN Qin; FU Jian-fei; SHI Jing-yi; JIN Jie; LI Jun-ming; HU Jiong; ZHAO Wei-li; CHEN Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Background The FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) and is a direct therapeutic target of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate.Methods In 24 hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) patients, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nested PCR and sequence analysis, we investigated the frequency of FIPIL1-PDGFRα and other abnormalities of tyrosine kinase family genes like PDGFRα, PDGFRβ, C-KIT, FGFR1, ABL and FLT3 as well as gene mutation "hotspots", like MPL515 and JAK2V617F, frequently involved in myeloproliferative diseases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to confirm the 4q12 deletion.Results The FIPILI-PDGFRα fusion transcript was found in 8 (33%) of 24 patients with HES, corresponding to the chromosome 4q12 deletion identified by FISH. The FIP1L1-PDGFRα-associated patients diagnosed with CEL, frequently had hepatosplenomegaly, eosinophil-related tissue damage, anemia, thrombocytopenia, myelofibrosis and a short overall survival time. Nevertheless, imatinib mesylate induced rapid and complete hematological responses in treated FIP1L1-PDGFRα cases, followed by molecular remission and reversal of myelofibrosis. FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion could co-exist with other mutations of tyrosine kinase family genes, like FLT3 or PDGFRβ. We also demonstrated that the SNPs of PDGFRβ were associated with selective splicing of exon 19 in case 20.Conclusions Correlating the CEL genotype with phenotype, FIPIL 1-PDGFRα emerges as a relatively homogeneous clinicobiological entity that co-exists with other abnormalities of tyrosine kinase family genes. It reflects the disease progression and there is a good response to imatinib. Detection of the FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene is valid for both CEL diagnosis and therapy surveillance.

  8. Co-induction of the heat shock response ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of human spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: implications for therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bilal; Nirmalananthan, Niranjanan; Gray, Anna L.; La Spada, Albert R.; Hanna, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, also known as Kennedy’s disease, is an adult-onset hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the first exon in the androgen receptor gene. Pathologically, the disease is defined by selective loss of spinal and bulbar motor neurons causing bulbar, facial and limb weakness. Although the precise disease pathophysiology is largely unknown, it appears to be related to abnormal accumulation of the pathogenic androgen receptor protein within the nucleus, leading to disruption of cellular processes. Using a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy that exhibits many of the characteristic features of the human disease, in vivo physiological assessment of muscle function revealed that mice with the pathogenic expansion of the androgen receptor develop a motor deficit characterized by a reduction in muscle force, abnormal muscle contractile characteristics, loss of functional motor units and motor neuron degeneration. We have previously shown that treatment with arimoclomol, a co-inducer of the heat shock stress response, delays disease progression in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal motor neuron disease. We therefore evaluated the therapeutic potential of arimoclomol in mice with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Arimoclomol was administered orally, in drinking water, from symptom onset and the effects established at 18 months of age, a late stage of disease. Arimoclomol significantly improved hindlimb muscle force and contractile characteristics, rescued motor units and, importantly, improved motor neuron survival and upregulated the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor which possess neurotrophic activity. These results provide evidence that upregulation of the heat shock response by treatment with arimoclomol may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and may also

  9. Tumor Progression Locus 2 Promotes Induction of IFNλ, Interferon Stimulated Genes and Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protects against Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teneema Kuriakose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP cascades are important in antiviral immunity through their regulation of interferon (IFN production as well as virus replication. Although the serine-threonine MAP kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2/MAP3K8 has been implicated as a key regulator of Type I (IFNα/β and Type II (IFNγ IFNs, remarkably little is known about how Tpl2 might contribute to host defense against viruses. Herein, we investigated the role of Tpl2 in antiviral immune responses against influenza virus. We demonstrate that Tpl2 is an integral component of multiple virus sensing pathways, differentially regulating the induction of IFNα/β and IFNλ in a cell-type specific manner. Although Tpl2 is important in the regulation of both IFNα/β and IFNλ, only IFNλ required Tpl2 for its induction during influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies revealed an unanticipated function for Tpl2 in transducing Type I IFN signals and promoting expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. Importantly, Tpl2 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells is necessary to limit early virus replication. In addition to early innate alterations, impaired expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells accompanied delayed viral clearance in Tpl2-/- mice at late time points. Consistent with its critical role in facilitating both innate and adaptive antiviral responses, Tpl2 is required for restricting morbidity and mortality associated with influenza virus infection. Collectively, these findings establish an essential role for Tpl2 in antiviral host defense mechanisms.

  10. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  12. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  13. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, John Martin [UF; Mitselmakher, Guenakh [UF; Korytov, Andrey [UF; Avery, Paul [UF; Furic, Ivan [UF; Acosta, Darin [UF; Konigsberg, Jacobo [UF; Field, Richard [UF; Matchev, Konstantin [UF; Ramond, Pierre [UF; Thorn, Richard [UF; Sikivie, Pierre [UF; Ray, Heather [UF; Tanner, David [UF

    2013-10-10

    We report on progress in a series of different directions within high energy physics research. 1. Neutrino research in hardware and software on the Minerva and MiniBooNE experiments 2. Experimental particle physics at the hadron colliders, with emphasis on research and development and data analysis on the CMS experiment operating at the CERN LHC. This includes research on the discovery and properties on the Higgs Boson. 3. Educational outreach through the Quarknet program, taking physics research into High School classrooms. 4. Theoretical and Phenomenological High Energy research, covering a broad range of activities ranging from fundamental theoretical issues to areas of immediate phenomenological importance. 5. Experiment searches for the Axion, as part of the ADMX experiment.

  14. Rebuttal Finale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    2011-01-01

    Professor Mark Lemley wrote an article about the Myth of the sole inventor, to which we provided a critique, with an executive summary of the critique published here on IPWatchdog.com. On October 9, 2011, he wrote a response to our critique, and this is our reply. In his October 9 response, Lemley...... asserts that our critique engaged in ad hominem attack. Our critique notes that he “neglected” to mention critical facts, that “his scholarship is unreliable,” and that “no reader should take his radical proposals for new patent law seriously.” We regret that Lemley regards this treatment of his treatment...

  15. The new age of sudomotor function testing: a sensitive and specific biomarker for diagnosis, estimation of severity, monitoring progression and regression in response to intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eVinik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudorimetry technology has evolved dramatically, as a rapid, non-invasive, robust, and accurate biomarker for small fibers that can easily be integrated into clinical practice. Though skin biopsy with quantitation of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD is still currently recognized as the gold standard in the evaluation, sudorimetry may yield diagnostic information not only on autonomic dysfunction, but also enhance the assessment of the small somatosensory nerves, disease detection, progression, and response to therapy. Sudoscan is based on different electrochemical principles (reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry to measure sudomotor function than prior technologies, affording it a much more practical and precise performance profile for routine clinical use with potential as a research tool. Small nerve fiber dysfunction has been found to occur early in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and may also be the only neurological manifestation in small fiber neuropathies, beneath the detection limits of traditional nerve function tests. Test results are robust, accomplished within minutes, require little technical training, no calculations since established norms have been provided for the effects of age, gender and ethnicity. Sudomotor testing has been greatly under-utilized in the past, restricted to specialist centers capable of handling the technically demanding, invasive biopsies for quantitation of IENF and expensive technology. Yet evaluation of autonomic and somatic nerve function has been shown to be the single best estimate of cardiovascular risk. Evaluation of sweating has the appeal of quantifiable non–invasive determination of the integrity of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and can now be accomplished with the Sudoscan™ tool rapidly at point of care clinics, allowing intervention for morbid complications prior to permanent structural nerve damage. We review here sudomotor function testing technology; the

  16. Non-invasive imaging provides spatiotemporal information on disease progression and response to therapy in a murine model of multiple myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S Riedel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM is a B-cell malignancy, where malignant plasma cells clonally expand in the bone marrow of older people, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Typical clinical symptoms include increased serum calcium levels, renal insufficiency, anemia, and bone lesions. With standard therapies, MM remains incurable; therefore, the development of new drugs or immune cell-based therapies is desirable. To advance the goal of finding a more effective treatment for MM, we aimed to develop a reliable preclinical MM mouse model applying sensitive and reproducible methods for monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis in response to therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mouse model was created by intravenously injecting bone marrow-homing mouse myeloma cells (MOPC-315.BM that expressed luciferase into BALB/c wild type mice. The luciferase in the myeloma cells allowed in vivo tracking before and after melphalan treatment with bioluminescence imaging (BLI. Homing of MOPC-315.BM luciferase+ myeloma cells to specific tissues was examined by flow cytometry. Idiotype-specific myeloma protein serum levels were measured by ELISA. In vivo measurements were validated with histopathology. RESULTS: Strong bone marrow tropism and subsequent dissemination of MOPC-315.BM luciferase(+ cells in vivo closely mimicked the human disease. In vivo BLI and later histopathological analysis revealed that 12 days of melphalan treatment slowed tumor progression and reduced MM dissemination compared to untreated controls. MOPC-315.BM luciferase(+ cells expressed CXCR4 and high levels of CD44 and α4β1 in vitro which could explain the strong bone marrow tropism. The results showed that MOPC-315.BM cells dynamically regulated homing receptor expression and depended on interactions with surrounding cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study described a novel MM mouse model that facilitated convenient, reliable, and sensitive tracking of myeloma cells with whole body BLI in

  17. 新疆野苹果逆境响应机制研究进展%Research Progress of Adversity Response Mechanism of Malus sieversii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳宁; 刘钢; 马盼; 黄翊鹏; 杨艳丽

    2014-01-01

    Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.is a precious tertiary relict plant, which mainly distributed in Tianshan wild fruit forest in Xinjiang .Malus sieversii is a wild apple species with cold , insect , disease and drought resistances and other good traits .It is not only an important wildlife resource , but also a good germ-plasm resource for stress -resistant breeding of fruit tree in our country .It would be significant to plant stress -resistant breeding and production increasing to know about the life activity laws of Malus sieversii in adversity. The recent research progresses of response mechnism to adversity in M.sieversii were summerized in this paper from gene,protein,physiological and biochemical levels .It was also put forward that the research on response mechanism to adversity should be more further at molecular biological level .%新疆野苹果是我国新疆天山野果林区中珍贵的第三纪孑遗植物,具有抗寒性强、耐虫、耐病、耐旱等优良性状。新疆野苹果不仅是我国苹果属重要的野生资源,也是我国果树遗传育种优质的抗逆种质资源。了解新疆野苹果在逆境条件下的生命活动规律,对植物抗逆育种和增产增收都具有十分重要的意义。本文综述了近年来新疆野苹果在基因水平、蛋白质水平和生理生化水平逆境响应机制的研究进展,提出未来对新疆野苹果的逆境响应机制研究应更深入到分子生物学水平。

  18. Progress on mechanism for immune response induced by vaccine%疫苗诱导机体免疫应答机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星; 邵杰; 张军楠(综述); 梁争论(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have been used by human for more than 200 years.In history, it is by using vaccines that many epi-demic diseases were eliminated and countless lives were saved .Exploring the immune mechanism of vaccines was a world problem and greatly promoted the development of vaccines .The study of innate immune mechanism of vaccines , was benefit for selecting viral strain and predicting the immune effect of vaccines .The low-response and non-response phenomenon after vaccination existed in some vaccines is hopeful to expound by the exploration of the immune mechanism .The development and application of novel vaccine adjuvants was also promoted by the exploring of its mechanism .Some new progress in mechanism for vaccine immunity were reviewed in this article .%人类接种疫苗已有200多年的历史,疫苗的应用使得历史上流行的多种传染病得以消灭或控制,挽救了无数人的生命。疫苗免疫机制是全世界疫苗研究者亟待解决的问题。对疫苗免疫机制的一些新认识,极大地促进了疫苗研发。对疫苗天然免疫机制的揭示,在疫苗株的筛选、疫苗免疫效果预测等方面展现了巨大的应用价值。某些疫苗在接种后存在的低应答与无应答现象,在对其免疫机制的探索中得到了解释。此外,对疫苗佐剂免疫机制的揭示,加速了新型疫苗佐剂的研发与应用。对疫苗免疫机制研究中的一些新进展进行了综述。

  19. A dynamically-coupled groundwater, land surface and regional climate model to predict seasonal watershed flow and groundwater response, FINAL LDRD REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Kollet, S; Chow, F; Granvold, P; Duan, Q

    2007-02-23

    This final report is organized in four sections. Section 1 is the project summary (below), Section 2 is a submitted manuscript that describes the offline, or spinup simulations in detail, Section 3 is also a submitted manuscript that describes the online, or fully-coupled simulations in detail and Section 3, which is report that describes work done via a subcontract with UC Berkeley. The goal of this project was to develop and apply a coupled regional climate, land-surface, groundwater flow model as a means to further understand important mass and energy couplings between regional climate, the land surface, and groundwater. The project involved coupling three distinct submodels that are traditionally used independently with abstracted and potentially oversimplified (inter-model) boundary conditions. This coupled model lead to (1) an improved understanding of the sensitivity and importance of coupled physical processes from the subsurface to the atmosphere; (2) a new tool for predicting hydrologic conditions (rainfall, temperature, snowfall, snowmelt, runoff, infiltration and groundwater flow) at the watershed scale over a range of timeframes; (3) a simulation of hydrologic response of a characteristic watershed that will provide insight into the certainty of hydrologic forecasting, dominance and sensitivity of groundwater dynamics on land-surface fluxes; and (4) a more realistic model representation of weather predictions, precipitation and temperature, at the regional scale. Regional climate models are typically used for the simulation of weather, precipitation and temperature behavior over 10-1000 km domains for weather or climate prediction purposes, and are typically driven by boundary conditions derived from global climate models (GCMs), observations or both. The land or ocean surface typically represents a bottom boundary condition of these models, where important mass (water) and energy fluxes are approximated. The viability and influence of these

  20. A dynamically-coupled groundwater, land surface and regional climate model to predict seasonal watershed flow and groundwater response, FINAL LDRD REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Kollet, S; Chow, F; Granvold, P; Duan, Q

    2007-02-23

    This final report is organized in four sections. Section 1 is the project summary (below), Section 2 is a submitted manuscript that describes the offline, or spinup simulations in detail, Section 3 is also a submitted manuscript that describes the online, or fully-coupled simulations in detail and Section 3, which is report that describes work done via a subcontract with UC Berkeley. The goal of this project was to develop and apply a coupled regional climate, land-surface, groundwater flow model as a means to further understand important mass and energy couplings between regional climate, the land surface, and groundwater. The project involved coupling three distinct submodels that are traditionally used independently with abstracted and potentially oversimplified (inter-model) boundary conditions. This coupled model lead to (1) an improved understanding of the sensitivity and importance of coupled physical processes from the subsurface to the atmosphere; (2) a new tool for predicting hydrologic conditions (rainfall, temperature, snowfall, snowmelt, runoff, infiltration and groundwater flow) at the watershed scale over a range of timeframes; (3) a simulation of hydrologic response of a characteristic watershed that will provide insight into the certainty of hydrologic forecasting, dominance and sensitivity of groundwater dynamics on land-surface fluxes; and (4) a more realistic model representation of weather predictions, precipitation and temperature, at the regional scale. Regional climate models are typically used for the simulation of weather, precipitation and temperature behavior over 10-1000 km domains for weather or climate prediction purposes, and are typically driven by boundary conditions derived from global climate models (GCMs), observations or both. The land or ocean surface typically represents a bottom boundary condition of these models, where important mass (water) and energy fluxes are approximated. The viability and influence of these

  1. Genome Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to Controlled, In vivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Pathways and Mechanisms Final Report, September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocke, David M. [University of California Davis

    2013-09-09

    During course of this project, we have worked in several areas relevant to low-dose ionizing radiation. Using gene expression to measure biological response, we have examined the response of human skin exposed in-vivo to radation, human skin exposed ex-vivo to radiation, and a human-skin model exposed to radiation. We have learned a great deal about the biological response of human skin to low-dose ionizing radiation.

  2. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  3. Requirements for Notification, Evaluation and Reduction of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Property and Housing Receiving Federal Assistance; Response to Elevated Blood Lead Levels. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    This final rule amends HUD's lead-based paint regulations to reduce blood lead levels in children under age six (6) who reside in federally-owned or -assisted pre-1978 housing, formally adopting a revised definition of "elevated blood lead level" (EBLL) in children under the age of six (6), in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance. It also establishes more comprehensive testing and evaluation procedures for the housing where such children reside. This final rule also addresses certain additional elements of the CDC guidance pertaining to assisted housing and makes technical corrections and clarifications. This final rule, which follows HUD's September 1, 2016, proposed rule, takes into consideration public comments submitted in response to the proposed rule.

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callis, Judy [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This report summarizes our research activities. In the award period, we have made significant progress on the first aim, with new discoveries reported in one published paper (1) and in one submitted manuscript (2) currently under review. The published manuscript reports on our discovery of plant ribokinase and the metabolic pathway in which it functions; the submitted manuscript is identification and characterization of the plant fructokinase family of enzymes from expression studies, sequence comparisons, subcellular localizations and enzymatic activities of recombinant proteins. Our study of loss-of-function mutants in the fructokinase family members (2) revealed that there were no phenotypic differences observed for the five genes analyzed, so we have adopted the Crispr/Cas9 system to isolate mutants in the two genes for which there are no currently available insertion mutants, and we are generating higher order mutants (double, triples, etc) to discern the relative roles and significance for each fructokinase. These mutants will be an important resource to understand regulation of carbohydrate movement and catabolism in plants. As studies from others indicate, alteration of fructokinases results in changes in cell walls and vasculatures, which have importance relative to biofuel yield and quality. In the second aim, we have characterized the protein-protein interactions for the pkfB proteins FLN1 and FLN2 that are localized to chloroplast transcriptional complexes and have proposed a new model for how chloroplast transcription is regulated. This work has been submitted for publication, been revised and will be re-submitted in December 2016

  5. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  6. 2004 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  7. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...... score. We applied the proposed algorithm on 27 patients with severe emphysema with CT scans acquired five time points, at baseline, after 3, after 12, after 21 and after 24 or 30 months. The results showed consistent emphysema progression with time and the overall progression score correlates...

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Thomas R.

    2014-03-14

    We propose to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by continued development and application of polarized 3He spin-filters. These devices are particularly relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source, as the polarizing monochromators historically used at reactor sources will usually not be suitable polarizers, and wide-angle polarization analysis will be essential. With prior support from the Office of Science, we have developed neutron spin-filters based on the large spin dependence of the cross section for neutron capture by 3He, and applied these devices to a small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS), polarized neutron reflectometers, a thermal energy single crystal diffractometer (SCD), and a thermal energy triple-axis instrument. Our developments have been adopted for application on the magnetism reflectometer at the SNS and for the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) 3He user capability. Results from both these programs are emerging. We have made significant progress in the past grant period on wide-angle polarization analysis. We have also performed several studies relevant to continuous optical pumping, including collaboration on experiments that have revealed neutron beam effects on spin filters that are continuously pumped by spin-exchange optical pumping. We contributed to an experiment on a neutron interferometer, in which the successful results obtained are directly related to both 3He cell technology and high accuracy 3He -based neutron polarimetry. Implementation of wide-angle polarization analysis will continue to be key thrust for our work in this new proposal. We will also focus on continuous optical pumping and the fundamental issues that determine the achievable 3He polarization. This project will be carried out by a collaboration involving scientists at NIST, Indiana University, Hamilton College, and the Univ. of Wisconsin who are experts in 3He polarization techniques, and materials scientists from the

  9. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETER, GARY F. [UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2014-07-16

    Excellent progress was made in standardizing three complementary methods: Magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray micro CT, and MALDI imaging linear ion trap mass spectroscopy to image biomass and chemical, anatomical and functional changes that occur during pretreatment and hydrolysis. Magnetic resonance microscopy provides excellent images with as low as 5 uM resolution with hydrated biomass samples. We visualized dramatic changes in signal associated with the hydrolysis of the carbohydrates by strong acids. Quantitative diffusion approaches were used to probe more subtle structural changes in biomass. Diffusion tensor calculations reflect diffusion anisotropy and fractional anisotropy maps clearly show the longer range diffusion within the vessels compared to within the fiber cells. The diffusion is increased along the cell walls of the vessels. Suggesting that further research with NMR imaging should be pursued. X-ray CT provides excellent images at as low as 3.5 uM resolution from dried biomass. Small increases in surface area, and decreases in local density have been quantified in with wood after mild pretreatments; these changes are expected to be underestimates of the hydrated wood, due to the ~12% shrinkage that occurs upon drying untreated wood. MALDI-MS spectra show high ion intensities at most mass to charge ratios in untreated and pretreated woody material. MALDI-MSn is required to improve specificity and reduce background for imaging. MALDI-TOF is not specific enough for carbohydrate identification. Using MALDI-LIT/MSn we can readily identify oligomeric glucans and xylans and their fragmentation patterns as well as those of the glucuronic acid side chains of birch 4-O-methyl glucuronxylan. Imaging of glucan and xylan oligomers show that many contain isobaric ions with different distributions, indicating again that MSn is needed for accurate imaging of lignocellulosic materials. We are now starting to integrate the three imaging methods by using the same set

  10. Radiographic Progression of Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Who Achieve Minimal Disease Activity in Response to Golimumab Therapy: Results Through 5 Years of a Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Beutler, Anna; Gladman, Dafna; Mease, Philip; Krueger, Gerald G.; McInnes, Iain B.; Helliwell, Philip; Coates, Laura C.; Xu, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long‐term outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients who achieved or did not achieve minimal disease activity (MDA) through 5 years of golimumab treatment in the GO‐REVEAL trial. Methods The GO‐REVEAL trial was a phase III, randomized, double‐blind trial with placebo‐control through week 24 followed by an open‐label extension of golimumab 50/100 mg treatment up to 5 years. In these post‐hoc analyses, MDA was defined by the presence of ≥5 of 7 PsA outcome measures (≤1 swollen joint, ≤1 tender joint, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] ≤1, patient pain score ≤15, patient global disease activity score ≤20 [range 0–100], Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI] ≤0.5, and ≤1 tender enthesis point). Results Treatment with golimumab yielded significantly higher MDA response rates versus patients randomized to placebo at week 14 (23.5% versus 1.0%; P golimumab‐treated patients overall. Irrespective of treatment randomization, achievement of MDA at ≥3 and ≥4 consecutive visits was associated with significantly less radiographic progression and more improvement in MDA components allowing specific assessment of physical function (HAQ DI) and overall disease activity (patient global assessment of disease activity) at week 256 versus patients not achieving MDA. Logistic regression analyses indicated that a 1‐unit higher baseline HAQ DI score yielded a significantly lower likelihood of achieving MDA at ≥3 (odds ratio 0.514 [95% confidence interval 0.321–0.824]; P = 0.006) and ≥4 (odds ratio 0.480 [95% confidence interval 0.290–0.795]; P = 0.004) consecutive visits. Conclusion Among golimumab‐treated PsA patients, better long‐term functional improvement, patient global assessment, and radiographic outcomes were observed when patients achieved persistent MDA. PMID:25779603

  11. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Simmons; Tracie J. Bukowski

    2002-08-07

    This grant was a continuation of research conducted at the University of Florida under Grant No. DE-FG05-91ER45462 in which we investigated the energy bandgap shifts produced in semiconductor quantum dots of sizes between 1.5 and 40 nm. The investigated semiconductors consisted of a series of Column 2-6 compounds (CdS, CdSe, CdTe) and pure Column IV elements (Si and Ge). It is well-known of course that the 2-6 semiconductors possess a direct-gap electronic structure, while the Column IV elements possess an indirect-gap structure. The investigation showed a major difference in quantum confinement behavior between the two sets of semiconductors. This difference is essentially associated with the change in bandgap energy resulting from size confinement. In the direct-gap semiconductors, the change in energy (blue shift) saturates when the crystals approach 2-3 nm in diameter. This limits the observed shift in energy to less than 1 eV above the bulk value. In the indirect-gap semiconductors, the energy shift does not show any sign of saturation and in fact, we produced Si and Ge nanocrystals with absorption edges in the UV. The reason for this difference has not been determined and will require additional experimental and theoretical studies. In our work, we suggest, but do not prove that mixing of conduction band side valleys with the central valley under conditions of size confinement may be responsible for the saturation in the blue-shift of direct-gap semiconductors. The discovery of large bandgap energy shifts with crystal size prompted us to suggest that these materials may be used to form photovoltaic cells with multi-gap layers for high efficiency in a U.S. Patent issued in 1998. However, this possibility depends strongly on the ability to collect photoexcited carriers from energy-confined crystals. The research conducted at the University of Arizona under the subject grant had a major goal of testing an indirect gap semiconductor in size-confined structures to

  12. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Ralph

    2017-09-29

    The major goal of this project was to improve understanding of processes that control the exchanges of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land biosphere on decadal and longer time scales. The approach involves measuring the changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and the isotopes of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) at background stations and uses these and other datasets to challenge and improve numerical models of the earth system. The project particularly emphasized the use of these data to improve understanding of changes occurring in boreal and arctic ecosystems over the past 50 years and to seek from these data improved understanding of large-scale processes impacting carbon cycling, such as the responses to warming, CO2 fertilization, and disturbance. The project also led to advances in the understanding of changes in water-use efficiency of land ecosystems globally based on trends in 13C/12C. The core element of this project was providing partial support for continuing measurements of CO2 concentrations and isotopes from the Scripps CO2 program, initiated by C. D. Keeling in the 1960s. The measurements included analysis of flasks collected at an array of ten stations distributed from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The project also supported modeling studies and interpretive work to help understand the origins of the large ~50% increase in the amplitude of the atmospheric CO2 cycle detected at high northern latitudes between 1960 and present and to understand the long-term trend in carbon 13C/12C of CO2. The seasonal cycle work was advanced through collaborations with colleagues at MPI Jena and Imperial College

  13. GAT 3 - fuel cells and their management (PACoGES). Progress report; GAT 3 - piles a combustible et leur gestion (PACoGES). Rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2005-07-01

    The Topic Analysis Group PACoGES ('Piles a Combustible et leur Gestion') has conducted thoughts on fuel cells and their management with all the searchers concern with researches and developments on fuel cells and in particular on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, ITSOFC) running at high temperature (600 to 1000 C). This has concerned about 200 searchers working in about fifty laboratories (CNRS, CEA, EDF, GDF, INRETS, CNAM, Armines, and several industrial teams). Here is given the final report 2002-2004 concerning all the researches carried out by this Group. (O.M.)

  14. Effects of catalytic mineral matter on CO/CO{sub 2} temperature and burning time for char combustion. Quarterly progress report No. 15 (Final report), October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longwell, J.P.; Sarofim, A.F.; Lee, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The high temperature oxidation of char is of interest in a number of applications in which coal must be burned in confined spaces including the conversion of oil-fired boilers to coal using coal-water slurries, the development of a new generation of pulverized-coal-fired cyclone burners, the injection of coal into the tuyeres of blast furnaces, the use of coal as a fuel in direct-fired gas turbines and in large-bore low-speed diesels, and entrained flow gasifiers. There is a need to understand the temperature history of char particles in conventional pulverized-coal-fired boilers to better explain the processes governing the formation of pollutants and the transformation of mineral matter. The temperature of char particle burning is the product of a strongly coupled balance between particle physical properties, heat and mass transfer, surface reaction, and CO/CO{sub 2} ratio. Particle temperature has major effects not only on the burning rate but also on ash properties and mineral matter vaporization. Measurements of the temperature of individual burning char particles have clearly demonstrated large particle-to-particle temperature variations which depend strongly on particle size and on particle composition. This report consists of two major parts. In the first part, experimental measurements of CO/CO{sub 2} ratio for a single spherocarb particle is presented along with a kinetic model which allows estimation of CO/CO{sub 2} generated at a carbon surface for temperatures higher than those reported in the experimental work. In the second part, modeling of a temperature profile during a char combustion is reported, and also progress in modeling the complex sets of coupled phenomena involving full gas phase reaction kinetics, heat transfer, and mass transfer is summarized. In the appendix progress on construction and testing of an improved electrodynamic balance is presented.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  16. Final Scientific Report DE-FGO3-97ER62460 Stomatal Responses to CO2: A Comparison of Woody and Herbaceous Species in Arid and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, George W.

    2003-12-19

    OAK-B135 The project involved a study of a fundamental response of terrestrial vegetation to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, namely, the change in leaf conductance to gas diffusion associated with a change in the aperture of the microscopic pores (stomata) on the surface of leaves.

  17. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  18. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  19. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jon B

    2006-04-30

    High performance computational science and engineering simulations have become an increasingly important part of the scientist's problem solving toolset. A key reason is the development of widely used codes and libraries that support these applications, for example, Netlib, a collection of numerical libraries [33]. The term community codes refers to those libraries or applications that have achieved some critical level of acceptance by a user community. Many of these applications are on the high-end in terms of required resources: computation, storage, and communication. Recently, there has been considerable interest in putting such applications on-line and packaging them as network services to make them available to a wider user base. Applications such as data mining [22], theorem proving and logic [14], parallel numerical computation [8][32] are example services that are all going on-line. Transforming applications into services has been made possible by advances in packaging and interface technologies including component systems [2][6][13][28][37], proposed communication standards [34], and newer Web technologies such as Web Services [38]. Network services allow the user to focus on their application and obtain remote service when needed by simply invoking the service across the network. The user can be assured that the most recent version of the code or service is always provided and they do not need to install, maintain, and manage significant infrastructure to access the service. For high performance applications in particular, the user is still often required to install a code base (e.g. MPI), and therefore become involved with the tedious details of infrastructure management. In the network service model, the service provider is responsible for all of these activities and not the user. The user need not become an expert in high performance computing. An additional advantage of high-end network services is that the user need not have specialized

  20. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Niehaus, Brian; Teherani, Arianne; Young, John Q

    2012-08-07

    To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Participants' descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.

  1. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on EUROMET comparison EUROMET.PR-S2 (Project No. 156): Responsivity of detectors for radiant power of lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kück, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The EUROMET.PR-S2 intercomparison of Radiant Power of High Power Lasers for five measurands was carried as a combined round-robin/star type comparison. In total nine participants took part, five from Europe (national metrology institutes of France, Germany (pilot), Great Britain, Romania, Sweden) and four outside Europe (national metrology institutes of Australia, Japan, South Africa and The United States of America). Therefore, this comparison can be considered as a worldwide one. The measurements took place from January 2005 to September 2007. All participants supplied detailed reports of their measurements including full uncertainty statements. All measurement results reported by the participants were used for the intercomparison and no measurement was subject to rejection. The analysis method introduced in section 6 follows the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation and has been accepted by all participants. For the calculation of the supplementary key comparison reference value no participant had to be excluded and the weighted mean with cut-off used here has been supported by all participants. The unilateral degrees of equivalence (DoE) calculated for each participant are approximately 63% consistent with their uncertainties at the k = 2 level and approximately 81% consistent within k = 3. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. Productization and Manufacturing Scaling of High-Efficiency Solar Cell and Module Products Based on a Disruptive Low-Cost, Mono-Crystalline Technology: Final Technical Progress Report, April 1, 2009 - December 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Final report for PV incubator subcontract with Solexel, Inc. The purpose of this project was to develop Solexel's Unique IP, productize it, and transfer it to manufacturing. Silicon constitutes a significant fraction of the total solar cell cost, resulting in an industry-wide drive to lower silicon usage. Solexel's disruptive Solar cell structure got around these challenges and promised superior light trapping, efficiency and mechanical strength, despite being significantly thinner than commercially available cells. Solexel's successful participation in this incubator project became evident as the company is now moving into commercial production and position itself to be competitive for the next Technology Pathway Partnerships (TPP) funding opportunity.

  3. Nutrition and colostrum production in sheep. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses to different energy sources in the final stages of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Martin, G B; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R

    2004-01-01

    Lupins and maize, with similar concentrations of metabolisable energy, should produce similar responses in colostrum production at parturition when fed during the last week of pregnancy, but, in the present study, we tested the proposal that the physical form of whole lupins would restrict intake and, therefore, the response compared with cracked lupins or maize. Fifty-five twin-bearing ewes were divided into four groups: in the last 15 days of pregnancy, 14 were fed whole lupins, 13 were fed cracked lupins, 14 were fed cracked maize and 14 received no supplement. The cracked supplements were fed in increasing amounts for 6 days to avoid acidosis. The whole lupins were fed only from Day -8. All supplementary grains increased the intake of metabolisable energy by >35%, but only ewes eating maize accumulated significantly more colostrum at parturition: control, 207 g; cracked maize, 452 g; cracked lupins, 206 g; whole lupins, 231 g (P colostrum.

  4. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 5. Public comments and Nuclear Regulatory Commission responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Copies of 69 letters are presented commenting on the Draft Generic Environmental Statement (GESMO) WASH-1327 and the NRC's responses to the comments received from Federal, State and local agencies; environmental and public interest groups, members of the academic and industrial communities, and individual citizens. An index to these letters indicating the number assigned to each letter, the author, and organization represented, is provided in the Table of Contents.

  5. Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1998-04-10

    Objectives can be divided into those for plant modeling and those for ecosystem modeling and experimental work in support of both. The author worked in a variety of ecosystem types, including pine, arctic, desert, and grasslands. Plant modeling objectives are: (1) to construct generic models of leaf, canopy, and whole-plant response to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (2) to validate predictions of whole-plant response against various field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use these models to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on individual plants for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to provide information to higher-level models, such as community models and ecosystem models. Ecosystem level modeling objectives are: (1) to incorporate models of plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} into a generic ecosystem model in order to predict the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems; (2) to validate model predictions of total system-level response (including decomposition) against various ecosystem field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use the ecosystem model to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to use the ecosystem model to study effects of change in CO{sub 2} and climate at regional and global scales. Occasionally the author conducted some experimental work that was deemed important to the development of the models. This work was mainly physiological work that could be performed in the Duke University Phytotron, using existing facilities.

  6. Final tuning of the EPFL heating module for response tests; Finalisation du module de l'EPFL pour les tests de reponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyesse, L.; Steinmann, G.

    2002-07-01

    Within this project, the heating equipment of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), in Lausanne, carried out in 1998 to study the thermomechanical behavior of thermal piles, is optimized to also carry out response tests on the geothermal probes and to determine the thermal characteristics of soils (conductivity and heat capacity). The principal improvements made during this project are: a) the reduction of the volume of the heating equipment, necessary in order to facilitate the transport on the building sites, b) the control and the improvement of the insulation, c) a new range of power is currently available, d) the partial automation of the test with acquisition and data processing. A calibration of the various sensors was carried out in this new configuration. The results obtained showed that the transformation of the heating module improved the quality of measurements. This work also made it possible to carry out a complete and detailed procedure for response tests for a forthcoming accreditation of this test. A first response test with the new configuration was carried out successfully in the canton of St-Gallen. (author)

  7. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Park, J. -K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Marmar, E. S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahn, J. -W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berkery, J. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); King, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazerson, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Euratom/CCFE Association; Logan, N. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lore, J. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shafer, M. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Reiman, A. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Rice, J. E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Volpe, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Wang, Z. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wolfe, S. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  8. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Park, J. -K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Marmar, E. S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahn, J. -W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berkery, J. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); King, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazerson, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Euratom/CCFE Association; Logan, N. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lore, J. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shafer, M. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Reiman, A. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Rice, J. E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Volpe, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Wang, Z. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wolfe, S. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  9. A case report of locally advanced triple negative breast cancer showing pathological complete response to weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab treatment following disease progression during anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideo; Ozaki, Shinji; Yasui, Daisuke; Hirata, Taizo

    2017-09-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard of care for locally advanced triple negative breast cancer, however, approximately 5% of cases show disease progression during NAC. Although downstaging is essential to create an opportunity for curative surgery and to improve the local control outcome in such a case, no additional line of chemotherapy has been established. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an axillary mass presenting three weeks ago and was diagnosed as having right locally advanced (T2N2M0, stage IIIA) triple negative breast cancer. After two courses of epirubicine and cyclophosphamide as NAC, disease progression was recognized and curative resection was considered impossible due to enlarged axillary lymph nodes showing invasion to surrounding tissue. As second-line chemotherapy, weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab treatment was initiated and significant shrinkage was immediately obtained. A clinically complete response was diagnosed after four courses of weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab and she underwent a right breast mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection without major complications. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens showed no residual invasive or noninvasive disease and she was diagnosed as having a pathological complete response. Although the addition of bevacizumab to standard adjuvant chemotherapy is not recommended in unselected triple negative breast cancer, the potent effect on tumor shrinkage should be considered in the treatment of locally advanced triple negative breast cancer showing disease progression during standard NAC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of Yellowstone grizzly bears to changes in food resources: A synthesis. Final report to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee and Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; van Manen, Frank T.; Cecily M, Costello; Haroldson, Mark A.; Daniel D, Bjornlie; Michael R, Ebinger; Kerry A, Gunther; Mary Frances, Mahalovich; Daniel J, Thompson; Megan D, Higgs; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Kristin, Legg; Daniel, Tyers; Landenburger, Lisa; Steven L, Cain; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) was listed as a threatened species in 1975 (Federal Register 40 FR:31734-31736). Since listing, recovery efforts have focused on increasing population size, improving habitat security, managing bear mortalities, and reducing bear-human conflicts. The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee (IGBC; partnership of federal and state agencies responsible for grizzly bear recovery in the lower 48 states) and its Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommitte (YES; federal, state, county, and tribal partners charged with recovery of grizzly bears in the Greater Yelowston Ecosystem [GYE]) tasked the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team to provide information and further research relevant to three concerns arising from the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals November 2011 decision: 1) the ability of grizzly bears as omnivores to find alternative foods to whitebark pine seeds; 2) literature to support their conclusions; and 3) the non-intuitive biological reality that impacts can occur to individuals without causing the overall population to decline. Specifically, the IGBC and YES requested a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge regarding whitebark pinbe decline and individual and population-level responses of grizzly bears to changing food resources in the GYE. This research was particularly relevant to grizzly bear conservation given changes in the population trajectory observed during the last decade.

  11. [Progress in eyeglass optics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, W

    1995-08-01

    In this article product developments for ophthalmic lenses are discussed: new materials, designs and coatings. High-index plastic substrates allow to offer corrections which are simultaneously light and thin and for the first time there are high performant plastic photochromic lenses. Head and eye movements with latest generation's progressives are very similar to natural vision behaviour. Special aspheric designs have been developed for comfortable vision for near and intermediate distances. Finally there are new coatings which protect the high quality surfaces of plastic lenses distinctly longer than before.

  12. CNGS Progress Report 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Elsener, K; Gaillard, H; López-Hernandez, L A; Meddahi, M; Rangod, Stephane; Roesler, S; Spinks, Alan; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The CNGS project is progressing according to schedule, with the aim to be ready for beam in spring 2006. In this paper, the project status and recent changes to the design of systems and components are summarized. The actions taken in response to the recommendations of the 2003 CNGS Review are described. This report has been drafted in view of the third CNGS Review, held in June 2004.

  13. Response of a close to final prototype for the barrel of the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter to photons at energies below 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Christoph; Diehl, Stefan; Dormenev, Valery; Drexler, Peter; Kuske, Till; Nazarenko, Svetlana; Novotny, Rainer W.; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Kavatsyuk, Myroslav [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Rosier, Philippe [IPN Orsay (France); Ryantzev, Andrej [IHEP Protvino (Russian Federation); Wieczorek, Peter; Wilms, Andrea [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The EMC of the PANDA detector is one of the central components to achieve the proposed physical goals. The barrel part of the EMC will consist of more than 11,000 lead tungstate (PWO-II) crystals operated at -25 C to achieve the required performance over the complete energy range. The most recent prototype PROTO120 represents a larger section of a barrel slice, containing the most tapered crystals. The readout is performed with two rectangular large area APDs per crystal, which are read out separately via the specially developed APFEL-ASIC, providing a large dynamic range, low power consumption and optimized shaping. The present contribution will show the response of the PROTO120 to photons in the energy range below 800 MeV. It focuses on the performance of the ASIC under real conditions and describe the analysis procedure including the signal extraction and obtained energy resolution using the information from both APDs.

  14. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (ditch plugging, bird species

  15. Search for a final repository. Final repository commission and the public. Questions concerning cooperation and progress of the process at half time of the commission; Endlagersuche. Endlager-Kommission und Oeffentlichkeit(en). Fragen nach Zusammenarbeit und Fortschritten im Prozess zur Halbzeit der Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.) [Evangelische Akademie Loccum (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Naturwissenschaften, Oekologie und Umweltpolitik

    2016-08-01

    The volume includes the following contributions: Presumptions and success of public participation. Refusal as legitimate and necessary mean. Experiences form the participation process in Switzerland. Cooperation of the final repository commission and the public. Regional participation: the view of a process attendant in the Swiss procedure. Synergies or friction losses? Who is coordinating the institutions/activities and is bringing them together? Players in the nuclear waste conflict - rights and duties in the frame of the search for waste storage as safe as possible. Transparency and Participation - what is the role of online media in the site search process?.

  16. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  17. Abrupt Climate Change and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: sensitivity and non-linear response to Arctic/sub-Arctic freshwater pulses. Collaborative research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This project investigated possible mechanisms by which melt-water pulses can induce abrupt change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) magnitude. AMOC magnitude is an important ingredient in present day climate. Previous studies have hypothesized abrupt reduction in AMOC magnitude in response to influxes of glacial melt water into the North Atlantic. Notable fresh-water influxes are associated with the terminus of the last ice age. During this period large volumes of melt water accumulated behind retreating ice sheets and subsequently drained rapidly when the ice weakened sufficiently. Rapid draining of glacial lakes into the North Atlantic is a possible origin of a number of paleo-record abrupt climate shifts. These include the Younger-Dryas cooling event and the 8,200 year cooling event. The studies undertaken focused on whether the mechanistic sequence by which glacial melt-water impacts AMOC, which then impacts Northern Hemisphere global mean surface temperature, is dynamically plausible. The work has implications for better understanding past climate stability. The work also has relevance for today’s environment, in which high-latitude ice melting in Greenland appears to be driving fresh water outflows at an accelerating pace.

  18. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  19. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined...... with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used...

  20. 情绪与反应抑制研究新进展%New Progress in Research on Emotion and Response Inhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丁

    2016-01-01

    Response inhibition is a high-level cognitive function in human perform control functions. Recently the scholars pay more and more attention to the relation of emotion and response inhibition, mainly involving in the relationship, the corresponding physiological basis and the clinical application. This paper reviewed the research of emotion and response inhibition in recent years, including four parts: mutual effect of emotion and response inhibition, the phys-iological mechanism of emotional response inhibition, double competition model of task type and emotional response inhibition and the clinical application of emotional response inhibition task.%反应抑制是人类执行控制功能中的一种高级认知功能,近年来学者们越来越关注情绪和反应抑制的关系,主要涉及两者关系、相对应的生理基础以及相关临床应用。本文分别从情绪和反应抑制相互影响、情绪型反应抑制的生理机制、双重竞争模型的提出以及情绪型反应抑制任务的临床应用四个方面对关于情绪与反应抑制的新近研究进行评述。

  1. [Final clinical indications and etiology in 1,023 enucleations. Descriptive databank evaluation with SPSS software in variable response mode with dummy variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H; Bialasiewicz, A A; Schaudig, U; Schäfer, H; von Domarus, D

    2002-05-01

    A new data bank developed for ophthalmopathology using a computer-generated, multidigital data code is expected to be able to accomplish complex clinicopathologic correlations of diagnoses and signs, as provided by (multiple) clinical events and histopathologically proven etiologies, and to facilitate the documentation of new data. In the ophthalmopathology laboratory 2890 eyes were examined between January 20, 1975 and December 12, 1996. The main diagnoses and patient data from this 22-year period were recorded. To facilitate the presentation of data, a 10-year period with eyes of 976 patients enucleated from December, 1986 to December, 1996 was chosen. Principal and secondary diagnoses served for establishing the data bank. The frequencies of successive histologic and clinical diagnoses were evaluated by a descriptive computing program using an SPSS-multi-response mode with dummy variables and a categorical variable listing of the software (SPSS version 10.0) classified as (a) non-filtered random, (b) filtered by multiple etiologies, and (c) filtered by multiple events. The principal groups (e.g., histologic diagnoses concerning etiology) and subgroups (e.g., trauma, neoplasia, surgery, systemic diseases, and inflammations) were defined and correlated with 798 separate diagnoses. From 11 diagnoses/events ascribed to the clinical cases, 11,198 namings resulted. Thus, a comparative study of complex etiologies and events leading to enucleation in different hospitals of a specific area may be performed using this electronic ophthalmopathologic data bank system. The complexity of rare disease and integration into a superimposed structure can be managed with this custom-made data bank. A chronologically and demographically oriented consideration of reasons for enucleation is thus feasible.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  3. The progress of eco-environment response to urbanization%城市化过程中生态环境响应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝汉舟; 钟学斌; 陈锐凯

    2014-01-01

    The city is the development of social productive forces to a certain stage, which on the one hand to promote the city's social and economic development, improving the people's living standards, and on the other hand, due to the excessive concentra-tion of urban population, buildings, industry, and bring such envi-ronmental pollution, ecological degradation, traffic congestion, housing shortages, urban unemployment rises and many other problems. In the process of industrialization of our country to re-examine the relationship adapt the concept of urbanization and urbanization and resource environment is particularly necessary. The population shift from the traditional model of urbanization to the advanced form of urbanization-Structural Transition urbaniza-tion is particularly necessary. Measure of urbanization must be improved in accordance with the new urbanization connotations. In the relationship between urbanization and environmental resources, the analysis of the mathematical expression of the degree of cou-pling and coordination, and summed up the relationship between the common methods of the present study. In the current study, the clear definition of resources and environmental systems, research on technological innovation and urbanization and crossfeed mechanisms and effects of the weak, the role of human factors and business drivers microscopic study of the subject is not enough. Finally, the article pointed out that the process of urbanization ecological analysis can not stay healthy on a shorter time scale, from the time scale and spatial scales in response to urbanization and ecological environment system's simulation is particularly necessary. The need to strengthen the new urbanization path from environmental effects of urbanization and resource among adapt to China's national conditions studied.%城市是社会生产力发展到一定阶段的产物,它一方面促进了城市社会、经济的发展,提高了人们的生活水平,而另一

  4. Nested Narratives Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Pattengale, Nicholas D.; Forsythe, James C.; Carvey, Bradley John

    2015-02-01

    In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most impor- tant artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.

  5. Nested Narratives Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pattengale, Nicholas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carvey, Bradley John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most important artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.

  6. 白色念珠菌感染免疫应答的研究进展%Progress in the study of immune response to Candida albicans infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉淑; 白丽

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Candida albicans ( C. Albicans) disease is mainly due to the interaction between C. Albicans and human immune system. It stimulates human immune system to produce innate immune response, specific cellular immune response and humoral immune response. Specific cellular immune response is dominant component in response. Therefore, to understand the immune response to C. Albicans has great clinical significance in disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment.%白色念珠菌的致病是其与机体免疫系统相互作用的结果.研究发现,白色念珠菌感染人体时,刺激机体产生固有免疫及特异性细胞免疫和体液免疫应答.其中特异性细胞免疫占主导地位.了解认识白色念珠菌感染的免疫应答对诊断、预防及治疗白色念珠菌感染具有重要意义.

  7. [Research progress on biochar carbon sequestration technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-08-01

    Biochar is a fine-grained and porous material, which is produced by pyrolyzing biomass under anaerobic or oxygen-limiting condition. Due to the aromatic structure, it is resistant to the biotic and abiotic degradation which makes biochar production a promising carbon sequestration technology, and it has attracted widespread attention. Factors including biochar production, biochar stability in soil and the response of plant growth and soil organic carbon to the biochar addition can influence the carbon sequestration potential of biochar. Through exploring the mechanisms of biochar carbon sequestration, the influence of these factors was studied. Furthermore, the research progress of carbon sequestration potential and its economic viability were examined. Finally, aiming at the knowledge gaps in the influencing factors as well as the relationship between these factors, some further research needs were proposed for better application of biochar in China.

  8. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Janine T. Erler

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic casc...

  9. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  10. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  11. Long-term response to imatinib is not affected by the initial dose in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: final update from the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Optimization and Selectivity (TOPS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarani, Michele; Druker, Brian J; Branford, Susan; Kim, Dong-Wook; Pane, Fabrizio; Mongay, Lidia; Mone, Manisha; Ortmann, Christine-Elke; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Radich, Jerald P; Hughes, Timothy P; Cortes, Jorge E; Guilhot, François

    2014-01-01

    The TOPS trial evaluated high- (800 mg/day; n = 319) versus standard-dose (400 mg/day; n = 157) imatinib in patients newly diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Patients had a minimum follow-up of 42 months or discontinued early. Major molecular response (MMR) rates were similar between arms at (51.6 vs 50.2 % for 400 and 800 mg/day, respectively; P = 0.77) and by (75.8 vs 79.0 %; P = 0.4807) 42 months. There were no differences in event-free survival (EFS), progression-free survival(PFS), or overall survival (OS) between arms. The estimated rates of PFS on treatment and OS at 42 months were significantly higher in patients with MMR at 6, 12, and 18 months compared with those without MMR.Adverse events were more frequent with high-dose imatinib. Patients with B1 treatment interruption (vs [1) and those able to maintain imatinib C600 mg/day (vs\\600 mg/day) in the first year of treatment had faster and higher response rates, but no improvement in EFS or PFS. Adherence to prescribed dose without interruption may be more important than initiation of therapy with higher doses of imatinib. Achievement of MMR correlated with longterm clinical outcomes.

  12. Modeling the response of ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.F.; Kemp, P.R.; Chen, J.

    1993-06-19

    In recognition of the role of plants in the bio-geosphere carbon cycle, the Department of Energy (OHER) initiated a research program: The Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. This report describes the continuing research that we are conducting as part of this program. The ultimate goal of our research is to develop computer models capable of predicting responses of plants and ecosystems to the direct and indirect effects of atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide that are approximately twice those of the preindustrial period. The understanding of ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} necessarily depends on knowledge of responses of individual plants and their interactions with one another and their environment Our research approach incorporates the study and modeling of response to CO{sub 2} at all levels of the plant-community-ecosystem hierarchy, in an effort to understand the linkages and translation of effects of CO{sub 2} from one level to another. The research results reported here focus at several different levels of this hierarchy, and are highlights of accomplishments for the period September 1992 to June 1993.

  13. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  14. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitin S. Baliga and Leroy Hood

    2008-11-12

    The proposed overarching goal for this project was the following: Data integration, simulation and visualization will facilitate metabolic and regulatory network prediction, exploration, and formulation of hypotheses. We stated three specific aims to achieve the overarching goal of this project: (1) Integration of multiple levels of information such as mRNA and protein levels, predicted protein-protein interactions/associations and gene function will enable construction of models describing environmental response and dynamic behavior. (2) Flexible tools for network inference will accelerate our understanding of biological systems. (3) Flexible exploration and queries of model hypotheses will provide focus and reveal novel dependencies. The underlying philosophy of these proposed aims is that an iterative cycle of experiments, experimental design, and verification will lead to a comprehensive and predictive model that will shed light on systems level mechanisms involved in responses elicited by living systems upon sensing a change in their environment. In the previous years report we demonstrated considerable progress in development of data standards, regulatory network inference and data visualization and exploration. We are pleased to report that several manuscripts describing these procedures have been published in top international peer reviewed journals including Genome Biology, PNAS, and Cell. The abstracts of these manuscripts are given and they summarize our accomplishments in this project.

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Laub

    2008-12-29

    Our team of investigators from MIT (Michael Laub) and Stanford (Harley McAdams and Lucy Shapiro) conducted a multi-faceted, systematic experimental analysis of the 106 Caulobacter two-component signal transduction system proteins (62 histidine kinases and 44 response regulators) to understand how they coordinate cell cycle progression, metabolism, and response to environmental changes. These two-component signaling proteins were characterized at the genetic, biochemical, and genomic levels. The results generated by our laboratories have provided numerous insights into how Caulobacter cells sense and respond to a myriad of signals. As nearly all bacteria use two-component signaling for cell regulation, the results from this project help to deepen our general understanding of bacterial signal transduction. The tools and approaches developed can be applied to other bacteria. In particular, work from the Laub laboratory now enables the systematic, rational rewiring of two-component signaling proteins, a major advance that stands to impact synthetic biology and the development of biosensors and other designer molecular circuits. Results are summarized from our work. Each section lists publications and publicly-available resources which result from the work described.

  16. A gene expression predictor of response to EGFR-targeted therapy stratifies progression-free survival to cetuximab in KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Esther P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab is used in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC, and predicting responsive patients garners great interest, due to the high cost of therapy. Mutations in the KRAS gene occur in ~40% of CRC and are a negative predictor of response to cetuximab. However, many KRAS-wildtype patients do not benefit from cetuximab. We previously published a gene expression predictor of sensitivity to erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to determine if this predictor could identify KRAS-wildtype CRC patients who will benefit from cetuximab therapy. Methods Microarray data from 80 metastatic CRC patients subsequently treated with cetuximab were extracted from the study by Khambata-Ford et al. The study included KRAS status, response, and PFS for each patient. The gene expression data were scaled and analyzed using our predictive model. An improved predictive model of response was identified by removing features in the 180-gene predictor that introduced noise. Results Forty-three of eighty patients were identified as harboring wildtype-KRAS. When the model was applied to these patients, the predicted-sensitive group had significantly longer PFS than the predicted-resistant group (median 88 days vs. 56 days; mean 117 days vs. 63 days, respectively, p = 0.008. Kaplan-Meier curves were also significantly improved in the predicted-sensitive group (p = 0.0059, HR = 0.4109. The model was simplified to 26 of the original 180 genes and this further improved stratification of PFS (median 147 days vs. 56.5 days in the predicted sensitive and resistant groups, respectively, p Conclusion Our model of sensitivity to EGFR inhibition stratified PFS following cetuximab in KRAS-wildtype CRC patients. This study represents the first true external validation of a molecular predictor of response to cetuximab in KRAS-WT metastatic CRC. Our model may hold clinical utility for identifying patients responsive

  17. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  18. Early Detection of Emphysema Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Jacobs, S.S.A.M.; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  19. Progress in abnormal auditory responses of autistic children%儿童孤独症听觉反应异常的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭迎花

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal auditory responses is one of the common features in autism. The characteristics and pathogenesis of the abnormality is not quite clear. The results of electrophysiological hearing evaluation ( i. e,brainstem auditory evoked potentials, otoacoustic emissions) in autistic children are inconsistent. The abnormal aduitory responses may contribute to the poor social interaction and communication in autism.%孤独症儿童常伴有一定程度的听觉反应异常,该异常的临床表现多样化,目前其发生机制尚不明确.脑干听觉诱发电位、耳声发射等相关辅助检查的结果也不尽一致,听觉反应异常可能影响孤独症儿童的社交及语言交流等整体发育.

  20. Responsiveness of the double limb lowering test and lower abdominal muscle progression to core stabilization exercise programs in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladay, Douglas E; Miller, Sayers J; Challis, John H; Denegar, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in the United States. Studies suggest that stabilization exercise may be effective in the management of people with LBP. To accurately assess the effect of stabilization programs on muscle performance, clinicians need an objective measure that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double limb lowering test (DLLT) and lower abdominal muscle progression (LAMP) can detect a change in abdominal muscle performance after stabilization exercises. Eleven healthy participants (4 men and 7 women) were randomly assigned to either a specific stabilization exercise (SSE) or general stabilization exercise (GSE) group and were evaluated by the DLLT and LAMP before, during, and at the end of 8 weeks of training. Subjects attended exercise sessions twice per week over 8 weeks. No significant difference in pretest performance existed between the 2 groups. No significant difference was detected with the DLLT for either the SSE or GSE over time or when groups were combined. The LAMP detected a significant difference for the combined groups and GSE but not SSE over time. These data indicate that the LAMP is sensitive to change after a spinal stabilization program, whereas the DLLT does not detect a change after these programs. Furthermore, the GSE was more effective in producing these changes. Additional testing of these assessments is necessary to further validate these tests and to identify specific populations for which these tests may be most appropriate.

  1. Research on dynamics of tundra ecosystems and their potential response to energy resource development. Progress report, May 1, 1978-April 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological effects (costs and benefits) of impacts that can be expected from the development and utilization of energy resources in the arctic. The impacts selected for study are: altered nutrient availability (nitrogen and phosphorus); altered patterns of soil water drainage; and vehicle tracks. The general ecosystem characteristics chosen to provide integrative measures of the possible ecological effects include annual primary production and the relative aboveground growth of the different species or growth forms comprising the vegetation. Plant growth forms are defined by height, leaf longevity, position of the perennating bud, and rooting pattern. The growth forms and species selected are: erect deciduous shrubs (Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, Salix pulchra); erect evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre); prostrate evergreen shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea); tussock graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum); rhizomatous graminoid (Carex bigelowii, Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum angustifolium); forb (Artemisia arctica); grass (Calamagrostis or Arctagrostis); cushion moss (Dicranum sp.); Sphagnum sp.; and Polytrichum commune. Progress is reported in field and laboratory studies. The main conclusion of the research is that species respond individually in terms of nutrient and total nonstructural carbohydrates accumulation to fertilization, and that the growth forms studied are not distinctive from each other on the basis of plant nutrition or growth. The explicit mechanism for integrating and guiding this research and for extrapolating the existing data base to make quantitative predictions of the effects of perturbations is a simulation model of arctic tundra vegetation and soil processes called ARTUS (Arctic Tundra Simulator). (JGB)

  2. The Essential Role of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) in Regulating Pro-Inflammatory Responses and the Progression of Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keqiang Chen; Pablo Iribarren; Wanghua Gong; Ji-Ming Wang

    2005-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are proteins coupled to a variety of cell surface receptors and play a key role in signal transduction cascade regulating fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, proliferation, and survival. PI3Ks also are important in disease processes such as inflammation and cancer. The aim of this review is to outline current understandings of the PI3K family, mechanism of their activation, their role in inflammatory responses and the development of malignant tumors.

  3. 昆虫天然免疫反应分子机制研究进展%Progress in the molecular mechanisms of the innate immune responses in insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明明; 初源; 赵章武; 安春菊

    2012-01-01

    Insects lack acquired immune system processed by vertebrates, and rely solely on developed innate immune system to defend against the infection from alien pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, or virus and so on. In this article, we review the progress in the molecular mechanisms of the development and action of the innate immune responses in insects, especially focusing on the roles and functioning mechanisms of some important immune-related molecules. The innate immune response in insects is divided into humoral immunity and cellular immunity. They function together to kill and eliminate the pathogens via phagocytosis, nodulation, encapsulation, coagulation, and melanization. When the insects are infected by the alien pathogens, the pattern recognition proteins/receptor (PRPs) in insects would firstly recognize and combine with pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) in the pathogens, and then initiate the activation and regulation of a series of innate immune response containing immune-related serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors, and finally trigger the production of the immune effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides, melanin and so on, to kill the alien pathogens. The antimicrobial peptides are a kind of cationic peptides with low molecular weight, and have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are produced via various mechanisms based on the types of invading pathogens. There are two signal transduction pathways regulating the production of antimicrobial peptides: Toll pathway activated by fungi and most of gram-positive bacteria, and Imd pathway initiated by gram-negative bacteria. These two pathways are contributed to the expression of different antimicrobial peptides due to the activation of different transcription factors%昆虫体内缺乏高等脊椎动物所具有的获得性免疫系统,只能依赖发达的天然免疫系统抵抗细菌、真菌、病毒等外源病原物的侵染.本文概括了昆虫天然免疫反应发

  4. Project Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Morgan, Ph.D., D.Sc.

    2006-09-11

    The proposed study investigates the effect of low dose and low dose rate radiation exposure (X-rays) on induced genomic instability and the adaptive response, including the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena. The proposed studies will utilize human cell lines containing a stably integrated plasmid that can be caused by certain kinds of mutational insults to recombine to express the green fluorescent proteins, GFP. The study will use this cell line with the fluorescent plasmid recombination reporter system in a direct study of the effects of 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 100 and 500 rads acute X-irradiation and the same doses delivered by protraction at 1 rad or 0.01 rad per minute. This system will be used to provide a quantitative measure of the kinetics of genomic instability in colonies of cells exposed to low dose/dose rate, as well as to examine the adaptive response. The study will also apply micro array technology to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying induced instability and adaptive effects.

  5. Final Progress Report for the activity called AMO2010 committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Shapero; Michael Moloney

    2006-12-31

    The committee was charged to produce a comprehensive report on the status of AMO Science. The committee was charged to produce a report that: 1. Reviewed the field of AMO science, emphasize recent accomplishments, and identify new opportunities and compelling scientific questions; 2. Identified the impact of AMO science on other scientific fields, emerging technologies, and national needs; 3. Identified future workforce, societal and educational needs for AMO science; and 4. Made recommendations on how the US research enterprise might realize the full potential of AMO science. The committee also produced an intermediate report addressing key research issues and themes facing the research community.

  6. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium - Final Progress Report October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, Arden L.

    2001-10-23

    The basic mission of the Consortium was to advance the science and understanding of high-T{sub c} superconductivity and to promote the development of new materials and improved processing technology. Focused group efforts were the key element of the research program. One program area is the understanding of the layered structures involved in candidate materials and the factors that control their formation, stability and relationship superconductor properties. The other program area had a focus upon factors that limit or control the transport properties such as weak links, flux lattice behavior, and interfaces. Interactions among Consortium d with industrial armiates were an integral part of the program.

  7. A Center for Excellence in Mathematical Sciences Final Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-18

    Rimas Norvaisa And Gennady Samorodnitsky 31 Pages i 93-7 Examples Of Simply-Connected Liouville Manifolds With Positive Spectrum Itai Benjamini And...Andrei Gabrielov 14 Pages I I 23 I I 93-61 Heat Kernel Bounds On Riemannian Manifolds Itai Benjamini, Isaac Chavel And Edgar Feldman * 11 Pages 93-62 Heat...Kernel Lower Bounds On Riemannian Manifolds Using The Old Ideas Of Nash Itai Benjamini, Isaac Chavel And Edgar A. Feldman 35 Pages 93-63 Systems Of

  8. Fourth international workshop on human chromosome 5. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 5 was held in Manchester, UK on November 9--10, 1996 and was hosted by the University of Manchester. The major goals of the workshop were: (1) to collate the various genetic, cytogenetic and physical maps of human chromosome 5; (2) to integrate these maps and identify/correct discrepancies between them wherever possible; (3) to catalogue the sequence-ready contigs of the chromosome; (4) to co-ordinate the various sequencing efforts to avoid future duplication; (5) to establish the first (to the author`s knowledge) web site for the human chromosome 5 community which contains the above information in a readily accessible form.

  9. Final Progress Report: Internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Ryan Q. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-10

    Originally I was tasked fluidized bed modeling, however, I changed projects. While still working with ANSYS Fluent, I performed a study of particle tracks in glove boxes. This is useful from a Health-Physics perspective, dealing respirable particles that can be hazardous to the human body. I iteratively tested different amounts of turbulent particles in a steady-state flow. The goal of this testing was to discover how Fluent handles built-in Rosin-Rammler distributions for particle injections. I worked on the health physics flow problems and distribution analysis under the direction of two mentors, Bruce Letellier and Dave Decroix. I set up and ran particle injection calculations using Fluent. I tried different combinations of input parameters to produce sets of 500,000, 1 million, and 1.5 million particles to determine what a good test case would be for future experiments. I performed a variety of tasks in my work as an Undergraduate Student Intern at LANL this summer, and learned how to use a powerful CFD application in addition to expanding my skills in MATLAB. I enjoyed my work at LANL and hope to be able to use the experience here to further my career in the future working in a security-conscious environment. My mentors provided guidance and help with all of my projects and I am grateful for the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. Final Progress Report for Grant Number DE-SC0007229

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert [Xavier Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-08-18

    We exploited a novel spectrophotometer where the cuvette is a reflecting cavity completely filled with an absorbing suspension of live, intact bacteria to monitor the in situ absorbance changes in bacteria as they respired aerobically on soluble ferrous ions. Our prior observations suggested the following hypothesis: acidophilic bacteria that belong to different phyla express different types of electron transfer proteins to respire on extracellular iron. We tested this hypothesis using six different organisms that represented each of the six phyla of microorganisms that respire aerobically on iron. Each of these six organisms expressed spectrally different biomolecules that were redox-active during aerobic respiration on iron. In all six cases, compelling kinetic evidence was collected to indicate that the biomolecules in question were obligatory intermediates in their respective respiratory chains. Additional experiments with intact Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans revealed that the crowded electron transport proteins in this organism’s periplasm constituted a semi-conducting medium where the network of protein interactions functioned in a concerted fashion as a single ensemble. Thus the molecular oxygen-dependent oxidation of the multi-center respiratory chain occurred with a single macroscopic rate constant, regardless of the proteins’ individual redox potentials or their putative positions in the aerobic iron respiratory chain.

  11. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  12. Identification of mutations in cystatin B, the gene responsible for the Unverricht-Lundborg type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalioti, M.D.; Mirotsou, M.; Rossier, C. [Univ. Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by severe, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. The EPM1 locus was mapped to within 0.3 cM from PFKL in chromosome 21q22.3. The gene for the proteinase inhibitor cystatin B was recently localized in the EPM1 critical region, and mutations were identified in two EPM1 families. We have identified six nucleotide changes in the cystatin B gene of non-Finnish EPM1 families from northern Africa and Europe. The 426G{r_arrow}C change in exon 1 results in a Gly4Arg substitution and is the first missense mutation described that is associated with EPM1. Molecular modeling predicts that this substitution severely affects the contact of cystatin B with papain. Mutations in the invariant AG dinucleotides of the acceptor sites of introns 1 and 2 probably result in abnormal splicing. A deletion of two nucleotides in exon 3 produces a frameshift and truncates the protein. Therefore, these four mutations are all predicted to impair the production of functional protein. These mutations were found in 7 of the 29 unrelated EPM1 patients analyzed, in homozygosity in 1, and in heterozygosity in the others. The remaining two sequence changes, 431G{r_arrow}T and 2575A{r_arrow}G, probably represent polymorphic variants. In addition, a tandem repeat in the 5{prime} UTR (CCCCGCCCCGCG) is present two or three times in normal alleles. It is peculiar that in the majority of patients no mutations exist within the exons and splice sites of the cystatin B gene. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 氯吡格雷反应性差异的分子机制研究进展%Progress in Molecular Mechanisms of Clopidogrel Response Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈劲松

    2011-01-01

    Clinical observation shows that some patients cannot benefit from clopidogrel. Researches on such reaponse variability of clopidogrel highlight gene polymorphisms and drug interaction with clopidogrel,including gene polymorphisms associated with the process of metabolism and action of clopidogrel. ABCB1 is associated with the absorption of clopidogrel, CYP2C19 , CYP3A4 , and CYP3A5 are associated with the biological transformation of clopidogrel, and P2Y12 is mainly associated with the function site of clopidogrel. In thia article we summarize some recent studies and views to reflect the progress of study in these gene polymorphisms.%临床观察到有一部分患者不能从氯吡格雷治疗中获益,从而提出氯吡格雷反应性差异的问题.目前研究主要集中在基因多态性和药物的相互作用上,关于氯吡格雷反应差异的基因多态性研究可根据氯吡格雷在人体内代谢、作用过程分为吸收环节(ABCB1)、转化环节(CYP2C19、CYP3A4、CYP3A5)、作用位点环节(P2Y12)等.现就以上几个环节的最新的研究成果予以综述,力求反映相关研究的趋势与方向.

  14. 碳水化合物反应元件结合蛋白的研究进展%Research Progress on Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧; 付茂忠; 潘志雄; 王继文; 易军; 王淮; 易礼胜; 邓由飞; 甘佳; 俄木曲者

    2013-01-01

    Glycolipid metabolism is the foundation of the energy sources of normal growth and development in human and animals,directly affects the animal lipid traits,therefore it has become the breakthrough point of cultivating high quality livestock and poultry breed. Carbohydrate response element binding protein(ChREBP) plays an important role in regulation of animal glycolipid metabolism in recent years,especially in major site of glycolipid metabolism-liver. In this review,the author summarised the structure characteristics,tissue distributions,mechanism of glucose-responsive,biological functions,gene expression regulation of ChREBP,and it might provide theoretical basis for following research.%糖脂代谢是人和动物正常生长发育的能源基础,这将直接影响着动物的脂质性状,因此糖脂代谢目前已经成为培育优质畜禽品种的切入点.近年来,发现碳水化合物反应元件结合蛋白(carbohydrate response element binding protein,ChREBP)在调控动物糖脂代谢中具有重要的作用,特别在糖脂代谢的主要场所——肝脏中对糖脂代谢发挥着关键作用.作者就ChREBP的结构特征、组织分布、葡萄糖应答机制、生物学功能、表达调控等方面作一综述,以期为今后的研究提供理论依据.

  15. Prevalence and clinical relevance of occult hepatitis B in the fibrosis progression and antiviral response to INF therapy in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguno, Montserrat; Larrousse, Maria; Blanco, José Luis; Leon, Agathe; Milinkovic, Ana; Martínez-Rebozler, Maria; Loncá, Montserrat; Martinez, Esteban; Sanchez-Tapias, Jose Maria; de Lazzari, Elisa; Gatell, José Maria; Costa, Josep; Mallolas, Josep

    2008-04-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is diagnosed when HBc antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV DNA are detectable in serum while hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is not. This situation has been frequently described in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients and its clinical relevance in liver histology and viral response after interferon therapy for HCV. A total of 238 HIV-HCV-infected patients,negative for HBsAg, were included. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of HBV DNA and HBcAb.HBV DNA quantification was determined with the Cobas TaqMan HBV Test (detection limit 6 IU/ml). Data from liver biopsy and laboratory tests were also analyzed. HBcAb resulted in 142 (60%) patients, being the independent associated factors: male gender, previous history of intravenous drug use, age, CD4 count,and HAV antibody presence. Among 90 HBcAb patients that we could analyze, HBV DNA was positive in 15 (16.7% of occult hepatitis B infection in this group, and 6.3% in the whole HIV-HCV cohort studied). No baseline factors, liver histology, or HCV therapy response were related to the presence of HBV DNA. We found that occult hepatitis B is a frequent condition present in at least 6.3% of our HCV-HIV patients and in more than 16% of those with HBcAb. Despite the high prevalence, this phenomenon does not seem to affect the clinical evolution of chronic hepatitis C or modify the viral response to interferon-based HCV therapies

  16. MicroRNA Profile in CD8+ T-Lymphocytes from HIV-Infected Individuals: Relationship with Antiviral Immune Response and Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Egaña-Gorroño

    Full Text Available The relationship between host microRNAs (miRNA, viral control and immune response has not yet been elucidated in the field of HIV. The aim of this study was to assess the differential miRNA profile in CD8+ T-cells between HIV-infected individuals who differ in terms of viral replication control and immune response.miRNA profile from resting and CD3/CD28-stimulated CD8+ T-cells from uninfected individuals (HIV-, n = 11, Elite Controllers (EC, n = 15, Viremic Controllers (VC, n = 15, Viremic Progressors (VP, n = 13 and HIV-infected patients on therapy (ART, n = 14 was assessed using Affymetrix miRNA 3.1 arrays. After background correction, quantile normalization and median polish summarization, normalized data were fit to a linear model. The analysis comprised: resting samples between groups; stimulated samples between groups; and stimulated versus resting samples within each group. Enrichment analyses of the putative target genes were perfomed using bioinformatic algorithms.A downregulated miRNA pattern was observed when resting samples from all infected groups were compared to HIV-. A miRNA downregulation was also observed when stimulated samples from EC, ART and HIV- groups were compared to VP, being hsa-miR-4492 the most downregulated. Although a preferential miRNA downregulation was observed when stimulated samples were compared to the respective resting samples, VP presented a differential miRNA expression pattern. In fact, hsa-miR-155 and hsa-miR-181a were downregulated in VP whereas in the other groups, either an upregulation or no differences were observed after stimulation, respectively. Overall, functional enrichment analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were involved in signal transduction pathways, metabolic regulation, apoptosis, and immune response.Resting CD8+ T-cells do not exhibit a differential miRNA expression between HIV-infected individuals but they do differ from non-infected individuals. Moreover, a specific mi

  17. Research Progress of Redox and Unfolded Protein Response%氧化还原状态与非折叠蛋白的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海秀

    2016-01-01

    在许多生理过程中,细胞内的氧化还原状态(Redox)与非折叠蛋白反应(Unfolded protein response UPR)对于细胞的生存和死亡有着重要的意义.本文探讨了UPR的氧化还原机制,其中包括蛋白质二硫键异构酶与ER应激的直接相互作用,Redox与钙离子外流,细胞的氧化还原能力与UPR信号通路.

  18. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  19. Research progress in medicinal plants response to climate change%药用植物对气候变化响应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萌; 张子龙

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change is a growing problem, it also affects the growth and development of medicinal plants largely, and people pay more and more attention to the research of medicinal plants response to climate change.This paper summarized the response of growth of medicinal plants, photosynthesis, effective components etc to climate change phenomenon which can be included elevated CO2 , temperature rises, drought, ozone stress, UV-B radiation and N deposition, and gived suggestions for direction and emphasis of the future research.%全球气候变化问题日益突出,其对药用植物的生长发育也产生了巨大影响,因此,药用植物对气候变化响应的研究越来越受到人们的重视。总结了药用植物生长、光合作用及有效成分积累等对CO2浓度升高、增温、干旱、臭氧胁迫、紫外线辐射增强以及氮沉降等气候变化现象的响应,并对今后的研究方向和研究重点给出建议。

  20. Final report for the 'Melt-Vessel Interactions' Project. European Union R and TD Program 4th Framework. MVI project final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Green, J.; Kolb, G.; Karbojian, A.; Theerthan, S.A.; Gubaidulline, A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety; Helle, M.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Bonnet, J.M.; Rouge, S.; Narcoux, M.; Liegeois, A. [CEA - Grenoble (France); Turland, B.D.; Dobson, G.P. [AEA Technology plc, Dorchester (United Kingdom); Siccama, A. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands); Ikonen, K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Parozzi, F. [ENEL - SRI/PAM/GRA, Segrate, MI (Italy); Kolev, N. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Caira, M. [Univ. of Roma (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The Melt Vessel Interaction (MVI) project is concerned with the consequences of the interactions that a core melt, generated during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor, may have with the pressure vessel. In particular, the issues concerned with the failure of the vessel bottom head are the focus of the research. The specific objectives of the project are to obtain data and develop validated models, which could be applied to prototypic plants, and accident conditions, for resolution of issues related to the melt vessel interactions. The project work has been performed by nine partners having varied responsibility. The work included a large number of experiments, with simulant materials, whose observations and results are employed, respectively, to understand the physical mechanisms and to develop validated models. Applications to the prototypic geometry and conditions have also been performed. This report is volume 1 of the Final Report for the Project, in which a summary of the progress achieved in the experimental program is provided. We have, however, included some aspects of the modeling activities. Volume 2 of the Final report describes the progress achieved in the modeling program. The progress achieved in the experimental and modeling parts of the Project has led to the resolution of some of the issues of melt vessel interaction. Considerable progress was also achieved towards resolution of the remaining issues.

  1. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  2. 植物对水淹胁迫响应的研究进展%Research Progress in Plant Responses to Waterlogging Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鹏华; 曾其伟; 商敬哲; 马赑; 向仲怀; 何宁佳

    2013-01-01

    水淹胁迫指植物处于周期或长期厌氧或缺氧环境下,其有氧呼吸和维持生命活动所需能量产生受到限制,是植物常遭受的非生物胁迫之一.为适应水淹胁迫环境,植物体一方面感知能量、胞质pH、内源激素等变化而形成一系列形态、生理适应性特征;另一方面,通过体内产生的乙烯响应因子(ethylene response factors,ERFs)感应低氧信号并启动低氧相关基因的表达以调节抵抗能力.本文就近年来对植物体响应水淹胁迫的适应性特征及感应信号通路的研究进展进行简要阐述,旨在为研究桑树耐涝机制提供借鉴.%Waterlogging stress is one of the abiotic stresses frequently occurring to plants. Under such condition, plants are in the state of cyclic or long-term hypoxia or anoxia which limits aerobic respiration and energy supply to maintain living activities. In order to adapt to waterlogging stress, plants form a series of adaptive features in morphology and physiology to sense changes of energy supply, cytoplasmic pH and endogenous hormones etc. Besides, the plants sense hypoxic signal through ethylene response factors (ERFs) and initiate expressions of hypoxia-response genes and thus to regulate resistance to waterlogging. This paper summarized recent research advances in adaptive features and signaling pathway of the plants under waterlogging stress so as to provide references for studying mulberry resistance against waterlogging.

  3. Inspired Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  4. Research Progress in Magnetic Responsive Shape Memory Polymer Composite%磁场响应形状记忆聚合物复合材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 张香兰; 王一龙; 马永梅; 曹新宇; 王佛松

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic responsive shape memory polymer(SMP) composite(MSC) is usually prepared by adding magnetic particles into SMP matrix. The principle of MSC response to magnetic field is that the magnetic particles in the alternating magnetic field generate heat, and the SMP matrix is heated and phase transition occurs, thus the shape recovery of MSC can be induced. The effects of SMP, magnetic field, and magnetic particle size, type and content on the magnetic responsive properties of MSC were summarized. The research progress and potential applications of MSC were reviewed.%磁场响应形状记忆聚合物(SMP)复合材料(MSC)是以SMP为基体树脂、磁性粒子为填料的一类复合材料.MSC的磁场响应原理:磁性粒子在交变磁场下产生热量,SMP因受热而产生相转变,从而实现了材料的形状回复.概述了SMP种类、外加磁场和磁性粒子对MSC磁场响应性的影响,重点阐述了磁性粒子的粒径、种类及其含量对MSC磁场响应性的影响.概括了MSC的研究现状和进展,展望了其应用前景.

  5. Research progress on high temperature stress response in fruit trees%果树高温逆境应答反应的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查倩; 蒋爱丽; 王世平; 奚晓军; 田益华

    2015-01-01

    This article summarized the response of fruit trees to high temperature stress,such as:high tem-perature stress damaged leaf tissue structure of fruit tree and affected the physiological and biochemical changes of photosynthetic efficiency,cell membrane function,antioxidant system balance and soluble sugar content of fruit trees;Hormone,signal material and phosphorylation signal pathway also responded to high temperature stress;Genes and proteins associated with high temperature stress response expressed in high temperature stress.In ad-dition,there was a close relationship among light stress,salt stress,oxidative stress,drought stress and high tem-perature stress.%综述了高温逆境下果树的应答反应,具体表现在:高温逆境伤害果树叶片组织结构;影响果树的光合效率、细胞膜功能、抗氧化系统平衡和可溶性糖含量等生理生化变化;激素、信号物质和磷酸化信号通路也会应答高温逆境;与高温逆境相关的基因和蛋白在高温逆境下应答表达。此外,高温逆境与光胁迫、盐胁迫、氧化胁迫和干旱胁迫也存在密切关系。

  6. 环境响应型控制释放微载体材料研究新进展%Recent Progress in Development of Microcarrier Materials for Environmental-Responsive Controlled Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨晓洁; 谢锐; 褚良银

    2012-01-01

    环境响应型智能微载体材料可以响应温度、pH值、磁场、化学物质等环境刺激的微小变化,实现物质的自律式控制释放,在药物送达、酶和细胞固定化、分离纯化等领域显示出突出的优越性,具有广泛应用前景。综述了环境响应型控制释放微载体材料的研究进展,介绍了“开一关模式”控释微囊和“突释模式”控释微囊等环境响应型控释微载体材料的研究新进展,着重介绍了温度响应型、血糖浓度响应型、离子识别响应型“开一关模式”控释微囊以及温度响应型、pH响应型、离子识别响应型“突释模式”控释微囊的制备与性能方面的研究新成果。目前,环境响应型智能微载体材料仍多处于基础研究阶段,还需要进一步系统深入研究和开发完善。%Environmental stimuli-responsive smart mierocarrier materials, which can realize self-regulated controlled-release in response to the change of temperature, pH, magnetic field and special chemicals in external environment, exhibit excellent superiorities in various fields, such as drug delivery, immobilization of enzyme and cells, and separation and purification of chemicals. The progress in development of environmental stimuli-responsive smart microcarrier materials are reviewed, in which the smart gating microcapsules for controlled-release and smart microcapsules for controlled burst-release are introduced. Especially, the thermo-responsive, glucose-responsive and ion-recognition smart gating microcapsules for controlled-release as well as the thermo-responsive, pH-responsive and ion-recognition smart microcapsules for burst-release are introduced and reviewed systematically. At present, environmental stimuli-responsive smart microcarrier materials are still in the basic research stage and need intensive study and further development.

  7. HIV感染者中B细胞免疫应答的研究进展%Progress of B lymphocyte responses among HIV-infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万海; 徐建青; 张晓燕

    2011-01-01

    HIV disease is associated with abnormalities in all major lymphocyte populations, including B cells, which ultimately results in severe exhaustion of several lymphocyte functions and increased susceptibility to secondary and opportunistic infections. Among these cells, B lymphocytes are severely damaged and show signs of phenotypic and functional alterations. In parallel to the polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia,B cells from patients show impaired reactivity to immunisation and poorly inducible antibody responses. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of B-cell abnormalities in HIV disease can potentially lead to new strategies for improving antibody responses against opportunistic pathogens that afflict HIV-infected individuals and against HIV itself, in the context of both HIV infection and an antibody-based HIV vaccine.%HIV感染引起了免疫系统慢性持续的活化而造成免疫细胞哑群的异常及其功能的耗竭(包括B淋巴细胞),使得宿主二次感染和机会性感染的易感性增加.B细胞的异常不仅出现在其表型及亚群上,更体现在功能的改变.伴随着B细胞的多克隆活化和高免疫球蛋白血症的出现,B细胞还表现出了对外源抗原无反应性及产生抗体的异常等功能缺陷方面的特征.对此,深入了解HIV感染过程中B细胞异常的致病机制,以期为今后通过改善HIV患者的体液反应来预防其机会感染的发生并为以抗体为基础的HIV疫苗研究策略提供有益的参考.

  8. CtrA response regulator binding to the Caulobacter chromosome replication origin is required during nutrient and antibiotic stress as well as during cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, D Patrick; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2009-04-01

    The Caulobacter crescentus chromosome replication origin (Cori) has five binding sites for CtrA, an OmpR/PhoB family 'response regulator'. CtrA is degraded in replicating 'stalked' cells but is abundant in the non-replicating 'swarmer' cells, where it was proposed to repress replication by binding to Cori. We systematically mutated all Cori CtrA binding sites, and examined their consequences in the contexts of autonomous Cori-plasmid replication and in the natural chromosome locus. Remarkably, the C. crescentus chromosome tolerates severe mutations in all five CtrA binding sites, demonstrating that CtrA is not essential for replication. Further physiological and cell cycle experiments more rigorously supported the original hypothesis that CtrA represses replication. However, our experiments argued against another hypothesis that residual and/or replenished CtrA protein in stalked cells might prevent extra or unscheduled chromosome replication before cell division. Surprisingly, we also demonstrated that Cori CtrA binding sites are very advantageous and can become essential when cells encounter nutrients and antibiotics. Therefore, the CtrA cell cycle regulator co-ordinates replication with viable cell growth in stressful and rapidly changing environments. We argue that this new role for CtrA provided the primary selective pressure for evolving control by CtrA.

  9. Research progress of SIRT1 in suppressing inflammatory response%SIRT1抑制炎症反应的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲柳(综述); 仇丽鸿(审校)

    2013-01-01

    SIRT1,a histone deacetylase which belongs to the sirtuin family,is expressed in most human cells. SIRT1 plays a vital role in glucolipid metabolism and aging. There are emerging results indicating that SIRT1 can inhibit the in-flammatory responses via suppressing several signaling pathways. In this review we outline recent research advances on the biological characteristics of SIRT1,its anti-inflammatory effects and its inhibition to downstream signaling pathway.%SIRT1是在人类细胞中广泛存在的一种Sirtuin家族的组蛋白去乙酰化酶,参与了糖脂代谢、衰老等众多生理功能的调节。近年来的研究发现,在炎症反应中,SIRT1能够通过抑制多条细胞信号通路发挥抗炎作用。本文就SIRT1的生物学特性、抗炎作用及SIRT1对下游炎症信号通路的抑制作用等做一综述。

  10. Ultrasound clinical progress monitoring: Who, where and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gill

    2015-11-01

    Prior to assessment of final ultrasound clinical competency it is important to monitor clinical progress, provide high quality feedback and encourage skills development. The role of the supervisor, mentor and assessor are fundamental to the on-going progress monitoring of ultrasound trainees. This article forms the second part of a larger project which was to elicit ultrasound practitioners' opinions on how progress should be monitored, where and by whom. An on-line questionnaire was used to gain opinions from ultrasound practitioners. Totally, 116 responses were received from professionals with an interest in ultrasound assessment. Results suggested that experienced, qualified ultrasound practitioners should undertake the role of supervisor and assessor, having been prepared for that role by the training centre. Formative monitoring should take place both within the clinical department and possibly the training centre, using a range of methods. Following completion of the training, practitioners should have a preceptorship period to consolidate their knowledge and skills for 3 to 6 months or until further competencies have been demonstrated. Formative progress monitoring should be a recognised part of ultrasound training. Essentially, staff undertaking supervision and assessor roles should be supported and trained to ensure a high quality, consistent learning experience for ultrasound trainees. Additionally, they should provide appropriate feedback to the trainee and education centre.

  11. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the ex...

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  13. Pleiotropic effects of spongean alkaloids on mechanisms of cell death, cell cycle progression and DNA damage response (DDR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreier, Fabian; Kassel, Stefanie; Schumacher, Lena; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Proksch, Peter; Fritz, Gerhard

    2015-05-28

    We investigated cytotoxic mechanisms evoked by the spongean alkaloids aaptamine (Aa) and aeroplysinin-1 (Ap), applied alone and in combination with daunorubicin, employing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Aa and Ap reduced the viability of AML cells in a dose dependent manner with IC50 of 10-20 µM. Ap triggered apoptotic cell death more efficiently than Aa. Both alkaloids increased the protein level of S139-phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), which however was independent of the induction of DNA damage. Expression of the senescence markers p21 and p16 was increased, while the phosphorylation level of p-Chk-2 was reduced following Aa treatment. As a function of dose, Aa and Ap protected or sensitized AML cells against daunorubicin. Protection by Aa was paralleled by reduced formation of ROS and lower level of DNA damage. Both Aa and Ap attenuated daunorubicin-stimulated activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) as reflected on the levels of γH2AX, p-Kap-1 and p-Chk-1. Specifically Ap restored the decrease in S10 phosphorylation of histone H3 resulting from daunorubicin treatment. The cytoprotective effects of Aa and Ap were independent of daunorubicin import/export. Both Aa and Ap abrogated daunorubicin-induced accumulation of cells in S-phase. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was specific for Ap. The data show that Aa and Ap have both congruent and agent-specific pleiotropic effects that are preferential for anticancer drugs. Since Ap showed a broader spectrum of anticancer activities, this compound is suggested as novel lead compound for forthcoming in vivo studies elucidating the usefulness of spongean alkaloids in AML therapy.

  14. 刺激响应性聚合物的设计、合成及其应用研究新进展%New progress in the design,synthesis and application of stimuli responsive polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩丽; 康晓明; 孙静; 魏柳荷; 马志

    2015-01-01

    介绍了研究刺激响应性聚合物的意义,针对水体系中的刺激响应性聚合物,介绍了近年来刺激响应性聚合物的设计与合成中的应用研究新进展,主要从3个方面进行阐述:①单一刺激响应性聚合物,包括温度、pH值、光、其他刺激响应性聚合物;②双重刺激响应性聚合物,包括温度-pH值、温度-光、温度-氧化还原刺激响应聚合物、pH值-氧化还原刺激响应聚合物;③多重刺激响应性聚合物,包括温度-光-pH值、温度-光-氧化还原、温度-pH 值-CO2刺激响应聚合物。着重评述了水体系中双重和多重刺激响应性聚合物的合成研究及应用。最后总结了多重刺激响应性聚合物应用研究的现状及问题,指出开发刺激响应性高度可控、灵敏度高、可逆性好的新型多重刺激响应性聚合物是未来的研究方向。%This review first describes the general significance of the study on stimuli-responsive polymers. Then the latest research progress in the design,synthesis and application of stimuli-responsive polymers in aqueous solution is reviewed. Three kinds of stimuli-responsive polymers are introduced:①single stimuli-responsive polymers:temperature,pH,light and other single stimuli-responsive polymers.②dual stimuli-responsive polymers:temperature/pH, temperature/light and temperature/redox stimuli-responsive polymers.③multiple stimuli-responsive polymers:temperature/light/pH,temperature/light/redox and temperature/pH/CO2 stimuli-responsive polymers. In addition,the dual and multiple stimuli-responsive polymers are intensively reviewed. At last,the current situation and problems of multiple stimuli-responsive polymers are summarized,and the development of multiple stimulus responsive polymers with high sensitivity,high sensitivity and good reversikility will be the future development directions.

  15. Learning numerical progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  17. Progress in pH-Responsive Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents%pH响应的磁共振成像造影剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓明; 唐建斌; 隋梅花; 申有青

    2012-01-01

    pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are able to not only increase the sensitivity of disease detection by specifically enhancing the MRI of pathologic tissues, but also assist disease diagnosis by measuring altered pH in diseased tissues. In this paper, the mechanism, classification, structures, applications and progress of pH-responsive contrast agents were reviewed.%pH响应的磁共振成像(MRI)造影剂不仅能够对病变部位进行特异性增强成像,提高MRI检测疾病的灵敏度,而且可通过检测病变组织中的pH变化,为疾病的诊断提供依据。本文综述了pH响应的MRI造影剂的研究进展,介绍了其pH响应机理、种类与结构及应用,并对它的发展前景做了展望。

  18. Species- and dose-specific pancreatic responses and progression in single- and repeat-dose studies with GI181771X: a novel cholecystokinin 1 receptor agonist in mice, rats, and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, James R; Romach, Elizabeth H; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2014-01-01

    Compound-induced pancreatic injury is a serious liability in preclinical toxicity studies. However, its relevance to humans should be cautiously evaluated because of interspecies variations. To highlight such variations, we evaluated the species- and dose-specific pancreatic responses and progression caused by GI181771X, a novel cholecystokinin 1 receptor agonist investigated by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of obesity. Acute (up to 2,000 mg/kg GI181771X, as single dose) and repeat-dose studies in mice and/or rats (0.25-250 mg/kg/day for 7 days to 26 weeks) showed wide-ranging morphological changes in the pancreas that were dose and duration dependent, including necrotizing pancreatitis, acinar cell hypertrophy/atrophy, zymogen degranulation, focal acinar cell hyperplasia, and interstitial inflammation. In contrast to rodents, pancreatic changes were not observed in cynomolgus monkeys given GI181771X (1-500 mg/kg/day with higher systemic exposure than rats) for up to 52 weeks. Similarly, no GI181771X treatment-associated abnormalities in pancreatic structure were noted in a 24-week clinical trial with obese patients (body mass index >30 or >27 kg/m(2)) as assessed by abdominal ultrasound or by magnetic resonance imaging. Mechanisms for interspecies variations in the pancreatic response to CCK among rodents, monkeys, and humans and their relevance to human risk are discussed.

  19. 干旱区对降水变化响应的研究进展%Progress in the Study on Response of Arid Zones to Precipitation Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅娟; 吴波; 卢琦

    2012-01-01

    precipitation could also increase the river runoff, lake storage and promote the occurrence of flood, while the decrease of precipitation has the adverse effect. These studies will benefit the prediction of the possible response of ecosystem processes to the potential change of precipitation pattern in arid zones in the future, and it is important to the conservation of natural vegetation and the control of desertification. More field experiments and studies should be conducted in the future, including the effect of increased precipitation or temperature, nitrogen deposition and CO2 on soil, vegetation, desertification and hydrology of arid zones, so as the more persuasive results could be obtained from these experiments and studies.

  20. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  1. Fundamentals of ROC analysis and its recent progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Hiroshi (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering); Shimura, Kazuo; Shiraishi, Junji; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Yamashita, Kazuya

    1993-09-01

    This professional committee's report describes the results of the activities made by the Task Group for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Analysis in Digital Radiography (DR) in 1992. Beginning with interpreting the basis of ROC analysis, explanation is made of ROC curve fitting and ROC curve's statistically significant difference test. Next, explanation is made of localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) with the development from FROC to alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC), as well as 'continuous confidence method' (provisional designation) as the recent progress in ROC analysis, including its brief experimental results. Finally, report is made in the actual condition of ROC analysis in DR system and the investigational results of ROC analysis of CAD. (author).

  2. Relationship of bronchodilator response with oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold in children with asthma: the effect of body composition and progressive aerobic activity in an environment with low humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samera Puyan majd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily complications. The purpose of the present study was to relationship bronchodilator response (BDR with oxygen pulse (OP and ventilatory threshold (VT in asthma children with various body compositions during progressive aerobic activities. Material and Methods: 25 obese children (BMI>25 and %fat>30with asthma(10 subjects, and healthy children (15 subjects  and 25 lean children(BMI<20 and %fat<20 with asthma(13 subjects, and healthy children (7 subjects performed an exercise protocol in a constant temperature environment 2 ± 22 ° C and humidity (5 ± 35%. During exercise, the steady-state levels of cardio-respiratory parameters were measured using gas analyzer (K4B2. Results: The results showed that after a progressive aerobic activity, values peak oxygen consumption(vo2peak ​​, bronchodilator(BDR, oxygen pulse(OP and ventilatory threshold(VT  in lean and obese asthmatic children were lower than in healthy lean and obese children. In addition, lean children with asthma had lower VT and higher VO2peak , OP and BDR values​​, as compared obese asthmatic children. Between BDR and VT in lean and obese asthmatic children an inverse relationship between BDR and OP and a direct link to asthma in obese children and obese asthmatic children, there was a negative relationship non-significant. Conclusion: Compared with lean children, asthma, obesity as an additional load will affect lung function and increase the pressure on childhood asthma. Therefore, we can accept that obesity may limit performance of exercise in childhood asthma.

  3. [Research programs in radiotherapy]. DOE final report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    Results which have not yet been published in detail are reported here on the following associated studies: Progress in the area of macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy; Progress in biologic activation with radioimmunoconjugate therapy: Association of molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Progress in genetically engineered Lym-1 single chain molecules; Progress in analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response; Progress on development and validation of planar imaging for therapy planning systems; Progress in development of a 3-D treatment planning system using SPECT; Progress in development of methods to evaluate enhancement of tumor penetration in a murine model; and Progress in clinical applications.

  4. ASEDRA Evaluation Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Detwiler, Dr. Rebecca; Sjoden, Dr, Glenn E.

    2008-09-01

    The performance of the Advanced Synthetically Enhanced Detector Resolution Algorithm (ASEDRA) was evaluated by performing a blind test of 29 sets of gamma-ray spectra that were provided by DNDO. ASEDRA is a post-processing algorithm developed at the Florida Institute of Nuclear Detection and Security at the University of Florida (UF/FINDS) that extracts char-acteristic peaks in gamma-ray spectra. The QuickID algorithm, also developed at UF/FINDS, was then used to identify nuclides based on the characteristic peaks generated by ASEDRA that are inferred from the spectra. The ASEDRA/QuickID analysis results were evaluated with respect to the performance of the DHSIsotopeID algorithm, which is a mature analysis tool that is part of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Data that were used for the blind test were intended to be challenging, and the radiation sources included thick shields around the radioactive materials as well as cargo containing naturally occurring radio-active materials, which masked emission from special nuclear materials and industrial isotopes. Evaluation of the analysis results with respect to the ground truth information (which was provided after the analyses were finalized) showed that neither ASEDRA/QuickID nor GADRAS could identify all of the radiation sources correctly. Overall, the purpose of this effort was primarily to evaluate ASEDRA, and GADRAS was used as a standard against which ASEDRA was compared. Although GADRAS was somewhat more accurate on average, the performance of ASEDRA exceeded that of GADRAS for some of the unknowns. The fact that GADRAS also failed to identify many of the radiation sources attests to the difficulty of analyzing the blind-test data that were used as a basis for the evaluation. This evaluation identified strengths and weaknesses of the two analysis approaches. The importance of good calibration data was also clear because the performance of both analysis methods was impeded by the

  5. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  6. Research progress of indoor plant response mechanisms of formaldehyde pollution stress%室内植物受甲醛污染胁迫响应机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 闫红梅; 冯兰东; 赵洁; 刘功生; 赵学明

    2014-01-01

    甲醛是室内化学污染的三大隐形杀手之一,严重危害着人们的身心健康。室内植物对甲醛具有很强的吸收净化能力,植物生态修复技术已成为重要的室内甲醛污染的修复手段,而植物的响应机制对其能否进行稳定的生态修复有着关键性作用。文章主要阐述了植物响应机制的内涵,对室内植物受甲醛污染胁迫的响应机制主要是植物的耐性机制和植物吸收净化机制方面的研究进展进行了综述,分析了目前研究中所存在的问题,对其应用前景做出了展望。%Formaldehyde has become one of the three invisible killers of indoor chemical pollution, which does harm to people's physical and mental health seriously.Indoor plants have strong absorption and purification ability to formaldehyde,so the indoor plants ecological restoration technology has become the important means to treat indoor formaldehyde pollution,and the plant response mechanism plays a key role in stable ecological restoration.The paper expounds the connotation of plant response mechanism,reviews the research progress of indoor plant response mechanisms of formaldehyde pollution stress from two aspects of the response of plant tolerance mechanism and plant absorption and purification mechanism after being stressed by formaldehyde pollution,points out the shortcomings existing in the present research,and makes a prospect for indoor plant response mechanisms of formaldehyde pollution stress.

  7. Trends and Progress on Attributions and Responsibility of Global Climate Change%中国关于气候变化归因和责任的研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶鸥; 丑洁明; 董文杰

    2013-01-01

    首先对2000~2011年中国关于气候变化归因和责任研究的相关文献进行分类统计,归纳总结了中国最近十余年的研究进展,在此基础上,对于现阶段研究及存在的问题进行了初步讨论.提出我国在气候变化归因与责任领域研究的基本框架和大体趋势已经确立,“气候变化原因”研究,应在强化多方全面研究和改进研究工具的同时,注重人为原因的探究,将人为原因的探究作为今后研究的重点方向;气候变化责任的研究,应在坚持“共同但有区别责任”立场的前提下,寻求更有力的技术支持,特别是需要构建“全球有序应对气候变化”的研究体系,开展更为全面的地球系统科学模拟研究.%First of all, a mass of documents which are relevant to the attribution and responsibility of climate change from 2001 to 2010 are analyzed and classified in this paper. Based on the summary of research progress in the last 10 years in China, we make a preliminary discussion on the problems at present, and put forward the basic framework and the general trend of rearches about the attributions and responsibilities of climate change. It shows that the research on attribution of climate change should enhance multi comprehensive studies and improve research tools, meanwhile, it should also pay altention to the man - made causes. The researches about the responsibility of climate change should provide more effective technic supports on the premise of adhering to the common but differentiated responsibilities, especially, we should focus on constructing the research system of response to climate change orderly on a global scale and carrying out more comprehensive simulation study of earth system science.

  8. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (summer solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the outer layers of Saturn's atmosphere, and the mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo, telling us: why the

  9. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J. R.; Tillett, D. M.; Suen, Y.; Hubbard, J.; Tornabene, T. G.

    1986-02-01

    This final report details progress during the third year of this subcontract. The overall objective of this subcontract was two fold: to provide the analytical capability required for selecting microalgae strains with high energy contents and to develop fundamental knowledge required for optimizing the energy yield from microalgae cultures. The progress made towards these objectives during this year is detailed in this report.

  10. A progress report on progress files

    OpenAIRE

    East, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In order to facilitate personal development planning (PDP), the UK higher education sector is committed to introducing progress files. This article explores the experience of one institution in seeking to establish a system of progress files. It identifies the main practical problems in doing this, highlighting the lack of agreement on the skills that higher education students are expected to acqui...

  11. Predictors of disease progression in HIV infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananworanich Jintanat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the extended clinically latent period associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection the virus itself is far from latent. This phase of infection generally comes to an end with the development of symptomatic illness. Understanding the factors affecting disease progression can aid treatment commencement and therapeutic monitoring decisions. An example of this is the clear utility of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-RNA for disease stage and progression assessment. Elements of the immune response such as the diversity of HIV-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte responses and cell-surface CD38 expression correlate significantly with the control of viral replication. However, the relationship between soluble markers of immune activation and disease progression remains inconclusive. In patients on treatment, sustained virological rebound to >10 000 copies/mL is associated with poor clinical outcome. However, the same is not true of transient elevations of HIV RNA (blips. Another virological factor, drug resistance, is becoming a growing problem around the globe and monitoring must play a part in the surveillance and control of the epidemic worldwide. The links between chemokine receptor tropism and rate of disease progression remain uncertain and the clinical utility of monitoring viral strain is yet to be determined. The large number of confounding factors has made investigation of the roles of race and viral subtype difficult, and further research is needed to elucidate their significance. Host factors such as age, HLA and CYP polymorphisms and psychosocial factors remain important, though often unalterable, predictors of disease progression. Although gender and mode of transmission have a lesser role in disease progression, they may impact other markers such as viral load. Finally, readily measurable markers of disease such as total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin, body mass index and delayed type hypersensitivity may come into favour

  12. Par-4特异诱导肿瘤凋亡及其机制的研究新进展%New research progresses on the prostate apoptosis response protein-4 for apoptosis induction cancer and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴随一; 胡波; 王梁华

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response gene-4(par-4)was first identified from the prostate tissue.This gene can express in both normal and cancer cells.The translation product of par-4 is prostate apoptosis response protein-4 ( Par-4 ) , which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected through intracellular and extracellular pathway.Par-4 is cleaved and phosphorylated by caspase3 and PKA; Par-4 transportsFas/FasL tocell membrane and activation of pro-apoptotic pathway;intracellular Par-4 transports GPR78 to cell membrane;extracellular Par-4 binds to GRP78 and activates it.There is a significant potential role in anti-tumors therapy of extracellular Par-4.The latest research progress on the mechanism of apoptosis induced by Par-4 and the treatment of exogenous Par-4 in tumor was discussed in this article.%前列腺凋亡反应基因-4(prostate apoptosis response gene-4,par-4)基因是最早在前列腺癌细胞中发现,这个基因在正常细胞和肿瘤细胞中均可表达,其编码产物前列腺凋亡蛋白-( prostate apoptosis response protein,Par-4)可通过内源性和外源性途径选择性的诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡,而对正常细胞没有影响。 Par-4发挥作用可包括内源性Par-4裂解和磷酸化、内源性Par-4转运Fas/FasL并激活Fas/FasL促凋亡通路、及外源性的Par-4和细胞膜上的GPR78结合诱导细胞凋亡等过程。特别是Par-4的外源性途径在肿瘤的靶向治疗中有很重要的应用价值。本文就Par-4诱导凋亡机制及外源性Par-4在肿瘤治疗方面的最新研究进展进行综述。

  13. Progressive multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid induces inflammatory demyelination, axonal loss, and astrogliosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanilli, Massimiliano; Rosenthal, Hannah; Cymring, Barbara; Gratch, Daniel; Pagano, Benjamin; Xie, Boxun; Sadiq, Saud A

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration throughout the CNS, which lead over time to a condition of irreversible functional decline known as progressive MS. Currently, there are no satisfactory treatments for this condition because the mechanisms that underlie disease progression are not well understood. This is partly due to the lack of a specific animal model that represents progressive MS. We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived from untreated primary progressive (PPMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), and relapsing/remitting (RRMS) MS patients into mice. We found discrete inflammatory demyelinating lesions containing macrophages, B cell and T cell infiltrates in the brains of animals injected with CSF from patients with progressive MS. These lesions were rarely found in animals injected with RRMS-CSF and never in those treated with control-CSF. Animals that developed brain lesions also presented extensive inflammation in their spinal cord. However, discrete spinal cord lesions were rare and only seen in animals injected with PPMS-CSF. Axonal loss and astrogliosis were seen within the lesions following the initial demyelination. In addition, Th17 cell activity was enhanced in the CNS and in lymph nodes of progressive MS-CSF injected animals compared to controls. Furthermore, CSF derived from MS patients who were clinically stable following therapy had greatly diminished capacity to induce CNS lesions in mice. Finally, we provided evidence suggesting that differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines present in the progressive MS CSF might be involved in the observed mouse pathology. Our data suggests that the agent(s) responsible for the demyelination and neurodegeneration characteristic of progressive MS is present in patient CSF and is amenable to further characterization in experimental models of the disease.

  14. Research progress on immune response of macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis%巨噬细胞与结核分枝杆菌的免疫反应的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何愉胜; 杜先智

    2010-01-01

    Macrophage is the main host cell of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the body. Cellmediated immune response is the main immune protection mechanism in the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Macrophage kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis through phagocytosis, lysosome fusion,presenting antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, producing a variety of cytokines, reactive oxygen intermediates and reactive nitrogen intermediates, apoptosis and many other ways. Meanwhile,Mycobacterium tuberculosis can take a variety of ways to escape the immune function of macrophages.This article reviews the research progress on immune response of macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.%巨噬细胞是结核分枝杆菌在机体内的主要宿主细胞.细胞介导的免疫反应是机体抗结核分枝杆菌的主要免疫保护机制,巨噬细胞可通过吞噬、溶酶体融合,提呈结核分枝杆菌抗原,产生多种细胞因子、反应氧中间产物和反应氮中间产物,以及细胞凋亡等多种途径来杀灭结核分枝杆菌;同时,结核分枝杆菌也可采取各种方式来逃逸巨噬细胞的免疫作用.本文就巨噬细胞与结核分枝杆菌的免疫反应的研究进展作一综述.

  15. The association of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with response rate, progression free survival and overall survival of patients treated with sunitinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizman, Daniel; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Huang, Peng; Eisenberger, Mario A; Pili, Roberto; Hammers, Hans; Carducci, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Sunitinib is a standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation, is associated with outcome in several cancer types. To study the association of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with response rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated with sunitinib for mRCC. We retrospectively studied an unselected cohort of patients with mRCC, who were treated with sunitinib. Logistic regression model was used to analyse response rate. Cox regression models were fitted to identify risk factors associated with PFS and OS. We investigated how pre-treatment NLR is associated with these clinical outcomes after adjusting for confounding covariates. Regression tree for censored data method was used to find the best NLR cut-off value. Between 2004 and 2011, 133 patients with mRCC were treated with sunitinib. One hundred and nine were included in the NLR analysis, from which were excluded patients without available data on pre-treatment NLR or with comorbidities/recent treatments known to be associated with a change of blood counts. Factors associated with PFS were low NLR ≤ 3 (HR = 0.285, p HR = 0.38, p = 0.035), sunitinib dose reduction/treatment interruption (HR = 0.6, p = 0.014) and the use of antiotensin system inhibitors (HR = 0.537, p = 0.008). Low NLR ≤ 3 was associated with OS (HR = 0.3, p = 0.043). In patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, pre-treatment NLR may be associated with PFS and OS. This should be investigated prospectively, and if validated applied in clinical practice and clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  17. Type 2 Diabetes–Associated Missense Polymorphisms KCNJ11 E23K and ABCC8 A1369S Influence Progression to Diabetes and Response to Interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Jose C.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Franks, Paul W.; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard F.; Knowler, William C.; Nathan, David M.; Altshuler, David

    2008-01-01

    The common polymorphisms KCNJ11 E23K and ABCC8 A1369S have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether these variants are also associated with progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to diabetes and responses to preventive interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program. We genotyped both variants in 3,534 participants and performed Cox regression analysis using genotype, intervention, and their interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence over ~3 years. We also assessed the effect of genotype on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity at 1 year. As previously shown in other studies, lysine carriers at KCNJ11 E23K had reduced insulin secretion at baseline; however, they were less likely to develop diabetes than E/E homozygotes. Lysine carriers were less protected by 1-year metformin treatment than E/E homozygotes (P < 0.02). Results for ABCC8 A1369S were essentially identical to those for KCNJ11 E23K. We conclude that the lysine variant in KCNJ11 E23K leads to diminished insulin secretion in individuals with IGT. Given our contrasting results compared with case-control analyses, we hypothesize that its effect on diabetes risk may occur before the IGT-to-diabetes transition. We further hypothesize that the diabetes-preventive effect of metformin may interact with the impact of these variants on insulin regulation. Diabetes 56: 531–536, 2007 PMID:17259403

  18. Progress of German climate change policies until 2020. Report of the German Government for the assessment of projected progress in accordance with the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol - reporting in compliance to article 3(2) EU Directive 280/2004. Final report; Wirksamkeit des Klimaschutzes in Deutschland bis 2020. Bericht der Bundesregierung zur Bewertung des voraussichtlichen Fortschritts der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2007 gemaess Umsetzung des Kyoto-Protokolls - Berichterstattung nach Artikel 3 Absatz 2 der EU-Richtlinie 280/2004. Endfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Christoph; Kuhnhenn, Kai; Maue, Georg; Mayr, Sebastian (comps.)

    2008-03-15

    The report of the German Government on the projected progress in accordance with the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol with respect ton the progress of German climate policy until 2020 covers the following chapters: comparison of the scenarios without and with measures: description of the measures and instruments implemented in Germany and quantification of their efficacy (energy management, industry, commerce, trade, private households, traffic, agriculture, forestry); scenario with further measures: description of possible further measures and instruments for climate protection and quantification of their expected impacts; institutional measures and instrument concerning the Kyoto protocol; measures for participation in flexible mechanisms.

  19. Progress of research on the response of information of karst cave drip water to ground conditions%喀斯特洞穴滴水信息对地表环境响应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琦; 熊康宁; 吕小溪; 张乾柱; 付超凡

    2015-01-01

    By reviewing domestic and foreign research progress on the response of information of karst cave drip water to ground conditions,coupled with the research background of global climate change,karst envi-ronmental evolution and drip water's physical and chemical indicators,this paper divides the history of this research into three stages:initial stage,slow development stage and rapid growth stage.This paper also sys-tematically summarizes the research results and understandings of drip water's regular monitoring indicators, stable isotopes,major elements,trace elements,and so on.Meanwhile,it concluded the research progress of drip water's response to atmosphere,vegetation,soil and bedrock.It is suggested that the material re-source and the hydro-geochemical process of drip water should be explored,the research for drip's sensitivity to indicate environment should be enhanced,the environment response mechanism of drip's information should be deeply probed and comprehensive environment elements of cave systems should be monitored.It is also pointed out that the research on the rocky desertification by drip water's indicators remains relatively weak now,which should be the focused topic in the future.%通过系统回顾国内外喀斯特洞穴滴水信息对地表环境响应的研究进展,结合全球气候变化、喀斯特环境演变与滴水理化指标的研究发展背景,把该领域的研究发展历程划分为萌芽期、缓慢发展期和高速增长期3个阶段。对滴水常规监测指标、稳定同位素及常/微量元素等指标的研究成果与认识进行了系统归纳,并对滴水响应外界大气、地表植被、洞穴上覆土壤以及洞顶基岩等4方面的研究进展进行总结。认为应当探究滴水的物质来源及其水文地球化学过程,加强对滴水信息环境指示的敏感性研究,深入认识滴水信息的环境响应机制,对洞穴系统综合环境要素开展监测等,同时指出运用滴水

  20. Hacia la Realizacion de la Autoestima. Informe Definitivo del Comite Estatal en Pro de la Autoestima y de la Responsabilidad Personal y Social (Toward a State of Esteem. Final Report of the State Committee to Promote Self-Esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This is the Spanish version of the final report of a California Task Force created to promote self-esteem and personal responsibility. It begins with an executive summary listing key principles of the task force and providing recommendations and discussions in each of six major areas upon which the report focuses. The next section presents the…

  1. Advancement of gamma-spectroscopic measuring systems of BfS and adaptation of measuring and evaluation techniques to the requirements of emergency response. Final report; Weiterentwicklung der aero-gammaspektrometrischen Messsysteme des BfS und Anpassung der Mess- und Auswerteverfahren an die Anforderungen des Notfallschutzes. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Rainer; Mameghani, Raphael; Stuchels, Regina; Hummel, Lothar (comps.)

    2015-08-15

    The final report on advancement of gamma-spectroscopic measuring systems of BfS and adaptation of measuring and evaluation techniques to the requirements of emergency response covers the following issues: results of literature search, calculation of geometric factors, calibration for the helicopter, combination of geometric factors and calibration, measuring flights, detection limit and performance optimization, identification of activities in the air volume.

  2. Hacia la Realizacion de la Autoestima. Informe Definitivo del Comite Estatal en Pro de la Autoestima y de la Responsabilidad Personal y Social (Toward a State of Esteem. Final Report of the State Committee to Promote Self-Esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This is the Spanish version of the final report of a California Task Force created to promote self-esteem and personal responsibility. It begins with an executive summary listing key principles of the task force and providing recommendations and discussions in each of six major areas upon which the report focuses. The next section presents the…

  3. Summer Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidi, Nitou

    2012-01-01

    The summer of 2012 has been filled with many memorable events and activities. As an intern, I had responsibilities that had to be fulfilled. My tour of duty was completed as an administrative student trainee in the Information Technology and Communications Services Business Office (IT-A). In accordance with the Business Objectives and Agreement of the Business Office and my performance plan, I was to provide business office support, improve business, project management, and technical work processes. With this being stated, I supported a project called "The Big Move Project" (TBMP), which will take course over the next several years. The Big Move Project is the planning of the Information Technology (IT) Directorate's relocation to various buildings in the course of upcoming years, when designs and the building of Central Campus have been completed. Working directly with my supervisor and the project manager, I was responsible for gathering both administrative and operational area requirements for the Information Technology (IT) Directorate, along with its outsourced support and contractors, such as IMCS, NICS, and ACES. My first action was to create rubrics that will serve as a guideline for the information that should be given by each branch of IT. After receiving that information via a few KAITS actions, I was able to start the consolidation process, and begin working on a presentation. A SharePoint was created shortly after for others to view the progression of the project, which I managed. During the consolidation ofthis information, I would occasionally present to the IT Deputy Director and IT Chiefs. The draft of this presentation was shown to employees of Center Operations (T A) and stakeholders-IT Chief Officers and contractor managers-in the relocation of IT to make them aware of what requirements must be met that will enable IT to be accommodated appropriately in the design of Central Campus Phase 11-the time in which IT and its contractors are scheduled

  4. Sustaining the Productivity and Function of Intensively Managed Forests - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A.; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2001-03-23

    The main goal of this study is to ensure sustainable management of wetland forests in the southeastern United States. The study is projected to measure soil, hydrology, and forest responses to several management scenarios across a complete forest cycle. From August 1997 to August 2000 the study has received funding as one of the Agenda 2020 projects, from the U.S. Department of Energy (Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC07-97ID13551), the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, and Westvac Corporation. Quarterly progress reports were submitted regularly to the Department and all project participants. This final report summarizes the project results and progress achieved during this 3-year period. Over the past three years all research objectives planned for this project were completed.

  5. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  6. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  7. Aurora final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Dross; Amedeo, Conti

    2013-12-06

    Final Technical report detailing the work done by Nuvera and its partners to fulfill the goals of the program "Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks" (a.k.a. AURORA)

  8. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  9. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  10. Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a

  11. Cassini's Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Altobelli, N.

    2016-12-01

    After more than 12 years in Saturn orbit, the Cassini-Huygens mission has entered its final year of data collection. Cassini will return its final bits of unique data on 15 September 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Since early 2016 Cassini's orbital inclination was slowly increased towards its final inclination. In November Cassini transitioned to a series of 20 orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring that include some of the closest flybys of the tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. Cassini's final close flyby of Titan will propel it across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale begins in April 2017 and is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. It will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles' composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on Saturn's interior structure and mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo and the true rotation rate of Saturn's interior. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer will sniff the exosphere and upper atmosphere and examine water-based molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer will sample particle composition from different parts of the main rings. Recent science highlights and science objectives from Cassini's final orbits will be discussed. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  12. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  13. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers.

  14. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  15. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  16. Report of wildlife management study: Progress report no. 2: Canada goose response and use of a variety of habitat types and habitat conditions on the Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress on this multi-year wildlife management study has involved data gather in accordance with three of the five steps identified in the Wildlife Management Study...

  17. Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Analysis Including Distributed Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Osama Ahmed; Imam Zubair Syed; Khattab Rania

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity in nonlinear analytical models used to assess the potential for progressive collapse of steel framed regular building structures. Emphasis on this paper is on the deformation response under the notionally removed column, in a typical Alternate Path (AP) method. The AP method employed in this paper is based on the provisions of the Unified Facilities Criteria – Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, develop...

  18. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  19. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre......OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients...

  20. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Chris [Altamont Environmental, Inc.

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  2. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Weber; R. Carter; C.J. Stanford; A. Weber

    2003-01-01

    textabstract[MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at

  3. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; Carter, R.; Stanford, C.J.; Weber, A.

    2003-01-01

    [MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at the European C

  4. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  5. Progression i musikundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbæk, Annelise

    Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning......Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning...

  6. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  7. The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David C; Robertson, Harold A; Shaw, Christopher A; Kay, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the olfactory bulb, then

  8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, Walter David [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-08-27

    This report describes the research carried out under this grant for the period from 1997 to 2014. This work has been previously described in annual progress reports and renewal applications. As a result of this project, ~100 papers were published in open refereed journals and 107 invited talks were given by the PI. The research subjects covered by this project included the synthesis and characterization of super-heavy nuclei, the critical study of the reaction mechanisms used in these synthesis reactions, the mechanism(s) of intermediate energy and relativistic nuclear collisions, the study of reactions induced by radioactive nuclear beams, and general properties of the heaviest elements.

  9. Progress in polymer solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LiGui; LU GuangHao; YANG XiaoNiu; ZHOU EnLe

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines current progresses in polymer solar cell. Compared to traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, the completely different principle of optoelectric response in the polymer cell results in a novel configuration of the device and more complicated photovoltaic generation process. The conception of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) is introduced and its advantage in terms of morphology is addressed. The main aspects including the morphology of photoactive layer, which limit the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cell, are discussed in detail. The solutions to boosting up both the efficiency and stability (lifetime) of the polymer solar cell are highlighted at the end of this review.

  10. Final report on Weeks Island Monitoring Phase : 1999 through 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2005-05-01

    This Final Report on the Monitoring Phase of the former Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facility details the results of five years of monitoring of various surface accessible quantities at the decommissioned facility. The Weeks Island mine was authorized by the State of Louisiana as a Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage facility from 1979 until decommissioning of the facility in 1999. Discovery of a sinkhole over the facility in 1992 with freshwater inflow to the facility threatened the integrity of the oil storage and led to the decision to remove the oil, fill the chambers with brine, and decommission the facility. Thereafter, a monitoring phase, by agreement between the Department of Energy and the State, addressed facility stability and environmental concerns. Monitoring of the surface ground water and the brine of the underground chambers from the East Fill Hole produced no evidence of hydrocarbon contamination, which suggests that any unrecovered oil remaining in the underground chambers has been contained. Ever diminishing progression of the initial major sinkhole, and a subsequent minor sinkhole, with time was verification of the response of sinkholes to filling of the facility with brine. Brine filling of the facility ostensively eliminates any further growth or new formation from freshwater inflow. Continued monitoring of sinkhole response, together with continued surface surveillance for environmental problems, confirmed the intended results of brine pressurization. Surface subsidence measurements over the mine continued throughout the monitoring phase. And finally, the outward flow of brine was monitored as a measure of the creep closure of the mine chambers. Results of each of these monitoring activities are presented, with their correlation toward assuring the stability and environmental security of the decommissioned facility. The results suggest that the decommissioning was successful and no contamination of the

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: molecular pathways of hepatitis viruses-induced hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Concetta; Saracino, Chiara; Pazienza, Valerio

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common tumor and the third cause of death for cancer in the world. Among the main causative agents of this tumor is the chronic infection by hepatitis viruses B and C, which establish a context of chronic inflammation degenerating in fibrosis, cirrhosis, and, finally, cancer. Recent findings, however, indicate that hepatitis viruses are not only responsible for cancer onset but also for its progression towards metastasis. Indeed, they are able to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process of cellular reprogramming underlying tumor spread. In this manuscript, we review the currently known molecular mechanisms by which hepatitis viruses induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and, thus, hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  13. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  14. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  15. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  16. Catarse e Final Feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ávila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: É a certeza de que nada mais – ou nada importante – pode acontecer após o final de um conto que permite o acontecimento da catarse. Se na maioria das narrativas existe algum tipo de dénouement, em algumas delas isso acontece de maneira especialmente satisfatória e afirmativa. O conto de fadas é uma dessas formas narrativas onde o efeito catártico é extremo e preenche objetivos específicos, de acordo com Bruno Bettelheim. Hollywood mimetizou essa forma como estratégia de sedução, iniciando a tradição do final feliz no cinema. A partir do conto de fadas Cinderela, em diferentes versões, juntamente com a animação homônima da Disney e ainda duas versões do filme Sabrina, será traçada aqui uma relação entre a catarse e o final feliz nos contos de fada, bem como seu uso pela indústria cultural. Palavras-chave: catarse, contos de fada, Hollywood

  17. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  18. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders P.;

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact ...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way.......Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...

  19. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  20. Physicians’ progress notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...