WorldWideScience

Sample records for respondents contracted hunters

  1. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  2. Report: Policies Needed for Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Based on Duncan Hunter Act

    Report #12-P-0320, March 6, 2012. EPA did not comply with several key revisions to the FAR as amended by the interim rule, Proper Use and Management of Cost Reimbursement Contracts (FAR Case 2008-030).

  3. Vulnerable Hunter

    Md.Asha Begum; Y.VishnuPriya; V.ManoranjanBabu; ,O.Srinivasu

    2016-01-01

    This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps c...

  4. Pilot evaluation of the use of contract towing and first responder strategies in the Virginia Department of Transportation's Staunton District.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the contract towing and first responder pilot projects in the Virginia Department of Transportations : Staunton District. The evaluation included before and after studies of incident duration and comparisons of clearance time....

  5. Teaching Hunter Responsibility.

    Crume, Charles T.; Lang, George M.

    This guide provides volunteer hunter-education instructors with background information on subjects related to hunter education. A major goal of hunter education is to develop an environmental ethic among outdoorsmen, based on a deeper understanding of the natural world. Chapter 1 clarifies terms frequently used within the broad context of outdoor…

  6. Hunters' motivations and values:

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...

  7. One job, one deal . . . or not : Do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  8. HISTORICAL NOTE JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON) John Hunter FRS ...

    JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON). John Hunter FRS (13 February 1728-16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was the husband of Anne Hunter, a teacher, friend and ...

  9. Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners and the general public

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined wildlife value orientations among hunters (n = 1,130) and landowners (n = 1,207) in comparison to the general public (n = 1,001 adults) in Denmark, a highly urbanized European country. Respondents were categorized into four value types based on their responses to 19 statements....... Significant differences in wildlife value orientations were found. Mutualists and distanced dominated in the public; most landowners and hunters were utilitarian followed by pluralist. Male hunters were more utilitarian than female. More active hunters were more utilitarian; hunters belonging to a hunting...... association were more utilitarian than those who did not belong to associations. Full-time farmers were more utilitarian than part-time farmers, and conventional farmers were more utilitarian than organic farmers. No significant difference with regard to residence for all three groups was found. Future...

  10. The Higgs hunter's guide

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  11. How Accountable Care Organizations Responded to Pediatric Incentives in the Alternative Quality Contract.

    Chien, Alyna T; Schiavoni, Katherine H; Sprecher, Eli; Landon, Bruce E; McNeil, Barbara J; Chernew, Michael E; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    From 2009 to 2010, 12 accountable care organizations (ACOs) entered into the alternative quality contract (AQC), BlueCross BlueShield of Massachusetts's global payment arrangement. The AQC included 6 outpatient pediatric quality measures among 64 total measures tied to pay-for-performance bonuses and incorporated pediatric populations in their global budgets. We characterized the pediatric infrastructure of these adult-oriented ACOs and obtained leaders' perspectives on their ACOs' response to pediatric incentives. We used Massachusetts Health Quality Partners and American Hospital Association Survey data to characterize ACOs' pediatric infrastructure as extremely limited, basic, and substantial on the basis of the extent of pediatric primary care, outpatient specialist, and inpatient services. After ACOs had 16 to 43 months of experience with the AQC, we interviewed 22 leaders to gain insight into how organizations made changes to improve pediatric care quality, tried to reduce pediatric spending, and addressed care for children with special health care needs. ACOs' pediatric infrastructure ranged from extremely limited (eg, no general pediatricians in their primary care workforce) to substantial (eg, 42% of workforce was general pediatricians). Most leaders reported intensifying their pediatric quality improvement efforts and witnessing changes in quality metrics; most also investigated pediatric spending patterns but struggled to change patients' utilization patterns. All reported that the AQC did little to incentivize care for children with special health care needs and that future incentive programs should include this population. Although ACOs involved in the AQC were adult-oriented, most augmented their pediatric quality improvement and spending reduction efforts when faced with pediatric incentives. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hunters in the New Millennium

    Hansen, Hans Peter

    that hunting is a common source of conflict between different interests, only very few studies has been made to produce knowledge about people hunting for leisure. The survey “Hunters in the new millennium” is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of hunters and hunting in an increasing urbanized...

  13. Planet Hunters: Kepler by Eye

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, C.; Fischer, D.; Smith, A. M.; Boyajian, T. S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Lynn, S.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schmitt, J.; Simpson, R.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of online citizen science projects, uses the World Wide Web to enlist the general public to identify transits in the pubic Kepler light curves. Planet Hunters utilizes human pattern recognition to identify planet transits that may be missed by automated detection algorithms looking for periodic events. Referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’ or ‘citizen science’, the combined assessment of many non-expert human classifiers with minimal training can often equal or best that of a trained expert and in many cases outperform the best machine-learning algorithm. Visitors to the Planet Hunters' website are presented with a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler’s ~160,000 target stars and are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits in the web interface. 5-10 classifiers review each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 260,000 volunteers world wide have participated, contributing over 20 million classifications. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project’s more than 20 planet candidates, the discovery of PH1b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a quadruple star system, and the discovery of PH2-b, a confirmed Jupiter-sized planet in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. I will provide an overview of Planet Hunters, highlighting several of project's most recent exoplanet and astrophysical discoveries. Acknowledgements: MES was supported in part by a NSF AAPF under award AST-1003258 and a American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant. We acknowledge support from NASA ADAP12-0172 grant to PI Fischer.

  14. Danes - The keen bargain hunters

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2008-01-01

    New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product.......New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product....

  15. The hunter a scientific novel

    Genta, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th century: humankind has become a spacefaring civilization, colonizing the solar system and beyond. While no alien forms of life have yet been encountered in this expansion into space, colonists suddenly encounter machines of alien origin - huge robots able to reproduce themselves.  Called replicators by the colonists, they seem to have but a single goal: to destroy all organic life they come in contact with. Since the colonial governments have no means to fight this menace directly, they instead promise huge rewards to whoever destroys a replicator. As a result, the frontier attracts a new kind of adventurers, the Hunters, who work to find and destroy the replicators. Mike Edwards, a skilled young maintenance technician and robotics expert at a faraway outpost, will not only become one of them - but be the very first one to unlock the secret behind the replicators’ origin and mission.   The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular space travel, robotics and self-replica...

  16. Drivers of change in hunter offtake and hunting strategies in Sendje, Equatorial Guinea.

    Gill, David J C; Fa, John E; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F

    2012-12-01

    Economic development in Africa is expected to increase levels of bushmeat hunting through rising demand for meat and improved transport infrastructure. However, few studies have tracked long-term changes in hunter behavior as a means of testing this prediction. We evaluated changes in hunter behavior in a rural community in Equatorial Guinea over a period of rapid national economic growth, during which time road access to the regional capital greatly improved. We conducted offtake surveys (Supporting Information) over 3 7-week periods at the same time of year in 1998, 2003, and 2010 and conducted hunter and household interviews (Supporting Information) in 2003 and 2010. We tested whether relations existed among catch, hunting effort, hunting strategy, and income earned through hunting and other livelihoods in 2003 and 2010. Although village offtake increased from 1775 kg in 1998 to 4172 kg in 2003, it decreased in 2010 to 1361 kg. Aggregate catch per unit effort (i.e., number of carcasses caught per hunter and per trap) decreased from 2003 to 2010, and the majority of hunters reported a decrease in abundance of local fauna. Although these results are indicative of unsustainable hunting, cumulative changes in offtake and catch per unit effort were driven by a contraction in the total area hunted following an out-migration of 29 of the village's hunters, most of whom left to gain employment in the construction industry, after 2003. Hunters operating in both 2003 and 2010 hunted closer to the village because an increased abundance of elephants posed a danger and because they desired to earn income through other activities. Our study provides an example of national economic development contributing to a reduction in the intensity and extent of hunting. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  18. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  19. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    A psychological/ritual model of criticism is used to examine the movie "The Deer Hunter" as a rhetorical event in which males undergo psychological change through their war and postwar experiences. The critical model depends on understanding a Jungian interpretation of the human psyche, the form and function of initiation rituals, and…

  20. PALEOLITHIC HUNTER-GATHERERS' DIETARY PATTERNS ...

    Dr. Al-Domi

    the main aspects of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers' dietary patterns and its main long-term ... Hence, people in developing countries have been exposed to certain ... as food habits, which prompted possible negative impacts on health status leading to ... costs [5, 7]. .... Agricultural revolution with efficient production of grains,.

  1. Radium issues at Hunters Point Annex

    Dean, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radium was a common source of illumination used in numerous instruments and gauges for military equipment prior to 1970. As a result of its many military applications radium 226 is now a principle radionuclide of concern at military base closures sites throughout the United States. This is an overview of the site characterization strategy employed and a potential site remediation technology being considered at a radium contaminated landfill at Hunters Point Annex, a former U.S. Navy shipyard in San Francisco, California

  2. Injury and Illness Among Deer Hunters

    McRae, Shelagh M.

    1989-01-01

    General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

  3. Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity.

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A; Wood, Brian M; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Racette, Susan B; Marlowe, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    Western lifestyles differ markedly from those of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and these differences in diet and activity level are often implicated in the global obesity pandemic. However, few physiological data for hunter-gatherer populations are available to test these models of obesity. In this study, we used the doubly-labeled water method to measure total daily energy expenditure (kCal/day) in Hadza hunter-gatherers to test whether foragers expend more energy each day than their Western counterparts. As expected, physical activity level, PAL, was greater among Hadza foragers than among Westerners. Nonetheless, average daily energy expenditure of traditional Hadza foragers was no different than that of Westerners after controlling for body size. The metabolic cost of walking (kcal kg(-1) m(-1)) and resting (kcal kg(-1) s(-1)) were also similar among Hadza and Western groups. The similarity in metabolic rates across a broad range of cultures challenges current models of obesity suggesting that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy expenditure. We hypothesize that human daily energy expenditure may be an evolved physiological trait largely independent of cultural differences.

  4. Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity.

    Herman Pontzer

    Full Text Available Western lifestyles differ markedly from those of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and these differences in diet and activity level are often implicated in the global obesity pandemic. However, few physiological data for hunter-gatherer populations are available to test these models of obesity. In this study, we used the doubly-labeled water method to measure total daily energy expenditure (kCal/day in Hadza hunter-gatherers to test whether foragers expend more energy each day than their Western counterparts. As expected, physical activity level, PAL, was greater among Hadza foragers than among Westerners. Nonetheless, average daily energy expenditure of traditional Hadza foragers was no different than that of Westerners after controlling for body size. The metabolic cost of walking (kcal kg(-1 m(-1 and resting (kcal kg(-1 s(-1 were also similar among Hadza and Western groups. The similarity in metabolic rates across a broad range of cultures challenges current models of obesity suggesting that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy expenditure. We hypothesize that human daily energy expenditure may be an evolved physiological trait largely independent of cultural differences.

  5. Academics respond

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  6. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  7. Hunters syndrom og hørenedsaettelse

    Kiaer, Eva Kirkegaard; Møller, Troels Reinholdt; Wetke, Randi

    2010-01-01

    A 30 month-old boy with delayed language development was referred to the Department of Audiology in Aarhus. At the time of referral he had had 19 cases of acute otitis media and had been tubulated four times. Furthermore, the boy had not developed according to age in several respects: his motor...... functions and language were delayed, and he made audible respiratory sounds and was obviously nasally congested. The boy was referred for further investigations at the Department of Paediatrics. The tests showed that the boy suffered from Hunter Syndrome (MPSII) and he underwent relevant treatment....

  8. Undergraduate Planet Hunters: Tools and Results

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Carboneau, Lindsey; Ferrell, Laura; Green, Gilbert; Kaiser, Maya; Kreke, Kira; Lundy, Samantha; Merritt, William; Passino, Matlin; Paxton, Harrison; Podaril, Alexandria; Stansfield, Alexis

    2018-06-01

    One student "Honors Experience" option at Florida Gulf Coast University is a research experience, and we have developed a "Planet Hunters" course to provide an astronomical research track that satisfies that requirement. Students spend the first semester learning astronomical background and exoplanet detection techniques, while the second semester is primarily devoted to planet searches in K2 data using student-oriented software tools developed specifically for the task. In this poster, we illustrate those tools and show results obtained by class participants during this years experience.

  9. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements at the NPE and Hunter`s Trophy: A comparison

    Sweeney, J.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Sensors and recorders were deployed for both the Non-Proliferative Experiment (NPE) and Hunter`s Trophy to measure low-frequency (1-30 Hz) electric and magnetic fields accompanying the detonation. Two stations were used for each event, located at a slant range of about 500 m, with measurements of orthogonal horizontal electric field and orthogonal horizontal and vertical magnetic field. Signals were recorded digitally with at 200 Hz sampling rate. Separate magnetic and electric signals were recorded which can be related both to the detonation and the arrival of the shock wave. The detonation time signal from the nuclear explosion is a relatively short pulse occurring with no detectable delay (within 0.5 ms) ranging from 11-19 ms after the detonation time. The cause of the initial electromagnetic signal for both chemical and nuclear explosions is unknown; the differences between the NPE and Hunter`s Trophy results may be related to the different mechanisms involved with plasma generation between nuclear and chemical explosions.

  10. Radioactive caesium in hunters and their families

    Aagren, G; Bergman, R [Natonal Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Drottz-Sjoeberg, B M [Center for Risk Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Enander, A [National Defence Research Establishment, Karlstad (Sweden); Johansson, K J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    We have measured the whole-body content of radiocesium in men and women in households, where at least one member is a hunter. Hunter families live to a great extent on forest products, such as mushrooms, berries and meat from game. Measurements were performed in two areas in northern Sweden and in three areas in the middle part of Sweden with deposition levels between 7 to 80 kBq/m{sup 2}. The average whole body content of {sup 137}Cs varied between 0.3 to 1.9 kBq for women and 0.6 to 4.7 kBq for men, depending on the deposition level. Each individual in the measured group was also asked to fill in questionnaire and a food diary to provide complementary information of, e.g., food intake and other life conditions. The single dietary factor most clearly related to whole-body content in these groups is the intake of meat from moose. The best regression model with variables from the questionnaire explained 60% of the variance in the whole-body content of {sup 137}Cs in the measurement group. Some of the variables in this model were deposition level, sex, rate of intake and estimated consumption of moose meat and estimated amount of bilberries in the fridge. 6 refs, 5 figs, 14 tabs.

  11. Radioactive caesium in hunters and their families

    Aagren, G.; Bergman, R.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.; Enander, A.; Johansson, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    We have measured the whole-body content of radiocesium in men and women in households, where at least one member is a hunter. Hunter families live to a great extent on forest products, such as mushrooms, berries and meat from game. Measurements were performed in two areas in northern Sweden and in three areas in the middle part of Sweden with deposition levels between 7 to 80 kBq/m 2 . The average whole body content of 137 Cs varied between 0.3 to 1.9 kBq for women and 0.6 to 4.7 kBq for men, depending on the deposition level. Each individual in the measured group was also asked to fill in questionnaire and a food diary to provide complementary information of, e.g., food intake and other life conditions. The single dietary factor most clearly related to whole-body content in these groups is the intake of meat from moose. The best regression model with variables from the questionnaire explained 60% of the variance in the whole-body content of 137 Cs in the measurement group. Some of the variables in this model were deposition level, sex, rate of intake and estimated consumption of moose meat and estimated amount of bilberries in the fridge. 6 refs, 5 figs, 14 tabs

  12. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Roberto Giugliani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S, an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S (Elaprase®, Shire enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.

  13. Discrete choice modeling of season choice for Minnesota turkey hunters

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Merchant, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Recreational turkey hunting exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of modern wildlife management. Turkey populations in Minnesota have reached social or biological carrying capacities in many areas, and changes to turkey hunting regulations have been proposed by stakeholders and wildlife managers. This study employed discrete stated choice modeling to enhance understanding of turkey hunter preferences about regulatory alternatives. We distributed mail surveys to 2,500 resident turkey hunters. Results suggest that, compared to season structure and lotteries, additional permits and level of potential interference from other hunters most influenced hunter preferences for regulatory alternatives. Low hunter interference was preferred to moderate or high interference. A second permit issued only to unsuccessful hunters was preferred to no second permit or permits for all hunters. Results suggest that utility is not strictly defined by harvest or an individual's material gain but can involve preference for other outcomes that on the surface do not materially benefit an individual. Discrete stated choice modeling offers wildlife managers an effective way to assess constituent preferences related to new regulations before implementing them. 

  14. Improvements to the Hunter Dose tracking system

    Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Aucott, T. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-01

    Since 1965, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted deer hunts which are open to the general public. SRS performs field monitoring for cesium-137 (Cs-137) of each harvested animal to determine whether the animal may be released to the hunter. A new field system for measuring Cs-137 in the harvested animals has been developed. The system incorporates numerous enhancements compared to the original system. The original system was composed of two Ludlum Measurements scalar-driven 2 inch x 2 inch sodium iodide counters, while the new system is based on a single Ametek Ortec Digibase-driven 2 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch sodium iodide gamma spectrometer. The new system includes a series of easy-to-assemble stainless steel encapsulated lead shields. The combination of the larger detector size and lead shielding improved the detection limit of the new system by a factor of approximately three compared to the original system. This lower detection limit allows for a larger number of measurements to be directly compared to the laboratory results, in cases where animal portions have been sampled. The results from developing and using this system are presented as well as recommendations on improvements to the overall field monitoring of the SRS hunts.

  15. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists.

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Shaw, Peter; Thompson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that hunter-gatherer societies experience more frequent famine than societies with other modes of subsistence is pervasive in the literature on human evolution. This idea underpins, for example, the 'thrifty genotype hypothesis'. This hypothesis proposes that our hunter-gatherer ancestors were adapted to frequent famines, and that these once adaptive 'thrifty genotypes' are now responsible for the current obesity epidemic. The suggestion that hunter-gatherers are more prone to famine also underlies the widespread assumption that these societies live in marginal habitats. Despite the ubiquity of references to 'feast and famine' in the literature describing our hunter-gatherer ancestors, it has rarely been tested whether hunter-gatherers suffer from more famine than other societies. Here, we analyse famine frequency and severity in a large cross-cultural database, in order to explore relationships between subsistence and famine risk. This is the first study to report that, if we control for habitat quality, hunter-gatherers actually had significantly less--not more--famine than other subsistence modes. This finding challenges some of the assumptions underlying for models of the evolution of the human diet, as well as our understanding of the recent epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Síndrome de Hunter-Hurler

    Antonio B. Lefèvre

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Les deux cas de gargoylisme présentés ont appelé l'attention des auteurs et ont mérité leur publication vue la rareté de la maladie en question. Le diagnostic repose en un certain nombre de signes cliniques, lesquels, cependant, n'ont pas besoin d'être au complet pour que l'on puisse affermir le diagnostic du syndrome de Hunter-Hurler. C'est ce qui arrive, d'ailleurs, avec la majorité des maladies de caractère génétique, dans les-quelles il est possible de verifier la transmission de quelques traits seule-ment de Pensemble clinique, insuffisants pour caractériser la maladie sous tous ses aspects, mais suffisants pour permettre un diagnostic très sûr. Cas nº 1: les auteurs font ressortir la face caractéristique de la maladie, la petite taille, les doigts en griffe, les alterations très caractéristiques de forme des vertèbres lombaires et le retard psycho-moteur considérable; comme antécédents familiaux, il a été constaté qu'une cousine-germaine du côté paternel de la malade est morte à 1'âge de 12 ans d'une maladie semblable. Cas nº 2: ici ressortent la face caractéristique, la petite taille, le développement retardé, les altérations des vertèbres lombaires et, à l'examen oculaire, un aspect suggestif de l'opacité cornéenne considérée comme pathognomonique du gargoylisme. Aucun traitement a été tenté dans les deux cas.

  17. Wealth Transmission and Inequality Among Hunter-Gatherers

    Hill, Kim; Marlowe, Frank; Nolin, David; Wiessner, Polly; Gurven, Michael; Bowles, Samuel; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    We report quantitative estimates of intergenerational transmission and population-wide inequality for wealth measures in a set of hunter-gatherer populations. Wealth is defined broadly as factors that contribute to individual or household well-being, ranging from embodied forms such as weight and hunting success to material forms such household goods, as well as relational wealth in exchange partners. Intergenerational wealth transmission is low to moderate in these populations, but is still expected to have measurable influence on an individual’s life chances. Wealth inequality (measured with Gini coefficients) is moderate for most wealth types, matching what qualitative ethnographic research has generally indicated (if not the stereotype of hunter-gatherers as extreme egalitarians). We discuss some plausible mechanisms for these patterns, and suggest ways in which future research could resolve questions about the role of wealth in hunter-gatherer social and economic life. PMID:21151711

  18. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    2010-06-10

    ... resources, aquatic-life forms, and sport fishing; and (e) develop responsible attitudes and ethics toward..., Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... governing the Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter...

  19. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A.; Maillet, P.; Monzier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hunter 'fracture zone' is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle

  20. Planet Hunters 2 in the K2 Era

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fischer, Debra; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Ishikawa, Sascha; Lintott, Chris; Lynn, Stuart; Schmitt, Joseph; Snyder, Chris; Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) is an online citizen science project enlisting hundreds of thousands of people to search for planet transits in the publicly released Kepler data. Volunteers mark the locations of visible transits in a web interface, with multiple independent classifiers reviewing a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment. In September 2014, Planet Hunters entered a new phase. The project was relaunched with a brand new online classification interface and discussion tool built using the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) latest technology and web platform. The website has been optimized for the rapid discovery and identification of planet candidates in the light curves from K2, the two-wheeled ecliptic plane Kepler mission. We will give an overview of the new Planet Hunters classification interface and Round 2 review system in context of the K2 data. We will present the first results from the Planet Hunters 2 search of K2 Campaigns 0 and 1 including a summary of new planet candidates.

  1. perceptions and adaptations of beekeepers and honey hunters

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    honey sector (i.e. honey hunters) to climate change are, however, not adequately explored. The objective of .... The statistical software SPSS Version 16 was used for this purpose. ... content analysis is an effort of interpretation, that balances ... FORM. Discontinue. N o = 0 ; Yes = 1. ±. Creditavability. CRED. Discontinue. N.

  2. Banking contracts

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  3. Evaluation of PHI Hunter in Natural Language Processing Research.

    Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steve; Meystre, Stephane; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Bolton, Dan; Heavirland, Julia; Weaver, Allison Lynn; Hope, Carol; Garvin, Jennifer Hornung

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and evaluate a new, easily accessible tool using a common statistical analysis and business analytics software suite, SAS, which can be programmed to remove specific protected health information (PHI) from a text document. Removal of PHI is important because the quantity of text documents used for research with natural language processing (NLP) is increasing. When using existing data for research, an investigator must remove all PHI not needed for the research to comply with human subjects' right to privacy. This process is similar, but not identical, to de-identification of a given set of documents. PHI Hunter removes PHI from free-form text. It is a set of rules to identify and remove patterns in text. PHI Hunter was applied to 473 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) text documents randomly drawn from a research corpus stored as unstructured text in VA files. PHI Hunter performed well with PHI in the form of identification numbers such as Social Security numbers, phone numbers, and medical record numbers. The most commonly missed PHI items were names and locations. Incorrect removal of information occurred with text that looked like identification numbers. PHI Hunter fills a niche role that is related to but not equal to the role of de-identification tools. It gives research staff a tool to reasonably increase patient privacy. It performs well for highly sensitive PHI categories that are rarely used in research, but still shows possible areas for improvement. More development for patterns of text and linked demographic tables from electronic health records (EHRs) would improve the program so that more precise identifiable information can be removed. PHI Hunter is an accessible tool that can flexibly remove PHI not needed for research. If it can be tailored to the specific data set via linked demographic tables, its performance will improve in each new document set.

  4. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  5. Salinity and resource management in the Hunter Valley

    Creelman, R.A.; Cooke, R.; Simons, M. [RA Creelman & Associates (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    If excess water salinity is to be managed in the Hunter Valley, its causes and behaviour must be understood. Although Hunter Valley hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry require further study, there is now enough information available to begin the development of both temporal and spatial models as valley management tools. Currently the Department of Water Resources is developing a model known as Integrated Water Quality and Quantity Model (IQQM). IQQM which includes a salinity module is essentially a surface water simulation model. It wll enable testing of alternate management and operation policies such as the salinity property rights trading scheme recently introduced by the EPA to manage salt release from coal mines and power stations. An overview is presented of the progress made to date on the salinity module for IQQM, and an outline is given of the geological and hydrogeochemical concepts that have been assembled to support the salinity module of IQQM. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion.

    Peoples, Hervey C; Duda, Pavel; Marlowe, Frank W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait "high gods" stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.

  7. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  9. Sacrificing Steve: How I Killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Luke Carman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  10. Contract management survey 2002.

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  11. Cooperation and the evolution of hunter-gatherer storytelling.

    Smith, Daniel; Schlaepfer, Philip; Major, Katie; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Thompson, James; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Mace, Ruth; Astete, Leonora; Ngales, Marilyn; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2017-12-05

    Storytelling is a human universal. From gathering around the camp-fire telling tales of ancestors to watching the latest television box-set, humans are inveterate producers and consumers of stories. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to understanding the function and evolution of storytelling. Here we explore the impact of storytelling on hunter-gatherer cooperative behaviour and the individual-level fitness benefits to being a skilled storyteller. Stories told by the Agta, a Filipino hunter-gatherer population, convey messages relevant to coordinating behaviour in a foraging ecology, such as cooperation, sex equality and egalitarianism. These themes are present in narratives from other foraging societies. We also show that the presence of good storytellers is associated with increased cooperation. In return, skilled storytellers are preferred social partners and have greater reproductive success, providing a pathway by which group-beneficial behaviours, such as storytelling, can evolve via individual-level selection. We conclude that one of the adaptive functions of storytelling among hunter gatherers may be to organise cooperation.

  12. Does Lateral Transmission Obscure Inheritance in Hunter-Gatherer Languages?

    Bowern, Claire; Epps, Patience; Gray, Russell; Hill, Jane; Hunley, Keith; McConvell, Patrick; Zentz, Jason

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance) status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages in [1]. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56), despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of borrowing were

  13. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the basis of irony, and revealing a simulation of the desire, violence, and despondency which have been expressed in myths of nymphs and Persephone. The protagonist never reaches this unity, but his narrative of erotic and romantic love reveals him as a pathetic addict engaged in mechanical reproduction related to the phenomena of desire, seduction, violence, and sex. His The Enchanted Hunters does not simulate what he expects of his childhood love with Annabel; rather, it simulates the erotic imagination suggested in Mary D. Sheriff’s term “nymphomania,” in which artists fall degenerately to a model of tragedy. Keywords: simulation, nymph, nymphomania, The Enchanted Hunters The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita refers to the name of a hotel and the title of a play. This seeming coincidence is actually not coincidental: Nabokov weaves a story concerning a pedophile’s seduction of a prepubescent child into a “story within a story,” in which the girl is imagined as a seducer who bewitches a number of hunters. Just as the girl in the play is a figment of a poet’s imagination, so Lolita in the novel Lolita is an imaginary production of a middle-aged pedophile. Yet Lolita is not so much a novel revealing guilt and mental disorder, but a mélange of art and reality, or more specifically, it is about a coinage in which the author fabricates art and myth in real life. Parallel to the protagonist who simulates what he expects of his childhood love, Annabel, in the form of the nymphet, Lolita, Nabokov replicates the beauty of butterflies in the pursuit of beauty and immortality, and develops the world of art with a pathetic tone whereby we gradually perceive a simulation of the desire, violence, and

  14. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00053405; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices. People were better than existing algorithms at identifying displaced vertices for some masses and lifetimes, and showed good ability to recognize unexpected new features in the data.

  15. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  16. Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter-gatherers.

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A; Wood, Brian M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Racette, Susan B; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Marlowe, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of total energy expenditure, (TEE; kcal/day) among traditional populations have challenged current models relating habitual physical activity to daily energy requirements. Here, we examine the relationship between physical activity and TEE among traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in northern Tanzania. Hadza adults were studied at two camps, with minimal intervention so as to monitor energy expenditure and activity during normal daily life. We measured daily walking distance and walking speed using wearable GPS units for 41 adults. For a subset of 30 adults, we measured TEE using doubly labeled water, three indices of work load (foraging return rate, maternal status, and number of dependent children), and urinary biomarkers of metabolic activity and stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, cortisol, and testosterone). Fat-free mass was the single strongest predictor of TEE among Hadza adults (r(2)  = 0.66, P < 0.001). Hadza men used greater daily walking distances and faster walking speeds compared with that of Hadza women, but neither sex nor any measure of physical activity or work load were correlated with TEE in analyses controlling for fat-free mass. Compared with developed, industrial populations, Hadza adults had similar TEE but elevated levels of metabolic stress as measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Our results indicate that daily physical activity may not predict TEE within traditional hunter-gatherer populations like the Hadza. Instead, adults with high levels of habitual physical activity may adapt by reducing energy allocation to other physiological activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  18. Robert Plant (1818–1858: A Victorian plant hunter in Natal, Zululand, Mauritius and the Seychelles

    Donal P. McCracken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s Robert William Plant collected plants and other natural specimens in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. This one-time Englishman compiled a dictionary for gardeners before emigrating to Natal in 1850. There he worked as the agent for Samuel Stevens, the London dealer in ‘curiosities of natural history’. Though Plant collected mainly plants, he also sent consignments of beetles, butterflies, bird skins and shells back to Britain. He published the first scientific paper on Zululand and was requested by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to write the first Flora natalensis. It was while collecting for this never-to-be-completed treatise that Plant contracted malaria in Maputaland. He died in St Lucia in 1858 and in doing so became South Africa’s martyr to botany. What emerges from this study is a picture of the difficulties faced by plant hunters in mid-19th-century South Africa, the sort of plants they collected and the necessity for them sometimes to diversify into other natural history products to survive.

  19. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  20. Polymorphic Contracts

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  1. Administrative contracts

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  2. Electrical contracting

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  3. Administrative contracts

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  4. Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers.

    Schnorr, Stephanie L; Candela, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Centanni, Manuela; Consolandi, Clarissa; Basaglia, Giulia; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; De Bellis, Gianluca; Luiselli, Donata; Brigidi, Patrizia; Mabulla, Audax; Marlowe, Frank; Henry, Amanda G; Crittenden, Alyssa N

    2014-04-15

    Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community of human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. We show that the Hadza have higher levels of microbial richness and biodiversity than Italian urban controls. Further comparisons with two rural farming African groups illustrate other features unique to Hadza that can be linked to a foraging lifestyle. These include absence of Bifidobacterium and differences in microbial composition between the sexes that probably reflect sexual division of labour. Furthermore, enrichment in Prevotella, Treponema and unclassified Bacteroidetes, as well as a peculiar arrangement of Clostridiales taxa, may enhance the Hadza's ability to digest and extract valuable nutrition from fibrous plant foods.

  5. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Zes, David A

    2015-01-01

    Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  6. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes.

    O'Shea, John M; Meadows, Guy A

    2009-06-23

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000-7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and location, structures used for caribou hunting in both prehistoric and ethnographic times. These results present evidence for early hunters on the Alpena-Amberley corridor, and raise the possibility that intact settlements and ancient landscapes are preserved beneath Lake Huron.

  7. Factors impacting hunter access to private lands in southeast Minnesota

    Walberg, Eric; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.

    2018-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have important socioeconomic and ecological impacts in the United States. Hunting is considered to be important for the effective management of deer and relies on access to privately owned lands. In 2013, we surveyed nonindustrial private landowners in southeast Minnesota and created two logit models to examine factors that impact landowners’ decision to (a) allow public hunting access and (b) post private property. Parcel characteristics were found to impact landowner decisions to allow hunting access, particularly the size of the property and whether it was posted. Hunting access to small properties was more likely to be restricted to family, friends, and neighbors (83%) compared to medium (74%) or large properties (60%). Hunter concerns (e.g., liability) and knowledge about deer management was significant in both models, suggesting there are opportunities to educate landowners about the importance of allowing public hunting access and available liability protections.

  8. The Implications of Victimhood Identity: The Case of ‘Persecution’ of Swedish Hunters

    Erica von Essen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographically based study examines Swedish hunters’ claims to victimhood through appeal to the term ‘persecution’. Perceiving disenfranchisement, injustice and discrimination on the basis of wolf conservation policy, we present hunters’ self-styled predicament as victimhood-claimants of persecution at the hands of a state that has been co-opted by a conservationist, pro-wolf agenda that systematically disenfranchises rural and hunting interests and lifestyles. Through the phenomenological accounts of hunter respondents, our paper takes seriously the hunters’ perception of persecution and, likewise, considers the opposite case made by conservationists: that wolves have been, and continue to be, the real victims of persecution in the conflict. Nonetheless, we show that the persecution language as it is applied from opposing parties in the conflict is problematic inasmuch as it is focused around creating a moral panic and confusion among the Swedish public who are ultimately responsible, as a democratic body-politic, for assessing the legitimacy of claims to moral wrong-doing and legal redress for the wronged. Our case study joins scholarship that explores the pathologies of claims to victimization

  9. Influence of Age and Educational Level on the Behavior of Hunters in Vojvodina Province (Serbia

    Vladimir Marković

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as an important factor in the development of economy has a major impact on the development of hunting and hunting tourism. In this research, it has conducted a survey of hunters from the territory of Vojvodina Province regarding their attitude and motives for hunting, importance of education, importance of GIS in hunting, poaching as well as their level of hunting ethics. Using SPSS program, it was cross-referenced the individual responses in relation to age category and level of education. The results show that the youngest hunters (18 to 35 years compared to middle age hunters (35-59 years and old hunters (over 60 visit hunting events more, they are the most informed about GIS and they are most willing to learn about these technologies. The number of hunters that took part in the poaching is proportional with their level of education, so that most hunters that participate in poaching hold a university degree. However, hunters holding a university degree in the highest percentage believe that GIS can contribute to the development of hunting largely, and are willing to participate in training.

  10. Macrophysical climate models and Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence shifts in Central Texas, USA

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We use stable carbon isotopic values from bone collagen, as well as carbon values from carbonate extracted from bone apatite from 69 prehistoric human skeletal samples to investigate past resource use and climate relationships over the Middle and Late Holocene in Central Texas. Bone samples come from seven archaeological sites and samples date from 6,900 BP to the close of the prehistoric sequence at about 350 BP. Carbon isotopes from these samples suggest four broad dietary trends. From 6,900 through about 3,800 BP, carbon isotopes suggest a gradual increase in the consumption of resources that ultimately use a C3 photosynthetic pathway. A decline in δ13C in both collagen and carbonate values follows, suggesting a decrease in C3 resource use through roughly 2,900 BP. A variable, but once again increasing pattern on C3 resource use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is indicated in bone isotopes through about 1,000 BP. After that date, a decrease in C3 resource dependence, with hints at greater subsistence diversity, is suggested through the close of the sequence at 350 BP. To assess the impact of climate shifts on this isotopic pattern, we developed a series of macrophysical climate models (MCM) for several locations in Central Texas focusing on fall, winter, and early spring precipitation. This fall-spring rainfall should closely determine C3 production. If subsistence shifts are responding to climate-induced changes in resource availability, then the measured hunter-gatherer carbon isotope trends summarized above should pattern with C3 production as monitored by the modeled fall-spring precipitation values. For the Middle Holocene portion of the sequence, the precipitation models suggest increasing C3 production, consistent with increasing C3 dependence shown in the isotopic data. A decline in C3 production between 3,900 and 3,000 BP in the models is also consistent with the isotopic decline at that point. After 3,000 BP, however, the coupling between fall

  11. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. OV-1/AC-119 Hunter-Killer Team

    Sexton, Richard R; Hodgson, William M

    1972-01-01

    Hunter-Killer operations were but a logical extension of the resourceful thinking behind the development of gunships as a solution to some of the tactical problems of the unique war in Southeast Asia...

  12. Mental health perspectives of Hunter syndrome: Case reports of two biological siblings

    Kabir Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hunter syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase, leading to progressive accumulation of a substance called glycosaminoglycans in nearly all cell types, tissues, and organs. Hunter syndrome presents with facial dysmorphism, airway diseases, skeletal defects, cardiomyopathies, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Mental subnormality is a cardinal feature in Hunter syndrome. This is a progressive cognitive decline that is not amenable to enzyme replacement therapy. Due to progressive cognitive decline, training the children to improve the adaptive functioning is a challenge that creates immense stress for the caregivers. Patients with Hunter syndrome should undergo serial assessment of intellectual ability and may be trained accordingly.

  13. Fiber-optic displacement sensors on the Hunters Trophy UGT impulse gauge experiments

    Green, R.E.L.; Poutiatine, A.I.

    1995-03-01

    As part of a program to develop gauges for measurement of various mechanical properties in hostile environments, the authors fielded purely optical displacement sensors at the ends of long fiber-optic cables as supplements to the regular displacement sensors of four impulse gauges fielded as part of a materials study on the Hunters Trophy underground effects test at the Nevada Test Site. These fiber-optic sensor systems and their performance on the Hunters Trophy test are described in this report.

  14. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  15. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  16. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers.

    Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-01-25

    Social networks show striking structural regularities, and both theory and evidence suggest that networks may have facilitated the development of large-scale cooperation in humans. Here, we characterize the social networks of the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania. We show that Hadza networks have important properties also seen in modernized social networks, including a skewed degree distribution, degree assortativity, transitivity, reciprocity, geographic decay and homophily. We demonstrate that Hadza camps exhibit high between-group and low within-group variation in public goods game donations. Network ties are also more likely between people who give the same amount, and the similarity in cooperative behaviour extends up to two degrees of separation. Social distance appears to be as important as genetic relatedness and physical proximity in explaining assortativity in cooperation. Our results suggest that certain elements of social network structure may have been present at an early point in human history. Also, early humans may have formed ties with both kin and non-kin, based in part on their tendency to cooperate. Social networks may thus have contributed to the emergence of cooperation.

  17. Rabbit hunter uveitis: case report of tularemia uveitis.

    Terrada, Céline; Azza, Said; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography showed a late hyperfluorescence with focal vascular leakage. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of a 3.8 mm parietal granuloma with a few calcifications in the left eye. While extensive work-up eliminated any other infectious and non-infectious etiology, tularemia was diagnosed by advanced serology consisting of two-dimensional Western-immunoblotting. The patient, a hunter, recalled having killed rabbits in the days before the symptoms appeared. Uveitis was rapidly controlled following treatment with doxycycline, yet three years after initiation of the treatment, the patient still complained of loss of vision in the left eye with a central scotoma. Posterior uveitis may be an infrequent manifestation of tularemia infection, and therefore this infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraocular inflammation in areas where F. tularensis is endemic.

  18. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  19. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Alyssa N Crittenden

    Full Text Available Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  20. Profile of idursulfase for the treatment of Hunter syndrome

    Sestito S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Simona Sestito, Ferdinando Ceravolo, Michele Grisolia, Elisa Pascale, Licia Pensabene, Daniela Concolino Department of Pediatrics, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with recombinant human IDS, available since 2005, is currently the most appropriate treatment for this progressive, multisystemic, chronic, and life-threatening disease. Efficacy and safety of therapy with idursulfase have been assessed in several clinical trials, and confirmed in many clinical reports. Long-term follow-up of patients receiving ERT has demonstrated the importance of an early onset of treatment with idursulfase, before irreversible pathological changes occur. Intravenously administered idursulfase is not able to cross the blood–brain barrier, so neurological signs and symptoms cannot benefit from ERT, still remaining a major challenge in the treatment of MPS II. Keywords: MPS II, glycosaminoglycans, enzyme replacement therapy, ERT

  1. Parental experience of enzyme replacement therapy for Hunter syndrome.

    Buraczewska, M; O'Leary, D; Walsh, O; Monavari, A; Crushell, E

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to establish the profile of Irish patients with Hunter Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) receiving weekly intravenous Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase and to assess the social impact and parental opinion of ERT through the use of a parental questionnaire. Nine patients aged 3.5- 14 years have received a mean of 2 (range 0.5-3.5) years of ERT. Treatment was associated with clinical improvements from baseline in hepatosplenomegaly in 6/7 (85%) respiratory manifestations in 4/6 (67%) and a mean reduction in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion of 62%. Changes noted by parents included increased energy 3/9 (33%) and softening of skin, hair and facial features 8/9 (89%). Parents report that seven hours weekly were spent on hospitalizations for ERT. Parental employment was adversely affected in 8 (89%) families. One day of school/preschool (20%) was lost every week for 8 (89%) children. All parents believed the benefits of ERT out-weigh the difficulties involved. All families would welcome the introduction of home based therapy. In conclusion the social and educational burden of hospital-based ERT on these children and their families is significant. The introduction of home-based therapy is likely to improve overall quality of life for MPSII patients and their families.

  2. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  3. Humans as predators: an overview of predation strategies of hunters with contrasting motivational drivers

    Fredrik Dalerum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Predator-prey theory suggests that generalist predators are linked to demographic stability of prey whereas specialists are destabilizing. We overview the demographic consequences of different predation strategies and hypothesize that subsistence hunting occurs opportunistically, persecution hunters behave like specialist predators, and recreational hunters behave like generalist predators. Under this hypothesis, persecution hunting would have destabilizing effects, whereas the effects of subsistence and recreational hunting would be neutral or stabilizing. We found poor empirical support for this hypothesis, but there was scarce empirical data. Recreational hunters mainly hunted opportunistically and hunting as managed persecution followed a type III functional response, i.e. with low hunting intensity at low game abundances and a switch to an increased intensity at some level of abundance. We suggest that recreational hunters have limited destabilizing effects on game populations and that hunting may be an ineffective way of complete the removal of invasive species. We urge for further studies quantifying the responses of hunters to game abundances, in particular studies evaluating the responses of subsistence hunters and illegal persecution.

  4. Ride, shoot, and call: wildlife use among contemporary urban hunters in Três Fronteiras, Brazilian Amazon

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most bushmeat studies in the Amazon region focus on hunting patterns of indigenous populations in rural settings. Our study describes the existence of urban hunters in medium-sized towns. Using a variety of data collection methods, we describe the main socioeconomic characteristics of urban hunters in Benjamin Constant and Atalaia do Norte, Brazil. We analyze the patterns and motivations of urban hunters as well as the type of prey harvested and quantities traded. All interviewed hunters are caboclos, people of mixed Brazilian indigenous and European origins from rural areas who now live in urban and peri-urban areas. Living in these more populated spaces allows these hunters better market options for their harvest and allows them to alternate hunting with other economic activities. Only 29% of the interviewed hunters relied solely on hunting. In total, 11.6 tons of bushmeat were harvested (of which 97% was traded by four hunters during the monitoring period (60 days. The most hunted species were terecay (Podocnemis unifilis, curassow (Crax sp., paca (Cuniculus paca, and tapir (Tapirus terrestris. The ratio of bushmeat sold to that consumed, as well as the level of participation in the bushmeat market chain, allowed us to differentiate between specialized and diversified hunters. Specialized hunters sell 81% of the bushmeat caught to known wholesalers in the city. Diversified hunters sell 21% of their total catch to families, neighbors, or friends directly as fresh meat, avoiding intermediaries. For all hunters, hunting localities are associated with peri-urban roadways that are easily reached by motorbike or bicycle from the hunters' houses in the urban areas or city fringes. Our results show that urban hunters in medium-sized towns exemplify how traditional hunting systems can be adapted in the face of globalization, by living close to the market, at relatively manageable distances from hunting grounds, and using modern methods of

  5. Agile Contracts

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  6. Turnkey contracts

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Near-source surface seismic measurements for the NPE, NPE Calibration, Hunter`s Trophy, and Mineral Quarry

    Reinke, R.E.; Leverette, J.A. [Field Command Defense Nuclear Agency, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    An extensive seismic network was deployed on the surface of Rainier Mesa for both the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) Calibration shot as well as the full scale NPE event. This network was very similar to previous deployments for the nuclear events MISTY ECHO, MINERAL QUARRY, and HUNTERS TROPHY. For the full scale NPE event three-component accelerometers and seismometers were fielded at 32 sites across the mesa. A slightly smaller network with 28 stations was in operation for the 300 pound NPE calibration event. The mesa top array included both accelerometers and seismometers. The accelerometers were used to obtain data from the main NPE event while the seismometers with their higher sensitivity were used to record the 300 pound cal shot and several hundred after events from the NPE. Large spatial variations in ground motion are evident in both the full mesa data set as well as a small (80 m on a side) aperture, 9-element triangular array. This paper summarizes the data and discusses wave propagation effects. A companion paper presents a comparative source analysis.

  8. The night of the hunter: children & adults in the secret

    Terry caesar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Night of the Hunter is  the 1956 Charles Laughton’s film considered  one of the best discussions about childhood. In this film, the story revolves around the fate of John and Pearl, two orphaned siblings whose father was hanged for stealing. The father had given the children the money, and they hid the money inside the girl’s doll. When the Preacher Powell enters their lives , both John and Pearl are in danger. The siblings have to keep a secret which is both where they put the money, and the fact that, for children, money is simply paper.

  9. Transsulfuration pathway thiols and methylated arginines: the Hunter Community Study.

    Arduino A Mangoni

    Full Text Available Serum homocysteine, when studied singly, has been reported to be positively associated both with the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA, via inhibition of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH activity] and with symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA. We investigated combined associations between transsulfuration pathway thiols, including homocysteine, and serum ADMA and SDMA concentrations at population level.Data on clinical and demographic characteristics, medication exposure, C-reactive protein, serum ADMA and SDMA (LC-MS/MS, and thiols (homocysteine, cysteine, taurine, glutamylcysteine, total glutathione, and cysteinylglycine; capillary electrophoresis were collected from a sample of the Hunter Community Study on human ageing [n = 498, median age (IQR = 64 (60-70 years].REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT: a age (P = 0.001, gender (P = 0.03, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = 0.08, body mass index (P = 0.008, treatment with beta-blockers (P = 0.03, homocysteine (P = 0.02, and glutamylcysteine (P = 0.003 were independently associated with higher ADMA concentrations; and b age (P = 0.001, absence of diabetes (P = 0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.01, lower eGFR (P<0.001, cysteine (P = 0.007, and glutamylcysteine (P < 0.001 were independently associated with higher SDMA concentrations. No significant associations were observed between methylated arginines and either glutathione or taurine concentrations.After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders the combined assessment of transsulfuration pathway thiols shows that glutamylcysteine has the strongest and positive independent associations with ADMA and SDMA. Whether this reflects a direct effect of glutamylcysteine on DDAH activity (for ADMA and/or cationic amino acid transport requires further investigations.

  10. Evidence for range contraction of snowshoe hare in Pennsylvania

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rathbun, Stephen L.; Vreeland, J.K.; Grove, Deborah; Kanapaux, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare) is near the southern limits of its range and at risk of range contraction because of loss of early-successional forest and impacts of climate change. We used hunter-harvest data to investigate changes in the distribution of Snowshoe Hare in Pennsylvania (1983–2011), forest inventory and land-use data to assess changes in amount and distribution of early-successional forest (1988–2011), and occupancy modeling (2004) to identify habitat and climate variables that explain the current distribution of Snowshoe Hare. We determined presence of Snowshoe Hare based on visual sightings, observations of tracks, and DNA analysis of fecal pellets, and used repeated visits to sampling sites and occupancy models to estimate occupancy rates (Ψ). Hunter-harvest data indicated the range of Snowshoe Hare in Pennsylvania contracted towards northwestern and northeastern portions of the state. Based on occupancy modeling, Snowshoe Hare were most likely to occupy early-successional and mixed deciduous-coniferous forest types and areas with colder winter temperatures, which coincided with the distribution of hunter harvests. Among the 4 forest types, we estimated Ψ = 0.52-0.79 and Ψ = 0.10-0.32 where winter temperatures were coldest and warmest, respectively. Total forest loss was Pennsylvania may decline from 0.27 in 2004 to 0.10–0.18 by 2050–2059, depending on the climate model. The range of Snowshoe Hare in Pennsylvania has contracted to regions of Pennsylvania with the coldest winter temperatures and most persistent snowpack, and based on projected climate change, our results suggest further range contraction of Snowshoe Hare in Pennsylvania.

  11. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.

    Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-10-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource

  12. Responding to Children's Drawings

    Watts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…

  13. Responding to Tragedy

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  14. Responding to Misbehavior

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on responding to misbehavior.

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  16. Muscle Contraction.

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Munier A. Nour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases.

  18. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  19. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  20. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans.

    Henn, Brenna M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Jobin, Matthew; Granka, Julie M; Macpherson, J M; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Ramachandran, Sohini; Hon, Lawrence; Brisbin, Abra; Lin, Alice A; Underhill, Peter A; Comas, David; Kidd, Kenneth K; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter; Bustamante, Carlos D; Mountain, Joanna L; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-03-29

    Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and the ≠Khomani Bushmen of South Africa, including speakers of the nearly extinct N|u language. We find that African hunter-gatherer populations today remain highly differentiated, encompassing major components of variation that are not found in other African populations. Hunter-gatherer populations also tend to have the lowest levels of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among 27 African populations. We analyzed geographic patterns of linkage disequilibrium and population differentiation, as measured by F(ST), in Africa. The observed patterns are consistent with an origin of modern humans in southern Africa rather than eastern Africa, as is generally assumed. Additionally, genetic variation in African hunter-gatherer populations has been significantly affected by interaction with farmers and herders over the past 5,000 y, through both severe population bottlenecks and sex-biased migration. However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world.

  1. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  2. Contract design

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  3. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  4. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of ≥2 R ⊕ planets on short-period ( ⊕ Planet Hunters ≥85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler ≥4 R ⊕ planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of ≥4 R ⊕ short-period planets is nearly complete.

  5. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk

    Dugal, Cherie; van Beest, Floris; Vander Wal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk...... areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012...... juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts...

  6. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  7. Molecular characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum isolated from an outbreak in treasure hunters Histoplasma capsulatum in treasure hunters

    Muñoz Bertha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, primary pulmonary histoplasmosis is the most relevant clinical form of the disease. The geographical distribution of specific strains of Histoplasma capsulatum circulating in Mexico has not been fully established. Outbreaks must be reported in order to have current, updated information on this disease, identifying new endemic areas, manner of exposure to the fungi, and molecular characterization of the causative agents. We report a recent outbreak of histoplasmosis in treasure hunters and the molecular characterization of two isolates obtained from these patients. Methods Six patients admitted to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER in Mexico City presented severe respiratory symptoms suggestive of histoplasmosis. They acquired the infection in the Veracruz (VZ endemic zone. Diagnosis was made by X-ray and Computed tomography (CT, liver function, immunological techniques, and culture. Identification of H. capsulatum isolates was confirmed by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted with a probe from the M antigen, and the isolates were characterized by means of Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR employed the 1253 oligonucleotide and a mixture of oligonucleotides 1281 and 1283. These were compared to eight reference strain isolates from neighboring areas. Results X-ray and CT revealed disseminated micronodular images throughout lung parenchyma, as well as bilateral retrocaval, prevascular, subcarinal, and hilar adenopathies, hepatosplenomegaly, and altered liver function tests. Five of the six patients developed disseminated histoplasmosis. Two H. capsulatum strains were isolated. The same band profile was detected in both strains, indicating that both isolates corresponded to the sole H. capsulatum strain. Molecular characterization of the isolates was similar in 100% with the EH-53 Hidalgo human (HG strain (reference strain integrated into the LAm A clade described for

  8. Retractable Contracts

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  9. Fairy tales? Marion Jones, C.J. Hunter and the framing of doping in American newspapers

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Gems, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the images, metaphors and narratives in the media coverage of doping in the United States. It presents a case study with a focus on Marion Jones, the most celebrated track athlete of the turn of the millennium, and her husband, C.J. Hunter, a shot put world champion...... under suspicion. At the same time, the 2000 Olympics can be considered a watershed in American anti-doping policy. The media portrayed Jones and Hunter as the Beauty and the Beast or Svengali and his victim, using a famous fairy tale and a well-known novel to capture attention, label the protagonists...

  10. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Florian Heigl; Carina R. Stretz; Wolfgang Steiner; Franz Suppan; Thomas Bauer; Gregor Laaha; Johann G. Zaller

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Aust...

  11. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. OV-1/AC-119 Hunter-Killer Team

    1972-10-10

    between Phan Rang, Phu Cat , and Danang in order to provide best coverage of the Vietnamese conflict. -- On 16 February 1970, three AC -ll9Ks and 70...SOUTHEAST ASIA D D DDiv AY/XDOSQA I OV-1/ AC -119 " i IWB I HUNTER-KILLER TEAM 19’.1’ CONTINUING REPORT CLASSIFIED Ey 7AFIDOOC DOWNGRADE TjU SECRET...xamination of C urrent, 0 per’tions I~ I fF!lr T I TII TIIII I OV=1/ AC -119 HUNTER-KILLER TEAMI 1 10 OCTOBER 1972 HQ PACAF Directorate of Operations

  12. Fundación Book Hunters: Atrévete a experimentar con la lectura

    Cruz Mejía, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    La fundación Book Hunters es una organización sin ánimo de lucro que busca fortalecer la relación de la lectura en los niños desde temprana edad, involucrando a la comunidad y promoviendo el entendimiento del entorno que rodea hoy en día la infancia. El equipo considera que, para lograr los objetivos es necesario transformar el significado ha perseguido a la lectura durante años, es decir, para Book Hunters leer va más allá de tomar un libro e involucrarse en la historia, en cambio, el si...

  13. Ethical acceptability of recreational hunting - does the motive of the hunter matter?

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recreational hunting can be a way of taking responsibility for acquiring one’s own meat. However, many recreational hunters focus instead on hunting as a hobby or sport. This distinction, between two rather different motives for hunting, is relevant to the activity’s moral justifiability. The pub......Recreational hunting can be a way of taking responsibility for acquiring one’s own meat. However, many recreational hunters focus instead on hunting as a hobby or sport. This distinction, between two rather different motives for hunting, is relevant to the activity’s moral justifiability...

  14. Mitigating the health impacts of a natural disaster--the June 2007 long-weekend storm in the Hunter region of New South Wales.

    Cretikos, Michelle A; Merritt, Tony D; Main, Kelly; Eastwood, Keith; Winn, Linda; Moran, Lucille; Durrheim, David N

    A severe storm that began on Thursday, 7 June 2007 brought heavy rains and gale-force winds to Newcastle, Gosford, Wyong, Sydney, and the Hunter Valley region of New South Wales. The storm caused widespread flooding and damage to houses, businesses, schools and health care facilities, and damaged critical infrastructure. Ten people died as a result of the storm, and approximately 6000 residents were evacuated. A natural disaster was declared in 19 local government areas, with damage expected to reach $1.5 billion. Additional demands were made on clinical health services, and interruption of the electricity supply to over 200,000 homes and businesses, interruption of water and gas supplies, and sewerage system pump failures presented substantial public health threats. A public health emergency operations centre was established by the Hunter New England Area Health Service to coordinate surveillance activities, respond to acute public health issues and prevent disease outbreaks. Public health activities focused on providing advice, cooperating with emergency service agencies, monitoring water quality and availability, preventing illness from sewage-contaminated flood water, assessing environmental health risks, coordinating the local government public health response, and surveillance for storm-related illness and disease outbreaks, including gastroenteritis. The local ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio station played a key role in disseminating public health advice. A household survey conducted within a fortnight of the storm established that household preparedness and storm warning systems could be improved.

  15. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  16. Indice de Indices en la Biblioteca de Hunter College para el Estudiante Hispano.

    Talero Bielsa, Alberto; And Others

    Designed for Spanish-speaking students of Hunter College of the City University of New York, this guide explains the use of 70 English-language indexes found in the college library. The explanations are given in Spanish in order to simplify the process of library research for students who are not completely comfortable with English. Each index is…

  17. The seed hunter in het spoor van Vavilov (interview met C. Kik)

    Zanderink, R.; Kik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Er moet voor een veredelaar een grote variatie aan plantmateriaal aanwezig zijn om uit te kunnen putten zodat onze gewassen, die vaak bestaan uit monoculturen, voor de toekomst veiliggesteld worden. Het vinden van die variatie is het werk van seed hunters of zadenverzamelaars. Eén van die seed

  18. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  19. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  20. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    2011-08-01

    ... these regulations on June 10, 2010, to address changes in law, regulation, policy, technology, and... Service 50 CFR Part 80 Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter... 80 [Docket No. FWS-R9-WSR-2009-0088; 91400-5110-POLI-7B; 91400-9410-POLI- 7B] RIN 1018-AW65 Financial...

  1. Deer hunting and television: are tv shows creating expectations among deer hunters?

    Joshua D. Agee; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the past two decades new media outlets emphasizing trophy deer hunting have come to dominate hunting culture. Using data collected through a mail survey of Illinois deer hunters (n = 2,683, 78.5-percent response), we tested two hypotheses to determine factors that contribute to preference for hunting trophy deer. In particular, we examined the relationship...

  2. Period Determination of Binary Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May-September 2009

    Higgins, David; Oey, Julian; Pravec, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for seven confirmed or possible binary asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) and Leura Observatory from 2009 May through 2010 September: 1453 Fennia, 2501 Lohja, 3076 Garbor, 4029 Bridges, 5325 Silver, 6244 Okamoto, and (6265) 1985 TW3.

  3. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for human evolution.

    Hill, Kim; Hurtado, A M; Walker, R S

    2007-04-01

    Extant apes experience early sexual maturity and short life spans relative to modern humans. Both of these traits and others are linked by life-history theory to mortality rates experienced at different ages by our hominin ancestors. However, currently there is a great deal of debate concerning hominin mortality profiles at different periods of evolutionary history. Observed rates and causes of mortality in modern hunter-gatherers may provide information about Upper Paleolithic mortality that can be compared to indirect evidence from the fossil record, yet little is published about causes and rates of mortality in foraging societies around the world. To our knowledge, interview-based life tables for recent hunter-gatherers are published for only four societies (Ache, Agta, Hadza, and Ju/'hoansi). Here, we present mortality data for a fifth group, the Hiwi hunter-gatherers of Venezuela. The results show comparatively high death rates among the Hiwi and highlight differences in mortality rates among hunter-gatherer societies. The high levels of conspecific violence and adult mortality in the Hiwi may better represent Paleolithic human demographics than do the lower, disease-based death rates reported in the most frequently cited forager studies.

  4. Levels and sources of forest fire prevention knowledge of California hunters

    William S. Folkman

    1963-01-01

    Males 30-50 years of age from the smaller urban centers (under 25,000 population) make up the bulk of the California hunter population. They are mainly from the skilled-semiskilled and professional-managerial occupations. Their level of knowledge about forest fire prevention is generally high, but their knowledge is weak in some pertinent areas. Most frequently...

  5. Hunter-gatherers in southeast Asia: from prehistory to the present.

    Higham, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m below its present level, which opened up a vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Three principal alignments can be identified: the first involved the occupation of rock shelters in upland regions, the second has identified settlement on broad riverine floodplains, and the last concentrated on the raised beaches formed from about five millennia ago when the sea level was elevated above its present position. This cultural sequence was dislocated about 4 kya when rice and millet farmers infiltrated the lowlands of Southeast Asia ultimately from the Yangtze River valley. It is suggested that this led to two forms of interaction. In the first, the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia. In the second, hunter-gatherers withdrew to rainforest refugia and, through selective pressures inherent in such an environment, survived as the small-bodied, dark-skinned humans found to this day in the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and the Andaman Islands. Beyond the impact of expansive rice farmers in Melanesia and Australia, hunter-gatherers continued to dominate until they encountered European settlement. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press

  6. Hunter versus CIE color measurement systems for analysis of milk-based beverages.

    Cheng, Ni; Barbano, David M; Drake, Mary Anne

    2018-06-01

    The objective of our work was to determine the differences in sensitivity of Hunter and International Commission on Illumination (CIE) methods at 2 different viewer angles (2 and 10°) for measurement of whiteness, red/green, and blue/yellow color of milk-based beverages over a range of composition. Sixty combinations of milk-based beverages were formulated (2 replicates) with a range of fat level from 0.2 to 2%, true protein level from 3 to 5%, and casein as a percent of true protein from 5 to 80% to provide a wide range of milk-based beverage color. In addition, commercial skim, 1 and 2% fat high-temperature, short-time pasteurized fluid milks were analyzed. All beverage formulations were HTST pasteurized and cooled to 4°C before analysis. Color measurement viewer angle (2 vs. 10°) had very little effect on objective color measures of milk-based beverages with a wide range of composition for either the Hunter or CIE color measurement system. Temperature (4, 20, and 50°C) of color measurement had a large effect on the results of color measurement in both the Hunter and CIE measurement systems. The effect of milk beverage temperature on color measurement results was the largest for skim milk and the least for 2% fat milk. This highlights the need for proper control of beverage serving temperature for sensory panel analysis of milk-based beverages with very low fat content and for control of milk temperature when doing objective color analysis for quality control in manufacture of milk-based beverages. The Hunter system of color measurement was more sensitive to differences in whiteness among milk-based beverages than the CIE system, whereas the CIE system was much more sensitive to differences in yellowness among milk-based beverages. There was little difference between the Hunter and CIE system in sensitivity to green/red color of milk-based beverages. In defining milk-based beverage product specifications for objective color measures for dairy product

  7. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  8. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure.

    Hill, Kim R; Walker, Robert S; Bozicević, Miran; Eder, James; Headland, Thomas; Hewlett, Barry; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Marlowe, Frank; Wiessner, Polly; Wood, Brian

    2011-03-11

    Contemporary humans exhibit spectacular biological success derived from cumulative culture and cooperation. The origins of these traits may be related to our ancestral group structure. Because humans lived as foragers for 95% of our species' history, we analyzed co-residence patterns among 32 present-day foraging societies (total n = 5067 individuals, mean experienced band size = 28.2 adults). We found that hunter-gatherers display a unique social structure where (i) either sex may disperse or remain in their natal group, (ii) adult brothers and sisters often co-reside, and (iii) most individuals in residential groups are genetically unrelated. These patterns produce large interaction networks of unrelated adults and suggest that inclusive fitness cannot explain extensive cooperation in hunter-gatherer bands. However, large social networks may help to explain why humans evolved capacities for social learning that resulted in cumulative culture.

  10. Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa.

    Rupp, Stephanie; Ambata, Philippe; Narat, Victor; Giles-Vernick, Tamara

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission. This initial host shift cannot explain the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Instead, we must understand the processes by which the virus became transmissible, possibly between Sangha basin inhabitants and ultimately reached Kinshasa. A historical epidemiology of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, provides a much-needed corrective to the major shortcomings of the cut hunter. Based on 62 oral historical interviews conducted in southeastern Cameroon and archival research, we show that HIV emerged from ecological, economic, and socio-political transformations of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The gradual imposition of colonial rule built on and reoriented ecologies and economies, and altered older patterns of mobility and sociality. Certain changes may have contributed to the initial viral host shift, but more importantly, facilitated the adaptation of HIV-1M to human-to-human transmission. Our evidence suggests that the most critical changes occurred after 1920. This argument has important implications for public health policy, underscoring recent work emphasizing alternative pathways for zoonotic spillovers into human beings.

  11. Sex differences in Nintendo Wii performance as expected from hunter-gatherer selection.

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Poss, Jordan L

    2008-06-01

    To test the hunter-gatherer theory of cognitive sex differences, men and women each played four video games on a Wii console: two games simulating skills necessary for hunting (navigation and shooting) and two games simulating skills necessary for gathering (fine motor and visual search). Men outperformed women on the two hunting games, whereas there were no sex differences on the gathering skill games. The findings are discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology theory.

  12. Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in pa...

  13. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians

    Malmström, Helena; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-01-01

    of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7, 8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern......]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations....

  15. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  16. JEFX 10 demonstration of Cooperative Hunter Killer UAS and upstream data fusion

    Funk, Brian K.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Watkins, Adam S.; McCubbin, Christopher B.; Marshall, Steven J.; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Newman, Andrew J.; Peterson, Cammy K.; DeSena, Jonathan T.; Dutrow, Daniel A.; Rodriguez, Pedro A.

    2011-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory deployed and demonstrated a prototype Cooperative Hunter Killer (CHK) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) capability and a prototype Upstream Data Fusion (UDF) capability as participants in the Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment 2010 in April 2010. The CHK capability was deployed at the Nevada Test and Training Range to prosecute a convoy protection operational thread. It used mission-level autonomy (MLA) software applied to a networked swarm of three Raven hunter UAS and a Procerus Miracle surrogate killer UAS, all equipped with full motion video (FMV). The MLA software provides the capability for the hunter-killer swarm to autonomously search an area or road network, divide the search area, deconflict flight paths, and maintain line of sight communications with mobile ground stations. It also provides an interface for an operator to designate a threat and initiate automatic engagement of the target by the killer UAS. The UDF prototype was deployed at the Maritime Operations Center at Commander Second Fleet, Naval Station Norfolk to provide intelligence analysts and the ISR commander with a common fused track picture from the available FMV sources. It consisted of a video exploitation component that automatically detected moving objects, a multiple hypothesis tracker that fused all of the detection data to produce a common track picture, and a display and user interface component that visualized the common track picture along with appropriate geospatial information such as maps and terrain as well as target coordinates and the source video.

  17. Wild-harvested venison yields and sharing by Michigan deer hunters

    Goguen, Amber D.; Riley, Shawn J.; Organ, John F.; Rudolph, Brent A.

    2018-01-01

    An increased societal focus on wildlife as food and recent policy deliberations regarding legal markets for wild-harvested meat are encouraging wildlife managers and researchers to examine the amount, use, and distribution of meat yielded through recreational hunting. We used responses to questions on the Michigan Deer Harvest Study to estimate the maximum yield of edible venison and assess hunters’ sharing behaviors. We estimated 11,402–14,473 metric tons of edible venison were procured during the 2013 hunting season. Of hunters who harvested a deer, 85% shared their venison. Hunters who shared did so with an average of 5.6 people (SD = 4.5). Sharing occurred most frequently within tight social networks: members of hunters’ households (69%), relatives (52%), and friends, neighbors, or coworkers (50%). In the absence of legal markets, venison is distributed widely by hunters and greatly amplifies the number of people benefiting from hunting. Nonetheless, we also identified the potential breadth of exposure to disease or contaminants from wild-harvested meat.

  18. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    Duchesne, J.-F.; Levesque, B.; Gauvin, Denis; Braune, Birgit; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, E.

    2004-01-01

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  20. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  1. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  2. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  3. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  5. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  6. Lack of symmetry in employees' perceptions of the psychological contract.

    Jepsen, Denise M; Rodwell, John J

    2012-06-01

    Despite debate on the nature of employees' perceptions of their psychological contract, little research has compared employees' and employers' sides of the psychological contract. All 80 items from both scales in the Psychological Contract Inventory were used in a survey of 436 currently working, non-student respondents. Structural equation modeling yielded nonsymmetrical perspectives on promises and obligations, highlighting the validity of approaching the issues via individual perceptions.

  7. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  8. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  9. Game meat consumption by hunters and their relatives: A probabilistic approach.

    Sevillano Morales, Jesus; Moreno-Ortega, Alicia; Amaro Lopez, Manual Angel; Arenas Casas, Antonio; Cámara-Martos, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2018-06-18

    This study aimed to estimate the consumption of meat and products derived from hunting by the consumer population and, specifically, by hunters and their relatives. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on the frequency of consuming meat from the four most representative game species in Spain, two of big game, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) and two of small game, rabbit (Oryctolagus cunulucus) and red partridge (Alectoris rufa), as well as of processed meat products (salami-type sausage) made from those big game species. The survey was carried out on 337 habitual consumers of these types of products (hunters and their relatives). The total mean game meat consumption, per capita in this population group, is 6.87 kg/person/year of meat and 8.57 kg/person/year if the processed meat products are also considered. Consumption of rabbit, red partridge, red deer and wild boar, individually, was 1.85, 0.82, 2.28 and 1.92 kg/person/year, respectively. It was observed that hunters generally registered a larger intake of game meat, this being statistically significant in the case of rabbit meat consumption. Using probabilistic methods, the meat consumption frequency distributions for each hunting species studied were estimated, as well as the products made from big game species and the total consumption both of meat by itself and that including the products made from it. The consumption frequency distributions were adjusted to exponential ones, verified by the test suitable for it according to Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, the Chi-Squared and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. In addition, the consumption percentiles of the different distributions were obtained. The latter could be a good tool when making nutrition or contaminant studies since they permit the assessment of exposure to the compound in question.

  10. Mortality, fertility, and the OY ratio in a model hunter-gatherer system.

    White, Andrew A

    2014-06-01

    An agent-based model (ABM) is used to explore how the ratio of old to young adults (the OY ratio) in a sample of dead individuals is related to aspects of mortality, fertility, and longevity experienced by the living population from which the sample was drawn. The ABM features representations of rules, behaviors, and constraints that affect person- and household-level decisions about marriage, reproduction, and infant mortality in hunter-gatherer systems. The demographic characteristics of the larger model system emerge through human-level interactions playing out in the context of "global" parameters that can be adjusted to produce a range of mortality and fertility conditions. Model data show a relationship between the OY ratios of living populations (the living OY ratio) and assemblages of dead individuals drawn from those populations (the dead OY ratio) that is consistent with that from empirically known ethnographic hunter-gatherer cases. The dead OY ratio is clearly related to the mean ages, mean adult mortality rates, and mean total fertility rates experienced by living populations in the model. Sample size exerts a strong effect on the accuracy with which the calculated dead OY ratio reflects the actual dead OY ratio of the complete assemblage. These results demonstrate that the dead OY ratio is a potentially useful metric for paleodemographic analysis of changes in mortality and mean age, and suggest that, in general, hunter-gatherer populations with higher mortality, higher fertility, and lower mean ages are characterized by lower dead OY ratios. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Avian influenza prevalence among hunter-harvested birds in a remote Canadian First Nation community.

    Liberda, Eric N; Meldrum, Richard; Charania, Nadia A; Davey, Robert; Tsuji, Leonard Js

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence has been associated with wild game and other bird species. The contamination of these birds may pose a greater risk to those who regularly hunt and consumed infected species. Due to resident concerns communicated by local Band Council, hunter-harvested birds from a remote First Nation community in subArctic Ontario, Canada were assessed for AIV. Hunters, and especially those who live a subsistence lifestyle, are at higher risk of AIV exposure due to their increased contact with wild birds, which represent an important part of their diet. Cloacal swabs from 304 harvested game birds representing several species of wild birds commonly hunted and consumed in this First Nation community were analyzed for AIV using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subtyping was performed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sequences were assembled using Lasergene, and the sequences were compared to Genbank. In total, 16 of the 304 cloacal swab samples were positive for AIV. Of the 16 positive samples, 12 were found in mallard ducks, 3 were found in snow geese (wavies), and 1 positive sample was found in partridge. The AIV samples were subtyped, when possible, and found to be positive for the low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes H3 and H4. No samples were positive for subtypes of human concern, namely H5 and H7. This work represents the first AIV monitoring program results of hunter-harvested birds in a remote subsistence First Nation community. Community-level surveillance of AIV in remote subsistence hunting communities may help to identify future risks, while educating those who may have the highest exposure about proper handling of hunted birds. Ultimately, only low pathogenic strains of AIV were found, but monitoring should be continued and expanded to safeguard those with the highest exposure risk to AIV.

  12. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  13. Contractibility of curves

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  14. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia

    Higginbotham, N.; Freeman, S.; Connor, L.; Albrecht, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). School of Medicine & Public Health

    2010-03-15

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  15. Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-09-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in patients reporting symptoms of pneumonia, even if these symptoms are only presented for a short period, who are from areas considered endemic for this disease.

  16. Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brillhante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in patients reporting symptoms of pneumonia, even if these symptoms are only presented for a short period, who are from areas considered endemic for this disease.

  17. Period Determination of Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May 2009 - September 2010

    Higgins, David

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for 27 asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) from 2009 May through 2010 September: 308 Polyxo, 326 Tamara, 369 Aeria, 504 Cora, 822 Lalage, 1164 Kobolda, 1619 Ueta, 1625 The NORC, 1685 Toro, 2189 Zaragoza, 2287 Kalmykia, 2639 Planman, 3695 Fiaia, 4786 Tatianina, 5333 Kanaya, (5452) 1937 NN, 6170 Levasseur, 7741 Fedoseev, 14815 Rutberg, 15724 Zille, 16525 Shumarinaiko, (21996) 1993 XP31, (29729) 1999 BY1, (35404) 1997 YV5, (39087) 2000 VN50, (66146) 1998 TU3, and (101769) 1999 FF52.

  18. MRI findings in the mild type of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter's syndrome)

    Shimoda-Matsubayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Hattori, N.; Okuma, Y.; Mizuno, Y.; Kuru, Y.; Sumie, H.

    1990-01-01

    Neuroradiological findings in a 44-year-old male with the typical mild type of Hunter's disease are reported. Cranial MRI revealed patchy areas of increased and decreased signals in T1- and T2-weighted images in the thalamus and the basal ganglia giving rise to a honey comb-like appearance as a whole. The deep white matter showed high signals in the T2-weighted image. To our knowledge, the honey comb-like appearance has never been reported in this disorder. Deposition of mucopolysaccharides and/or glycolipids and increase in fluid content seem to be responsible for these changes. (orig.)

  19. Concept of contracting authority

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  20. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  1. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    but troubling proposition that high scores in impression management scales actually reflect honesty rather than dishonest responding. In line with findings indicating that respondents answer to personality questionnaires rather accurately in typical low demand situations, we herein suggest that high impression...... management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  2. Teaching about Contracts.

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  3. Contract law as fairness

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  4. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  5. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  6. Other enrichment related contracts

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  7. Hunter Syndrome

    ... type and severity of the disease. Complications can affect the lungs, heart, joints, connective tissue, and brain and nervous system. Respiratory complications An enlarged tongue, thickened gums, and ...

  8. Diagnosis of Hunter's syndrome carriers; radioactive sulphate incorporation into fibroblasts in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate

    Toennesen, T.; Lykkelund, C.; Guettler, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mutual correction of co-cultivated fibroblasts from patients with Hunter's and Hurler's syndrome could be inhibited by either fructose 1-phosphate or mannose 6-phosphate. In the presence of fructose 1-phosphate a 50% mixture of fibroblasts from a patient with Hunter's syndrome and a normal homozygous individual showed an increased 35 S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides. When fibroblast cultures from one obligate and two possible carriers of Hunter's syndrome were tested for 35 S-sulphate incorporation, the cultures showed either twice the normal 35 S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate or an abnormally high incorporation in the presence as well as in the absence of the sugar phosphate. (orig.)

  9. Duration in Production Contracts

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  10. Options for change in the NHS consultant contract.

    Clarke, R W; Gray, C

    The lead negotiators for the management and consultant sides in an NHS trust in northern England responded to debate in their trust about consultant contracts by offering to research the attitudes of their peers towards a variety of contract options. The options tested included the current contract; models already examined in the trust and elsewhere, such as time sensitive and mild performance related contracts; and some more radical and speculative possibilities, including consultants franchising their services to the trust. Beyond the predictable conclusion that consultants would prefer no change while managers desired it, a time sensitive contract emerged as having potential for successful negotiation. On the other hand, neither consultants nor managers favoured a strict performance related contract or a fee for service contract. There was a strong similarity of opinion between the two groups on the relative salary values of the options, though the consultants consistently priced these higher than the managers.

  11. Seasonal and Long-term Variations in 137Cs Among Adults from Swedish Hunter Families

    Agren, G.

    2001-01-01

    To study seasonal variations in 137 Cs, whole-body content measurements of adults from Swedish hunter families have been performed in autumn 1997 and spring 1998. Measurements were performed in three locations, By, Harbo and Gavle, geographically close (within 100 km of each other) but with large differences in ground deposition levels. The hunter families at these three locations were previously measured in 1994. The measured persons were also asked for their frequency of intake of moose, roe-deer, freshwater fish, mushrooms and berries. A statistically significant lower frequency of intake of mushrooms and berries in By, moose, roe-deer and mushrooms in Harbo, and moose in Gavle was found in springtime compared to autumn. In one of the locations, there was a statistically significant lower average 137 Cs whole-body content in spring 1998 than in autumn 1997 while in the other two locations no such effects could be seen. The 137 Cs whole-body content has decreased by 37% from 1994 and to 1998 (including physical decay) correlated to an effective ecological half time of 6 years. (author)

  12. High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe

    Holmlund Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and culture are believed to interact, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence for the process. One candidate example that has been put forward is lactase persistence in adulthood, i.e. the ability to continue digesting the milk sugar lactose after childhood, facilitating the consumption of raw milk. This genetic trait is believed to have evolved within a short time period and to be related with the emergence of sedentary agriculture. Results Here we investigate the frequency of an allele (-13910*T associated with lactase persistence in a Neolithic Scandinavian population. From the 14 individuals originally examined, 10 yielded reliable results. We find that the T allele frequency was very low (5% in this Middle Neolithic hunter-gatherer population, and that the frequency is dramatically different from the extant Swedish population (74%. Conclusions We conclude that this difference in frequency could not have arisen by genetic drift and is either due to selection or, more likely, replacement of hunter-gatherer populations by sedentary agriculturalists.

  13. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  14. How Do Hunter-Gatherer Children Learn Subsistence Skills? : A Meta-Ethnographic Review.

    Lew-Levy, Sheina; Reckin, Rachel; Lavi, Noa; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Ellis-Davies, Kate

    2017-12-01

    Hunting and gathering is, evolutionarily, the defining subsistence strategy of our species. Studying how children learn foraging skills can, therefore, provide us with key data to test theories about the evolution of human life history, cognition, and social behavior. Modern foragers, with their vast cultural and environmental diversity, have mostly been studied individually. However, cross-cultural studies allow us to extrapolate forager-wide trends in how, when, and from whom hunter-gatherer children learn their subsistence skills. We perform a meta-ethnography, which allows us to systematically extract, summarize, and compare both quantitative and qualitative literature. We found 58 publications focusing on learning subsistence skills. Learning begins early in infancy, when parents take children on foraging expeditions and give them toy versions of tools. In early and middle childhood, children transition into the multi-age playgroup, where they learn skills through play, observation, and participation. By the end of middle childhood, most children are proficient food collectors. However, it is not until adolescence that adults (not necessarily parents) begin directly teaching children complex skills such as hunting and complex tool manufacture. Adolescents seek to learn innovations from adults, but they themselves do not innovate. These findings support predictive models that find social learning should occur before individual learning. Furthermore, these results show that teaching does indeed exist in hunter-gatherer societies. And, finally, though children are competent foragers by late childhood, learning to extract more complex resources, such as hunting large game, takes a lifetime.

  15. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras.

    Dunn, Marc; Estrada, Nereyda; Smith, Derek A

    2012-12-01

    The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is a popular game species throughout Central America, particularly among indigenous populations, and is currently endangered. Research on Miskitu hunting was conducted over 4 months in a remote region in northeastern Honduras that overlaps with the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The hunting zone was mapped together with hunters and interviews were conducted with elders and other community members about tapir hunting. Results show that tapir harvesting is targeted toward specific habitats at specific times of year. Harvest rates for one year suggest that tapir hunting in the area exceeds estimates of maximum sustainable production. Nevertheless, field surveys reveal the presence of tapir within 1 km of the community, and its harvest tends to be nearby, in both forested and agricultural landscapes, suggesting that the animal has not been depleted in the area. It appears that the existence of forest areas adjacent to the hunting zone that do not experience hunting, together with the anthropogenic habitats created through shifting cultivation, are factors that help explain the presence of tapirs in the area. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Firewood, food and human niche construction: the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively structuring Scotland's woodlands

    Bishop, Rosie R.; Church, Mike J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively constructing their own niches, through the management of wild plants, has frequently been discussed. It is probable that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers systematically exploited specific woodland resources for food and fuel and influenced the 'natural' abundance or distribution of particular species within Mesolithic environments. Though there has been considerable discussion of the pollen evidence for potential small-scale human-woodland manipulation in Mesolithic Scotland, the archaeobotanical evidence for anthropogenic firewood and food selection has not been discussed in this context. This paper assesses the evidence for the active role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities in systematically exploiting and managing woodlands for food and fuel in Scotland. While taphonomic factors may have impacted on the frequency of specific species in archaeobotanical assemblages, it is suggested that hunter-gatherers in Mesolithic Scotland were systematically using woodland plants, and in particular hazel and oak, for food and fuel. It is argued that the pollen evidence for woodland management is equivocal, but hints at the role of hunter-gatherers in shaping the structure of their environments, through the maintenance or creation of woodland clearings for settlement or as part of vegetation management strategies. It is proposed that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers may have actively contributed to niche construction and that the systematic use of hazel and oak as a fuel may reflect the deliberate pruning of hazel trees to increase nut-yields and the inadvertent - or perhaps deliberate - coppicing of hazel and oak during greenwood collection.

  17. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  18. Responding to Bullying: What Works?

    Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the…

  19. 48 CFR 1835.070 - NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses and....070 NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... ensure that the provision at 1852.235-72, Instructions for Responding to NASA Research Announcements, is...

  20. Non-Performance Pay and Relational Contracting: Evidence from CEO Compensation

    DeVaro, Jed; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Vikander, Nick

    2017-01-01

    compensation by invoking the idea of informal agreements, specifically the theory of relational contracting. We derive observable implications to distinguish relational from formal contracting and, using ExecuComp data, find that CEOs' annual cash and equity incentive payments positively correlate...... with the cyclical component of sales and respond to measures of persistence as relational contracting theory predicts....

  1. New staff contract policy

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  2. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  3. Contracting for Public Services

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  4. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  5. Beyond the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho

    Mitchell, P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho Peter Mitchell1, Ina Plug2, Geoff Bailey3, Ruth Charles4, Amanda Esterhuysen5, Julia Lee Thorp6, Adrian Parker7 & Stephan Woodborne8 The activities...

  6. The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College. A Partnership among Earth Science, Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics

    Salmun, Haydee; Buonaiuto, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships to 40 academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics…

  7. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  8. Statistical Validation of Calibrated Wind Data Collected From NOAA's Hurricane Hunter Aircraft

    Graham, K.; Sears, I. T.; Holmes, M.; Henning, R. G.; Damiano, A. B.; Parrish, J. R.; Flaherty, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining accurate in situ meteorological measurements from the NOAA G-IV Hurricane Hunter Aircraft currently requires annual wind calibration flights. This project attempts to demonstrate whether an alternate method to wind calibration flights can be implemented using data collected from many previous hurricane, winter storm, and surveying flights. Wind derivations require using airplane attack and slip angles, airplane pitch, pressure differentials, dynamic pressures, ground speeds, true air speeds, and several other variables measured by instruments on the aircraft. Through the use of linear regression models, future wind measurements may be fit to past statistical models. This method of wind calibration could replace the need for annual wind calibration flights, decreasing NOAA expenses and providing more accurate data. This would help to ensure all data users have reliable data and ultimately contribute to NOAA's goal of building of a Weather Ready Nation.

  9. Origin of HTLV-1 in hunters of nonhuman primates in Central Africa.

    Kazanji, Mirdad; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Lekana-Douki-Etenna, Sonia; Caron, Mélanie; Makuwa, Maria; Mahieux, Renaud; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    Of 78 Gabonese individuals who had received bites from nonhuman primates (NHPs) while hunting, 7 were infected with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1). Five had been bitten by gorillas and were infected with subtype B strains; however, a 12-year-old girl who was severely bitten by a Cercopithecus nictitans was infected with a subtype D strain that was closely related to the simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV-1) that infects this monkey species. Her mother was infected with a subtype B strain. These data confirm that hunters in Africa can be infected by HTLV-1 that is closely related to the strains circulating among local NHP game. Our findings strongly suggest that a severe bite represent a risk factor for STLV-1 acquisition. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Results of the radiological survey at West Hunter Avenue Firehall, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ027)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1990-03-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, West Hunter Avenue Firehall, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ027), was conducted during 1987. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Una valigia caduta in mare: Jaume Serra Hunter e la "Scuola di Barcellona"

    Nazzareno Fioraso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nella storiografia filosofica spagnola non esiste, probabilmente, una definizione ambigua e problematica come quella che riguarda la cosiddetta "Scuola di Barcellona". La tesi principale di questo articolo è che tale scuola non giunse mai a nascere, ma ne esistette soltanto una forma embrionale che non poté maturare perché, in conseguenza della situazione politica venutasi a creare con la guerra civile (1936-1939, i suoi componenti si dispersero nell'esilio. Ciò nonostante, è possibile riconoscere alcuni tratti comuni, seppur labili e (forse non sostanziali, nella diaspora degli intellettuali catalani che rendono possibile definirla, con le dovute cautele, "Scuola di Barcellona". Tali caratteristiche comuni si possono far risalire a colui che, in un certo senso, fu il fondatore della scuola, essendo il principale maestro delle nuove leve filosofiche della Catalogna all'inizio del XX secolo: Jaume Serra Hunter.

  12. General medicine advanced training: lessons from the John Hunter training programme.

    Jackel, D; Attia, J; Pickles, R

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number of advanced trainees pursuing general medicine as a specialty. This reflects an awareness of the need for broader training experiences to equip future consultant physicians with the skills to manage the healthcare challenges arising from the demographic trends of ageing and increasing comorbidity. The John Hunter Hospital training programme in general medicine has several characteristics that have led to the success in producing general physicians prepared for these challenges. These include support from a core group of committed general physicians, an appropriate and sustainable funding model, flexibility with a focus on genuine training and developing awareness of a systems approach, and strong links with rural practice. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?

    Bowles, Samuel

    2009-06-05

    Since Darwin, intergroup hostilities have figured prominently in explanations of the evolution of human social behavior. Yet whether ancestral humans were largely "peaceful" or "warlike" remains controversial. I ask a more precise question: If more cooperative groups were more likely to prevail in conflicts with other groups, was the level of intergroup violence sufficient to influence the evolution of human social behavior? Using a model of the evolutionary impact of between-group competition and a new data set that combines archaeological evidence on causes of death during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene with ethnographic and historical reports on hunter-gatherer populations, I find that the estimated level of mortality in intergroup conflicts would have had substantial effects, allowing the proliferation of group-beneficial behaviors that were quite costly to the individual altruist.

  14. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  15. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    Sheppard, S.C.; Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg -1 in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg -1 for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were ∼4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  16. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  17. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    Sheppard, S.C., E-mail: sheppards@ecomatters.co [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (Canada); Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B. [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg{sup -1} in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg{sup -1} for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were {approx}4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  18. A Lexicon of Contracting Terms: Contract Types

    1990-09-01

    42 respondents, 24 of them agreed with the definition, while 17 disagreed, and one had no comment . That led to an agreement rate of about 57%. The...synonym. Seventeen others had no comment , and the one who disagreed with the "non-list" offered no suggestions. Proposed Definition. After reviewing...respondents disagreed with the definition, and three had no comment . Rewrite. The two comments dealt with replacing "to" with another word, either "under

  19. Democratic contract law

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  20. Contract Teachers in India

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  1. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  2. Comparing contracting performance

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  3. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  4. Drilling contracts and incentives

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  5. Drilling contract issues

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  6. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  7. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  8. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  9. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imp...

  10. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  11. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  12. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  13. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  14. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  15. The acquisition of conditioned responding.

    Harris, Justin A

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the acquisition of conditioned responses in rats trained in a magazine approach paradigm. Following the suggestion by Gallistel, Fairhurst, and Balsam (2004), Weibull functions were fitted to the trial-by-trial response rates of individual rats. These showed that the emergence of responding was often delayed, after which the response rate would increase relatively gradually across trials. The fit of the Weibull function to the behavioral data of each rat was equaled by that of a cumulative exponential function incorporating a response threshold. Thus, the growth in conditioning strength on each trial can be modeled by the derivative of the exponential--a difference term of the form used in many models of associative learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972). Further analyses, comparing the acquisition of responding with a continuously reinforced stimulus (CRf) and a partially reinforced stimulus (PRf), provided further evidence in support of the difference term. In conclusion, the results are consistent with conventional models that describe learning as the growth of associative strength, incremented on each trial by an error-correction process.

  16. Bottlenecks and contracts

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  17. 2001 contract management survey.

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  18. The contract - introduction

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  19. Learning from the mistakes of others: How female elk (Cervus elaphus) adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters.

    Thurfjell, Henrik; Ciuti, Simone; Boyce, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i.e., human hunters. Using fine-scale satellite telemetry relocations, we tested whether differences in behaviour depending on age were due solely to selection pressure imposed by human hunters, meaning that females that were more cautious were more likely to survive and become older. Or whether learning also was involved, meaning that females adjusted their behaviour as they aged. Our results indicated that both human selection and learning contributed to the adoption of more cautious behavioural strategies in older females. Whereas human selection of behavioural traits has been shown in our previous research, we here provide evidence of additive learning processes being responsible for shaping the behaviour of individuals in this population. Female elk are indeed almost invulnerable to human hunters when older than 9-10 y.o., confirming that experience contributes to their survival. Female elk monitored in our study showed individually changing behaviours and clear adaptation as they aged, such as reduced movement rates (decreased likelihood of encountering human hunters), and increased use of secure areas (forest and steeper terrain), especially when close to roads. We also found that elk adjusted behaviours depending on the type of threat (bow and arrow vs. rifle hunters). This fine-tuning by elk to avoid hunters, rather than just

  20. Learning from the mistakes of others: How female elk (Cervus elaphus adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters.

    Henrik Thurfjell

    Full Text Available In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i.e., human hunters. Using fine-scale satellite telemetry relocations, we tested whether differences in behaviour depending on age were due solely to selection pressure imposed by human hunters, meaning that females that were more cautious were more likely to survive and become older. Or whether learning also was involved, meaning that females adjusted their behaviour as they aged. Our results indicated that both human selection and learning contributed to the adoption of more cautious behavioural strategies in older females. Whereas human selection of behavioural traits has been shown in our previous research, we here provide evidence of additive learning processes being responsible for shaping the behaviour of individuals in this population. Female elk are indeed almost invulnerable to human hunters when older than 9-10 y.o., confirming that experience contributes to their survival. Female elk monitored in our study showed individually changing behaviours and clear adaptation as they aged, such as reduced movement rates (decreased likelihood of encountering human hunters, and increased use of secure areas (forest and steeper terrain, especially when close to roads. We also found that elk adjusted behaviours depending on the type of threat (bow and arrow vs. rifle hunters. This fine-tuning by elk to avoid hunters, rather

  1. Establishing contract periods

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  2. Industrial Services Contracts

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  3. Temporary labour contracts

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  4. Temporary labour contracts

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  5. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  6. Contracting as a Science

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  7. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  8. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  9. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    their victims and using the human heads in construction rituals as they used to do, head-hunters are now allegedly harvesting the victims’ organs for sale on the international organ market. Based on a comparison of ethnographic material from North Maluku, a province in the eastern part of Indonesia, and news...... reports I trace the shift from head-hunting to organ theft and suggest that this plasticity is not merely a symbolic representation of changing political and economic realities. Rather, I argue, the organ-stealing head-hunters are part of a global travelling package that includes and entangles organ...... trafficking practices, media accounts, political imaginaries, and social anxieties within the same field of reality and possibility, a field of verisimilitude in which fiction and fact, rumour and reality, are fundamentally blurred. The article proposes a ‘more-than-representational’ approach to the organ...

  10. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Hon Cheng Muh

    Full Text Available Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738, performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter.

  11. Inferring the demographic history of African farmers and pygmy hunter-gatherers using a multilocus resequencing data set.

    Etienne Patin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.

  12. Origin and diet of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the mediterranean island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily.

    Marcello A Mannino

    Full Text Available Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d'Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP. Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d'Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d'Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of

  13. Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)

    Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness

  14. Vessel guardians: sculpture and graphics related to the ceramics of NorthEastern European hunter-gatherers

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Kashina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available North-Eastern European hunter-gatherer ceramic sculptures, relief sculptures and graphic images on vessels are discussed. Five groups of finds are distinguished according to their chronology (4000–2500 BC cal and represented subject (birds, human head, human figure, mammal head etc.. Their production believes to be a female craft, their making had ritual aims and their emerging was independent from any influences of pastoral/agricultural societies.

  15. Surface evolution and carbon sequestration in disturbed and undisturbed wetland soils of the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia

    Howe, A. J.; Rodríguez, J. F.; Saco, P. M.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the soil carbon storage and sequestration rates of undisturbed natural wetlands and disturbed wetlands subject to restriction of tidal flow and subsequent rehabilitation in an Australian estuary. Disturbed and undisturbed estuarine wetlands of the Hunter estuary, New South Wales, Australia were selected as the study sites for this research. Vertical accretion rates of estuarine substrates were combined with soil carbon concentrations and bulk densities to determine the carbon store and carbon sequestration rates of the substrates tested. Relationships between estuary water level, soil evolution and vertical accretion were also examined. The carbon sequestration rate of undisturbed wetlands was lower (15% for mangrove and 55% for saltmarsh) than disturbed wetlands, but the carbon store was higher (65% for mangrove and 60% for saltmarsh). The increased carbon sequestration rate of the disturbed wetlands was driven by substantially higher rates of vertical accretion (95% for mangrove and 345% for saltmarsh). Estuarine wetland carbon stores were estimated at 700-1000 Gg C for the Hunter estuary and 3900-5600 Gg C for New South Wales. Vertical accretion and carbon sequestration rates of estuarine wetlands in the Hunter are at the lower end of the range reported in the literature. The comparatively high carbon sequestration rates reported for the disturbed wetlands in this study indicate that wetland rehabilitation has positive benefits for regulation of atmospheric carbon concentrations, in addition to more broadly accepted ecosystem services.

  16. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  17. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    Victoria Reyes-García

    Full Text Available Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i schooling and ii local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane' from whom we collected information on 1 schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy, 2 local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3 working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  18. Heart Failure Hospitalisations in the Hunter New England Area Over 10 years. A Changing Trend.

    Al-Omary, Mohammed S; Davies, Allan J; Khan, Arshad A; McGee, Michael; Bastian, Bruce; Leitch, James; Attia, John; Fletcher, Peter J; Boyle, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Heart failure carries a major burden on our health system, mainly related to the high rate of hospital admission. An understanding of the recent trends in heart failure hospitalisation is essential to the future allocation of health resources. Our aim is to analyse the temporal trends in heart failure hospitalisation. We extracted all separations in the Hunter New England Local Health District between 2005-2014 (n=40,119) with an ICD 10 code for heart failure (I-50) in the first four diagnoses on discharge. The numbers of hospitalisations were age-standardised to the 2001 Australian population and compared based on gender and remoteness. There was a decline in the age-standardised hospitalisation. However, there was a clear inflection point between 2009-2010, after which the decline levelled off. The absolute number of hospitalisations increased between 2010 and 2014. Heart failure hospitalisation was higher in males compared to females and rural compared to metropolitan inhabitants. The gains in heart failure treatment noted in recent years seem to have come to an end. Patients aged 75 years and older are contributing the majority of age-standardised hospitalisations. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence of Levy walk foraging patterns in human hunter-gatherers.

    Raichlen, David A; Wood, Brian M; Gordon, Adam D; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Marlowe, Frank W; Pontzer, Herman

    2014-01-14

    When searching for food, many organisms adopt a superdiffusive, scale-free movement pattern called a Lévy walk, which is considered optimal when foraging for heterogeneously located resources with little prior knowledge of distribution patterns [Viswanathan GM, da Luz MGE, Raposo EP, Stanley HE (2011) The Physics of Foraging: An Introduction to Random Searches and Biological Encounters]. Although memory of food locations and higher cognition may limit the benefits of random walk strategies, no studies to date have fully explored search patterns in human foraging. Here, we show that human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of northern Tanzania, perform Lévy walks in nearly one-half of all foraging bouts. Lévy walks occur when searching for a wide variety of foods from animal prey to underground tubers, suggesting that, even in the most cognitively complex forager on Earth, such patterns are essential to understanding elementary foraging mechanisms. This movement pattern may be fundamental to how humans experience and interact with the world across a wide range of ecological contexts, and it may be adaptive to food distribution patterns on the landscape, which previous studies suggested for organisms with more limited cognition. Additionally, Lévy walks may have become common early in our genus when hunting and gathering arose as a major foraging strategy, playing an important role in the evolution of human mobility.

  20. Paraoxonases: ancient substrate hunters and their evolving role in ischemic heart disease.

    Martinelli, Nicola; Consoli, Letizia; Girelli, Domenico; Grison, Elisa; Corrocher, Roberto; Olivieri, Oliviero

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the role of paraoxonases (PON) in cardiovascular research has increased substantially over the past two decades. These multifaceted and pleiotropic enzymes are encoded by three highly conserved genes (PON1, PON2, and PON3) located on chromosome 7q21.3-22.1. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PON2 is the ancient gene from which PON1 and PON3 arose via gene duplication. Although PON are primarily lactonases with overlapping, but distinct specificities, their physiologic substrates remain poorly characterized. The most interesting characteristic of PON, however, is their multifunctional roles in various biochemical pathways. These include protection against oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, contribution to innate immunity, detoxification of reactive molecules, bioactivation of drugs, modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and regulation of cell proliferation/apoptosis. In general, PON appear as "hunters" of old and new substrates often involved in athero- and thrombogenesis. Although reduced PON activity appears associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the correlation between PON genotype and ischemic heart disease remains controversial. In this review, we examine the biochemical pathways impacted by these unique enzymes and investigate the potential use of PON as diagnostic tools and their impact on development of future therapeutic strategies.

  1. Results of the radiological survey at 110 E Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ022)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.; Floyd, L.M.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 110 E. Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ022), was conducted during 1987. Following the removal of a small chunk of material showing elevated gamma exposure rates, all radionuclide concentrations and measurements conformed to DOE remedial action criteria. The slightly elevated radionuclide concentrations found in other soil samples were the result of naturally enhances radioactivity characteristic of some environmental materials such as coal ash and were unrelated to operations at the MCW site. The survey data demonstrate that the property requires no further action on the part of DOE. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Jaguar conservation in southern Belize: Conflicts, perceptions, and prospects among mayan hunters

    Michael K Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Belize has emerged as an international leader in jaguar conservation through the creation of numerous protected areas that contain prime cat habitat and by strengthening conservation laws. For example, in 1984, Belize created the Cockscomb Basin Jaguar Preserve, the first special jaguar protection area in the Americas. In 1995, the government expanded Cockscomb by creating the adjacent Chiquibul National Park. In 2010, the government continued this commitment to jaguar conservation by creating the Labouring Creek Jaguar Corridor Wildlife Sanctuary in central Belize. As a result of these protected areas, Belize has been rightfully lauded as a leader in nature-based tourism and protected areas creation in Central America. However, outside national parks and communities that directly benefit from ecotourism, it is less clear how supportive rural residents are of cat conservation. It is also not clear if jaguars persist outside protected areas in locations such as southern Belize, where the environment has been significantly altered by human activities. Through interviews with Mayan hunters, this paper investigates the attitudes towards jaguars, human-jaguar conflicts, and potential community-based jaguar conservation in two Mayan villages in the Toledo District in southern Belize. Also, using indirect methods, the paper documents the presence/absence and other temporal/spatial aspects of jaguars in a heavily altered landscape in southern Belize.

  3. Resource scarcity drives lethal aggression among prehistoric hunter-gatherers in central California.

    Allen, Mark W; Bettinger, Robert Lawrence; Codding, Brian F; Jones, Terry L; Schwitalla, Al W

    2016-10-25

    The origin of human violence and warfare is controversial, and some scholars contend that intergroup conflict was rare until the emergence of sedentary foraging and complex sociopolitical organization, whereas others assert that violence was common and of considerable antiquity among small-scale societies. Here we consider two alternative explanations for the evolution of human violence: (i) individuals resort to violence when benefits outweigh potential costs, which is likely in resource poor environments, or (ii) participation in violence increases when there is coercion from leaders in complex societies leading to group level benefits. To test these hypotheses, we evaluate the relative importance of resource scarcity vs. sociopolitical complexity by evaluating spatial variation in three macro datasets from central California: (i) an extensive bioarchaeological record dating from 1,530 to 230 cal BP recording rates of blunt and sharp force skeletal trauma on thousands of burials, (ii) quantitative scores of sociopolitical complexity recorded ethnographically, and (iii) mean net primary productivity (NPP) from a remotely sensed global dataset. Results reveal that sharp force trauma, the most common form of violence in the record, is better predicted by resource scarcity than relative sociopolitical complexity. Blunt force cranial trauma shows no correlation with NPP or political complexity and may reflect a different form of close contact violence. This study provides no support for the position that violence originated with the development of more complex hunter-gatherer adaptations in the fairly recent past. Instead, findings show that individuals are prone to violence in times and places of resource scarcity.

  4. The neutrino hunters the chase for the ghost particle and the secrets of the universe

    Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In Neutrino Hunters, the renowned astrophysicist and award-winning writer Ray Jayawardhana takes us on a thrilling journey into the shadowy world of neutrinos and the colorful lives of those who seek them. Demystifying particle science along the way, Jayawardhana tells a detective story with cosmic implications—interweaving tales of the sharp-witted theorist Wolfgang Pauli; the troubled genius Ettore Majorana; the harbinger of the atomic age Enrico Fermi; the notorious Cold War defector Bruno Pontecorvo; and the dynamic dream team of Marie and Pierre Curie. Then there are the scientists of today who have caught the neutrino bug, and whose experimental investigations stretch from a working nickel mine in Ontario to a long tunnel through a mountain in central Italy, from a nuclear waste site in New Mexico to a bay on the South China Sea, and from Olympic-size pools deep underground to a gigantic cube of Antarctic ice—called, naturally, IceCube. As Jayawardhana recounts a captivating saga of scientific disc...

  5. Proving communal warfare among hunter-gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan error.

    Gat, Azar

    2015-01-01

    Was human fighting always there, as old as our species? Or is it a late cultural invention, emerging after the transition to agriculture and the rise of the state, which began, respectively, only around ten thousand and five thousand years ago? Viewed against the life span of our species, Homo sapiens, stretching back 150,000-200,000 years, let alone the roughly two million years of our genus Homo, this is the tip of the iceberg. We now have a temporal frame and plenty of empirical evidence for the "state of nature" that Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacque Rousseau discussed in the abstract and described in diametrically opposed terms. All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter-gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources. Studying such human populations that survived until recently or still survive in remote corners of the world, anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof. Yet access to, and the interpretation of, that information has been intrinsically problematic. The main problem has been the "contact paradox." Prestate societies have no written records of their own. Therefore, documenting them requires contact with literate state societies that necessarily affects the former and potentially changes their behavior, including fighting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  7. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  8. Temporary labour contracts

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  9. Networks and informal contract law

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  10. CB decontamination for first responders

    Mayer, M.D.G.; Purdon, J.G.; Burczyk, A. [Defence Research and Development Canada Suffield, Ralston, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Universal Containment System (UCS) is designed to contain, mitigate and decontaminate chemical, biological and radiological warfare agents. The UCS consists of a lightweight, tent-like enclosure filled with a water-based surface decontaminating foam (SDF). The Canadian government funded a project to advance the understanding of the behaviour of the UCS. This paper described the success of the project as well as the technological advances in the UCS formulation and equipment. Vapour desorption experiments were conducted in which SDF was applied onto 12 surfaces found in a typical office environment. Both mustard and nerve agent were studied on the test surfaces. Both scrubbing and non-scrubbing decontamination methods were tested. SDF effectively decontaminated the non-porous substances, particularly when the scrubbing procedure was used. Results were more complicated for the non-porous samples. A dye added to the agent was useful for determining the fate of the agent. Liquid phase studies were conducted in which the reaction between SDF and various agents were studied in the liquid phase in order to estimate the rate of reaction, the stoichiometry and the reaction products formed. Both SDF and the commercial decontamination agent CASCAD were found to effectively kill 100 per cent of anthrax spores. The significance of this project to first responders was considerable. Changes to the formulation and equipment of UCS will increase its usefulness and safety. Users will also have a better knowledge of the amount of decontamination needed for complete effectiveness in specific situations. Recommendations have been made for use of the product on a range of indoor surfaces. Field trials have shown the blast mitigation and agent decontamination ability of the foam under explosive situations. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participati...

  12. Capitation, contracts, and control

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  13. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  14. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  15. Panel discussion : contract design

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  16. Panel discussion : contract design

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  17. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  18. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  19. Culture and Contract Laws

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  20. Do contracts help?

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  1. Statutes and contracts

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  2. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  3. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  4. 29 CFR 98.1000 - Respondent.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Respondent. 98.1000 Section 98.1000 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a debarment or suspension action. ...

  5. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Biocultural Investigation of Gender Differences in Tobacco Use in an Egalitarian Hunter-Gatherer Population.

    Roulette, Casey J; Hagen, Edward; Hewlett, Barry S

    2016-06-01

    In the developing world, the dramatic male bias in tobacco use is usually ascribed to pronounced gender disparities in social, political, or economic power. This bias might also reflect under-reporting by woman and/or over-reporting by men. To test the role of gender inequality on gender differences in tobacco use we investigated tobacco use among the Aka, a Congo Basin foraging population noted for its exceptionally high degree of gender equality. We also tested a sexual selection hypothesis-that Aka men's tobacco use is related to risk taking. Tobacco use, income, tobacco purchases, tobacco sharing, reasons for using tobacco, risk taking, and other variables were measured using structured surveys and peer reports. Tobacco use was verified by testing for salivary cotinine, a nicotine metabolite. Contrary to expectations, we found a very large male bias in tobacco use. Low levels of use among females appeared to be explained by aversions to tobacco, concerns over its negative effects on fetal health, and a desire to attract husbands, who prefer nonsmoking wives. High male use appeared to be related to a desire to enhance hunting abilities and attract and/or retain wives, who prefer husbands that smoke. We conclude that low levels of smoking by Aka women are better explained by the hypothesis that women evolved to avoid plant toxins to protect their fetuses and nursing infants. High male use might be better explained by sexual selection. We also highlight the important role that recreational drugs appear to play in hunter-gatherer sharing relationships.

  7. Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D:4D).

    Apicella, Coren L; Tobolsky, Victoria A; Marlowe, Frank W; Miller, Kathleen W

    2016-02-01

    The ratio between the length of the second and the length of the fourth digit (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic such that males of many species possess a lower ratio than females, particularly in the right hand. Still, men and women often exhibit overlapping 2D:4D ranges and the ratio is highly variable between populations. In order to further explore populational variability, we chose to analyze 2D:4D in the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers living in Tanzania. Data were collected separately by two researchers over the course of three years (1998, 2001, 2006) from 152 adult participants (male: n = 76, female: n = 76). Independent samples t-tests were used to explore sex differences, paired samples t-tests were used to explore directional effects within each sex, and linear regression and one-way ANOVA were used to test possible age effects. In none of the years, or pooled (n = 152), did we find evidence that adult men have a lower 2D:4D than adult women. If anything, the data suggest that women in this population have a significantly lower right hand 2D:4D than men (P < 0.001, d = 0.57). In contrast, left hand 2D:4D did not exhibit a sex difference (P = 0.862, d = 0.03). These findings challenge the current view that lower 2D:4D in men is a uniform characteristic of our species. Cross-populational variance in 2D:4D may be related to known patterns of hormonal variation resulting from both genetic and environmental mechanisms, though this relationship merits further investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PLANET HUNTERS. VIII. CHARACTERIZATION OF 41 LONG-PERIOD EXOPLANET CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER ARCHIVAL DATA

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Picard, Alyssa; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Barclay, Thomas; Ma, Bo; Bowler, Brendan P.; Riddle, Reed; Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Simister, Dean Joseph; Grégoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P.; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0–Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits, and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1–3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4″. We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Kepler Stellar Catalog by Huber et al. We validate 7 planet candidates that have planet confidence over 0.997 (3σ level). These validated planets include 3 single-transit planets (KIC-3558849b, KIC-5951458b, and KIC-8540376c), 3 planets with double transits (KIC-8540376b, KIC-9663113b, and KIC-10525077b), and 1 planet with four transits (KIC-5437945b). This work provides assessment regarding the existence of planets at wide separations and the associated false positive rate for transiting observation (17%–33%). More than half of the long-period planets with at least three transits in this paper exhibit transit timing variations up to 41 hr, which suggest additional components that dynamically interact with the transiting planet candidates. The nature of these components can be determined by follow-up radial velocity and transit observations

  9. Knowledge-Sharing Networks in Hunter-Gatherers and the Evolution of Cumulative Culture.

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Thompson, James; Grace, Olwen Megan; van der Burgt, Xander M; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Smith, Daniel; Lewis, Jerome; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-09-26

    Humans possess the unique ability for cumulative culture [1, 2]. It has been argued that hunter-gatherer's complex social structure [3-9] has facilitated the evolution of cumulative culture by allowing information exchange among large pools of individuals [10-13]. However, empirical evidence for the interaction between social structure and cultural transmission is scant [14]. Here we examine the reported co-occurrence of plant uses between individuals in dyads (which we define as their "shared knowledge" of plant uses) in BaYaka Pygmies from Congo. We studied reported uses of 33 plants of 219 individuals from four camps. We show that (1) plant uses by BaYaka fall into three main domains: medicinal, foraging, and social norms/beliefs; (2) most medicinal plants have known bioactive properties, and some are positively associated with children's BMI, suggesting that their use is adaptive; (3) knowledge of medicinal plants is mainly shared between spouses and biological and affinal kin; and (4) knowledge of plant uses associated with foraging and social norms is shared more widely among campmates, regardless of relatedness, and is important for camp-wide activities that require cooperation. Our results show the interdependence between social structure and knowledge sharing. We propose that long-term pair bonds, affinal kin recognition, exogamy, and multi-locality create ties between unrelated families, facilitating the transmission of medicinal knowledge and its fitness implications. Additionally, multi-family camps with low inter-relatedness between camp members provide a framework for the exchange of functional information related to cooperative activities beyond the family unit, such as foraging and regulation of social life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency and developmental timing of linear enamel hypoplasia defects in Early Archaic Texan hunter-gatherers

    J. Colette Berbesque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital photographs taken under controlled conditions were used to examine the incidence of linear enamel hypoplasia defects (LEHs in burials from the Buckeye Knoll archaeological site (41VT98 Victoria county, Texas, which spans the Early to Late Archaic Period (ca. 2,500–6,500 BP uncorrected radiocarbon. The majority (68 of 74 burials date to the Texas Early Archaic, including one extremely early burial dated to 8,500 BP. The photogrammetric data collection method also results in an archive for Buckeye Knoll, a significant rare Archaic period collection that has been repatriated and reinterred. We analyzed the incidence and developmental timing of LEHs in permanent canines. Fifty-nine percent of permanent canines (n = 54 had at least one defect. There were no significant differences in LEH frequency between the maxillary and mandibular canines (U = 640.5, n1 = 37, n2 = 43, p = .110. The sample studied (n = 92 permanent canines had an overall mean of 0.93 LEH defect per tooth, with a median of one defect, and a mode of zero defects. Average age at first insult was 3.92 (median = 4.00, range = 2.5–5.4 and the mean age of all insults per individual was 4.18 years old (range = 2.5–5.67. Age at first insult is consistent with onset of weaning stress—the weaning age range for hunter-gatherer societies is 1–4.5. Having an earlier age of first insult was associated with having more LEHs (n = 54, rho = −0.381, p = 0.005.

  11. PLANET HUNTERS. VIII. CHARACTERIZATION OF 41 LONG-PERIOD EXOPLANET CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER ARCHIVAL DATA

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Picard, Alyssa; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ma, Bo [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Simister, Dean Joseph; Grégoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P.; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-12-20

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0–Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits, and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1–3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4″. We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Kepler Stellar Catalog by Huber et al. We validate 7 planet candidates that have planet confidence over 0.997 (3σ level). These validated planets include 3 single-transit planets (KIC-3558849b, KIC-5951458b, and KIC-8540376c), 3 planets with double transits (KIC-8540376b, KIC-9663113b, and KIC-10525077b), and 1 planet with four transits (KIC-5437945b). This work provides assessment regarding the existence of planets at wide separations and the associated false positive rate for transiting observation (17%–33%). More than half of the long-period planets with at least three transits in this paper exhibit transit timing variations up to 41 hr, which suggest additional components that dynamically interact with the transiting planet candidates. The nature of these components can be determined by follow-up radial velocity and transit observations.

  12. Partnering and contracting

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  13. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  14. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  15. Turn key contracts

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  16. Startpoints via weak contractions

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  17. Copyright or Contract?

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  18. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  19. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  20. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  1. Complexity, Contract Design and Incentive Design in the Construction Management Industry

    Beg, Zeshawn Afsari

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I examine how one construction management company uses contract design and incentive design to respond to aspects of task complexity and relationship complexity present in its construction projects. In terms of contract design, I find that the company is unable to increase its use of cost-plus pricing when faced with technically complex projects. Instead, the company uses increased pre-execution design modification and price markups when technically complex projects are contract...

  2. Supersize my identity: when thoughts of contracting swine flu boost one's patriotic identity

    Bélanger, J.J.; Faber, T.; Gelfand, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pandemics are socially threatening situations that rapidly spread across large regions. Thinking of contracting dangerous diseases can potentially evoke fear and death-related thoughts. The aim of the present work was to investigate how individuals respond to fear associated with contracting a

  3. The formation of fire residues associated with hunter-gatherers in humid tropical environments: A geo-ethnoarchaeological perspective

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Ajithparsad, P.; French, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Tropical forests have been an important human habitat and played a significant role in early human dispersal and evolution. Likewise, the use of fire, besides being one of the exceptional characteristics of humans, serves as a marker for human evolution. While the use of fire by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is relatively well documented in arid and temperate environments, the archaeological evidence in humid tropical environment is to date very limited. We first review the archaeological evidence for hunter-gatherer use of fire in humid tropical environments and suggest that better understanding of formation processes is required. We present a geo-ethnoarchaeological study from South India, involving ethnography, excavations and laboratory-based analyses in order to build a new framework to study fire residues in humid tropical forests associated with hunter-gatherer's use of fire. Ethnographic observations point to a dynamic and ephemeral use of hearths. Hearths location were dictated by the social and ever-changing social dynamics of the site. The hearths deposited small amount of residues which were later swept on a daily basis, re-depositing ash and charcoal in waste areas and leaving only a microscopic signal in the original location. Particular acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within tropical sediments result in the complete dissolution of ash and bones while favouring the preservation of charcoal and phytoliths. Consequently, the identification of fire residues in humid tropical forests and the reconstruction of the human use of fire must involve multi-proxy microscopic analysis to detect its micro-signatures.

  4. Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century

    Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

  5. Slow Earthquake Hunters: A New Citizen Science Project to Identify and Catalog Slow Slip Events in Geodetic Data

    Bartlow, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Slow Earthquake Hunters is a new citizen science project to detect, catalog, and monitor slow slip events. Slow slip events, also called "slow earthquakes", occur when faults slip too slowly to generate significant seismic radiation. They typically take between a few days and over a year to occur, and are most often found on subduction zone plate interfaces. While not dangerous in and of themselves, recent evidence suggests that monitoring slow slip events is important for earthquake hazards, as slow slip events have been known to trigger damaging "regular" earthquakes. Slow slip events, because they do not radiate seismically, are detected with a variety of methods, most commonly continuous geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. There is now a wealth of GPS data in some regions that experience slow slip events, but a reliable automated method to detect them in GPS data remains elusive. This project aims to recruit human users to view GPS time series data, with some post-processing to highlight slow slip signals, and flag slow slip events for further analysis by the scientific team. Slow Earthquake Hunters will begin with data from the Cascadia subduction zone, where geodetically detectable slow slip events with a duration of at least a few days recur at regular intervals. The project will then expand to other areas with slow slip events or other transient geodetic signals, including other subduction zones, and areas with strike-slip faults. This project has not yet rolled out to the public, and is in a beta testing phase. This presentation will show results from an initial pilot group of student participants at the University of Missouri, and solicit feedback for the future of Slow Earthquake Hunters.

  6. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  7. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  8. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  9. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  10. Ceramics among Eurasian hunter-gatherers: 32 000 years of ceramic technology use and the perception of containment

    Mihael Budja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two parallel and 32 000 years long trajectories of episodic ceramic technology use in Eurasian pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherer societies. In eastern, Asian trajectory the pottery was produced from the beginning. Ceramic figurines mark the western, European trajectory. The western predates the eastern for about eleven millennia. While ceramic cones and figurines first appeared in Central Europe at c. 31 000 cal BC the earliest vessels in eastern Asia was dated at c. 20 000 cal BC. We discuss women’s agency, perception of containment, ‘cross-craft interactions’, and evolution of private property that that may influenced the inventions of ceramic (pyrotechnology.

  11. OPERATION ODESSA: THE FLIGHT OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS TO LATIN AMERICA AFTER WORLD WAR II AND THE NAZI HUNTERS

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  12. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  13. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  14. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  15. Contracting for Complex Products

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  16. Contract types - turnkey

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  17. Between Status and Contract?

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  18. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  20. Exit from contract

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  1. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  2. Non-turnkey contract

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  3. Non-turnkey contract

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  4. Practical guide on contract of technology

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  5. Isolation And Identification Of Antioxidant Compounds Leaf Betel Seating (Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter

    Hartiwi Diastutia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirih duduk or Piper sarmentosum Roxb. ex Hunter have been long used the people in Indonesia for traditional medicine to cure various diseases. This research was aimed to isolate and identify antioxidant compounds from P. sarmentosum leaves. The isolation bioactive compounds of P. sarmentosum leaves was performed by extraction the powder of P. sarmentosum leaves using methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated using n-hexane and ethylacetate in their various composition.  The fractions respectively was examined their antioxidant activity. The most active extract was fractionated again performed by coloumn chromatography Identification of the bioactive compounds was carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrometry, infra red (IR spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS. The result showed that the methanol extract of  P. sarmentosum leaves have antioxidant activity. The fractionation was performed by coloumn chromatography using n-hexane-ethylacetate (4:6 eluent, a bioactive compound of sinamic acid derivative was 4-ethoxy-2-hidroxy-3,5-dimethoxy sinamic acid could be purely isolated. Keywords: Piper sarmentosum, antioxidant, sinamic acid derivative. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  6. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  7. Organisational commitment in the era of the new psychological contract

    Anthonie Theron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in an organisation that had recently experienced organisational restructuring (a merger. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes that stem from organisational restructuring.  When psychological contracts are breached, employees may experience reduced commitment to the organisation.  The target population for this study consisted of all employees working at three recently-merged higher education institutions in the Nelson Mandela Metropolis (n=100 and a self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst staff.  The results indicated that an increase in the number of positive human resource management (HRM practices reported by respondents correlated with a decrease in violation and breach of the psychological contract, despite organisational restructuring.  It was further revealed that effective management of the psychological contract is crucial during organisational restructuring, in order to maintain the commitment and loyalty of employees.

  8. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  9. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  10. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  11. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  12. Defense Technology Opportunities for First Responders

    White, Rodney; Bedard, Louis; Derrah, Scott; Boucher, Robert

    2004-01-01

    For this study, the US and Canadian governments assessed the potential for technology transfer of five technologies, which were developed to meet military requirements, to civilian first responders...

  13. Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators part 2: Potential dietary exposure of South Carolina hunters from recreationally harvested alligator meat.

    Tipton, Jessica J; Guillette, Louis J; Lovelace, Susan; Parrott, Benjamin B; Rainwater, Thomas R; Reiner, Jessica L

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) has been linked to many harmful health effects including reproductive disorders, developmental delays, and altered liver and kidney function. Most human exposure to environmental contaminants, including PFAAs, occurs through consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. This study uses PFAA data from meat samples collected from recreationally harvested American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in South Carolina to assess potential dietary exposure of hunters and their families to PFAAs. Consumption patterns were investigated using intercept surveys of 23 hunters at a wild game meat processor. An exposure scenario using the average consumption frequency, portion size, and median perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) concentration in alligator meat from all hunt units found the daily dietary exposure to be 2.11ng/kg body weight per day for an adult human. Dietary PFOS exposure scenarios based on location of harvest suggested the highest daily exposure occurs with alligator meat from the Middle Coastal hunt unit in South Carolina. Although no samples were found to exceed the recommended threshold for no consumption of PFOS found in Minnesota state guidelines, exposure to a mixture of PFAAs found in alligator meat and site-specific exposures based on harvest location should be considered in determining an appropriate guideline for vulnerable populations potentially exposed to PFAAs through consumption of wild alligator meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  15. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  16. Resilience among first responders | Pietrantoni | African Health ...

    Nine hundred and sixty-one first responders filled out an on-line questionnaire, containing measure of sense of community, collective efficacy, self-efficacy and work-related mental health outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction). Results. First responders reported high level of compassion ...

  17. Mobile-Only Web Survey Respondents

    Lugtig, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824658; Toepoel, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304576034; amin, alerk

    2016-01-01

    Web surveys are no longer completed on just a desktop or laptop computer. Respondents increasingly use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones to complete web surveys. In this article, we study how respondents in the American Life Panel complete surveys using varying devices. We show that

  18. 7 CFR 3017.1000 - Respondent.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respondent. 3017.1000 Section 3017.1000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1000 Respondent...

  19. Contract gangs: race, gender and vulnerability

    Heather Goodall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.

  20. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  1. An improved assay for iduronate 2-sulphate sulphatase in serum and its use in the detection of carriers of the Hunter syndrome

    Archer, I.M.; Harper, P.S.; Wusteman, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    A more sensitive assay procedure has been developed for the enzyme iduronate 2-sulphate sulphatase which is deficient in the Hunter syndrome. The substrate is O-(α-L-idopyranosyluronic acid 2-sulphate)-(1 → 4)-2,5 anhydro-D-[ 3 H-1)mannitol 6-sulphate, which, after incubation, is separated from the product by ion-exchange chromatography on a micro-columnn of Dowex 1 X 2 (Cl - ). Serum analyses can be used to supplement those on hair roots in the detection of carriers of the Hunter syndrome. (Auth.)

  2. Do individual differences in use of cover habitat affect red deer`s (Cervus elaphus) probability of being shot by hunters?

    Stamnes, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if red deer (Cervus elaphus) habitat use affects their risk of being shot by hunters. I compared habitat use of 20 GPS-marked red deer that survived the hunting season with 20 individuals that were shot. I predicted that shot red deer used open areas within forested habitats with a better visibility for hunters than surviving red deer. I also predicted that the use of less risky habitat is costly in terms of foraging opportunity, with shot animals using b...

  3. Muscle contraction and force

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  4. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  5. Contractions from grading

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  6. Tendering specification and contracting

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  7. The Danish Contracting System

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  8. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  9. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  10. Social contract and social integration in adolescent development.

    Hilles, W S; Kahle, L R

    1985-10-01

    Eighty-nine subjects from two high schools were tested during the spring of their sophomore and senior years, when their mean ages were 16 years, 1 month, and 18 years, 1 month, respectively. Composites measured social contract with: (a) independence, (b) implicit social contract, societal norms and expectations, and (c) explicit social contracts, rules. Composites and single items measured social integration with: (d) role commitment, (e) social-American Dream, accepting the belief in the American Dream that hard work would lead to social success, (f) self-American Dream, belief that hard work will produce personal satisfaction and success, (g) raw deal, perceptions of being treated unfairly, (h) self-blame, and (i) feelings of hopelessness. The results of the cross-lagged panel correlations generally support the hypothesis that students respond to implicit social contracts through role commitment, which is further expressed by a belief in the American Dream for social fulfillment, while responding to the perception of explicit social contracts by not believing in the benefits of the American Dream for personal fulfillment. These results were interpreted as supporting Dienstbier's theory of moral development.

  11. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  12. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  13. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  14. TraceContract

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  15. Contracts in Public Administration

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  16. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  17. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  18. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  19. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  20. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  1. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  2. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  3. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  4. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  5. Finding Artemis: pathways for recruiting and constraints to retaining female hunters

    Nevena Martin; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    A total of 321 women (73 percent) responded to the 2001 Illinois Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) Survey. All had signed up for and/or participated in BOW workshops. Eighty-three percent of the women had attended one or more workshops and most participated in these workshops to develop or improve their skills in outdoor activities. During the previous 12 months, 72...

  6. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    Shaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  7. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  8. Corrective justice and contract law

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  9. Incentive contracts and time use

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  10. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  11. Judges, commerce and contract law

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  12. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  13. Corrective justice and contract law

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  14. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  15. Work and minor work contracts

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  16. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  17. Pavlovian hunters on the margin - archaeozoological analysis of the animal remains discovered at the Pavlov II site (1966-67 excavations)

    Wilczyński, J.; Wojtal, P.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, 3-4 (2017), s. 322-331 ISSN 2533-4050 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * hunters-gatherers * southern Moravia * subsistence strategies Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://fi.nm.cz/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/06_Wilczynski_et-al_2017.pdf

  18. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  19. Natural gas market assessment: Long-term Canadian natural gas contracts

    1992-08-01

    A descriptive analysis is presented of the changes which have occurred and the developing trends in the long-term Canadian contracts governing the sale of western Canadian gas into the domestic and export markets from 1985 to 1991. The report is limited to domestic and export contracts for Canadian gas and does not include imported gas under contract. Contract structures prior to deregulation, the changing role of long-term contracts, size and duration of long-term contracts, and terms and conditions of long-term contracts are discussed. Important changes since the mid-1980s include: increased flexibility in long-term contracts enabling the parties to respond more readily to changing supply and demand conditions; greater balance between the buyer's obligation to purchase and the seller's obligation to deliver; flexible and increasingly simple pricing terms that track competitive market conditions; shorter contract terms; reduced contract volumes as smaller end-users and producer/marketers enter the market; and unbundling of gas sales and transportation service providing a wider range of contracting choices and options. 36 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios from hunter-based surveys

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    dominated by adult males, and juvenile proportions were highest in November and significantly lower before and after this peak. Nationwide field assessments undertaken in January 2012 showed no significant differences from sex and age ratios in the wing survey data from that particular hunting season (2011...... schemes. This study found consistent seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios among Danish hunter-based wing surveys, and describes how accounting for this variation might explain reported discrepancies between this and other monitoring methods. Early season flocks were....../2012), indicating that this survey is a good predictor of Wigeon demography. These results highlight the need to account for consistent temporal variation in such demographic time series when using the results to model population parameters....

  1. Perceptions of on-site hunters: Environmental concerns, future land use, and cleanup options at the Savannah River Site

    Burger, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy owns land in 34 states, and most of these lands have been off limits to the public for over 50 years. Although some parts of each site are contaminated, most of many sites are not. With the ending of the Cold War, the department is considering alternative land uses. In this article, the perceptions of hunters and fishermen allowed on site for a limited time were examined, about environmental concerns, future land use, and cleanup options. Although loss of jobs was the foremost concern, preserving parts of the site had more support as a future land use than continuing the nuclear mission, and nearly three-quarters of the sample supported cleanup, regardless of cost. On-site employment was a significant indicator of lower concern about safety and environmental issues, less support for designating the site for research, and more concern for maintaining jobs

  2. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    José Ignacio Santos

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile. According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  3. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  4. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prey items and predation behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Nunavut, Canada based on Inuit hunter interviews

    2012-01-01

    Background Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-directed interviews conducted in 11 eastern Nunavut communities (Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk regions) from 2007-2010. Results Results detail local knowledge of killer whale prey items, hunting behaviour, prey responses, distribution of predation events, and prey capture techniques. Inuit TEK and published literature agree that killer whales at times eat only certain parts of prey, particularly of large whales, that attacks on large whales entail relatively small groups of killer whales, and that they hunt cooperatively. Inuit observations suggest that there is little prey specialization beyond marine mammals and there are no definitive observations of fish in the diet. Inuit hunters and elders also documented the use of sea ice and shallow water as prey refugia. Conclusions By combining TEK and scientific approaches we provide a more holistic view of killer whale predation in the eastern Canadian Arctic relevant to management and policy. Continuing the long-term relationship between scientists and hunters will provide for successful knowledge integration and has resulted in considerable improvement in understanding of killer whale ecology relevant to management of prey species. Combining scientists and Inuit knowledge will assist in northerners adapting to the restructuring of the Arctic marine ecosystem associated with warming and loss of sea ice. PMID:22520955

  6. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  7. "Founder crops" v. wild plants: Assessing the plant-based diet of the last hunter-gatherers in southwest Asia

    Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; González Carretero, Lara; Roe, Joe; Richter, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The Natufian culture (c. 14.6-11.5 ka cal. BP) represents the last hunter-gatherer society that inhabited southwest Asia before the development of plant food production. It has long been suggested that Natufians based their economy on the exploitation of the wild ancestors of the Neolithic "founder crops", and that these hunter-gatherers were therefore on the "threshold to agriculture". In this work we review the available data on Natufian plant exploitation and we report new archaeobotanical evidence from Shubayqa 1, a Natufian site located in northeastern Jordan (14.6-11.5 ka cal. BP). Shubayqa 1 has produced an exceptionally large plant assemblage, including direct evidence for the continuous exploitation of club-rush tubers (often regarded as "missing foods") and other wild plants, which were probably used as food, fuel and building materials. Taking together this data we evaluate the composition of archaeobotanical assemblages (plant macroremains) from the Natufian to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (EPPNB). Natufian assemblages comprise large proportions of non-founder plant species (>90% on average), amongst which sedges, small-seeded grasses and legumes, and fruits and nuts predominate. During the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, in particular the EPPNB, the presence of "founder crops" increases dramatically and constitute up to c. 42% of the archaeobotanical assemblages on average. Our results suggest that plant exploitation strategies during the Natufian were very different from those attested during subsequent Neolithic periods. We argue that historically driven interpretations of the archaeological record have over-emphasized the role of the wild ancestors of domesticated crops previous to the emergence of agriculture.

  8. Establishment of native and exotic grasses on mine overburden and topsoil in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales

    Huxtable, C.H.A.; Koen, T.B.; Waterhouse, D. [DNR, Dangar, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Current recommendations for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley involve the sowing of exotic pasture species to reinstate mined land to Class IV and V under the Rural Land Capability System. Despite the importance of native grasses in the pre-mined landscape, they are currently not widely included in mine rehabilitation. To address this issue a project was conducted between 1994 and 2000 to research the use of native grasses for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley. This paper reports on 2 mine site experiments that aimed to assess establishment and persistence of a broad range of native and exotic grass species from an autumn sowing in both topsoil and raw spoil over a period of 61 months. The most promising natives in terms of early establishment, persistence and spread over time, included six C-3 accessions (five Austrodanthonia spp. and Austrostipa bigeniculata) and one C-4 accession (Cynodon dactylon). Persistence of these accessions was better in raw spoil than topsoil, despite initial low numbers, due to a lack of weed competition and their ability to spread by self-seeding. In topsoil, and in the absence of any biomass reduction, native species were mostly out-competed by vigorous exotic perennial grasses which were sown in these experiments and from seed influx from adjacent rehabilitation areas or from the soil seed bank. The effects of climatic conditions and differences in soil physical, chemical and seed bank characteristics at the 2 mine sites are also discussed.

  9. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  10. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  11. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  12. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  13. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  14. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  15. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  16. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  17. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  18. Custom dairy heifer grower industry characteristics and contract terms.

    Wolf, C A

    2003-09-01

    This study examines a national survey of professional custom heifer growers. Sixty-five respondents from 23 states provided information on operation size and characteristics, management practices, and contract terms. Responding operation current heifer inventories ranged from 30 to 20,000 heifers and the average operation had more than 1200 heifers on-farm. The regional pattern of operation size was similar to the regional pattern of dairy farm size with heifer grower operations in the West and South regions being larger, on average, than those in the Midwest and Northeast regions. On average, 71% of total income was derived from the heifer-growing enterprise. Operations in the Northeast region derived the highest percentage of income from heifer growing while operations in the South region derived the least income from heifer growing activities. Many operations entered business to utilize excess facilities, labor, or feed. A majority of the operations had two to five dairy farm clients. Sixty-nine percent of respondents used some form of written contract. Just over 50% of the respondents indicated that a set daily charge per heifer per day was the primary type of contract payment. Although the most common charge was dollars 1.50 per heifer per day, average daily charge was dollars 1.52/heifer. Operations that took heifers from prior to weaning through to prefresh charged a weighted average daily charge of dollars 1.60 per heifer. Explaining price charges as a function of characteristics and contract terms revealed that size and number of clients were negatively related to price while specialization in heifer growing was positively related to price charged.

  19. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  20. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  1. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  2. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  3. INFINITY construction contract signed

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  4. Negotiation and Contracting in Collaborative Networks

    Oliveira, Ana Inês; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Due to the increasing market turbulence, companies, organizations and individuals need to tune their actuation forms so that they can prevail. It is particularly essential to create alliances and partnerships for collaborative problem solving when responding to new businesses or collaborative opportunities. In all types of alliances it is necessary to establish agreements that represent the rights and duties of all involved parts in a given collaboration opportunity. Therefore, it is important to deeply understand the structures and requirements of these alliances, i.e. what kind of members does the alliance have, what kind of protocols may be implied, how conflicts may possibly be resolved, etc. Moreover to these requirements, also the required support tools and mechanisms have to be identified. For that, this paper presents a research work that is being carried in the negotiation and contracting field, in order to promote agility in collaborative networks.

  5. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  6. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  7. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  8. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  9. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  10. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  11. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  12. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  13. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  14. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  15. 77 FR 194 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts for Commercial Items

    2012-01-03

    ..., or a cost-plus term. Otherwise, the respondent thinks contracting officers are likely to read the... target cost), or both. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, the ceiling price or target price is... not possible to accurately estimate the extent or duration of the work or anticipated costs with any...

  16. Blood, guts and knife cuts: reducing the risk of swine brucellosis in feral pig hunters in north-west New South Wales, Australia.

    Massey, P D; Polkinghorne, B G; Durrheim, D N; Lower, T; Speare, R

    2011-01-01

    Humans who have close contact with livestock, wild or feral animals can risk acquiring zoonotic infections such as brucellosis, Q fever, and leptospirosis. Human infection with Brucella suis (swine brucellosis) usually follows occupational or recreational exposure to infected animals. Worldwide, many cases of human infection follow contact with infected feral pigs. In Australia there is a growing market for the export of 'wild boar' and a considerable number of people are involved in feral pig hunting. However, feral pig hunters are often hard to reach with health strategies. According to Australian authorities the most important means of preventing disease in humans includes covering cuts; wearing gloves; washing hands; and avoiding blood when coming into contact with feral pigs. There has not been an evaluation of the acceptability of these recommended risk-reduction strategies in the settings where feral pig hunting and evisceration occurs. Semi-structured interviews and small focus groups were conducted with feral pig hunters in north-west New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to explore their hunting experiences and views on the brucellosis prevention strategies. Interview and focus group notes were thematically analysed. There was a range of experiences of feral pig hunting, from a very professional approach to a purely recreational approach. The main domains that emerged from participants' experiences during their most recent feral pig hunting activity and their reflections on current swine brucellosis risk reduction strategies were: 'you've gotta be tough to be a feral pig hunter'; 'most of the suggested strategies won't work as they are'; 'reducing risk in the scrub'; and 'how to let pig hunters know'. The recreational nature and prevailing macho perspective of participants demand a pragmatic approach to risk reduction if it is going to prove acceptable to feral pig hunters. The 'you've gotta be tough to be a feral pig hunter' context of the activity and the

  17. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  18. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and dif...

  19. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  20. Responding with Care to Students Facing Trauma

    Souers, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to trauma--which many experts view as include ongoing life stressors like poverty, parents divorcing, death of a family member, or drug abuse in the home--is prevalent among school-aged children. Teachers know that facing trauma impedes students' ability to focus and learn, but it can be challenging to keep responding caringly to a…

  1. The Forgotten Disaster Victim: Reducing Responder Injury

    2017-03-01

    Approved by: Anke Richter Thesis Advisor Michael Petrie EMS Bureau, County of Monterey Second Reader Erik Dahl Associate Chair for Instruction...RESPONDERS IN DISASTERS .............20 1. Oklahoma City Bombing .............................................................20 2. World Trade Center...Categories, 2008–2014..................................................................................................19 Figure 4. Oklahoma City Bombing

  2. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  3. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  4. Responding to Children's Fears: A Partnership Approach.

    Sorin, Reesa

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study into children's fears and suggests that forging partnerships between parents, children, and teachers is one positive step toward addressing fear in young children. Defines partnerships and asserts that they can help in better recognizing fear displays in young children and in sharing ideas about best practice in responding to…

  5. Editorial: How to respond to reviewers' comments

    Soji, Zimkhitha

    Is the content and writing satisfactory enough to make it worth reviewing? Not adequately addressing concerns raised by the reviewers and/or editors does not help the peer-review and publishing processes. Poor judgement when responding to reviewers'/editors' comments often produces a undesirable outcome. Merely ...

  6. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  7. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  8. Food and drink serving contract

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  9. nth roots of normal contractions

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  10. Physics of muscle contraction

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  11. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  12. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  13. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  14. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  15. The North Sea contracting industry

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  16. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease

    Moldovan Laura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based teaching (CBT is a well-known educational device, but it has never been applied systematically to the teaching of a complex, rare, genetic disease, such as Hunter disease (MPS II. Aim To develop interactive teaching software functioning as a virtual clinic for the management of MPS II. Implementation and Results The Hunter disease eClinic, a self-training, user-friendly educational software program, available at the Lysosomal Storage Research Group (http://www.lysosomalstorageresearch.ca, was developed using the Adobe Flash multimedia platform. It was designed to function both to provide a realistic, interactive virtual clinic and instantaneous access to supporting literature on Hunter disease. The Hunter disease eClinic consists of an eBook and an eClinic. The eClinic is the interactive virtual clinic component of the software. Within an environment resembling a real clinic, the trainee is instructed to perform a medical history, to examine the patient, and to order appropriate investigation. The program provides clinical data derived from the management of actual patients with Hunter disease. The eBook provides instantaneous, electronic access to a vast collection of reference information to provide detailed background clinical and basic science, including relevant biochemistry, physiology, and genetics. In the eClinic, the trainee is presented with quizzes designed to provide immediate feedback on both trainee effectiveness and efficiency. User feedback on the merits of the program was collected at several seminars and formal clinical rounds at several medical centres, primarily in Canada. In addition, online usage statistics were documented for a 2-year period. Feedback was consistently positive and confirmed the practical benefit of the program. The online English-language version is accessed daily by users from all over the world; a Japanese translation of the program is also available. Conclusions The

  17. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease.

    Al-Jasmi, Fatma; Moldovan, Laura; Clarke, Joe T R

    2010-10-25

    Computer-based teaching (CBT) is a well-known educational device, but it has never been applied systematically to the teaching of a complex, rare, genetic disease, such as Hunter disease (MPS II). To develop interactive teaching software functioning as a virtual clinic for the management of MPS II. The Hunter disease eClinic, a self-training, user-friendly educational software program, available at the Lysosomal Storage Research Group (http://www.lysosomalstorageresearch.ca), was developed using the Adobe Flash multimedia platform. It was designed to function both to provide a realistic, interactive virtual clinic and instantaneous access to supporting literature on Hunter disease. The Hunter disease eClinic consists of an eBook and an eClinic. The eClinic is the interactive virtual clinic component of the software. Within an environment resembling a real clinic, the trainee is instructed to perform a medical history, to examine the patient, and to order appropriate investigation. The program provides clinical data derived from the management of actual patients with Hunter disease. The eBook provides instantaneous, electronic access to a vast collection of reference information to provide detailed background clinical and basic science, including relevant biochemistry, physiology, and genetics. In the eClinic, the trainee is presented with quizzes designed to provide immediate feedback on both trainee effectiveness and efficiency. User feedback on the merits of the program was collected at several seminars and formal clinical rounds at several medical centres, primarily in Canada. In addition, online usage statistics were documented for a 2-year period. Feedback was consistently positive and confirmed the practical benefit of the program. The online English-language version is accessed daily by users from all over the world; a Japanese translation of the program is also available. The Hunter disease eClinic employs a CBT model providing the trainee with realistic

  18. Cadmium, lead, and chromium in large game: a local-scale exposure assessment for hunters consuming meat and liver of wild boar.

    Danieli, P P; Serrani, F; Primi, R; Ponzetta, M P; Ronchi, B; Amici, A

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metals are ubiquitous in soil, water, and air. Their entrance into the food chain is an important environmental issue that entails risks to humans. Several reports indicate that game meat can be an important source of heavy metals, particularly because of the increasing consumption of game meat, mainly by hunters. We performed an exposure assessment of hunters and members of their households, both adults and children, who consumed wild boar (WB) meat and offal. We estimated the amount of cadmium, lead, and chromium in the tissues of WB hunted in six areas within Viterbo Province (Italy) and gathered data on WB meat and offal consumption by conducting specific diet surveys in the same areas. The exposure to cadmium, lead, and chromium was simulated with specifically developed Monte Carlo simulation models. Cadmium and lead levels in WB liver and meat harvested in Viterbo Province (Italy) were similar to or lower than the values reported in other studies. However, some samples contained these metals at levels greater then the EU limits set for domestic animals. The chromium content of meat or liver cannot be evaluated against any regulatory limit, but our results suggest that the amounts of this metal found in WB products may reflect a moderate environmental load. Our survey of the hunter population confirmed that their consumption of WB meat and liver was greater than that of the general Italian population. This level of consumption was comparable with other European studies. Consumption of WB products contributes significantly to cadmium and lead exposure of both adults and children. More specifically, consumption of the WB liver contributed significantly to total cadmium and lead exposure of members of the households of WB hunters. As a general rule, liver consumption should be kept to a minimum, especially for children living in these hunter households. The exposure to chromium estimated for this population of hunters may be considered to be safe. However

  19. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  20. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  1. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  2. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage... determinations of amounts payable under the contract. (iv) Properly reflect all direct and indirect costs claimed..., contracts, and subcontracts. (vi) Franchise, marketing, and management agreements. (vii) Schedules of...

  3. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  5. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to substitute contract units. At the discretion of the PHA and subject to all PBV requirements, the HAP contract...

  6. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  7. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  8. Psychological contract breach among allied health professionals.

    Rodwell, John; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Allied health professionals are vital for effective healthcare yet there are continuing shortages of these employees. Building on work with other healthcare professionals, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of psychological contract (PC) breach and types of organisational justice on variables important to retention among allied health professionals: mental health and organisational commitment. The potential effects of justice on the negative outcomes of breach were examined. Multiple regressions analysed data from 113 allied health professionals working in a medium-large Australian healthcare organisation. The main negative impacts on respondents' mental health and commitment were from high PC breach, low procedural and distributive justice and less respectful treatment from organisational representatives. The interaction between procedural justice and breach illustrates that breach may be forgivable if processes are fair. Surprisingly, a betrayal or "aggravated breach effect" may occur after a breach when interpersonal justice is high. Further, negative affectivity was negatively related to respondents' mental health (affective outcomes) but not commitment (work-related attitude). Healthcare organisations should ensure the fairness of decisions and avoid breaking promises within their control. If promises cannot reasonably be kept, transparency of processes behind the breach may allow allied health professionals to understand that the organisation did not purposefully fail to fulfil expectations. This study offers insights into how breach and four types of justice interact to influence employee mental health and work attitudes among allied health professionals.

  9. Principles of European Contract Law

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  10. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  11. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... higher goal attainment when agency head experience that the department balance dialogue and autonomy with some element of control in the process of internal contracting (Bjørnholt and Salomonsen 2011). This implies, that effective steering include a combination of decentralized management...... and how a balanced use of internal contracting leads to a better performance. These findings are then theoretically interpreted based upon a combination of literature on agencification as well as public management. We compare contracting across all Danish agencies based on a combination of survey...

  12. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  13. Contraction of the solar nebula

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  14. Construction contracts law and management

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  15. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  16. Non-renewal of contracts

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  17. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  19. City Life in the Midst of the Forest: a Punan Hunter-Gatherer's Vision of Conservation and Development

    Patrice Levang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Punan Tubu, a group of hunter-gatherers in East-Kalimantan, Indonesia, are used to illustrate the very real trade-offs that are made between conservation and development. This group has undergone various forms of resettlement in the 20th century, to the point that some are now settled close to the city of Malinau whereas others remain in remote locations in the upper Tubu catchment. This study is based on several years of ethnographic and household analysis. The Punan clearly favor both conservation and development. In the city, the Punan benefit from all positive effects of development. Child and infant mortality rates are very low, and illiteracy has been eradicated among the younger generation. However, the Punan complain that nothing in town is free. The older generation, in particular, resents the loss of Punan culture. Because of frustration and unemployment, young people often succumb to alcoholism and drug addiction. The Punan do not want to choose between conservation and development, between forest life and city life. They want to benefit from the advantages of both locations, to enjoy both free forest products and the positive aspects of modern life, to go wild boar hunting in the morning and watch television in the evening. In short, they want to enjoy city life in the midst of the forest. The same kind of contradiction has led to identity problems. They want to uphold the traditional life of the hunter-gatherer, but at the same time they reject marginalization and seek integration into the larger society. In short, they want integration without loss of identity. The settlement of Sule-Pipa illustrates how some groups have dealt with the contradiction more successfully. Thanks to good organization and charitable donations, they have secured educational facilities and basic health care, and marketing costs are reduced by collectively organized road and river transportation. The economy of the village is thriving, mainly because of

  20. 1500-year Record of trans-Pacific Dust Flux collected from the Denali Ice Core, Mt. Hunter, Alaska

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Koffman, B. G.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Handley, M.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols are a critical component of the climate system through their influence on atmospheric radiative forcing, ocean productivity, and surface albedo. Dust aerosols derived from Asian deserts are known to reach as far as Europe through efficient transport in the upper tropospheric westerlies. While centennially-to-millennially resolved Asian dust records exist over the late Holocene from North Pacific marine sediment cores and Asian loess deposits, a high-resolution (sub-annual to decadal) record of trans-Pacific dust flux will significantly improve our understanding of North Pacific dust-climate interactions and provide paleoclimatological context for 20th century dust activity. Here we present an annually resolved 1500-year record of trans-Pacific dust transport based on chemical and physical dust measurements in parallel Alaskan ice cores (208 m to bedrock) collected from the summit plateau of Mt. Hunter in Denali National Park. The cores were sampled at high resolution using a continuous melter system with discrete analyses for major ions (Dionex ion chromatograph), trace elements (Element2 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer), and stable water isotope ratios (Picarro laser ringdown spectroscopy), and continuous flow analysis for dust concentration and size distribution (Klotz Abakus). We compare the ice core dust record to instrumental aerosol stations, satellite observations, and dust model data from the instrumental period, and evaluate climatic controls on dust emission and trans-Pacific transport using climate reanalysis data, to inform dust-climate relationships over the past 1500 years. Physical particulate and chemical data demonstrate remarkable fidelity at sub-annual resolution, with both displaying a strong springtime peak consistent with periods of high dust activity over Asian desert source regions. Preliminary results suggest volumetric mode typically ranges from 4.5 - 6.5 um, with a mean value of 5.5 um. Preliminary

  1. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  2. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908 provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ACCURACY OF PRE-CONTRACT STAGE ESTIMATION OF FINAL CONTRACT PRICE IN NEW ZEALAND

    Cong Ji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing and prioritising the factors that may influence the final contract price when responding to a call for tenders is crucial for proper risk analysis and reliable forecasting; it could make or mar the ability to achieve expected profit margin in an era of lump sum fixed price contracts where clients often contest variation claims. In New Zealand, these factors have not been researched; hence estimators rely only on judgement to ‘guess-estimate’ in their price forecasting. This study aimed to fill the knowledge gap by investigating the priority factors. 150 responses from professional members of the New Zealand Institute of Quantity Surveyors were analysed using multi-attribute method. Results showed thirty-seven factors which could influence the final contract price; the three most influential being poor tender documentation, complexity of design & construction, and completeness of project information. Other factors relating to project, client and contractor characteristics, design consultants and tendering conditions, estimating practice and external factors were reported. Concordance analysis indicated high level of agreement amongst survey participants in the rank-ordering of the relative importance of the identified factors. The findings could assist quantity surveyors to prepare more reliable contract price estimates at the pre-contract stage. It would also improve construction-stage cost control.

  4. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  5. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  6. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...

  7. Operations Charioteer, Musketeer, Touchstone, Cornerstone, Aqueduct, Sculpin and Julin. Tests Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Mighty Oak, Middle Note Mission Ghost, Mission Cyber, Misty Echo, Disko Elm, Mineral Quarry, Distant Zenith, Diamond Fortune, and Hunters Trophy

    Schoengold, Carole

    1999-01-01

    ...; Tests MILL YARD, DIAMOND BEECH, MIGHTY OAK, MIDDLE NOTE, MISSION GHOST, MISSION CYBER, MISTY ECHO, DISKO ELM, MINERAL QUARRY, DISTANT ZENITH, DIAMOND FORTUNE, and HUNTERS TROPHY, 9 October 1985 to 18 September 1992...

  8. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  9. Preferences for symmetry in human faces in two cultures: data from the UK and the Hadza, an isolated group of hunter-gatherers.

    Little, Anthony C; Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W

    2007-12-22

    Many studies show agreement within and between cultures for general judgements of facial attractiveness. Few studies, however, have examined the attractiveness of specific traits and few have examined preferences in hunter-gatherers. The current study examined preferences for symmetry in both the UK and the Hadza, a hunter-gatherer society of Tanzania. We found that symmetry was more attractive than asymmetry across both the cultures and was more strongly preferred by the Hadza than in the UK. The different ecological conditions may play a role in generating this difference. Such variation in preference may be adaptive if it reflects adaptation to local conditions. Symmetry is thought to indicate genetic quality, which may be more important among the Hadza with much higher mortality rates from birth onwards. Hadza men who were more often named as good hunters placed a greater value on symmetry in female faces. These results suggest that high quality Hadza men are more discriminating in their choice of faces. Hadza women had increased preferences for symmetry in men's faces when they were pregnant or nursing, perhaps due to their increased discrimination and sensitivity to foods and disease harmful to a foetus or nursing infant. These results imply that symmetry is an evolutionarily relevant trait and that variation in symmetry preference appears strategic both between cultures and within individuals of a single culture.

  10. Hunter-gatherer postcranial robusticity relative to patterns of mobility, climatic adaptation, and selection for tissue economy.

    Stock, J T

    2006-10-01

    Human skeletal robusticity is influenced by a number of factors, including habitual behavior, climate, and physique. Conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of these factors complicates our ability to interpret variation in robusticity in the past. It remains unclear how the pattern of robusticity in the skeleton relates to adaptive constraints on skeletal morphology. This study investigates variation in robusticity in claviculae, humeri, ulnae, femora, and tibiae among human foragers, relative to climate and habitual behavior. Cross-sectional geometric properties of the diaphyses are compared among hunter-gatherers from southern Africa (n = 83), the Andaman Islands (n = 32), Tierra del Fuego (n = 34), and the Great Lakes region (n = 15). The robusticity of both proximal and distal limb segments correlates negatively with climate and positively with patterns of terrestrial and marine mobility among these groups. However, the relative correspondence between robusticity and these factors varies throughout the body. In the lower limb, partial correlations between polar second moment of area (J(0.73)) and climate decrease from proximal to distal section locations, while this relationship increases from proximal to distal in the upper limb. Patterns of correlation between robusticity and mobility, either terrestrial or marine, generally increase from proximal to distal in the lower and upper limbs, respectively. This suggests that there may be a stronger relationship between observed patterns of diaphyseal hypertrophy and behavioral differences between populations in distal elements. Despite this trend, strength circularity indices at the femoral midshaft show the strongest correspondence with terrestrial mobility, particularly among males.

  11. Clinical response to long term enzyme replacement treatment in children, adolescent and adult patients with Hunter syndrome.

    Dalmau Serra, Jaime; Vitoria Miñana, Isidro; Calderón Fernández, Rafael; Cortell Aznar, Isidoro

    2015-11-06

    Since enzyme replacement treatment (ERT) with idursulfase is available for Hunter syndrome (HS; mucopolysaccharidosis type II), for the first time, disease progression can be limited and organ damage reduced or prevented. We described retrospectively the clinical evolution of eight HS males, treated with ERT and followed in routine clinical practice in Hospital Infantil La Fe (Valencia, Spain). We studied three children, three adolescents and two adults. Time from diagnosis to ERT ranged from 13.7 to 0.2 years, and duration of ERT ranged from 24 to 77.1 months. From the start of ERT, weight and height increased in children and adolescents and remained stable in adults. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) decreased in all patients; in patient 5 (aged 23 years), we observed the highest reduction (86%) with recovery of carpal tunnel syndrome, splenomegaly and a decrease in nocturnal oxygen dependence. Our results show that ERT improve respiratory impairment and organomegalies and decrease GAGs levels in all patients including children, adolescent and adults. While cardiac manifestations and facial features stabilized, responses in other parameters were heterogeneous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Poachers and Poverty: Assessing Objective and Subjective Measures of Poverty among Illegal Hunters Outside Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Eli J Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal hunters in Africa may be making rational decisions about the hunting activities they partake in. These decisions could be linked to their socioeconomic status and the livelihood opportunities available to them. In particular, poverty is widely considered the leading driver that causes a household's inhabitants to take up poaching in protected areas. Programs aiming to protect vulnerable wildlife populations by mitigating poaching have historically relied upon income-based poverty metrics in efforts to reduce regional poverty and incentivise local inhabitants to discontinue poaching activities. Because such data sets that deal with poachers directly are rare, assumptions about the role of poverty, and the extent of poverty, that drives poaching have been hard to test. This study uses a unique sample of 173 self-admitted poachers living in villages adjacent to Ruaha National Park in Tanzania to explore the influence of poverty on poaching. Results indicated high demographic and household economy heterogeneity among poaching households. Capability deprivation examined more subjective measures of poverty and revealed that poachers are strongly motivated by the need to improve their incomes, but are not necessarily the poorest of the poor.

  13. Planet hunters. VI. An independent characterization of KOI-351 and several long period planet candidates from the Kepler archival data

    Schmitt, Joseph R.; Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Moriarty, John C.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Omohundro, Mark R.; Winarski, Troy; Goodman, Samuel Jon; Jebson, Tony; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Paterson, David A.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 14 new transiting planet candidates in the Kepler field from the Planet Hunters citizen science program. None of these candidates overlapped with Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) at the time of submission. We report the discovery of one more addition to the six planet candidate system around KOI-351, making it the only seven planet candidate system from Kepler. Additionally, KOI-351 bears some resemblance to our own solar system, with the inner five planets ranging from Earth to mini-Neptune radii and the outer planets being gas giants; however, this system is very compact, with all seven planet candidates orbiting ≲ 1 AU from their host star. A Hill stability test and an orbital integration of the system shows that the system is stable. Furthermore, we significantly add to the population of long period transiting planets; periods range from 124 to 904 days, eight of them more than one Earth year long. Seven of these 14 candidates reside in their host star's habitable zone.

  14. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. If Hunters End Up in the Emergency Room: A Retrospective Analysis of Hunting Injuries in a Swiss Emergency Department

    Valentina Bestetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword “hunt.” Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient age and gender, the mechanism and pattern of injury, and management and patient follow-up. Results. 19 patients were identified. 16 were male with a mean age of 50 years (range: 16–74. Mechanisms of injury included firearm-related injuries, falls, and knife wounds. The most common patterns of injury were head injuries (7, followed by injuries to the upper (5 or lower limb (5 and trunk (2. Over half of the patients were admitted, and nine required emergency surgery. Conclusion. Nonfatal hunting accidents in Bern, Switzerland, are largely caused by firearms and falls and tend to occur in male hunters with a mean age of 50 years. The most common patterns of injury are orthopedic and head injuries, often requiring surgery. These findings are consistent with international studies of nonfatal hunting accidents.

  16. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KIMIA SERTA UJI AKTIVITAS ANTICANDIDAISIS SERBUK DAUN SIRIH DUDUK (Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter

    Suwandri Suwandri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirih duduk or Piper sarmentosum Roxb. ex Hunter have been long used the people in Indonesia for traditional medicine to cure various diseases. One of them was used to treat fungoid diseases. This research was aimed to examine the anticandidaisis activity from extract of P. sarmentosum leaves and to isolate and identify the anticandidaisis compounds from P. sarmentosum leaves. The isolation bioactive compounds of P. sarmentosumleaves was performed by extraction the powder of P. sarmentosum leaves using methanol and the bioactivity tests were performed against Candida albicans. The methanol extracts was then fractionated using organic solvents such as n-hexane, benzene, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Identification of the bioactive compounds was carried out using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fourier transform infra red spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The result showed that the chloroform fraction of methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves have activity against C. albicans. The fractionation was performed by coloumn chromatography using n-hexane-ethyl acetate(1:1 eluent. A bioactive compound of sinamic acid derivative was 4-ethoxy-2-hidroxy-3,5-dimethoxy sinamic acid could be purely isolated.

  17. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KIMIA SERTA UJI AKTIVITAS ANTICANDIDAISIS SERBUK DAUN SIRIH DUDUK (Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter

    Suwandri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirih duduk or Piper sarmentosum Roxb. ex Hunter have been long used the people in Indonesia for traditional medicine to cure various diseases. One of them was used to treat fungoid diseases. This research was aimed to examine the anticandidaisis activity from extract of P. sarmentosum leaves and to isolate and identify the anticandidaisis compounds from P. sarmentosum leaves. The isolation bioactive compounds of P. sarmentosum leaves was performed by extraction the powder of P. sarmentosum leaves using methanol and the bioactivity tests were performed against Candida albicans. The methanol extracts was then fractionated using organic solvents such as n-hexane, benzene, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Identification of the bioactive compounds was carried out using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fourier transform infra red spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The result showed that the chloroform fraction of methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves have activity against C. albicans. The fractionation was performed by coloumn chromatography using n-hexane-ethyl acetate(1:1 eluent. A bioactive compound of sinamic acid derivative was 4-ethoxy-2-hidroxy-3,5-dimethoxy sinamic acid could be purely isolated.

  18. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA

  19. Quantitative autoradiographic localization of cholecystokinin receptors in rat and guinea pig brain using 125I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8

    Niehoff, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The autoradiographic localization of receptors for the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has shown differences in receptor distribution between rat and guinea pig brain. However the full anatomical extent of the differences has not been determined quantitatively. In the present study, 125 I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8 ( 125 I-BH-CCK8) was employed in a comparative quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of CCK receptors in these two species. The pharmacological profile of 125 I-BH-CCK8 binding in guinea pig forebrain sections was comparable to those previously reported for rat and human. Statistically significant differences in receptor binding between rat and guinea pig occurred in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, amygdala, several cortical areas, ventromedial hypothalamus, cerebellum, and a number of midbrain and brainstem nuclei. The results of this study confirm the presence of extensive species-specific variation in the distribution of CCK receptors, suggesting possible differences in the physiological roles of this peptide in different mammalian species

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  1. How utilities respond to radwaste needs

    Strauss, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Slow progress is being made toward regionalization of waste disposal, some states working toward regional compacts while others choose to go it alone. More promising is the reduction of radwaste volumes discharged from nuclear stations. More and more utilities are contracting with private companies for LLW processing. While such services are provided predominantly by mobile units at plant sites, one fixed installation already offers processing of dry waste and two others await final regulatory approval. Both developments are detailed. This article also includes an analysis of the design, performances comparison between slagging combustors (SC) and the FBC boiler. Comparisons are also made for SC technology to FBC for 250-MW unit and of utility-unit conversion costs

  2. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy produces clinical durable response in 25-30% of recurrent glioblastoma patients. This group of patients has shown improved survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression associated with response...... and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.Methods: Recurrent glioblastoma patients who had biomarker-accessible tumor tissue surgically removed both before bevacizumab treatment and at time of progression were included. Patients were grouped into responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 14). Gene...... expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using RNA-sequencing.Results: By comparing pretreatment samples of responders with those of non-responders no significant difference was observed. In a paired comparison analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples of non...

  3. L-059: EPR-First responders: Radiological emergency manual for first responders

    2011-01-01

    This conference is an emergency manual review about the first responders knowledge. The IAEA safety standard manuals, the medical gestion, the security forces and the fast communications are very important in a radiological emergency

  4. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Responding to the Housing and Financial Crises

    Scanlon, Kathleen; Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The long period of house price growth in markets across the world ended with the US and global financial crisis of 2007/08. The crisis and the consequent recession had profound effects on mortgage market actors – including households, institutions and governments – in most advanced economies......, whether or not they participated in this rapid house price growth. Many of the trends observed during the boom, especially the innovations in financial instruments, were reversed. This paper presents evidence on how mortgage markets and stakeholders responded in the initial period after the crash...

  6. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  7. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...

  8. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the award of a...

  9. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  10. 24 CFR 242.52 - Construction contracts.

    2010-04-01

    ...; a construction management contract with a guaranteed maximum price, the final costs of which are... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction contracts. 242.52... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.52 Construction contracts. (a) Awarding of contract. A...

  11. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  12. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  13. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  14. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  15. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  16. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  17. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  18. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  19. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  20. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  1. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  2. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  3. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  4. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  5. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  6. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  7. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  8. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing. ...

  9. 48 CFR 432.412 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 432.412 Section 432.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.412 Contract clause. The decision...

  10. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  11. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  12. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  13. Factors associated with independent pharmacy owners' satisfaction with Medicare Part D contracts.

    Zhang, Su; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; Xie, Yang; Brooks, John M

    2010-06-01

    As Medicare Part D contracts apply pressure on the profitability of independent pharmacies, there is concern about their owners' willingness to sign such contracts. Identifying factors affecting independent pharmacy owners' satisfaction with Medicare Part D contracts could inform policy makers in managing Medicare Part D. (1) To identify influences on independent pharmacy owners' satisfaction with Medicare Part D contracts and (2) to characterize comments made by independent pharmacy owners about Medicare Part D. This cross-sectional study used a mail survey of independent pharmacy owners in 15 states comprising 6 Medicare regions to collect information on their most- and least-favorable Medicare Part D contracts, including satisfaction, contract management activities, market position, pharmacy operation, and specific payment levels on brand and generic drugs. Of the 1649 surveys mailed, 296 surveys were analyzed. The regression models for satisfaction with both the least and the most-favorable Part D contracts were significant (Pequity. For the least-favorable contract, influences were negotiation, equity, generic rate bonus, and medication therapy management (MTM) payment. About one-third of the survey respondents made at least 1 comment. The most frequent themes in the comments were that Medicare Part D reimbursement rate is too low (28%) and that contracts are offered without negotiation in a "take it or leave it" manner (20%). Equity, contending, negotiation, generic rate bonus, and MTM payments were identified as the influences of independent pharmacy owners' satisfaction toward Medicare Part D contracts. Generic rate bonus and MTM payment provide additional financial incentives to less financially favorable contracts and, in turn, contribute to independent pharmacy owner's satisfaction toward these contracts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  15. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  16. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  17. Outsourcing Contract Success: A Quality Management Perspective

    Vanita Yadav; B.A. Metri

    2010-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth in outsourcing of various business functions like Enterprise Systems outsourcing, IT outsourcing, and Business Process outsourcing, there has been relatively less attention given to the high-risk area of outsourcing contracts. In this regard, contract has been the conventional medium for governing outsourcing relationships. This study aims to bring forward the importance of quality in the entire contracting process, involving contract planning, pre-contract negot...

  18. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  19. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  20. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the last week of September.  In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened is available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/Autumn_2011_listofslots.pdf Information sessions for candidates are being organised for 26 and 27 September 2011. For more information please consult:  https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp