Sample records for respiratory-triggered short inversion

  1. Detection and characterization with short TI inversion recovery MR imaging

    Komata, Kaori (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))


    Short TI inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (STIR-MRI) with spin echo (SE) T1- and T2-weighted images of the pelvis was investigated to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and characterizing endometriosis. Thirty-one women suspected of having the disease were studied in detail. MR findings with and without STIR-MRI were correlated with the results of laparotomy (27 women) and laparoscopy (4 women). Surgery revealed endometriosis in 29 women (17 ovarian chocolate cysts, 22 intestinal adhesions, 14 cul-de-sac obliterations and 12 adenomyosis). The other two women did not have endometriosis (uterine prolapse in one and submucosal leiomyoma in one). An ovarian chocolate cyst was diagnosed when a T1-elongated lesion showed shading, loculus or a low intensity rim on SE MR images, and a low intensity rim on STIR-MRI. Only 12 of the 17 chocolate cysts and neither of the two hemorrhagic corpus lutein cysts were correctly diagnosed on SE MR images, whereas 18 of these 19 cysts were correctly diagnosed because of the low intensity rim on STIR-MRI. In the pathological analysis, the rim was found to be a fibrous capsule and there were many macrophages which phagocytized hemosiderin. For the assessment of ovarian chocolate cysts, accuracy improved from 63.2% to 94.7%. As for the adhesion between the intestine and the uterus, specificity improved from 61.9% to 90.5% and accuracy improved from 67.7% to 93.5% when STRI-MRI was used. For the assessment of the cul-de-sac obliteration, accuracy improved from 67.7% to 83.8% although [chi][sup 2] analysis showed no significance. The major factors for the improved accuracy with STIR-MRI are the decrease of the motion artifact owing to the suppression of the fat signal, decreased chemical shift artifact and accurate differentiation of fat from hemorrhagic component. Therefore, STIR-MRI is a useful and reliable procedure and should be used together with SE T1-, T2-weighted images for the assessment of endometriosis. (author).

  2. Respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography: A novel method to reduce imaging dose

    Cooper, Benjamin J.; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Balik, Salim; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Keall, Paul J.


    Purpose: A novel method called respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is described whereby imaging dose can be reduced without degrading image quality. RT 4D CBCT utilizes a respiratory signal to trigger projections such that only a single projection is assigned to a given respiratory bin for each breathing cycle. In contrast, commercial 4D CBCT does not actively use the respiratory signal to minimize image dose. Methods: To compare RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT, 3600 CBCT projections of a thorax phantom were gathered and reconstructed to generate a ground truth CBCT dataset. Simulation pairs of conventional 4D CBCT acquisitions and RT 4D CBCT acquisitions were developed assuming a sinusoidal respiratory signal which governs the selection of projections from the pool of 3600 original projections. The RT 4D CBCT acquisition triggers a single projection when the respiratory signal enters a desired acquisition bin; the conventional acquisition does not use a respiratory trigger and projections are acquired at a constant frequency. Acquisition parameters studied were breathing period, acquisition time, and imager frequency. The performance of RT 4D CBCT using phase based and displacement based sorting was also studied. Image quality was quantified by calculating difference images of the test dataset from the ground truth dataset. Imaging dose was calculated by counting projections. Results: Using phase based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 47% less imaging dose on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Image quality differences were less than 4% at worst. Using displacement based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 57% less imaging dose on average, than conventional 4D CBCT methods; however, image quality was 26% worse with RT 4D CBCT. Conclusions: Simulation studies have shown that RT 4D CBCT reduces imaging dose while maintaining comparable image quality for phase based 4D CBCT; image quality is degraded for displacement based RT 4D

  3. The first implementation of respiratory triggered 4DCBCT on a linear accelerator

    O'Brien, Ricky T.; Cooper, Benjamin J.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Stankovic, Uros; Keall, Paul J.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob


    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an image guidance strategy used for patient positioning in radiotherapy. In conventional implementations of 4DCBCT, a constant gantry speed and a constant projection pulse rate are used. Unfortunately, this leads to higher imaging doses than are necessary because a large number of redundant projections are acquired. In theoretical studies, we have previously demonstrated that by suppressing redundant projections the imaging dose can be reduced by 40-50% for a majority of patients with little reduction in image quality. The aim of this study was to experimentally realise the projection suppression technique, which we have called Respiratory Triggered 4DCBCT (RT-4DCBCT). A real-time control system was developed that takes the respiratory signal as input and computes whether to acquire, or suppress, the next projection trigger during 4DCBCT acquisition. The CIRS dynamic thorax phantom was programmed with a 2 cm peak-to-peak motion and periods ranging from 2 to 8 s. Image quality was assessed by computing the edge response width of a 3 cm imaging insert placed in the phantom as well as the signal to noise ratio of the phantoms tissue and the contrast to noise ratio between the phantoms lung and tissue. The standard deviation in the superior-inferior direction of the 3 cm imaging insert was used to assess intra-phase bin displacement variations with a higher standard deviation implying more motion blur. The 4DCBCT imaging dose was reduced by 8.6%, 41%, 54%, 70% and 77% for patients with 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 s breathing periods respectively when compared to conventional 4DCBCT. The standard deviation of the intra-phase bin displacement variation of the 3 cm imaging insert was reduced by between 13% and 43% indicating a more consistent position for the projections within respiratory phases. For the 4 s breathing period, the edge response width was reduced by 39% (0.8 mm) with only a 6-7% decrease in the

  4. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Segersvaerd, Ralf [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)


    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. (orig.)

  5. Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience.

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Allmendinger, Thomas


    Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months-8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only (1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children.

  6. Contrast-enhanced specific absorption rate-efficient 3D cardiac cine with respiratory-triggered radiofrequency gating.

    Henningsson, Markus; Chan, Raymond H; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois A; Razavi, Reza; Botnar, Rene M; Schaeffter, Tobias; Nezafat, Reza


    To investigate the use of radiofrequency (RF) gating in conjunction with a paramagnetic contrast agent to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR) and increase the blood-myocardium contrast in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) 3D cardiac cine. RF gating was implemented by synchronizing the RF-excitation with an external respiratory sensor (bellows), which could additionally be used for respiratory gating. For reference, respiratory-gated 3D cine images were acquired without RF gating. Free-breathing 3D cine images were acquired in eight healthy subjects before and after contrast injection (Gd-BOPTA) and compared to breath-hold 2D cine. RF-gated 3D cine reduced the SAR by nearly 40% without introducing significant artifacts while providing left ventricle (LV) measurements similar to those obtained with 2D cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was significantly higher for 3D cine compared to 2D cine, both before and after contrast injection; however, no statistically significant CNR increase was observed for the postcontrast 3D cine compared to the precontrast acquisitions. Respiratory-triggered RF gating significantly reduces SAR in 3D cine acquisitions, which may enable a more widespread clinical use of 3D cine. Furthermore, CNR of 3D bSSFP cine is higher than of 2D and administration of Gd-BOPTA does not improve the CNR of 3D cine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Demonstration of the postcommissural fibres of the fornix in short-inversion time inversion-recovery imaging on a high-field system

    Saeki, N.; Kansaku, K.; Higuchi, Y.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Kawano, K.; Iijima, T. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, N. [GE Yokagawa Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)


    Short-inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) imaging using a 3 tesla system was assessed to reveal the postcommissural fibres (PF) of the fornix, which have rarely been highlighted neuroradiologically in the clinical setting. We studied 27 normal subjects. Sequence parameters were TR/TE/TI 8000/52/150 ms. STIR was expected to take advantage of the high signal-to-noise ratio of a high-field system, due to the long repetition time. PF were identifiable in axial and coronal slices in all cases. They were bordered anteriorly and superiorly by the anterior commissure and posteriorly and inferiorly by the mamillary body. Behind the anterior commissure, they ran in an arch-shaped posterior and inferior course in the hypothalamic nuclei and joined the mamillary body anterolaterally. They usually extended through three 3-mm slices (with 1 mm interslice gap) in anteroposterior and vertical dimensions. Little variation was observed in their course or size. Demonstration of the PF would provide a more detailed correlation of human neuroanatomy to hypothalamic function and individualised understanding of hypothalamic pathology and influence therapy. (orig.)

  8. Investigating the Inverse Faraday Effect with an intense short pulse laser

    Najmudin, Zulfikar; Tatarakis, Michealis; Krushelnick, Karl; Clark, Eugene; Santala, Marko; Dangor, Bucker; Clarke, Robert; Neely, David; Faure, Jerome; Malka, Victor


    A circularly polarised laser beam traversing through a plasma can generate an azimuthal electron current, due to their combined quiver motion. This will generate a solenoidal magnetic field in the plasma colinear with the laser propagation. This phenomena is known as the Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE), and can result in sizeable magnetic field strength for an ultra-intense laser pulses traversing through sufficiently dense plasmas. We present here measurements of the IFE field generated by the ultra-intense Vulcan:CPA laser travelling through underdense plasmas. The Vulcan:CPA laser can be focused to greater than 5 × 10^18 Wcm-2, and can generate IFE magnetic fields in excess of 2 MG. We present here the variation of the field with intensity and density, as well as measurements of its temporal and spatial behaviour. Noticeably the field is only observed for the time duration of the driver pulse, and decreases in spatial extent with increasing strength of magnetic field.

  9. Diagnosis of Short Range Forecast Errors Using Piecewise Inversion of Potential Vorticity

    Klinker, E.

    Under the assumption of balanced flow dynamics the evolution of atmospheric sy stems such as cyclones are investigated in the single parameter environment of poten- tial vorticity (PV). Based on the property of invertibility, it is then possible to calculate the distribution of the balanced flow from a knowledge o f the 3-dimensional distribu- tion of Ertel's PV. The diagnosis of atmospheric model errors has to take into account the effects of all di- abatic and adiabatic processes. The difficulty of a comprehensive di agnostic approach arises from the fact that different processes produce tenden cies for different model parameters. A diabatic process may produce tendencies for temperature alone (like radiation); other processes may produce tendencie s for momentum, temperature and humidity (like vertical diffusion or cumulus c onvection). However, a one-parameter diagnosis has been achieved by combining temperature and momentum increments to appropriate increments of Ertel's PV. The advantage of using PV in the frame work of quasi-balanced dynamics is that the flow associated with diabatic PV perturbations can be obtained from the p iecewise in- version technique. The method provides a basis to identify atmosphe ric developments that are noticeably influenced by diabatic processes. For the diagnosis of ECMWF short range forecast tendencies and ultimately for an esti mate of model errors, a di- agnostic system has been set up that calculates the flow perturbations associated with all diabatic and adiabatic processes.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of short-time inversion recovery sequence in Graves' Ophthalmopathy before and after prednisone treatment.

    Tortora, Fabio; Prudente, Mariaevelina; Cirillo, Mario; Elefante, Andrea; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Carella, Carlo; Cirillo, Sossio


    In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS  3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of short-time inversion recovery sequence in Graves' ophthalmopathy before and after prednisone treatment

    Tortora, Fabio; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cirillo, Sossio [' ' F. Magrassi-A. Lanzara' ' Second University, Naples (Italy). Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Surgery; Prudente, Mariaevelina [Second University, Naples (Italy). Medicine Dept.; Vita Salute San Raffaele Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Cirillo, Mario [Second University, Naples (Italy). Neuroradiological Services; Elefante, Andrea [Federic II Univ., Naples (Italy). Neuroradilogical Dept.; Carella, Carlo [Polidiagnostic Center Check-Up, Salerno (Italy)


    In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS < 3) from active Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) (CAS > 3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement. (orig.)

  12. Non-contrast-enhanced MR hepatic arteriography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses: comparison of imaging with flow-in and modified flow-out methods.

    Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Togashi, Kaori


    Background In non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) arteriography, the flow-out method using a selective tagging pulse with a long inversion time (TI) and a non-selective inversion recovery pulse with a short TI (the modified flow-out method) might further contribute to the suppression of background signal and facilitate improved visualization of the hepatic artery. However, no report has focused on the image quality of non-contrast-enhanced MR arteriography using the modified flow-out method. Purpose To compare the flow-in method with the modified flow-out method and to determine which method better visualizes the hepatic artery. Material and Methods Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional true steady-state free-precession MR with two selective inversion recovery pulses (the flow-in method) or with one tagging pulse and one non-selective inversion recovery pulse (the modified flow-out method). Results Artery-to-liver contrast was significantly increased in the modified flow-out method relative to the flow-in method ( P contrast-enhanced MR arteriography using the modified flow-out method exhibited higher scores than with the flow-in method. With respect to overall image quality, the modified flow-out method was significantly better than the flow-in method ( P contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a promising technique for visualizing the hepatic artery.

  13. SU-E-J-183: Quantifying the Image Quality and Dose Reduction of Respiratory Triggered 4D Cone-Beam Computed Tomography with Patient- Measured Breathing

    Cooper, B; OBrien, R; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)


    Purpose: Respiratory triggered four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is a novel technique that uses a patient's respiratory signal to drive the image acquisition with the goal of imaging dose reduction without degrading image quality. This work investigates image quality and dose using patient-measured respiratory signals for RT 4D CBCT simulations instead of synthetic sinusoidal signals used in previous work. Methods: Studies were performed that simulate a 4D CBCT image acquisition using both the novel RT 4D CBCT technique and a conventional 4D CBCT technique from a database of oversampled Rando phantom CBCT projections. A database containing 111 free breathing lung cancer patient respiratory signal files was used to create 111 RT 4D CBCT and 111 conventional 4D CBCT image datasets from realistic simulations of a 4D RT CBCT system. Each of these image datasets were compared to a ground truth dataset from which a root mean square error (RMSE) metric was calculated to quantify the degradation of image quality. The number of projections used in each simulation is counted and was assumed as a surrogate for imaging dose. Results: Based on 111 breathing traces, when comparing RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT the average image quality was reduced by 7.6%. However, the average imaging dose reduction was 53% based on needing fewer projections (617 on average) than conventional 4D CBCT (1320 projections). Conclusion: The simulation studies using a wide range of patient breathing traces have demonstrated that the RT 4D CBCT method can potentially offer a substantial saving of imaging dose of 53% on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT in simulation studies with a minimal impact on image quality. A patent application (PCT/US2012/048693) has been filed which is related to this work.

  14. Anisotropic Lithospheric layering in the North American craton, revealed by Bayesian inversion of short and long period data

    Roy, Corinna; Calo, Marco; Bodin, Thomas; Romanowicz, Barbara


    Competing hypotheses for the formation and evolution of continents are highly under debate, including the theory of underplating by hot plumes or accretion by shallow subduction in continental or arc settings. In order to support these hypotheses, documenting structural layering in the cratonic lithosphere becomes especially important. Recent studies of seismic-wave receiver function data have detected a structural boundary under continental cratons at 100-140 km depths, which is too shallow to be consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as inferred from seismic tomography and other geophysical studies. This leads to the conclusion that 1) the cratonic lithosphere may be thinner than expected, contradicting tomographic and other geophysical or geochemical inferences, or 2) that the receiver function studies detect a mid-lithospheric discontinuity rather than the LAB. On the other hand, several recent studies documented significant changes in the direction of azimuthal anisotropy with depth that suggest layering in the anisotropic structure of the stable part of the North American continent. In particular, Yuan and Romanowicz (2010) combined long period surface wave and overtone data with core refracted shear wave (SKS) splitting measurements in a joint tomographic inversion. A question that arises is whether the anisotropic layering observed coincides with that obtained from receiver function studies. To address this question, we use a trans-dimensional Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to generate probabilistic 1D radially and azimuthal anisotropic shear wave velocity profiles for selected stations in North America. In the algorithm we jointly invert short period (Ps Receiver Functions, surface wave dispersion for Love and Rayleigh waves) and long period data (SKS waveforms). By including three different data types, which sample different volumes of the Earth and have different sensitivities to 
structure, we overcome the problem of

  15. Short (

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens


    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  16. Short (

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens


    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  17. Layered structure in the upper mantle across North America from joint inversion of long and short period seismic data

    Calò, M.; Bodin, T.; Romanowicz, B.


    We estimate crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity structure beneath 30 stations in North America by jointly inverting the high frequency scattered wavefield observed in the P wave coda, together with long period surface wave phase and group dispersion data. Several features distinguish our approach from previous such joint inversions. 1) We apply a cross-convolution method, rather than more standard deconvolution approaches used in receiver function studies, and consider both Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion, allowing us to infer profiles of radial anisotropy. 2) We generate probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic depth profiles across the whole uppermost mantle, down to ∼350 km depth. 3) The inverse problem is cast in a trans-dimensional Bayesian formalism, where the number of isotropic and anisotropic layers is treated as unknown, allowing us to obtain models described with the least number of parameters. Results show that the tectonically active region west of the Rocky Mountain Front is marked by a Lithospheric Asthenosphere Boundary and a Lehmann Discontinuity occurring at relatively shallow depths (60-150 km and 100-200 km, respectively), whereas further east, in the stable craton, these discontinuities are deeper (170-200 km and 200-250 km, respectively). In addition, in the stable part of the continent, at least two Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuities are present at intermediate depths, suggesting the existence of strong lithospheric layering, and a mechanism for lithospheric thickening by underplating of additional layers as cratonic age increases. The Moho across the continent as well as mid-crustal discontinuities in the craton are also imaged, in agreement with independent studies.

  18. Inversion duplication of the short arm of chromosome 8: Clinical data on seven patients and review of the literature

    Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Engelen, J.J.M.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M. [Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [and others


    We report on clinical and cytogenetic data on 5 children and 2 adults with a de novo inverted duplication of the short arm of chromosome 8, and we give a review of 26 patients from the literature. The clinical picture in young children is characterized by minor facial anomalies, hypotonia, and severe developmental delay. In older patients the facial traits are less characteristic, spastic paraplegia develops, and severe orthopedic problems are frequent. Psychomotor retardation is always severe-to-profound. Duplication of 8p21-p22 results in a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome. It is shown that in all patients examined, the duplication was accompanied by a deletion of the most terminal part of 8p. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Preoperative evaluation of the cystic duct for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: comparison of navigator-gated prospective acquisition correction- and conventional respiratory-triggered techniques at free-breathing 3D MR cholangiopancreatography

    Itatani, Ryo [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Namimoto, Tomohiro; Sakamoto, Fumi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Kajihara, Hiroo; Yoshimura, Akira; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Nasu, Jiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Digestive Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsushita, Ikuo [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Gastroenterological Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Kidoh, Masafumi [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan)


    To evaluate the quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images obtained with a three-dimensional navigator-gated (NG) technique and compare findings with conventional respiratory-triggered (RT) images in pre-laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) RT-MRCP (average 242 s) and balanced turbo-field-echo (bTFE) NG-MRCP (average 263 s) were acquired at 1.5-T MRI for 49 pre-laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Two radiologists independently assessed image quality, visibility of anatomical structures, common bile duct (CBD) stones, and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Interobserver agreement was also evaluated. The anatomical details of the cystic duct were clearly demonstrated in 33 (67.3 %, reader A) and 35 (71.4 %, reader B) patients on RT-MRCP, and in 45 (91.8 %) and 44 (89.7 %) patients on NG-MRCP. On NG-MRCP, visualisation of the cystic duct (3.22/3.12), its origin (3.57/3.55), and the gallbladder(3.61/3.59) was statistically better than on RT-MRCP (2.90/2.78, 3.29/3.12, 2.98/2.88, respectively). The overall image quality was statistically better on NG-MRCP than RT-MRCP. Each technique identified the presence of CBD stones in all affected patients. The SNR was significantly higher on NG-MRCP (CHD 22.40, gallbladder 17.13) than RT-MRCP (CHD 17.05, gallbladder 9.30). Interobserver agreement was fair to perfect. Navigator-gated MRCP is more useful than respiratory-triggered MRCP for evaluating the gallbladder and cystic duct in patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. circle Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) provides important cystic duct information before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (orig.)

  20. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    Shimada, Kotaro, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Isoda, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kamae, Toshikazu, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hirokawa, Yuusuke, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)


    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 {+-} 1.0 min (mean {+-} standard deviation), 5.9 {+-} 0.8 min, and 5.8 {+-} 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  1. Effects of anti-heat diet and inverse lighting on growth performance, immune organ, microorganism and short chain fatty acids of broiler chickens under heat stress.

    Ryu, Seung-Tae; Park, Byung-Sung; Bang, Han-Tae; Kang, Hwan-Ku; Hwangbo, Jong


    The present study investigated the effects of night restricted feeding of extreme heat diet (EHD) containing heat stress resistance nutrients, with inverse lighting program, on their growth performance in broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress (33 ± 2°C). EHD 1 contained soy oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. Three hundred broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomized into four dietary treatment groups according to a randomized block design on the day they were hatched. The treatment groups were: T1 (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light) and T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light). The body weight gain of the broilers increased most significantly in T2, followed by T1, T4 and T3 (p < 0.05). Weights of the immune system, thymus and bursa of Fabricius recorded higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4. The spleen was higher in T1, T2 and T3 than in T4 (p < 0.05). Blood triglyceride, total cholesterol and blood sugar were higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4 (p < 0.05). LDL-C recorded high in the order of T4, T3, T2 and T1, but HDL-C showed the inverse order (p < 0.05). IgG, IgA and IgM were higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4, however, the corticosterone concentration showed the inverse order (p<0.05). Lactobacillus in feces was higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4, but total aerobic bacteria, E. coli, Coliform bacteria was higher in T4 and T3 than in T2 and T1 (p < 0.05). Contents of acetic acid, propionic acid and total Short chain fatty acid were significantly higher in the order of T2, T1, T3 and T4. Butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were higher in T4 and T3 than in T1 and T2 (p < 0.05).

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic entheses - a systematic comparison between short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted, contrast-enhanced, fat-saturated sequences

    Klang, Eyal; Aharoni, Dvora; Rimon, Uri; Eshed, Iris [Tel Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hermann, Kay-Geert [Department of Radiology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Herman, Amir [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Tel Aviv University, The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Shazar, Nachshon [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)


    To assess the contribution of contrast material in detecting and evaluating enthesitis of pelvic entheses by MRI. Sixty-seven hip or pelvic 1.5-T MRIs (30:37 male:female, mean age: 53 years) were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of hamstring and gluteus medius (GM) enthesitis by two readers (a resident and an experienced radiologist). Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted pre- and post-contrast (T1+Gd) images were evaluated by each reader at two sessions. A consensus reading of two senior radiologists was regarded as the gold standard. Clinical data was retrieved from patients' referral form and medical files. Cohen's kappa was used for intra- and inter-observer agreement calculation. Diagnostic properties were calculated against the gold standard reading. A total of 228 entheses were evaluated. Gold standard analysis diagnosed 83 (36 %) enthesitis lesions. Intra-reader reliability for the experienced reader was significantly (p = 0.0001) higher in the T1+Gd images compared to the STIR images (hamstring: k = 0.84/0.45, GM: k = 0.84/0.47). Sensitivity and specificity increased from 0.74/0.8 to 0.87/0.9 in the STIR images and T1+Gd sequences. Intra-reader reliability for the inexperienced reader was lower (p > 0.05). Evidence showing that contrast material improves the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting enthesitis supports its use in this setting. (orig.)

  3. Comparative study of fast T 2-weighted images using respiratory triggered, breath-hold, fat suppression and phased array multi coil for liver evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging; Estudo comparativo das sequencias rapidas ponderadas em T2, utilizando-se sincronizacao respiratoria, apneia, supressao de gordura, bobina de corpo e bobina de sinergia para a avaliacao do figado pela ressonancia magnetica

    Abbehusen, Cristiane L.; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Palacio, Glaucia A.S.; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:


    The objective of this study was to compare both qualitatively and quantitatively six T 2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences varying the respiratory compensation technique, associating or not fat tissue suppression and using different types of coils. We performed a prospective study of 71 consecutive patients that were submitted to MRI of the liver using a 1.5 T magnet. The six following pulse sequences were used: fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; non-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold non fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with phased-array multi coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with phased-array multi coil. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios and qualitatively by evaluating the sharpness of hepatic contours, visibility of intrahepatic vessels and other segmental landmarks, and the presence of artifacts. Results: the qualitative analysis showed that the mean values obtained with the six sequences were 7.8, 4.6, 7.9, 5.2, 6.7 and 4.6 respectively. The respiratory-triggered sequences were better than the breath-hold sequences in both qualitative and quantitative analysis (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the values of signal-to-noise ratios and in overall image quality were found between the sequences with and without fat suppression (p . 0.05). The sequences using the body coil were similar in terms of image quality (p . 0.05) and better regarding signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the phased=array multi coil (p ,0.001). Our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that the best MRI sequences for the valuation of the liver are the sequences with respiratory triggering using a conventional body coil, with or without fat suppression. (author)

  4. Non-enhanced ECG-gated respiratory-triggered 3-D steady-state free-precession MR angiography with slab-selective inversion: initial experience in visualisation of renal arteries in free-breathing children without renal artery abnormality

    Klee, Dirk; Lanzman, Rotem Shlomo; Blondin, Dirk; Antoch, Gerald; Schaper, Joerg [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Oh, Jun [University Children' s Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics, Duesseldorf (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology, Hamburg (Germany); Salgin, Burak; Mayatepek, Ertan [University Children' s Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    ECG-gated non-enhanced balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MR angiography requires neither breath-holding nor administration of contrast material. To investigate the image quality of free-breathing ECG-gated non-enhanced bSSFP MR angiography of renal arteries in children. Fourteen boys and seven girls (mean age, 9.7 years; range, 7 weeks-17 years) with no history of renovascular disease were included. MRI was performed at 1.5 T. Subjective image quality of axial and coronal maximum-intensity-projection reconstructions of four segments (I, aorta and renal artery ostium; II, main renal artery; III, segmental branches; IV, intrarenal vessels) was evaluated using a 4-point scale (4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = acceptable, 1 = non-diagnostic). Image quality was excellent for segments I (mean {+-} SD, 3.9 {+-} 0.3) and II (4.0 {+-} 0.1), good for segment III (3.4 {+-} 0.9) and acceptable for segment IV (2.3 {+-} 1.1). Mean image quality did not differ between sedated and non-sedated children. bSSFP MR angiography enables visualisation of renal arteries in children. (orig.)

  5. Serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a short-term marker of dairy food intake, is inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes and its underlying disorders123

    Santaren, Ingrid D; Watkins, Steven M; Liese, Angela D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M; Lorenzo, Carlos


    Background: Growing evidence suggests that dairy consumption is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk. However, observational studies have reported inconsistent results, and few have examined dairy's association with the underlying disorders of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Objective: We investigated the association of the dairy fatty acid biomarkers pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and trans-palmitoleic acid (trans 16:1n−7) with type 2 diabetes traits by evaluating 1) prospective associations with incident diabetes after 5 y of follow-up and 2) cross-sectional associations with directly measured insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Design: The study analyzed 659 adults without diabetes at baseline from the triethnic multicenter Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Diabetes status was assessed by using oral-glucose-tolerance tests. Frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests measured insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function [disposition index (DI)]. Serum fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography. Logistic and linear regression models were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Results: Serum 15:0 was a significant biomarker for total dairy intake in the IRAS cohort. It was associated with a decreased incident diabetes risk (OR: 0.73, P = 0.02) and was positively associated with log SI (β: 0.84, P = 0.03) and log DI (β: 2.21, P = 0.02) in fully adjusted models. trans 16:1n−7 was a marker of total partially hydrogenated dietary fat intake and was not associated with outcomes in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Serum 15:0, a marker of short-term intake of this fatty acid, was inversely associated with diabetes risk in this multiethnic cohort. This study may contribute to future recommendations regarding the benefits of dairy products on type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:25411288

  6. Short TI inversion recovery technology in MRI and its clinical application%磁共振短反转时间的反转恢复技术及其临床应用分析

    顾海峰; 郑玲; 李林


    目的:分析磁共振短反转时间的反转恢复技术的原理及特性,探讨其在临床应用中的价值及相关注意事项.方法:回顾性分析经短反转时间的反转恢复技术获得的磁共振脂肪抑制图像50例,对比频率选择饱和法,分析总结出其临床特点.结果:相同条件下短反转时间的反转恢复技术较频率选择饱和法能获得较好的脂肪抑制效果,但某些情况下有可能引起误诊、漏诊.结论:在磁共振脂肪抑制成像的临床应用中应恰当、合理地选择短反转时间的反转恢复技术才能获得最佳的脂肪抑制图像质量,才更利于疾病的诊断与鉴别诊断.%Objective: Analyzing and summarizing the principle and characteristics of the short T1 inversion recovery technology and discusses the value of clinical applications and related matters. Methods : Retrospectively reviewed short inversion time and inversion recovery fat supprcssion techniques obtained by MRI. 50 cases of contrast frequency selective saturation method analyze the clinical features summarized. Results : Under the same conditions , short inversion time and inversian recovery techniques more frequency selective saturation method can obtain better effects of fat suppression, however,under certain circumstances may lead to misdiagnosis. Conclusion:In the clinical application of fat suppression in the magnetic resonance imaging. the short inversion time inversion recovery techniques should be appropriate, reasonable selection to get the best fat-suppression image quality. more conducive to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  7. Prospective intraindividual comparison between respiratory-triggered balanced steady-state free precession and breath-hold gradient-echo and time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of portal and hepatic veins

    Willmann, Juergen K.; Goepfert, Kerstin; Lutz, Amelie M.; Marincek, Borut; Weishaupt, Dominik [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); McCormack, Lucas; Petrowsky, Henrik [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland); Hervo, Patrice [GE Healthcare, Buc Cedex (France)


    The purpose of this study was to compare respiratory-triggered balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) with breath-hold contrast-enhanced dynamic two-dimensional (2D) gradient-echo (GRE) and time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for portal and hepatic vein visualization and assessment of portal and hepatic venous variants. Sixty patients with liver disease underwent nonenhanced bSSFP and contrast-enhanced GRE, bSSFP, and TOF imaging. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for portal and hepatic veins were measured. Two readers rated the quality of portal and hepatic vein visualization on a 5-point Likert scale. The diagnostic performance of each MRI series in the detection of portal and hepatic venous variants was assessed in 40/60 patients who also underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). CNRs for portal and hepatic veins were highest on contrast-enhanced bSSFP images. Image quality of portal and hepatic veins was rated higher for nonenhanced bSSFP than for contrast-enhanced GRE (p<0.03) and TOF (p<0.003) and higher for contrast-enhanced than for nonenhanced bSSFP (p<0.003). Compared with MDCT, portal and hepatic venous variants were identified with an accuracy of 99% on bSSFP images, with an excellent interobserver agreement ({kappa}=0.97). Compared with MDCT, presence of surgically important portal and hepatic venous anatomical variants can be predicted with high accuracy on bSSFP images. (orig.)

  8. Extent of myocardium at risk for left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery occlusion depicted by contrast-enhanced steady state free precession and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging

    Nordlund, David; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus


    Background - Contrast-enhanced steady state free precession (CE-SSFP) and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) have been clinically validated to estimate myocardium at risk (MaR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance while using myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed...... in polar plots, and expected overlap was found between right coronary artery and left circumflex artery. Detailed regional data are presented for use in software algorithms as a priori information on the extent of MaR. Conclusions - For the first time, cardiovascular magnetic resonance has been used...

  9. Inverse Limits

    Ingram, WT


    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  10. High-resolution and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus using an isotropic 3D T2 STIR (Short Term Inversion Recovery) SPACE sequence and diffusion tensor imaging

    Viallon, M.; Vargas, M.I.; Jlassi, H.; Loevblad, K.O.; Delavelle, J. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)


    This technical note demonstrates the relevance of the isotropic 3D T2 turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence with short-term inversion recovery (STIR) and variable flip angle RF excitations (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolutions) for high-resolution brachial plexus imaging. The sequence was used in 11 patients in the diagnosis of brachial plexus pathologies involving primary and secondary tumors, and in six volunteers. We show that 3D STIR imaging is not only a reliable alternative to 2D STIR imaging, but it also better evaluates the anatomy, nerve site compression and pathology of the plexus, especially to depict space-occupying tumors along its course. Finally, due to its appropriate contrast we describe how 3D-STIR can be used as a high-resolution mask to be fused with fraction of anisotropy (FA) maps calculated from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of the plexus. (orig.)

  11. Inverse disjuncties

    Malepaard, J.


    Balansschikkingen (of negatief gebonden of-constructies) zijn volgens de in dit artikel ontwikkelde hypothese inverse disjuncties (id's). Het zijn tweeledige zinnen waarvan het eerste lid een verplichte negatieve of minimaliserende constituent bevat en het tweede lid met of begint. Evenals

  12. Source Term Inversion Method Based on Containment Short-range Detection Data%基于安全壳近程探测数据的事故源项反演方法

    陈竟宇; 马元巍; 王德忠; 张继革; 范海民


    在发生核电厂严重事故时,为更加快速准确地估算释放至环境的气载放射性核素泄漏速率,提出了一种新的源项反演方法。该方法基于在安全壳附近主动布设的移动探测点所获取的γ能谱数据反演源项,研究了合适探测距离的选择、移动探测点的有效布设及准确反演单个核素泄漏速率的方法。根据研究结果,选择气载放射性核素中泄漏量及特征γ射线能量均相对高的88 Kr 作为特征核素进行能谱分析;确定合适的探测距离范围为距离安全壳100 m 以内;建立γ能谱数据与特征核素泄漏速率的关系,在数值上准确反演放射性核素的泄漏速率。%A new source term inversion method was presented to accurately estimate leak rate of airborne radionuclides released into the environment under the circumstance of nuclear power plant severe accidents.The method is based on containment short-range gamma-ray spectrum data obtained by mobile detection points arranged near the containment.The choice of appropriate detection range,effective arrangement of mobile detection points,and accurate estimate of leak rate for a single radionuclide were stud-ied.As a result,88 Kr is selected as the characteristic nuclide among all airborne radio-nuclides due to its relatively high first characteristic gamma-ray energy and high leak rate.The detection range is determined as within 100 m from the containment.The relation between gamma-ray spectrum data and leak rate of characteristic radionuclide is established to obtain inversion result numerically.

  13. Topological inverse semigroups

    ZHU Yongwen


    That the projective limit of any projective system of compact inverse semigroups is also a compact inverse semigroup,the injective limit of any injective system of inverse semigroups is also an inverse semigroup, and that a compact inverse semigroup is topologically isomorphic to a strict projective limit of compact metric inverse semigroups are proved. It is also demonstrated that Horn (S,T) is a topological inverse semigroup provided that S or T is a topological inverse semigroup with some other conditions. Being proved by means of the combination of topological semigroup theory with inverse semigroup theory,all these results generalize the corresponding ones related to topological semigroups or topological groups.

  14. Locally Inverse Semigroups with Inverse Transversals

    SHAO Yong; ZHAO Xian Zhong


    Let S be a locally inverse semigroup with an inverse transversal S°. In this paper, we construct an amenable partial order on S by an R-cone. Conversely, every amenable partial order on S can be constructed in this way. We give some properties of a locally inverse semigroup with a Clifford transversal. In particular, if S is a locally inverse semigroup with a Clifford transversal, then there is an order-preserving bijection from the set of all amenable partial orders on S to the set of all R-cones of S.

  15. Inverse anticipating chaos synchronization.

    Shahverdiev, E M; Sivaprakasam, S; Shore, K A


    We derive conditions for achieving inverse anticipating synchronization where a driven time-delay chaotic system synchronizes to the inverse future state of the driver. The significance of inverse anticipating chaos in delineating synchronization regimes in time-delay systems is elucidated. The concept is extended to cascaded time-delay systems.

  16. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  17. Direct Waveform Inversion by Iterative Inverse Propagation

    Schlottmann, R B


    Seismic waves are the most sensitive probe of the Earth's interior we have. With the dense data sets available in exploration, images of subsurface structures can be obtained through processes such as migration. Unfortunately, relating these surface recordings to actual Earth properties is non-trivial. Tomographic techniques use only a small amount of the information contained in the full seismogram and result in relatively low resolution images. Other methods use a larger amount of the seismogram but are based on either linearization of the problem, an expensive statistical search over a limited range of models, or both. We present the development of a new approach to full waveform inversion, i.e., inversion which uses the complete seismogram. This new method, which falls under the general category of inverse scattering, is based on a highly non-linear Fredholm integral equation relating the Earth structure to itself and to the recorded seismograms. An iterative solution to this equation is proposed. The res...

  18. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....... suite, developed in this project and in [4]. Source code developed for this project includes the CCD method , improvements on the BFGS method and Jacobian inverse originally developed in [4]....

  19. Inverse periodic shadowing properties

    Osipov, Alexey V


    We consider inverse periodic shadowing properties of discrete dynamical systems generated by diffeomorphisms of closed smooth manifolds. We show that the $C^1$-interior of the set of all diffeomorphisms having so-called inverse periodic shadowing property coincides with the set of $\\Omega$-stable diffeomorphisms. The equivalence of Lipschitz inverse periodic shadowing property and hyperbolicity of the closure of all periodic points is proved. Besides, we prove that the set of all diffeomorphisms that have Lipschitz inverse periodic shadowing property and whose periodic points are dense in the nonwandering set coincides with the set of Axiom A diffeomorphisms.

  20. Modelling of radiative transfer by the Monte Carlo method and solving the inverse problem based on a genetic algorithm according to experimental results of aerosol sensing on short paths using a femtosecond laser source

    Matvienko, G G; Oshlakov, V K; Sukhanov, A Ya [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, A N [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    We consider the algorithms that implement a broadband ('multiwave') radiative transfer with allowance for multiple (aerosol) scattering and absorption by main atmospheric gases. In the spectral range of 0.6 – 1 μm, a closed numerical simulation of modifications of the supercontinuum component of a probing femtosecond pulse is performed. In the framework of the algorithms for solving the inverse atmospheric-optics problems with the help of a genetic algorithm, we give an interpretation of the experimental backscattered spectrum of the supercontinuum. An adequate reconstruction of the distribution mode for the particles of artificial aerosol with the narrow-modal distributions in a size range of 0.5 – 2 mm and a step of 0.5 mm is obtained. (light scattering)

  1. Handling of impact forces in inverse dynamics

    Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.


    In the standard inverse dynamic method, joint moments are assessed from ground reaction force data and position data, where segmental accelerations are calculated by numerical differentiation of position data after low-pass filtering. This method falls short in analyzing the impact phase, e.g.

  2. Dynamical inverse problems

    Gladwell, Graham ML


    The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.

  3. Inverse Symmetric Inflationary Attractors

    Odintsov, S D


    We present a class of inflationary potentials which are invariant under a special symmetry, which depends on the parameters of the models. As we show, in certain limiting cases, the inverse symmetric potentials are qualitatively similar to the $\\alpha$-attractors models, since the resulting observational indices are identical. However, there are some quantitative differences which we discuss in some detail. As we show, some inverse symmetric models always yield results compatible with observations, but this strongly depends on the asymptotic form of the potential at large $e$-folding numbers. In fact when the limiting functional form is identical to the one corresponding to the $\\alpha$-attractors models, the compatibility with the observations is guaranteed. Also we find the relation of the inverse symmetric models with the Starobinsky model and we highlight the differences. In addition, an alternative inverse symmetric model is studied and as we show, not all the inverse symmetric models are viable. Moreove...

  4. 0-Semidistributive Inverse Semigroups



    @@ For an inverse semigroup S, the set L(S) of all inverse subsemigroups (including the empty set) of S forms a lattice with respect to intersection denoted as usual by ∩ and union, where the union is the inverse subsemigroup generated by inverse subsemigroups A, B of S. The set LF(S) of all full inverse subsemigroups of S forms a complete sublattice of L(S), with Es as zero element (Es is the set of all idempotent of S)(see [3,5,6]). Note, that if S a group, then LF(S)=L(S), its lattice of all subgroups of S. If S = G0 is a group with adjoined zero, then clearly LF(S) ≌ L(G).

  5. 屏气与呼吸触发氢质子磁共振波谱量化肝脏脂肪含量的比较%Comparison of breath-hold and respiratory-triggered proton MR spectroscopy in quantification of liver fat content

    林楚岚; 江桂华; 刘金武; 李武铭; 颜剑豪; 梁联保; 全显跃


    Objective To compare the consistency and correlation of multiple breath-hold (BH) with respiratory-triggered (RT) 1H-MRS for quantification of hepatic lipid content. Methods Sixty subjects were underwent RT 1H-MRS of the liver (Couinaud segment VII) and BH 1H-MRS at 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonace Imaging (MRI). The peak areas of water and methylene obtained on RT and BH 1H-MRS were recorded respectively and the liver fat fraction was calculated. Pearson correlation coefficient , Bland-Altman 95% limit of agreement, and concordance correlation coefficient were calculated. Results Mean liver fat fraction measured in RT and BH 1H-MRS were (8.6 ± 8.7)% and (9.4 ± 9.3)% respectively. There was a strong correlation between RT and BH 1H-MRS(r = 0.973, P < 0.000 1, concordance correlation coefficient = 0.95). With the Bland-Altman method, 91.7% data points were within the 95% limits of agreement. Conclusion RT and BH 1H-MRS are alternative tools for intrahepatic lipid quantification. These two methods have a strong correlation and perfect consistency.%目的:比较多次屏气与呼吸触发氢质子磁共振波谱(hydrogen 1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy,1H-MRS)对肝脏脂肪含量量化的一致性和相关性。方法:60例受试者使用1.5 T 磁共振扫描仪在肝脏Ⅶ段分别行多次屏气和呼吸触发1H-MRS采集。分别记录波谱曲线中亚甲基峰和水峰下面积,计算脂肪分数。计算两者的Pearson 相关系数、Bland-Altman 95%一致性界限和一致性相关系数。结果:多次屏气和呼吸触发1H-MRS 得到的平均肝脏脂肪含量分别为(8.6±8.7)%和(9.4±9.3)%,两者高度相关(r =0.973, P <0.0001;一致性相关系数为0.95)。用Bland-Altman方法,91.7%点都在95%一致性界限内。结论:多次屏气与呼吸触发1H-MRS均能用于量化肝脏脂肪含量。这两种方法高度相关且一致性良好。

  6. On Generalized Inverse Transversals

    Rong Hua ZHANG; Shou Feng WANG


    Let S be a regular semigroup,S° an inverse subsemigroup of S.S° is called a generalized inverse transversal of S,if V(x) ∩N S°≠φ.In this paper,some properties of this kind of semigroups are discussed.In particular,a construction theorem is obtained which contains some recent results in the literature as its special cases.

  7. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  8. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E


    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.

  9. A Short Proof of Krattenthaler Formulas

    MA Xin Rong


    With an effort to investigate a unified approach to the Lagrange inverse Krattenthaler established operator method we finally found a general pair of inverse relations, called the Krattenthaler formulas. The present paper presents a very short proof of this formula via Lagrange interpolation.Further, our method of proof declares that the Krattenthaler result is unique in the light of Lagrange interpolation.

  10. Double inverse stochastic resonance with dynamic synapses

    Uzuntarla, Muhammet; Torres, Joaquin J.; So, Paul; Ozer, Mahmut; Barreto, Ernest


    We investigate the behavior of a model neuron that receives a biophysically realistic noisy postsynaptic current based on uncorrelated spiking activity from a large number of afferents. We show that, with static synapses, such noise can give rise to inverse stochastic resonance (ISR) as a function of the presynaptic firing rate. We compare this to the case with dynamic synapses that feature short-term synaptic plasticity and show that the interval of presynaptic firing rate over which ISR exists can be extended or diminished. We consider both short-term depression and facilitation. Interestingly, we find that a double inverse stochastic resonance (DISR), with two distinct wells centered at different presynaptic firing rates, can appear.

  11. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;


    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes......, the results are compatible with the data and, at the same time, favor sharp transitions. The focusing strategy can also be used to constrain the 1D solutions laterally, guaranteeing that lateral sharp transitions are retrieved without losing resolution. By means of real and synthetic datasets, sharp...

  12. InAR:Inverse Augmented Reality

    Hu, Hao; Cui, Hainan


    Augmented reality is the art to seamlessly fuse virtual objects into real ones. In this short note, we address the opposite problem, the inverse augmented reality, that is, given a perfectly augmented reality scene where human is unable to distinguish real objects from virtual ones, how the machine could help do the job. We show by structure from motion (SFM), a simple 3D reconstruction technique from images in computer vision, the real and virtual objects can be easily separated in the recon...

  13. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    Mosegaard, Klaus


    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...

  14. 'Inverse' temporomandibular joint dislocation.

    Alemán Navas, R M; Martínez Mendoza, M G


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation can be classified into four groups (anterior, posterior, lateral, and superior) depending on the direction of displacement and the location of the condylar head. All the groups are rare except for anterior dislocation. 'Inverse' TMJ dislocation is a bilateral anterior and superior dislocation with impaction of the mandible over the maxilla; to the authors' knowledge only two cases have previously been reported in the literature. Inverse TMJ dislocation has unique clinical and radiographic findings, which are described for this case. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Successful management of recurrent puerperal uterine inversion

    Bindu Nambisan


    Full Text Available The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The exact mechanisms are unclear. However, extrinsic factors such as prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction, oxytocic use etc. have been mentioned. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, different placental localizations, fundal location of a myoma or short umbilical cord have also been reported. The diagnosis of uterine inversion is mainly made on the basis of clinical symptoms which include haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. A case of 23 years old, second gravida with one previous spontaneous first trimester abortion, who had a full term normal vaginal delivery but while trying to deliver the placenta after confirmation of placental separation clinically, uterine inversion was diagnosed immediately and manual repositioning of uterus was done under general anaesthesia. On the 6 th post natal day, during the routine postnatal rounds, uterus was not palpable per abdomen and a local examination revealed a mass at the introitus. A diagnosis of grade 3 sub-acute inversion was made and she was taken up for exploratory laparotomy. Reinsertion was done according to the Huntington technique by placing clamps on the round ligament, near its insertion on the uterus, and applying traction upwards while the assistant exerted traction on the contra lateral way through the vagina. As persistent atonicity and diffuse oozing was noted multiple Cho sutures were put over the uterus. Patient had an uneventful postnatal period. This is a rare scenario where the same patient had an acute inversion initially followed by sub-acute inversion. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3619-3621

  16. Locative Inversion in English

    Broekhuis, H.


    This article aims at reformulating in more current terms Hoekstra and Mulder’s (1990) analysis of the Locative Inversion (LI) construction. The new proposal is crucially based on the assumption that Small Clause (SC) predicates agree with their external argument in phi-features, which may be morphol

  17. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Buland, Arild


    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  18. Acceleration of Plasma Flows Due to Inverse Dynamo Mechanism

    Mahajan, S M; Mikeladze, S V; Sigua, K I; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Shatashvili, Nana L.; Mikeladze, Solomon V.; Sigua, Ketevan I.


    The "inverse-dynamo" mechanism - the amplification/generation of fast plasma flows by short scale (turbulent) magnetic fields via magneto-fluid coupling is recognized and explored. It is shown that large-scale magnetic fields and flows are generated simultaneously and proportionately from short scale fields and flows. The stronger the short-scale driver, the stronger are the large-scale products. Stellar and astrophysical applications are suggested.

  19. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    Saragiotis, Christos


    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  20. Pseudo waveform inversion

    Shin, Chang Soo; Park, Keun Pil [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Hee; Hyun, Byung Koo; Shin, Sung Ryul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The seismic reflection exploration technique which is one of the geophysical methods for oil exploration became effectively to image the subsurface structure with rapid development of computer. However, the imagining of subsurface based on the conventional data processing is almost impossible to obtain the information on physical properties of the subsurface such as velocity and density. Since seismic data are implicitly function of velocities of subsurface, it is necessary to develop the inversion method that can delineate the velocity structure using seismic topography and waveform inversion. As a tool to perform seismic inversion, seismic forward modeling program using ray tracing should be developed. In this study, we have developed the algorithm that calculate the travel time of the complex geologic structure using shooting ray tracing by subdividing the geologic model into blocky structure having the constant velocity. With the travel time calculation, the partial derivatives of travel time can be calculated efficiently without difficulties. Since the current ray tracing technique has a limitation to calculate the travel times for extremely complex geologic model, our aim in the future is to develop the powerful ray tracer using the finite element technique. After applying the pseudo waveform inversion to the seismic data of Korea offshore, we can obtain the subsurface velocity model and use the result in bring up the quality of the seismic data processing. If conventional seismic data processing and seismic interpretation are linked with this inversion technique, the high quality of seismic data processing can be expected to image the structure of the subsurface. Future research area is to develop the powerful ray tracer of ray tracing which can calculate the travel times for the extremely complex geologic model. (author). 39 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Reduced Bayesian Inversion

    Himpe, Christian; Ohlberger, Mario


    Bayesian inversion of models with large state and parameter spaces proves to be computationally complex. A combined state and parameter reduction can significantly decrease the computational time and cost required for the parameter estimation. The presented technique is based on the well-known balanced truncation approach. Classically, the balancing of the controllability and observability gramians allows a truncation of discardable states. Here the underlying model, being a linear or nonline...

  2. The Fukushima Inverse Problem

    Martinez-Camara, Marta; Dokmanic, Ivan; Ranieri, Juri; Scheibler, Robin; Vetterli, Martin; STOHL Andreas


    Knowing what amount of radioactive material was released from Fukushima in March 2011 and at what time instants is crucial to assess the risk, the pollution, and to understand the scope of the consequences. Moreover, it could be used in forward simulations to obtain accurate maps of deposition. But these data are often not publicly available. We propose to estimate the emission waveforms by solving an inverse problem. Previous approaches have relied on a detailed expert guess of how the relea...

  3. [Total inversion of the uterus].

    Novachkov, V; Baltadzhieva, B; Ilieva, A; Rachev, E


    Non puerperal inversion of the uterus is very uncommon. Patients may present with pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding or hemodynamic shock. We report a fifty five old woman with uterus inversion second stage.

  4. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    Ohno, Yoshiharu E-mail:; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro


    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging.

  5. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography with balanced steady-state free-precession and time spatial labeling inversion pulse: optimization of the inversion time at 3 Tesla.

    Kawahara, Seiya; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Togashi, Kaori


    A 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is a promising tool for upper abdominal angiography. However, no report has focused on the contrast behavior of non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography at 3 T. To establish the optimal inversion time (TI) for favorable selective visualization of the hepatic arteries on non-contrast-enhanced MR arteriography with time spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) at 3 T. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession combined with Time-SLIP. According to the difference in the TI, five image groups (A, B, C, D, and E, from 1200 to 2000 ms, increasing at 200-ms intervals) were performed and compared to detect the optimal TI for hepatic artery visualization. The relative Cv-l (vessel-to-liver contrast) was quantified. For qualitative evaluation, the vessel visualization quality and order of the depicted hepatic artery branches were evaluated. In group C (TI of 1600 ms), the Cv-l showed the highest probably due to a favorable balance between the hepatic vessel signal and signal recovery of the surrounding tissue. Regarding qualitative assessment, in group C, the mean image quality score of all hepatic arteries and mean maximal visible order of the hepatic artery branches were the highest. However, there was no significant difference between these results. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography with Time-SLIP at 3 T enabled the selective visualization of hepatic arteries at a TI of 1600 ms with an optimal balance between Cv-l and peripheral hepatic artery visualization.

  6. Discovery of large genomic inversions using long range information.

    Eslami Rasekh, Marzieh; Chiatante, Giorgia; Miroballo, Mattia; Tang, Joyce; Ventura, Mario; Amemiya, Chris T; Eichler, Evan E; Antonacci, Francesca; Alkan, Can


    Although many algorithms are now available that aim to characterize different classes of structural variation, discovery of balanced rearrangements such as inversions remains an open problem. This is mainly due to the fact that breakpoints of such events typically lie within segmental duplications or common repeats, which reduces the mappability of short reads. The algorithms developed within the 1000 Genomes Project to identify inversions are limited to relatively short inversions, and there are currently no available algorithms to discover large inversions using high throughput sequencing technologies. Here we propose a novel algorithm, VALOR, to discover large inversions using new sequencing methods that provide long range information such as 10X Genomics linked-read sequencing, pooled clone sequencing, or other similar technologies that we commonly refer to as long range sequencing. We demonstrate the utility of VALOR using both pooled clone sequencing and 10X Genomics linked-read sequencing generated from the genome of an individual from the HapMap project (NA12878). We also provide a comprehensive comparison of VALOR against several state-of-the-art structural variation discovery algorithms that use whole genome shotgun sequencing data. In this paper, we show that VALOR is able to accurately discover all previously identified and experimentally validated large inversions in the same genome with a low false discovery rate. Using VALOR, we also predicted a novel inversion, which we validated using fluorescent in situ hybridization. VALOR is available at

  7. Short tunnels.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Before dealing with the question of lighting short tunnels, it is necessary define what is meant by a tunnel and when it should be called 'short'. Confined to motorized road traffic the following is the most apt definition of a tunnel: every form of roofing-over a road section, irrespective of it le

  8. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus


    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  9. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi


    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  10. Short stature

    ... condition. Bone or skeletal disorders, such as: Rickets Achondroplasia Chronic diseases, such as: Asthma Celiac disease Congenital ... growth seems slow or your child seems small. TREATMENT Your child's short stature may affect her self- ...

  11. Short communication

    preferred customer

    ABSTRACT: Nutrients, metabolizable energy (ME), anti-nutritional factors, digestible organic ... for animals are in short supply and expensive, ... peels from hotels (Hawassa); sisal waste from ..... chain omega-3 fatty acids in livestock meat and.

  12. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Hagelstein, P.L.


    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  13. Dark Radiative Inverse Seesaw

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah


    We present a minimal model that simultaneously accounts for neutrino masses and the origin of dark matter (DM) and where the electroweak phase transition is strong enough to allow for electroweak baryogenesis. The Standard Model is enlarged with a Majorana fermion, three generations of chiral fermion pairs, and a single complex scalar that plays a central role in DM production and phenomenology, neutrino masses, and the strength of the phase transition. All the new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group. Neutrino masses are generated via a new variant of radiative inverse seesaw where the required small mass term is generated via loops involving DM and no large hierarchy is assumed among the mass scales. The model offers all the advantage of low-scale neutrino mass models as well as a viable dark matter candidate that is testable with direct detection experiments.

  14. Inverse Queries For Multidimensional Spaces

    Bernecker, Thomas; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Mamoulis, Nikos; Renz, Matthias; Zhang, Shiming; Züfle, Andreas


    Traditional spatial queries return, for a given query object $q$, all database objects that satisfy a given predicate, such as epsilon range and $k$-nearest neighbors. This paper defines and studies {\\em inverse} spatial queries, which, given a subset of database objects $Q$ and a query predicate, return all objects which, if used as query objects with the predicate, contain $Q$ in their result. We first show a straightforward solution for answering inverse spatial queries for any query predicate. Then, we propose a filter-and-refinement framework that can be used to improve efficiency. We show how to apply this framework on a variety of inverse queries, using appropriate space pruning strategies. In particular, we propose solutions for inverse epsilon range queries, inverse $k$-nearest neighbor queries, and inverse skyline queries. Our experiments show that our framework is significantly more efficient than naive approaches.

  15. Nonlinear inversion flight control for a supermaneuverable aircraft

    Snell, S. Antony; Garrard, William L., Jr.; Enns, Dale F.


    This paper describes the use of nonlinear dynamic inversion for the design of a flight control system for a supermaneuverable aircraft. First, the dynamics to be controlled were separated into fast and slow variables. The fast variables were the angular rates and the slow variables were the attitude angles. Then a nonlinear inversion controller was designed for the fast variables. This stabilized the longitudinal short-period and improved the lateral-directional responses over a wide range of angle of attack by making use of a combination for aerodynamic surfaces and thrust vectoring control. Outer loops were then closed to allow the pilot to control the slow dynamics, the angle of attack, side-slip angle and the velocity bank angle. Nonlinear inversion was also used to design of the outer loop control laws. The dynamic inversion control laws were compared with more conventional, gain-scheduled control laws and were shown to yield much better performance.

  16. Approximation Theorems of Moore-Penrose Inverse by Outer Inverses

    Qianglian Huang; Zheng Fang


    Let X and Y be Hilbert spaces and T a bounded linear operator from X into Y with a separable range. In this note, we prove, without assuming the closeness of the range of T, that the Moore-Penrose inverse T+ of T can be approximated by its bounded outer inverses T#n with finite ranks.

  17. Accounting for Individual Variability in Inversion Shortcut Use

    Dube, Adam K.; Robinson, Katherine M.


    This study investigated whether children's inversion shortcut use (i.e., reasoning that no calculations are required for the problem 4 x 8 divided by 8, as the answer is the first number) is related to their analogical reasoning ability, short-term memory capacity, and working memory capacity. Children from Grades 6 and 8 solved multiplication and…

  18. Accounting for Individual Variability in Inversion Shortcut Use

    Dube, Adam K.; Robinson, Katherine M.


    This study investigated whether children's inversion shortcut use (i.e., reasoning that no calculations are required for the problem 4 x 8 divided by 8, as the answer is the first number) is related to their analogical reasoning ability, short-term memory capacity, and working memory capacity. Children from Grades 6 and 8 solved multiplication and…

  19. Abundance of ultramicro inversions within local alignments between human and chimpanzee genomes

    Hara Yuichiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversion is one of the most important mechanisms of evolution. Recent studies of comparative genomics have revealed that chromosomal inversions are abundant in the human genome. While such previously characterized inversions are large enough to be identified as a single alignment or a string of local alignments, the impact of ultramicro inversions, which are such short that the local alignments completely cover them, on evolution is still uncertain. Results In this study, we developed a method for identifying ultramicro inversions by scanning of local alignments. This technique achieved a high sensitivity and a very low rate of false positives. We identified 2,377 ultramicro inversions ranging from five to 125 bp within the orthologous alignments between the human and chimpanzee genomes. The false positive rate was estimated to be around 4%. Based on phylogenetic profiles using the primate outgroups, 479 ultramicro inversions were inferred to have specifically inverted in the human lineage. Ultramicro inversions exclusively involving adenine and thymine were the most frequent; 461 inversions (19.4% of the total. Furthermore, the density of ultramicro inversions in chromosome Y and the neighborhoods of transposable elements was higher than average. Sixty-five ultramicro inversions were identified within the exons of human protein-coding genes. Conclusions We defined ultramicro inversions as the inverted regions equal to or smaller than 125 bp buried within local alignments. Our observations suggest that ultramicro inversions are abundant among the human and chimpanzee genomes, and that location of the inversions correlated with the genome structural instability. Some of the ultramicro inversions may contribute to gene evolution. Our inversion-identification method is also applicable in the fine-tuning of genome alignments by distinguishing ultramicro inversions from nucleotide substitutions and indels.

  20. Workflow for near-surface velocity automatic estimation: Source-domain full-traveltime inversion followed by waveform inversion

    Liu, Lu


    This paper presents a workflow for near-surface velocity automatic estimation using the early arrivals of seismic data. This workflow comprises two methods, source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI) and early-arrival waveform inversion. Source-domain FTI is capable of automatically generating a background velocity that can kinematically match the reconstructed plane-wave sources of early arrivals with true plane-wave sources. This method does not require picking first arrivals for inversion, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based first-arrival tomographic inversion. Moreover, compared with conventional Born-based methods, source-domain FTI can distinguish between slower or faster initial model errors via providing the correct sign of the model gradient. In addition, this method does not need estimation of the source wavelet, which is a requirement for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. The model derived from source-domain FTI is then used as input to early-arrival waveform inversion to obtain the short-wavelength velocity components. We have tested the workflow on synthetic and field seismic data sets. The results show source-domain FTI can generate reasonable background velocities for early-arrival waveform inversion even when subsurface velocity reversals are present and the workflow can produce a high-resolution near-surface velocity model.

  1. Multiples waveform inversion

    Zhang, D. L.


    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  2. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.


    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  3. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    Romanov, V G


    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  4. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    Groetsch, C. W.


    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  5. Multiscale Modelling and Inverse Problems

    Nolen, J; Stuart, A M


    The need to blend observational data and mathematical models arises in many applications and leads naturally to inverse problems. Parameters appearing in the model, such as constitutive tensors, initial conditions, boundary conditions, and forcing can be estimated on the basis of observed data. The resulting inverse problems are often ill-posed and some form of regularization is required. These notes discuss parameter estimation in situations where the unknown parameters vary across multiple scales. We illustrate the main ideas using a simple model for groundwater flow. We will highlight various approaches to regularization for inverse problems, including Tikhonov and Bayesian methods. We illustrate three ideas that arise when considering inverse problems in the multiscale context. The first idea is that the choice of space or set in which to seek the solution to the inverse problem is intimately related to whether a homogenized or full multiscale solution is required. This is a choice of regularization. The ...

  6. Short Review

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank


    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds......, for example, of Paleopathology, should be cross-checked against other sources, for example, CT-scanning, direct inspection (also by endoscopy), and so forth....

  7. A rainbow inverse problem

    Calvez V.


    Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.

  8. Multidimensional NMR Inversion without Kronecker Products: Multilinear Inversion

    Medellín, David; Torres-Verdín, Carlos


    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required...

  9. Short esophagus.

    Kunio, Nicholas R; Dolan, James P; Hunter, John G


    In the presence of long-standing and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, patients can develop various complications, including a shortened esophagus. Standard preoperative testing in these patients should include endoscopy, esophagography, and manometry, whereas the objective diagnosis of a short esophagus must be made intraoperatively following adequate mediastinal mobilization. If left untreated, it is a contributing factor to the high recurrence rate following fundoplications or repair of large hiatal hernias. A laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty combined with an antireflux procedure offers safe and effective therapy.

  10. Givental graphs and inversion symmetry

    Dunin-Barkowski, P; Spitz, L


    Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in terms of Feynman graphs and then we obtain an interpretation of the inversion symmetry in terms of the action of the Givental group. We also consider the implication of this interpretation of the inversion symmetry for the Schlesinger transformations and for the Hamiltonians of the associated principle hierarchy.

  11. Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute

    Zhao, Xiao P; Liu, Song; Shen, Fang L; Li, Lin L; Luo, Chun R


    Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches of a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  12. Toward Inverse Control of Physics-Based Sound Synthesis

    Pfalz, A.; Berdahl, E.


    Long Short-Term Memory networks (LSTMs) can be trained to realize inverse control of physics-based sound synthesizers. Physics-based sound synthesizers simulate the laws of physics to produce output sound according to input gesture signals. When a user's gestures are measured in real time, she or he can use them to control physics-based sound synthesizers, thereby creating simulated virtual instruments. An intriguing question is how to program a computer to learn to play such physics-based models. This work demonstrates that LSTMs can be trained to accomplish this inverse control task with four physics-based sound synthesizers.

  13. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H


    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  14. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    Page, Morgan T.


    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  15. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... is obtained by assuming that the a priori beliefs about the solution before having observed any data can be described by a prior distribution. The solution to the statistical inverse problem is then given by the posterior distribution obtained by Bayes' formula. Hence the solution of an ill-posed inverse...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation...

  16. Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems


    Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation

  17. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    ... and Conditions Back pain Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back pain, and it's not safe for everyone. Inversion therapy ...

  18. Integrated inversion using combined wave-equation tomography and full waveform inversion

    Wang, Haiyang; Singh, Satish C.; Calandra, Henri


    Wave-equation tomography (WT) and full waveform inversion (FWI) are combined through a hybrid misfit function to estimate high-resolution subsurface structures starting from a poorly constrained initial velocity model. Both methods share the same wavefield forward modelling and inversion schemes, while they differ only on the ways to calculate misfit functions and hence the ways to sample in the model space. Aiming at minimizing the cross-correlation phase delay between synthetic and real data, WT can be used to retrieve the long- and middle-wavelength model components, which are essential to FWI. Compared to ray-based traveltime tomography that is based on asymptotic high-frequency approximation, WT provides a better resolution by exploring the band-limited feature of seismic wavefield. On the other hand, FWI is capable of resolving the short-wavelength model component, complementing the WT. In this study, we apply WT to surface first-arrival refraction data, and apply FWI to both refraction and reflection data. We assign adaptive weights to the two different misfit measurements and build a progressive inversion strategy. To illustrate the advantage of our strategy over conventional `ray tomography + FWI' approach, we show in a synthetic lens test that WT can provide extra subsurface information that is critical for a successful FWI application. To further show the efficiency, we test our strategy on the 2-D Marmousi model where satisfactory inversion results are achieved without much manual intervention. Finally, we apply the inversion strategy to a deep-water seismic data set acquired offshore Sumatra with a 12-km-long streamer. In order to alleviate several practical problems posed by the deep-water setting, we apply downward continuation (DC) to generate a virtual ocean bottom experiment data set prior to inversion. The new geometry after DC boosts up the shallow refractions, as well as avoiding cumbersome modelling through the thick water column, thus

  19. Inversion-symmetric topological insulators

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Prodan, Emil; Bernevig, B. Andrei


    We analyze translationally invariant insulators with inversion symmetry that fall outside the current established classification of topological insulators. These insulators exhibit no edge or surface modes in the energy spectrum and hence they are not edge metals when the Fermi level is in the bulk gap. However, they do exhibit protected modes in the entanglement spectrum localized on the cut between two entangled regions. Their entanglement entropy cannot be made to vanish adiabatically, and hence the insulators can be called topological. There is a direct connection between the inversion eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian band structure and the midgap states in the entanglement spectrum. The classification of protected entanglement levels is given by an integer N, which is the difference between the negative inversion eigenvalues at inversion symmetric points in the Brillouin zone, taken in sets of 2. When the Hamiltonian describes a Chern insulator or a nontrivial time-reversal invariant topological insulator, the entirety of the entanglement spectrum exhibits spectral flow. If the Chern number is zero for the former, or time reversal is broken in the latter, the entanglement spectrum does not have spectral flow, but, depending on the inversion eigenvalues, can still exhibit protected midgap bands similar to impurity bands in normal semiconductors. Although spectral flow is broken (implying the absence of real edge or surface modes in the original Hamiltonian), the midgap entanglement bands cannot be adiabatically removed, and the insulator is “topological.” We analyze the linear response of these insulators and provide proofs and examples of when the inversion eigenvalues determine a nontrivial charge polarization, a quantum Hall effect, an anisotropic three-dimensional (3D) quantum Hall effect, or a magnetoelectric polarization. In one dimension, we establish a link between the product of the inversion eigenvalues of all occupied bands at all inversion

  20. -Colour Self-Inverse Compositions

    Geetika Narang; A K Agarwal


    MacMahon’s definition of self-inverse composition is extended to -colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations, generating functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given.

  1. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M


    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  2. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  3. Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos


    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion.

  4. Full Waveform Inversion of Solar Interior Flows

    Hanasoge, Shravan M


    The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here we apply techniques of Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L_2 norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance f and p_1 filtered and large-distance unfiltered $p$ modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, owi...

  5. Large Deviation Strategy for Inverse Problem

    Ojima, Izumi


    Taken traditionally as a no-go theorem against the theorization of inductive processes, Duheme-Quine thesis may interfere with the essence of statistical inference. This difficulty can be resolved by \\textquotedblleft Micro-Macro duality\\textquotedblright\\ \\cite{Oj03, Oj05} which clarifies the importance of specifying the pertinent aspects and accuracy relevant to concrete contexts of scientific discussions and which ensures the matching between what to be described and what to describe in the form of the validity of duality relations. This consolidates the foundations of the inverse problem, induction method, and statistical inference crucial for the sound relations between theory and experiments. To achieve the purpose, we propose here Large Deviation Strategy (LDS for short) on the basis of Micro-Macro duality, quadrality scheme, and large deviation principle. According to the quadrality scheme emphasizing the basic roles played by the dynamics, algebra of observables together with its representations and ...

  6. Gradient-based inverse extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    Ma, Xu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising successor of current deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. The very short wavelength, reflective optics, and nontelecentric structure of EUV lithography systems bring in different imaging phenomena into the lithographic image synthesis problem. This paper develops a gradient-based inverse algorithm for EUV lithography systems to effectively improve the image fidelity by comprehensively compensating the optical proximity effect, flare, photoresist, and mask shadowing effects. A block-based method is applied to iteratively optimize the main features and subresolution assist features (SRAFs) of mask patterns, while simultaneously preserving the mask manufacturability. The mask shadowing effect may be compensated by a retargeting method based on a calibrated shadowing model. Illustrative simulations at 22 and 16 nm technology nodes are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems.

    Teles, Tarcísio N; Gupta, Shamik; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Casetti, Lapo


    Temperature inversions occur in nature, e.g., in the solar corona and in interstellar molecular clouds: Somewhat counterintuitively, denser parts of the system are colder than dilute ones. We propose a simple and appealing way to spontaneously generate temperature inversions in systems with long-range interactions, by preparing them in inhomogeneous thermal equilibrium states and then applying an impulsive perturbation. In similar situations, short-range systems would typically relax to another thermal equilibrium, with a uniform temperature profile. By contrast, in long-range systems, the interplay between wave-particle interaction and spatial inhomogeneity drives the system to nonequilibrium stationary states that generically exhibit temperature inversion. We demonstrate this mechanism in a simple mean-field model and in a two-dimensional self-gravitating system. Our work underlines the crucial role the range of interparticle interaction plays in determining the nature of steady states out of thermal equilibrium.

  8. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    An, Chao

    , so we infer that the maximum size of the subfault can be 1/4 to 1/3 of the scale of the faulting area. In Chapter 2, we also developed a method using the inverse residual to evaluate the effectiveness of tsunami buoys of different number and locations in the inversion. Results show that 2 ˜ 4 tsunami buoys are sufficient to constrain the source parameters quite well if they are optimally located. Adding data from more tsunami buoys into the inversion does not significantly improve the results. In addition, near-field stations in the source region do not have advantage against far-field stations in constraining the earthquake source parameters. Conversely, if the near-field data have short but large-amplitude waves and only such data are used in the inversion, it can result in very large but unreal slip near the seabed. The optimal locations for tsunami buoys of different number can also be obtained from this method. Inversions of tele-seismic data show that the inverse results do not necessarily predict the tsunami waves, unless iterative forward modeling techniques are applied to adjust the inverse parameters. Thus, from the standpoint of tsunami warning, tele-seismic data are not able to precisely predict the tsunami wave height or an accurate inundation map, although the estimation of earthquake magnitude and depth might be enough to issue a crude warning. In addition, numerical experiments are conducted and measurements of the computational time show that the calculation of tsunami Green's functions for an area of ˜ 30° only takes several minutes using 256 computational cores. Thus, it is possible to calculate the Green's functions in real time for a tsunami warning system. Finally, a case study is conducted for the South China Sea using the method of inverse residual, leading to recommendations of number and location of tsunami buoys required for a warning system near the Manila trench.

  9. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    Fahad, Hossain M.


    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  10. Subadditive functions and their (pseudo-)inverses

    Østerdal, Lars Peter


    The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses......The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses...

  11. The representation and computation of generalized inverse

    Sheng, Xingping; Chen, Guoliang; Gong, Yi


    This paper presents a novel representation for the generalized inverse . Based on this, we give an algorithm to compute this generalized inverse. As an application, we use Gauss-Jordan elimination to compute the weighted Moore-Penrose inverse and the Drazin inverse Ad.

  12. Exploring the Hamiltonian inversion landscape.

    Donovan, Ashley; Rabitz, Herschel


    The identification of quantum system Hamiltonians through the use of experimental data remains an important research goal. Seeking a Hamiltonian that is consistent with experimental measurements constitutes an excursion over a Hamiltonian inversion landscape, which is the quality of reproducing the data as a function of the Hamiltonian parameters. Recent theoretical work showed that with sufficient experimental data there should be local convexity about the true Hamiltonian on the landscape. The present paper builds on this result and performs simulations to test whether such convexity is observed. A gradient-based Hamiltonian search algorithm is incorporated into an inversion routine as a means to explore the local inversion landscape. The simulations consider idealized noise-free as well as noise-ridden experimental data. The results suggest that a sizable convex domain exists about the true Hamiltonian, even with a modest amount of experimental data and in the presence of a reasonable level of noise.

  13. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.


    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  14. Inverse methods for radiation transport

    Bledsoe, Keith C.

    Implicit optimization methods for solving the inverse transport problems of interface location identification, source isotope weight fraction identification, shield material identification, and material mass density identification are explored. Among these optimization methods are the Schwinger inverse method, Levenberg-Marquardt method, and evolutionary algorithms. Inverse problems are studied in one-dimensional spherical and two-dimensional cylindrical geometries. The scalar fluxes of unscattered gamma-ray lines, leakages of neutron-induced gamma-ray lines, and/or neutron multiplication in the system are assumed to be measured. Each optimization method is studied on numerical test problems in which the measured data is simulated using the same deterministic transport code used in the optimization process (assuming perfectly consistent measurements) and using a Monte Carlo code (assuming less-consistent, more realistic measurements). The Schwinger inverse method and Levenberg-Marquardt methods are found to be successful for problems with relatively few (i.e. 4 or fewer) unknown parameters, with the former being the best for unknown isotope problems and the latter being more adept at interface location, unknown material mass density, and mixed parameter problems. A study of a variety of evolutionary algorithms indicates that the differential evolution method is the best for inverse transport problems, and outperforms the Levenberg-Marquardt method on problems with large numbers of unknowns. An algorithm created by combining different variants of the differential evolution method is shown to be highly successful on spherical problems with unscattered gamma-ray lines, while a basic differential evolution approach is more useful for problems with scattering and in cylindrical geometries. A hybrid differential evolution/Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm also was found to show promise for fast and robust solution of inverse problems.

  15. Inverse-square law violation and reactor antineutrino anomaly

    Naumov, D. V.; Naumov, V. A.; Shkirmanov, D. S.


    We discuss a possibility that the so-called reactor antineutrino anomaly can be, at least in part, explained by applying a quantum field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations, which in particular predicts a small deviation from the classical inverse-square law at short but macroscopic distances between the neutrino source and detector. An extensive statistical analysis of the reactor data is performed to examine this speculation.

  16. Inverse-square law violation and reactor antineutrino anomaly

    Naumov, D V; Shkirmanov, D S


    We discuss a possibility that the so-called reactor antineutrino anomaly can be, at least in part, explained by applying a quantum field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations, which in particular predicts a small deviation from the classical inverse-square law at short but macroscopic distances between the neutrino source and detector. An extensive statistical analysis of the reactor data is performed to examine this speculation.

  17. Production of Radioactive Nuclides in Inverse Reaction Kinematics

    Traykov, E; Dendooven, P; Dermois, O C; Jungmann, K; Onderwater, G; Rogachevskiy, A; Sohani, M; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W; Young, A R


    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly interesting when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.

  18. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of inverse opals

    Mahan, G. D.; Poilvert, N.; Crespi, V. H.


    Rayleigh's method [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 34, 481 (1892)] is used to solve for the classical thermoelectric equations in inverse opals. His theory predicts that in an inverse opal, with periodic holes, the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit are identical to that of the bulk material. We also provide a major revision to Rayleigh's method, in using the electrochemical potential as an important variable, instead of the electrostatic potential. We also show that in some cases, the thermal boundary resistance is important in the effective thermal conductivity.

  20. Population inversion by chirped pulses

    Lu Tianshi [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260-0033 (United States)


    In this paper, we analyze the condition for complete population inversion by a chirped pulse over a finite duration. The nonadiabatic transition probability is mapped in the two-dimensional parameter space of coupling strength and detuning amplitude. Asymptotic forms of the probability are derived by the interference of nonadiabatic transitions for sinusoidal and triangular pulses. The qualitative difference between the maps for the two types of pulses is accounted for. The map is used for the design of stable inversion pulses under specific accuracy thresholds.

  1. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    Di Cristo, Michele


    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  2. Inverse methods in hydrologic optics

    Howard R. Gordon


    Full Text Available Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.

  3. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    Dennett, Daniel


    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  4. An analysis on the inversion of polynomials

    M. F. González-Cardel; R. Díaz-Uribe


    In this work the application and the intervals of validity of an inverse polynomial, according to the method proposed by Arfken [1] for the inversion of series, is analyzed. It is shown that, for the inverse polynomial there exists a restricted domain whose longitude depends on the magnitude of the acceptable error when the inverse polynomial is used to approximate the inverse function of the original polynomial. A method for calculating the error of the approximation and its use in determini...

  5. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  6. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    Li, Jing


    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  7. Inverse Expander Mixing for Hypergraphs

    Cohen, Emma; Mubayi, Dhruv; Ralli, Peter; Tetali, Prasad


    We formulate and prove inverse mixing lemmas in the settings of simplicial complexes and k-uniform hypergraphs. In the hypergraph setting, we extend results of Bilu and Linial for graphs. In the simplicial complex setting, our results answer a question of Parzanchevski et al.

  8. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas


    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (, a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  9. Trace evaluation of matrix determinants and inversion of 4 $\\times$ 4 matrices in terms of Dirac covariants


    In the following short paper we list some useful results concerning determinants and inverses of matrices. First we show, how to calculate determinants of $d \\times d$ matrices, if their traces are known. As a next step $4 \\times 4$ matrices are expressed in terms of Dirac covariants. The third step is the calculation of the corresponding inverse matrices in terms of Dirac covariants.

  10. Modulating light propagation in ZnO-Cu₂O-inverse opal solar cells for enhanced photocurrents.

    Yantara, Natalia; Pham, Thi Thu Trang; Boix, Pablo P; Mathews, Nripan


    The advantages of employing an interconnected periodic ZnO morphology, i.e. an inverse opal structure, in electrodeposited ZnO/Cu2O devices are presented. The solar cells are fabricated using low cost solution based methods such as spin coating and electrodeposition. The impact of inverse opal geometry, mainly the diameter and thickness, is scrutinized. By employing 3 layers of an inverse opal structure with a 300 nm pore diameter, higher short circuit photocurrents (∼84% improvement) are observed; however the open circuit voltages decrease with increasing interfacial area. Optical simulation using a finite difference time domain method shows that the inverse opal structure modulates light propagation within the devices such that more photons are absorbed close to the ZnO/Cu2O junction. This increases the collection probability resulting in improved short circuit currents.

  11. Ultrahigh-intensity inverse bremsstrahlung

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Rax, J.-M.


    We study inverse bremsstrahlung in the ultrahigh intensity relativistic regime. The fully relativistic ultrahigh intensity absorption (emission) coefficient is derived for an arbitrary scattering potential and small-angle scattering. We find that in the Coulomb field case this absorption (emission) coefficient can be calculated as a function of the quiver energy, drift momentum, and impact parameter in two complementary regimes: (i) for remote collisions when the impact parameter is larger than the amplitude of the quiver motion, and (ii) for instantaneous collisions when the scattering time is shorter than the period of the wave. Both circular and linear polarizations are considered, and this study reveals that in this relativistic regime inverse bremsstrahlung absorption can be viewed as a harmonic Compton resonance heating of the laser-driven electron by the virtual photon of the ion Coulomb field. The relativistic modification of Marcuse's effect [Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1557 (1962)] are also discussed, and relations with previous nonrelativistic results are elucidated.

  12. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.


    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  13. Inverse imbalance reconstruction in rotordynamics

    Ramlau, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Linz (Austria). Johann Radon Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Dicken, V. [MeVis GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Maass, P. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Technomathematik; Streller, C. [Rolls-Royce Germany GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany); Rienaecker, A. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    The goal of this work is to establish and compare algorithms for inverse imbalance reconstruction in aircraft turbines. Such algorithms are based on a validated whole engine model of a turbo engine under consideration. Base on the model, the impact of an imbalance distribution on the vibration behaviour of the turbine can be described as a matrix-vector multiplication Af = g, where f is the imbalance distribution and g the vibration response. It turns out that the matrix A is very ill-conditioned. As the measured data is highly affected with noise, we have to use regularization methods in order to stabilize the inversion. Our main interest was in the use of nonlinear regularization methods, in particular nonlinear filtered singular value decomposition and conjugate gradient regularization. (orig.)

  14. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S


    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

  15. Sex Inversion Operations in China


    IN July 1992, Dr. Xia Zhaoji, 58, and his assistants surprised the world by successfully completing the world’s first operation to partially replant human internal reproductive organs. BBC broadcast this 8-minute news story ten days later, followed by AP, Reuters and AFP, as well as some other domestic and international media. What is a sex inversion operation? Why should people change their sex? And how is it

  16. Inverse Gibbs-Thomson effect

    Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.


    We prove the existence of an effect inverse to the Gibbs-Thomson effect for mass transfer in systems consisting of a solid phase and the solution of the solid phase material in a certain solvent. The effect involves a change in the shape of the interface due to a variation of the equilibrium concentrations under it, which is induced by external conditions, and exists in the presence of a negative feedback for mass transfer associated with capillary effects.

  17. Action understanding as inverse planning

    Baker, Christopher Lawrence; Saxe, Rebecca R.; Joshua B Tenenbaum


    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents’ actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents’ behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. ...

  18. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    Kunze, Herb E.; Davide La Torre; Franklin Mendivil; Manuel Ruiz Galán; Rachad Zaki


    We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on ...

  19. A robust optical respiratory trigger for small rodents in clinical whole-body MR systems.

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Enrico; Deistung, Andreas; Hilger, Ingrid; Reichenbach, Jürgen R


    An increasing number of animal experiments are currently conducted on clinical MR systems. Motion artefacts due to breathing can become quite apparent, in particular with abdominal examinations. These artefacts can be reduced by using a triggered acquisition. However, the built-in detectors in human whole-body scanners are usually not sensitive enough to detect the tiny movements of small rodents. Therefore, a sensitive optical motion detector was developed together with a simple, robust analogue circuit. This circuit converts the original optical signal into an electrical one, compensates slow drifts and offsets, and finally generates a transistor-transistor logic trigger signal as input for the clinical whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. The trigger was successfully applied in mouse experiments.

  20. Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus



    Jul 27, 2012 ... Key words: Inversion of uterus, acute puerperal inversion, shock, post partum bleeding, neglect ... anesthesia, vaginal manual reposition was attempted, which failed due to tight cervical ring. Then, O .... Int J Gynecol Cancer.

  1. Generalized Inverses of Matrices over Rings

    韩瑞珠; 陈建龙


    Let R be a ring,*be an involutory function of the set of all finite matrices over R. In this pa-per,necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a matrix to have a (1,3)-inverse,(1,4)-inverse,or Morre-Penrose inverse,relative to *.Some results about generalized inverses of matrices over division rings are generalized and improved.

  2. Inverse Computation and the Universal Resolving Algorithm


    We survey fundamental concepts for inverse programming and thenpresent the Uni v ersal Resolving Algorithm, an algorithm for inverse computation in a first-orde r , functional programming language. We discuss the key concepts of the algorithm, including a three-step approach based on the notion of a perfect process tree, and demonstrate our implementation with several examples of inverse computation.

  3. -Colour even Self-Inverse Compositions

    Yu-hong Guo


    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  4. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A


    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  5. Non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses: comparison at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla.

    Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Togashi, Kaori


    A 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is a promising tool for upper abdominal MR angiography. However, there is no report focused on the image quality of non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography at 3 T. To compare and evaluate images of non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses (Time-SLIP) at 1.5 Tesla (1.5 T) and 3 T. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) with Time-SLIP. For portography, we used one tagging pulse (selective inversion recovery) and one non-selective inversion recovery pulse; for venography, two tagging pulses were used. The relative signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were quantified, and the quality of visualization was evaluated. The CNRs of the main portal vein, right portal vein, and left portal vein at 3 T were better than at 1.5 T. The image quality scores for the portal branches of segment 4, 5, and 8 were significantly higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T. The CNR of the right hepatic vein (RHV) at 3 T was significantly lower than at 1.5 T. The image quality scores of RHV and the middle hepatic vein were higher at 1.5 T than at 3 T. For RHV visualization, the difference was statistically significant. Non-contrast-enhanced MR portography with Time-SLIP at 3 T significantly improved visualization of the peripheral branch in healthy volunteers compared with1.5 T. Non-contrast-enhanced MR hepatic venography at 1.5 T was better than at 3 T.

  6. Magnetotelluric inversion for anisotropic conductivities in layered media

    Pek, Josef; Santos, Fernando A. M.


    Electrical anisotropy in the Earth's crust and upper mantle has recently gained attention as a significant linking factor between electrical models and underlying structural and tectonic patterns. This interest has also motivated new methodological studies into the modelling and inversion for electrically anisotropic structures. We present an algorithm for the inversion of magnetotelluric data over layered anisotropic conductors which is a straightforward extension of the standard Occam 1-D inversion to anisotropic models. Owing to the essential limitation of magnetotellurics to resolve the complete conductivity tensor, we formulate the inversion for azimuthal anisotropy only. We treat the non-linear inverse problem as a multi-criterion minimization of the structure complexity, data misfit and anisotropy. To constrain the structure complexity, we employ the standard roughness penalty as well as non-quadratic penalties of the total variation and gradient support type that produce more focused model sections and thus conform better to the idea about sharp, non-diffuse boundaries of anisotropic structures in the Earth. Application of the anisotropy penalty is crucial for suppressing spurious anisotropy in the inverse models. We use a 2-D extension of the heuristic L-curve method to estimate the quasi-optimal penalty weights. With two non-linear iteration solvers, specifically the reweighted conjugate gradient method and the lagged diffusivity iteration, we can arrive at the minimum of the target functional, for one selected pair of regularization weights, typically after a few tens of iteration steps. To demonstrate the inverse solution, we present two simple yet not completely trivial synthetic examples, the first one based on data generated by a model with two anisotropic layers with discordant strikes, and the other showing possible misinterpretations in case a 1-D inversion with anisotropy is formally applied to data produced by simple 2-D block structures. Field

  7. An algorithm for constructing minimal order inverses

    Patel, R. V.


    In this paper an algorithm is presented for constructing minimal order inverses of linear, time invariant, controllable and observable, multivariable systems. By means of simple matrix operations, a 'state-overdescribed' system is first constructed which is an inverse of the given multivariable system. A simple Gauss-Jordan type reduction procedure is then used to remove the redundancy in the state vector of the inverse system to obtain a minimal order inverse. When the given multivariable system is not invertible, the algorithm enables a minimal order inverse of an invertible subsystem to be constructed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the use of the algorithm.

  8. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    Pécseli, Thomas


    variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail......Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...

  9. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  10. A method for improving the computational efficiency of a Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion based on depth estimation

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yuan, Jianzheng; Ke, Rui; Yang, Yan; Hu, Ying


    The Laplace-Fourier domain full waveform inversion can simultaneously restore both the long and intermediate short-wavelength information of velocity models because of its unique characteristics of complex frequencies. This approach solves the problem of conventional frequency-domain waveform inversion in which the inversion result is excessively dependent on the initial model due to the lack of low frequency information in seismic data. Nevertheless, the Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion requires substantial computational resources and long computation time because the inversion must be implemented on different combinations of multiple damping constants and multiple frequencies, namely, the complex frequencies, which are much more numerous than the Fourier frequencies. However, if the entire target model is computed on every complex frequency for the Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (as in the conventional frequency domain inversion), excessively redundant computation will occur. In the Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion, the maximum depth penetrated by the seismic wave decreases greatly due to the application of exponential damping to the seismic record, especially with use of a larger damping constant. Thus, the depth of the area effectively inverted on a complex frequency tends to be much less than the model depth. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative estimation of the effective inversion depth in the Laplace-Fourier domain inversion based on the principle of seismic wave propagation and mathematical analysis. According to the estimated effective inversion depth, we can invert and update only the model area above the effective depth for every complex frequency without loss of accuracy in the final inversion result. Thus, redundant computation is eliminated, and the efficiency of the Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion can be improved. The proposed method was tested in numerical experiments. The experimental results show that

  11. Inverse Star, Borders, and Palstars

    Rampersad, Narad; Shallit, Jeffrey; Wang, Ming-Wei


    A language L is closed if L = L*. We consider an operation on closed languages, L-*, that is an inverse to Kleene closure. It is known that if L is closed and regular, then L-* is also regular. We show that the analogous result fails to hold for the context-free languages. Along the way we find a new relationship between the unbordered words and the prime palstars of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt. We use this relationship to enumerate the prime palstars, and we prove that neither the language of a...

  12. Spray formation: an inverse cascade

    Ling, Yue; Tryggvason, Gretar; zaleski, Stephane


    We present a study of droplet formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer using direct numerical simulation. It is seen that two mechanisms compete to generate the droplets: fingering at the tip of the waves and hole formation in the thin liquid sheet. The three dimensional liquid structures are much shorter than the longitudinal wavelength of the instability at the first instant of their formation. As time evolves, the structures evolves to larger and larger scales, in a way similar to the inverse cascade of length scales in droplet impact and impact crown formation.

  13. Iterative optimization in inverse problems

    Byrne, Charles L


    Iterative Optimization in Inverse Problems brings together a number of important iterative algorithms for medical imaging, optimization, and statistical estimation. It incorporates recent work that has not appeared in other books and draws on the author's considerable research in the field, including his recently developed class of SUMMA algorithms. Related to sequential unconstrained minimization methods, the SUMMA class includes a wide range of iterative algorithms well known to researchers in various areas, such as statistics and image processing. Organizing the topics from general to more

  14. The Inverse of Banded Matrices


    of Br,n. For these sequences to be well-defined, we assume that none of the denominators kis are zero (which is equivalent to the below-defined U...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3

  15. Testing the gravitational inverse-square law

    Adelberger, Eric [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)]. E-mail:; Heckel, Blayne; Hoyle, C.D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)


    -like particles we are familiar with. String theorists seriously entertain the idea that there are actually six or seven additional spatial dimensions; these extra dimensions are needed to make the theory both mathematically consistent and capable of describing gravity. One of the big puzzles about gravity is the fact that it is so much weaker than the other forces: it is a factor of about 1040 times weaker than the electrostatic and magnetic forces. In 1998 three theorists - Nima Arkani-Hamed, Savas Dimopoulos and Gia Dvali - offered a bold explanation for this weakness (see further reading). Gravity appears weak, they said, because some of the extra dimensions predicted by string theory are surprisingly large compared with the Planck length. Even without large extra dimensions and fat gravitons, string theories contain many new and as yet unobserved particles. These include the dilaton (which is the partner of the graviton in string theory), the radion (which stabilizes the size of the extra dimensions) and various 'moduli' (particles that set the values of coupling strengths, particle masses and other parameters in the Standard Model). The quantum-mechanical exchange of these particles would lead to very strong, short-range forces that could show up in tests of the inverse-square law. Promising new techniques involving small oscillators and microcantilevers are also being introduced to search for new physics hidden in the behaviour of gravity over short distances. Although these devices have not yet achieved the sensitivity of torsion pendulums, modern fabrication techniques allow them to be much smaller and stiffer. This suppresses the problems associated with seismic noise and alignment, and allows much smaller separations of the test masses to be explored. (U.K.)

  16. An inversion method for cometary atmospheres

    Hubert, B.; Opitom, C.; Hutsemékers, D.; Jehin, E.; Munhoven, G.; Manfroid, J.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.


    that discrepancies can be reconciled for by correcting this flux by an offset (to which the inverse Abel transform is nearly not sensitive). The A1/Siding Spring observations were obtained very shortly after the comet produced an outburst, and we show that the emission rate derived from the observed flux of CN emission at 387 nm and from the C2 emission at 514.1 nm both present an easily-identifiable shoulder that corresponds to the separation between pre- and post-outburst gas. As a general result, we show that diagnosing properties and features of the coma using the emission rate is easier than directly using the observed flux, because the Abel transform produces a smoothing that blurs the signatures left by features present in the coma. We also determine the parameters of a Haser model fitting the inverted data and fitting the line-of-sight integrated observation, for which we provide the exact analytical expression of the line-of-sight integration of the Haser model.

  17. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido


    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  18. Inverse Statistics for Stocks and Markets

    Johansen, A; Simonsen, I


    In recent publications, the authors have considered inverse statistics of the Dow Jones Industrial Averaged (DJIA) [1-3]. Specifically, we argued that the natural candidate for such statistics is the investment horizons distribution. This is the distribution of waiting times needed to achieve a predefined level of return obtained from detrended historic asset prices. Such a distribution typically goes through a maximum at a time coined the {\\em optimal investment horizon}, $\\tau^*_\\rho$, which defines the most likely waiting time for obtaining a given return $\\rho$. By considering equal positive and negative levels of return, we reported in [2,3] on a quantitative gain/loss asymmetry most pronounced for short horizons. In the present paper, this gain/loss asymmetry is re-visited for 2/3 of the individual stocks presently in the DJIA. We show that this gain/loss asymmetry established for the DJIA surprisingly is {\\em not} present in the time series of the individual stocks. The most reasonable explanation for ...

  19. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen


    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  20. Seismic Waveform Inversion Using the Finite-Difference Contrast Source Inversion Method

    Bo Han; Qinglong He; Yong Chen; Yixin Dou


    This paper extends the finite-difference contrast source inversion method to reconstruct the mass density for two-dimensional elastic wave inversion in the framework of the full-waveform inversion. The contrast source inversion method is a nonlinear iterative method that alternatively reconstructs contrast sources and contrast function. One of the most outstanding advantages of this inversion method is the highly computational efficiency, since it does not need to simulate a fu...

  1. LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total.   In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...

  2. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N


    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  3. Constrained and joint inversion on unstructured meshes

    Doetsch, J.; Jordi, C.; Rieckh, V.; Guenther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.


    Unstructured meshes allow for inclusion of arbitrary surface topography, complex acquisition geometry and undulating geological interfaces in the inversion of geophysical data. This flexibility opens new opportunities for coupling different geophysical and hydrological data sets in constrained and joint inversions. For example, incorporating geological interfaces that have been derived from high-resolution geophysical data (e.g., ground penetrating radar) can add geological constraints to inversions of electrical resistivity data. These constraints can be critical for a hydrogeological interpretation of the inversion results. For time-lapse inversions of geophysical data, constraints can be derived from hydrological point measurements in boreholes, but it is difficult to include these hard constraints in the inversion of electrical resistivity monitoring data. Especially mesh density and the regularization footprint around the hydrological point measurements are important for an improved inversion compared to the unconstrained case. With the help of synthetic and field examples, we analyze how regularization and coupling operators should be chosen for time-lapse inversions constrained by point measurements and for joint inversions of geophysical data in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of unstructured meshes. For the case of constraining to point measurements, it is important to choose a regularization operator that extends beyond the neighboring cells and the uncertainty in the point measurements needs to be accounted for. For joint inversion, the choice of the regularization depends on the expected subsurface heterogeneity and the cell size of the parameter mesh.

  4. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Takehiko Ogawa


    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  5. Designer spin systems via inverse statistical mechanics

    DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Marcotte, Étienne; Car, Roberto; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore


    In this work, we extend recent inverse statistical-mechanical methods developed for many-particle systems to the case of spin systems. For simplicity, we focus in this initial study on the two-state Ising model with radial spin-spin interactions of finite range (i.e., extending beyond nearest-neighbor sites) on the square lattice under periodic boundary conditions. Our interest herein is to find the optimal set of shortest-range pair interactions within this family of Hamiltonians, whose corresponding ground state is a targeted spin configuration such that the difference in energies between the energetically closest competitor and the target is maximized. For an exhaustive list of competitors, this optimization problem is solved exactly using linear programming. The possible outcomes for a given target configuration can be organized into the following three solution classes: unique (nondegenerate) ground state (class I), degenerate ground states (class II), and solutions not contained in the previous two classes (class III). We have chosen to study a general family of striped-phase spin configurations comprised of alternating parallel bands of up and down spins of varying thicknesses and a general family of rectangular block checkerboard spin configurations with variable block size, which is a generalization of the classic antiferromagnetic Ising model. Our findings demonstrate that the structurally anisotropic striped phases, in which the thicknesses of up- and down-spin bands are equal, are unique ground states for isotropic short-ranged interactions. By contrast, virtually all of the block checkerboard targets are either degenerate or fall within class III solutions. The degenerate class II spin configurations are identified up to a certain block size. We also consider other target spin configurations with different degrees of global symmetries and order. Our investigation reveals that the solution class to which a target belongs depends sensitively on the

  6. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald


    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  7. Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique

    Adler P. M.


    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur

  8. Simultaneous Gaussian and exponential inversion for improved analysis of shales by NMR relaxometry

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Anderssen, Endre; Vogt, Sarah J.; Seymour, Joseph D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Kirkland, Catherine M.; Codd, Sarah L.


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry is commonly used to provide lithology-independent porosity and pore-size estimates for petroleum resource evaluation based on fluid-phase signals. However in shales, substantial hydrogen content is associated with solid and fluid signals and both may be detected. Depending on the motional regime, the signal from the solids may be best described using either exponential or Gaussian decay functions. When the inverse Laplace transform, the standard method for analysis of NMR relaxometry results, is applied to data containing Gaussian decays, this can lead to physically unrealistic responses such as signal or porosity overcall and relaxation times that are too short to be determined using the applied instrument settings. We apply a new simultaneous Gaussian-Exponential (SGE) inversion method to simulated data and measured results obtained on a variety of oil shale samples. The SGE inversion produces more physically realistic results than the inverse Laplace transform and displays more consistent relaxation behavior at high magnetic field strengths. Residuals for the SGE inversion are consistently lower than for the inverse Laplace method and signal overcall at short T2 times is mitigated. Beyond geological samples, the method can also be applied in other fields where the sample relaxation consists of both Gaussian and exponential decays, for example in material, medical and food sciences.

  9. Bayesian multitask inverse reinforcement learning

    Dimitrakakis, Christos


    We generalise the problem of inverse reinforcement learning to multiple tasks, from a set of demonstrations. Each demonstration may represent one expert trying to solve a different task. Alternatively, one may see each demonstration as given by a different expert trying to solve the same task. Our main technical contribution is to solve the problem by formalising it as statistical preference elicitation, via a number of structured priors, whose form captures our biases about the relatedness of different tasks or expert policies. We show that our methodology allows us not only to learn to efficiently from multiple experts but to also effectively differentiate between the goals of each. Possible applications include analysing the intrinsic motivations of subjects in behavioural experiments and imitation learning from multiple teachers.

  10. Inverse Diffusion Theory of Photoacoustics

    Bal, Guillaume


    This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photo-acoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well-studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schroedinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when $2n$ internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where $n$ is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics (CGO) solutions.

  11. Inverse Transport Theory of Photoacoustics

    Bal, Guillaume; Jugnon, Vincent


    We consider the reconstruction of optical parameters in a domain of interest from photoacoustic data. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) radiates high frequency electromagnetic waves into the domain and measures acoustic signals emitted by the resulting thermal expansion. Acoustic signals are then used to construct the deposited thermal energy map. The latter depends on the constitutive optical parameters in a nontrivial manner. In this paper, we develop and use an inverse transport theory with internal measurements to extract information on the optical coefficients from knowledge of the deposited thermal energy map. We consider the multi-measurement setting in which many electromagnetic radiation patterns are used to probe the domain of interest. By developing an expansion of the measurement operator into singular components, we show that the spatial variations of the intrinsic attenuation and the scattering coefficients may be reconstructed. We also reconstruct coefficients describing anisotropic scattering of ...

  12. Inverse Magnetic/Shear Catalysis

    McInnes, Brett


    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce ``inverse magnetic catalysis'', signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magne...

  13. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    Wiak, Sławomir


    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  14. Genotyping of intron 22 inversion of factor VIII gene for diagnosis of hemophilia A by inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis.

    Pan, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Shih, Chi-Jen; Wu, Hui-Fen; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wu, Shou-Mei


    This is the first capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis for diagnosis of hemophilia A (HA). The intron 22 inversion of factor VIII gene (F8) causes 40-50 % of severe bleeding disorder of HA in all human populations. Consequently, identification of the disease-causing mutations is becoming increasingly important for accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. In this study, the key steps of inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) and of short-end injection capillary electrophoresis were used for more specific and rapid genotyping of intron 22 inversion of F8. In IS-PCR, three specific primers were used to amplify 512-bp amplicon for wild type and 584-bp amplicon for patients with intron 22 inversion. The capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system was performed using 1× Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer containing 0.3 % (w/v) polyethylene oxide (PEO). The PCR amplicons were electrokinetically injected at 10 kV for 10 s at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimal short-end injection CGE was applied to detect the F8 gene of HA patients and carriers within 5 min. Intron 22 inversion was indeed found on some HA patients (13/35, 37.1 %). All genotyping results showed good agreement with DNA sequencing method and long-distance polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR). The IS-PCR combined with short-end injection CGE method was feasible and efficient for intron 22 inversion screening of F8 in the HA populations.

  15. Novel FIR Inversion with Only FIRS

    Chalmers, G


    The inversion of an FIR data sampling is usually stated to be possible with the use of a potentially unstable IIR, and in particular circumstances. It is possible to accomplish the same inversion with the doubling of an FIR sampling and with only FIRs for the sampling and the inversion. This note presents the configuration, which appently is not in the literature, for perfect signal reconstruction.

  16. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  17. Bayesian approach to inverse statistical mechanics.

    Habeck, Michael


    Inverse statistical mechanics aims to determine particle interactions from ensemble properties. This article looks at this inverse problem from a Bayesian perspective and discusses several statistical estimators to solve it. In addition, a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed that draws the interaction parameters from their posterior probability distribution. The posterior probability involves an intractable partition function that is estimated along with the interactions. The method is illustrated for inverse problems of varying complexity, including the estimation of a temperature, the inverse Ising problem, maximum entropy fitting, and the reconstruction of molecular interaction potentials.

  18. The structure of (L)*-inverse semigroups

    REN Xueming; SHUM Karping


    The concepts of (L)*-inverse semigroups and left wreath products of semigroups are introduced. It is shown that the (L)*-inverse semigroup can be described as the left wreath product of a type A semigroup Γ and a left regular band B together with a mapping which maps the semigroup Γ into the endomorphism semigroup End(B). This result generalizes the structure theorem of Yamada for the left inverse semigroups in the class of regular semigroups.We shall also provide a constructed example for the (L)*-inverse semigroups by using the left wreath products.

  19. Analysis of nonlinear channel friction inverse problem

    CHENG Weiping; LIU Guohua


    Based on the Backus-Gilbert inverse theory, the singular value decomposition (SVD) for general inverse matrices and the optimization algorithm are used to solve the channel friction inverse problem. The resolution and covari- ance friction inverse model in matrix form is developed to examine the reliability of solutions. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the convergence rate of the general Newton optimization algorithm is in the second-order. The Wiggins method is also incorporated into the algorithm. Using the method, noise can be suppressed effectively, and the results are close to accurate solutions with proper control parameters. Also, the numerical stability can be improved.

  20. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Amici Cinzia


    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  1. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C


    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  2. Improvements in Inversion of Magnetic Resonance Exploration-Water Content, Decay Time, and Resistivity

    Ugur Yaramanci; Mike Müller-Petke


    In this review article, we present recent developments and Improvements in magnetic resonance sounding (MRS), a newly established geophysical exploration method that provides unique information about hydrogeophysical properties due to its direct sensitivity to hydrogen protons and proton dynamics. Starting with the most sophisticated and complete MRS formulation, we give a detailed view on how to solve the equation, i.e., inverting exactly for all model parameters: water content, decay time, and resistivity. Giving a short review of general inversion schemes used in geophysics, the special properties of MRS inversion are evaluated and the development of MRS inversion over recent years is shown. We present the extension of MRS to magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), i.e., the extension to two-dimensional investigations and appropriate inversions. Finally, we address restrictions, limitations, and inconsistencies as well as future developments.

  3. Space Weather Parameters Computed on the Basis of the Magnetogram Inversion Technique

    V. M. Mishin; M. F(o)rster; A.D. Bazarzhapov; T.I. Saifudinova; Y.A. Karavaev; P. Stauning; J. Watermann; V. Golovkov; S. Solovyev


    In this paper is given short description of the magnetogram inversion technique, MIT2, and of methods of calculation of some parameters of space weather. Are given also examples of new results, obtained using the MIT2 and solar wind data.

  4. Time inversion, Self-similar evolution, and Issue of time

    Datta, D P


    We investigate the question, "how does time flow?" and show that time may change by inversions as well. We discuss its implications to a simple class of linear systems. Instead of introducing any unphysical behaviour, inversions can lead to a new multi- time scale evolutionary path for the linear system exhibiting late time stochastic fluctuations. We explain how stochastic behaviour is injected into the linear system as a combined effect of an uncertainty in the definition of inversion and the irrationality of the golden mean number. We also give an ansatz for the nonlinear stochastic behaviour of (fractal) time which facilitates us to estimate the late and short time limits of a two-time correlation function relevant for the stochastic fluctuations in linear systems. These fluctuations are shown to enjoy generic 1/f spectrum. The implicit functional definition of the fractal time is shown to satisfy the differential equation dx=dt. We also discuss the relevance of intrinsic time in the present formalism, st...

  5. Inverse scattering from phaseless data in the freespace

    ZHANG WenJi; LI LianLin; LI Fang


    In this paper a new approach for microwave imaging of unknown objects embedded in the freespace from phaseless data is presented. Firstly a cost functional is constructed by using the measured amplitude of the total field, which is the norm of the discrepancy between the measured amplitude and the calculated one. Then both the amplitude and phase of the scattered field are retrieved by minimizing the above cost functional. Finally, the geometrical and electrical parameters are reconstructed by using the retrieved scattered field. The phase retrieval process can be achieved in a very short time without adding any burden to the whole inverse scattering problem. The equivalent current density is introduced to reduce the nonlinearity of the inverse problem. The reconstruction of the non-radiating component of the equivalent current density improves the imaging quality. Experimental results are presented for the first time to show the feasibility of inverse scattering from phaseless data. The experimental results also show the validity and stability of the proposed method.

  6. The structure of *-inverse semigroups

    REN; Xueming


    [1]Hall T E.Orthodox semigroups.Pacific J Math,1971,39:677-686[2]Howie J M.An Introduction to Semigroup Theory.Now York:Academic Press,1976[3]Fountain J B.Abundant semigroups.Proc Lond Math Soc,1982,44 (3):103-129[4]El-Qallali A,Fountain J B.Idempotent-connected abundant semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1981,Sec.A:79-90[5]El-Qallali A,Fountain J B.Quasi-adequate semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1981,Sec.A:91-99[6]Fountain J B.Adequate semigroups.Proc Edinburgh Math Soc,1979,22:113-125[7]Guo X J.Abundant C-lpp proper semigroups.Southeast Asian Bull Math,2000,24 (1):41-50[8]Guo X J,Shum K P,Guo Y Q.Perfect rpp semigroups.Communications in Algebra,2001,29(6):2447-2459[9]Ren X M,Shum K P.Structure theorems for right pp-semigroups with left central idempotents.Discussions Math General Algebra and Applications,2000,20:63-75[10]Ren X M,Shum K P.The structure of superabundant semigroups.Sci China Ser A-Math,2004,47(5):756-771[11]Shum K P,Ren X M.Abundant semigroups with left central idempotents.Pure Math Appl,1999,10(1):109-113[12]Armstrong S.The structure of type A semigroups.Semigroup Forum,1984,29:319-336[13]Lawson M V.The structure of type A semigroups.Quart J Math Oxford,1986,37(2):279-298[14]Bailes G L.Right inverse semigroups.J Algebra,1973,26:492-507[15]Venkatesan P S.Right (left) inverse semigroups.J Algebra,1974,31:209-217[16]Yamada M.Orthodox semigroups whose idempotents satisfy a certain identity.Semigroup Forum,1973,6:113-128[17]Preston G B.Semiproducts of semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1986,102A:91-102[18]Preston G B:Products of semigroups.In:Shum K P,Yuen P C,eds.Proc.of the conference"Ordered structures and algebra of computer languages",1991 (Hong Kong).Singapore:World Scientific Inc,1993.161-169[19]Lawson M V.The natural partial order on an abundant semigroup.Proc Edinburgh Math Soc,1987,30:169-186[20]El-Qallali A.(L)*-unipotent semigroups.J Pure and Applied Algebra,1989,62:19-23

  7. Childhood Short Stature

    Ray, J.


    Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or ...

  8. Status of the inverse Compton backscattering source at Daresbury Laboratory

    Priebe, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Filippetto, D. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Williams, O. [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, CA (United States); Saveliev, Y.M.; Jones, L.B. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Laundy, D.; MacDonald, M.A.; Diakun, G.P. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.J. [Electronic and Physics Department, Dundee University, Nethergate (United Kingdom); Jamison, S.P. [Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Spohr, K.M. [School of Engineering and Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Ter-Avetisyan, S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Hirst, G.J. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Collier, J. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea (United Kingdom); Seddon, E.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Smith, S.L. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom)


    Inverse Compton scattering is a promising method to implement a high-brightness, ultra-short, energy tuneable X-ray source at accelerator facilities and at laser facilities using laser wake-field acceleration. We have developed an inverse Compton X-ray source driven by the multi-10-TW laser installed at Daresbury Laboratory. Polarized X-ray pulses will be generated through the interaction of laser pulses with electron bunches delivered by the energy recovery linac commissioned at the ALICE facility with spectral peaks ranging from 0.4 to 12 A, depending on the electron bunch energy and the scattering geometry. X-ray pulses containing up to 10{sup 7} photons per pulse will be created from head-on collisions, with a pulse duration comparable to the incoming electron bunch length. For transverse collisions the laser pulse transit time defines the X-ray pulse duration. The peak spectral brightness is predicted to be up to 10{sup 21} photon/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% {delta}{lambda}/{lambda}). Called COBALD, this source will be initially used as a short-pulse diagnostic for the ALICE electron beam and will explore the extreme challenges of photon/electron beam synchronization, which is a fundamental requirement for all conventional accelerator and laser wake-field-acceleration-based sources.

  9. Production of short lived radioactive beams of radium

    Shidling, P. D.; Giri, G. S.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.


    Short lived (212,213,214)Ra isotopes have been produced at the TRI mu P facility in inverse kinematics via the fusion-evaporation reaction (206)Pb + (12)C at 8 MeV/u. Isotopes are separated from other reaction products online using the TRI mu P magnetic separator. The energetic radium (Ra) isotopes

  10. Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail:


    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark–Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce “inverse magnetic catalysis”, signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.

  11. Inversion based on computational simulations

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.


    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.

  12. Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis

    Brett McInnes


    Full Text Available It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark–Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce “inverse magnetic catalysis”, signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.


    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Viticchie, B. [ESA/ESTEC RSSD, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Orozco Suarez, D., E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  14. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  15. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  16. Inverse problem in Parker's dynamo

    Reshetnyak, M Yu


    The inverse solution of the 1D Parker dynamo equations is considered. The method is based on minimization of the cost-function, which characterize deviation of the model solution properties from the desired ones. The output is the latitude distribution of the magnetic field generation sources: the $\\alpha$- and $\\omega$-effects. Minimization is made using the Monte-Carlo method. The details of the method, as well as some applications, which can be interesting for the broad dynamo community, are considered: conditions when the invisible for the observer at the surface of the planet toroidal part of the magnetic field is much larger than the poloidal counterpart. It is shown that at some particular distributions of $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ the well-known thesis that sign of the dynamo-number defines equatorial symmetry of the magnetic field to the equator plane, is violated. It is also demonstrated in what circumstances magnetic field in the both hemispheres have different properties, and simple physical explanati...

  17. Short-circuit logic

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.


    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of p

  18. Inversion and approximation of Laplace transforms

    Lear, W. M.


    A method of inverting Laplace transforms by using a set of orthonormal functions is reported. As a byproduct of the inversion, approximation of complicated Laplace transforms by a transform with a series of simple poles along the left half plane real axis is shown. The inversion and approximation process is simple enough to be put on a programmable hand calculator.

  19. Integrative inversion of land surface component temperature

    FAN Wenjie; XU Xiru


    In this paper, the row winter wheat was selected as the example to study the component temperature inversion method of land surface target in detail. The result showed that the structural pattern of row crop can affect the inversion precision of component temperature evidently. Choosing appropriate structural pattern of row crop can improve the inversion precision significantly. The iterative method combining inverse matrix was a stable method that was fit for inversing component temperature of land surface target. The result of simulation and field experiment showed that the integrative method could remarkably improve the inversion accuracy of the lighted soil surface temperature and the top layer canopy temperature, and enhance inversion stability of components temperature. Just two parameters were sufficient for accurate atmospheric correction of multi-angle and multi-spectral thermal infrared data: atmospheric transmittance and the atmospheric upwelling radiance. If the atmospheric parameters and component temperature can be inversed synchronously, the really and truly accurate atmospheric correction can be achieved. The validation using ATSRII data showed that the method was useful.

  20. Non-Linear Logging Parameters Inversion


    The non-linear logging parameters inversion is based on the field theory, information optimization and predication theory. It uses seismic charaoters,geological model and logging data as a restriction to inverse 2D, 3D logging parameters data volume. Using this method,

  1. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  2. Inversion in Mathematical Thinking and Learning

    Greer, Brian


    Inversion is a fundamental relational building block both within mathematics as the study of structures and within people's physical and social experience, linked to many other key elements such as equilibrium, invariance, reversal, compensation, symmetry, and balance. Within purely formal arithmetic, the inverse relationships between addition and…

  3. Normal Orthodox Semigroups with Inverse Transversals



    A normal orthodox semigroup is an orthodox semigroup whose idempotent elements form a normal band.We deal with congruces on a normal orthodox semigroup with an iverse transversal .A structure theorem for such semigroup is obtained.Munn(1966)gave a fundamental inverse semigroup Following Munn's idea ,we give a fundamental normal orthodox semigroup with an inverse transversal.

  4. Treatment of inverse psoriasis with efalizumab.

    George, Dornechia; Rosen, Ted


    Various topical and systemic treatments have shown efficacy in plaque and palmoplantar psoriasis; however, studies regarding efficacy in inverse psoriasis are few. The authors present a case of a patient with severe inverse psoriasis who was successfully treated with efalizumab, resulting in complete and sustained remission during prolonged maintenance therapy.

  5. Approximation of the Inverse -Frame Operator

    M R Abdollahpour; A Najati


    In this paper, we introduce the concept of (strong) projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we like using finite-dimensional linear algebra.

  6. An inversion algorithm for general tridiagonal matrix

    Rui-sheng RAN; Ting-zhu HUANG; Xing-ping LIU; Tong-xiang GU


    An algorithm for the inverse of a general tridiagonal matrix is presented. For a tridiagonal matrix having the Doolittle factorization, an inversion algorithm is established.The algorithm is then generalized to deal with a general tridiagonal matrix without any restriction. Comparison with other methods is provided, indicating low computational complexity of the proposed algorithm, and its applicability to general tridiagonal matrices.

  7. Resolution analysis in full waveform inversion

    Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.


    We propose a new method for the quantitative resolution analysis in full seismic waveform inversion that overcomes the limitations of classical synthetic inversions while being computationally more efficient and applicable to any misfit measure. The method rests on (1) the local quadratic approximat

  8. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.


    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance.

  9. A Construction of Weakly Inverse Semigroups

    Bing Jun YU; Yan LI


    Let S° be an inverse semigroup with semilattice biordered set E° of idempotents and E a weakly inverse biordered set with a subsemilattice Ep = { e ∈ E |(V) f ∈ E, S(f , e)(C) w(e) } isomorphic to E° by θ:Ep→E°. In this paper, it is proved that if(V)f, g∈E, f ←→ ,g(→) f°θ (ζ)s° g°θand there exists a mapping φ from Ep into the symmetric weakly inverse semigroup (ζξ)(E ∪S°) satisfying six appropriate conditions, then a weakly inverse semigroup ∑ can be constructed in (ζξ)(S°), called the weakly inverse hull of a weakly inverse system (S°, E, θ, φ) with I(∑) ≌ S°, E(∑) (≌) E. Conversely,every weakly inverse semigroup can be constructed in this way. Furthermore, a sufficient and necessary condition for two weakly inverse hulls to be isomorphic is also given.

  10. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.


    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance. F

  11. Planetary dynamo energies for paleomagnetic intensity, scaling, inversions and asymmetries

    Starchenko, S. V.


    I derive, simplify and analyze integral evolutional laws of the kinetic, magnetic, and an original orientation energies in the liquid core of the Earth or another Earth's type planet. These integral laws are reduced to the rude but simplest system of three ordinary differential equations for cross-helicity Z, root-mean square averaged magnetic field Y and velocity X. This system is controlled by the relatively well-known convection power W and other parameters. Estimates are obtained for the characteristic velocities, magnetic fields, periods and scales depending on the convection power at the stable states and near the inversion/excursion where the above system has its stationary (market by s) points. It was shown that for the implementation of this short-time inversion/excursion the convection power should achieve some rare value, while a normal deviation from this value results in longer-time stable period. Here the inversion is a global process when the volume integral of the scalar product of convective velocity on the magnetic field changes sign. So, the inversions and asymmetries are due to two types of stable states. Named as "lined" is a state with the magnetic field predominantly directed along velocity, while "contra lined" state is with their opposite direction. The lined state is characterized by smaller convection power and magnetic field in contrast to the contra lined state. The duration of the lined state is likely smaller than the duration of opposite state when the geodynamo power gradually increases with time, while for decreasing power it is vice versa. Basing on the obtained results I estimate how diffusion can determine the average period between geomagnetic reversals due to turbulent, thermal, electromagnetic and critical viscositycompositional processes. Predominant in this process, in many cases, can be identified from the dependence of the reversal frequency on the magnetic field intensity from paleomagnetic data. The data available to me

  12. Inverse scattering: applications to nuclear physics

    Mackintosh, Raymond S


    In what follows we first set the context for inverse scattering in nuclear physics with a brief account of inverse problems in general. We then turn to inverse scattering which involves the S-matrix, which connects the interaction potential between two scattering particles with the measured scattering cross section. The term `inverse' is a reference to the fact that instead of determining the scattering S-matrix from the interaction potential between the scattering particles, we do the inverse. That is to say, we calculate the interaction potential from the S-matrix. This review explains how this can now be done reliably, but the emphasis will be upon reasons why one should wish to do this, with an account of some of the ways this can lead to understanding concerning nuclear interactions.

  13. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)


    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin


    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  15. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  16. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime


    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  17. Fast 3D inversion of airborne gravity-gradiometry data using Lanczos bidiagonalization method

    Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting; Zhang, Dailei; Xu, Xuechun; Huang, Danian


    We developed a new fast inversion method for to process and interpret airborne gravity gradiometry data, which was based on Lanczos bidiagonalization algorithm. Here, we describe the application of this new 3D gravity gradiometry inversion method to recover a subsurface density distribution model from the airborne measured gravity gradiometry anomalies. For this purpose, the survey area is divided into a large number of rectangular cells with each cell possessing a constant unknown density. It is well known that the solution of large linear gravity gradiometry is an ill-posed problem since using the smoothest inversion method is considerably time consuming. We demonstrate that the Lanczos bidiagonalization method can be an appropriate algorithm to solve a Tikhonov solver time cost function for resolving the large equations within a short time. Lanczos bidiagonalization is designed to make the very large gravity gradiometry forward modeling matrices to become low-rank, which will considerably reduce the running time of the inversion method. We also use a weighted generalized cross validation method to choose the appropriate Tikhonov parameter to improve inversion results. The inversion incorporates a model norm that allows us to attain the smoothing and depth of the solution; in addition, the model norm counteracts the natural decay of the kernels, which concentrate at shallow depths. The method is applied on noise-contaminated synthetic gravity gradiometry data to demonstrate its suitability for large 3D gravity gradiometry data inversion. The airborne gravity gradiometry data from the Vinton Salt Dome, USE, were considered as a case study. The validity of the new method on real data is discussed with reference to the Vinton Dome inversion result. The intermediate density values in the constructed model coincide well with previous results and geological information. This demonstrates the validity of the gravity gradiometry inversion method.

  18. Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices

    Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)


    We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.

  19. Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes

    Cáceres Alejandro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data 1, utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model 2. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU and Yoruba (YRI HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions

  20. Post Stack Seismic data-impedance Inversion using Multi-Point Stochastic Inversion in Yme field, Norwegian Sea

    Inácio, Celso dos Santos Laurinda


    The Multi-Point Stochastic Inversion (MPSI) is a method based on both deterministic inversion and stochastic inversion. The deterministic inversion is used prior to the stochastic inversion and it is more general and works well for thick layers while the stochastic inversion works well for thin layers. Because of its combination, the MPSI method is one of suitable methods for reservoir characterization. Apart from being used for post-stack seismic acoustic impedance (AI) inversion, the MPSI m...

  1. Quantum interference effects on the probe amplification without and with inversion in a four-level system

    Zhang Bing; Xu Wei-Hua; Zhang Hui-Fang; Gao Jin-Yue


    A four-level system driven by two coherent fields is considered. It is shown that in the presence of an incoherent pump, the probe gain at a short wavelength can be achieved due to the quantum interference. Our density matrix calculation provides the conditions for probe amplification from different origins, including gain without population inversion on any state basis, gain with population inversion on the dressed-state basis, and gain with population inversion on the bare-state basis. Also, by controlling the Rabi frequency of the coupling field a total change from non-inversion to inversion can be achieved which does not depend on the intensity of the incoherent pump.

  2. Sparse CSEM inversion driven by seismic coherence

    Guo, Zhenwei; Dong, Hefeng; Kristensen, Åge


    Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data inversion for hydrocarbon exploration is often challenging due to high computational cost, physical memory requirement and low resolution of the obtained resistivity map. This paper aims to enhance both the speed and resolution of CSEM inversion by introducing structural geological information in the inversion algorithm. A coarse mesh is generated for Occam’s inversion, where the parameters are fewer than in the fine regular mesh. This sparse mesh is defined as a coherence-based irregular (IC) sparse mesh, which is based on vertices extracted from available geological information. Inversion results on synthetic data illustrate that the IC sparse mesh has a smaller inversion computational cost compared to the regular dense (RD) mesh. It also has a higher resolution than with a regular sparse (RS) mesh for the same number of estimated parameters. In order to study how the IC sparse mesh reduces the computational time, four different meshes are generated for Occam’s inversion. As a result, an IC sparse mesh can reduce the computational cost while it keeps the resolution as good as a fine regular mesh. The IC sparse mesh reduces the computational cost of the matrix operation for model updates. When the number of estimated parameters reduces to a limited value, the computational cost is independent of the number of parameters. For a testing model with two resistive layers, the inversion result using an IC sparse mesh has higher resolution in both horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the model representing significant geological information in the IC mesh can improve the resolution of the resistivity models obtained from inversion of CSEM data.

  3. On the inversion-indel distance.

    Willing, Eyla; Zaccaria, Simone; Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens


    The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components.

  4. Graph inverse semigroups: their characterization and completion

    Jones, David G


    Graph inverse semigroups generalize the polycyclic inverse monoids and play an important role in the theory of C*-algebras. This paper has two main goals: first, to provide an abstract characterization of graph inverse semigroups; and second, to show how they may be completed, under suitable conditions, to form what we call the Cuntz-Krieger semigroup of the graph. This semigroup is the ample semigroup of a topological groupoid associated with the graph, and the semigroup analogue of the Leavitt path algebra of the graph.

  5. 3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem


    This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.

  6. Parallel Algorithm in Surface Wave Waveform Inversion


    In Surface wave waveform inversion, we want to reconstruct 3Dshear wav e velocity structure, which calculation beyond the capability of the powerful pr esent day personal computer or even workstation. So we designed a high parallele d algorithm and carried out the inversion on Parallel computer based on the part itioned waveform inversion (PWI). It partitions the large scale optimization pro blem into a number of independent small scale problems and reduces the computati onal effort by several orders of magnitude. We adopted surface waveform inversio n with a equal block(2°×2°) discretization.

  7. New recursive algorithm for matrix inversion

    Cao Jianshu; Wang Xuegang


    To reduce the computational complexity of matrix inversion, which is the majority of processing in many practical applications, two numerically efficient recursive algorithms (called algorithms Ⅰ and Ⅱ, respectively)are presented. Algorithm Ⅰ is used to calculate the inverse of such a matrix, whose leading principal minors are all nonzero. Algorithm Ⅱ, whereby, the inverse of an arbitrary nonsingular matrix can be evaluated is derived via improving the algorithm Ⅰ. The implementation, for algorithm Ⅱ or Ⅰ, involves matrix-vector multiplications and vector outer products. These operations are computationally fast and highly parallelizable. MATLAB simulations show that both recursive algorithms are valid.

  8. Nonlinear system compound inverse control method

    Yan ZHANG; Zengqiang CHEN; Peng YANG; Zhuzhi YUAN


    A compound neural network is utilized to identify the dynamic nonlinear system.This network is composed of two parts: one is a linear neural network,and the other is a recurrent neural network.Based on the inverse theory a compound inverse control method is proposed.The controller has also two parts:a linear controller and a nonlinear neural network controller.The stability condition of the closed-loop neural network-based compound inverse control system is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov theory.Simulation studies have shown that this scheme is simple and has good control accuracy and robustness.

  9. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;


    We present a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which allows for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion, for informing geological/hydrogeological models directly and for easier incorporation...... for jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...... present a voxel grid inversion routine that overcomes these problems and we discuss in detail the algorithm implementation....

  10. Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions

    Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei


    Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates

    Yamamoto, Masahiro


    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  12. [Short lingual frenulum].

    Klockars, Tuomas


    Short lingual frenulum is a common structural abnormality with unknown mechanisms of origination. The frequency of occurrence among newborn infants can be as high as 4%. Short lingual frenulum may cause problems, if it restricts the movements of the tongue. Therapeutic indications for short lingual frenulum in newborn infants are mainly breastfeeding problems, whereas in children of preschool age and older the indication is defective pronunciation.

  13. Geoelectric Characterization of Thermal Water Aquifers Using 2.5D Inversion of VES Measurements

    Gyulai, Á.; Szűcs, P.; Turai, E.; Baracza, M. K.; Fejes, Z.


    This paper presents a short theoretical summary of the series expansion-based 2.5D combined geoelectric weighted inversion (CGWI) method and highlights the advantageous way with which the number of unknowns can be decreased due to the simultaneous characteristic of this inversion. 2.5D CGWI is an approximate inversion method for the determination of 3D structures, which uses the joint 2D forward modeling of dip and strike direction data. In the inversion procedure, the Steiner's most frequent value method is applied to the automatic separation of dip and strike direction data and outliers. The workflow of inversion and its practical application are presented in the study. For conventional vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements, this method can determine the parameters of complex structures more accurately than the single inversion method. Field data show that the 2.5D CGWI which was developed can determine the optimal location for drilling an exploratory thermal water prospecting well. The novelty of this research is that the measured VES data in dip and strike direction are jointly inverted by the 2.5D CGWI method.

  14. Geoelectric Characterization of Thermal Water Aquifers Using 2.5D Inversion of VES Measurements

    Gyulai, Á.; Szűcs, P.; Turai, E.; Baracza, M. K.; Fejes, Z.


    This paper presents a short theoretical summary of the series expansion-based 2.5D combined geoelectric weighted inversion (CGWI) method and highlights the advantageous way with which the number of unknowns can be decreased due to the simultaneous characteristic of this inversion. 2.5D CGWI is an approximate inversion method for the determination of 3D structures, which uses the joint 2D forward modeling of dip and strike direction data. In the inversion procedure, the Steiner's most frequent value method is applied to the automatic separation of dip and strike direction data and outliers. The workflow of inversion and its practical application are presented in the study. For conventional vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements, this method can determine the parameters of complex structures more accurately than the single inversion method. Field data show that the 2.5D CGWI which was developed can determine the optimal location for drilling an exploratory thermal water prospecting well. The novelty of this research is that the measured VES data in dip and strike direction are jointly inverted by the 2.5D CGWI method.

  15. Long and short GRB

    Katz, J I


    We report evidence from the 3B Catalogue that short (T_90 10 s) GRB represent different populations and processes: Their spectral behavior is qualitatively different, with short bursts harder in the BATSE range, but chiefly long bursts detected at higher photon energies; \\langle V/V_max \\rangle = 0.385 \\pm 0.019 for short GRB but \\langle V/V_max \\rangle = 0.282 \\pm 0.014 for long GRB, differing by 0.103 \\pm 0.024. Long GRB may be the consequence of accretion-induced collapse, but this mechanism fails for short GRB, for which we suggest colliding neutron stars.

  16. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome


    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  17. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Shocked Astrophysical Plasmas

    Baring, M G; Ellison, D C; Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.


    There has recently been interest in the role of inverse bremsstrahlung, the emission of photons by fast suprathermal ions in collisions with ambient electrons possessing relatively low velocities, in tenuous plasmas in various astrophysical contexts. This follows a long hiatus in the application of suprathermal ion bremsstrahlung to astrophysical models since the early 1970s. The potential importance of inverse bremsstrahlung relative to normal bremsstrahlung, i.e. where ions are at rest, hinges upon the underlying velocity distributions of the interacting species. In this paper, we identify the conditions under which the inverse bremsstrahlung emissivity is significant relative to that for normal bremsstrahlung in shocked astrophysical plasmas. We determine that, since both observational and theoretical evidence favors electron temperatures almost comparable to, and certainly not very deficient relative to proton temperatures in shocked plasmas, these environments generally render inverse bremsstrahlung at b...

  18. The Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Faton Merovci


    Full Text Available A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution the so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull distribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking the generalized inverseWeibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, and moment generating function of the new distribution are derived. We propose the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the flexibility of the transmuted version versus the generalized inverse Weibull distribution.

  19. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  20. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    Liu, Lu


    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).

  1. Self-Inverse Interleavers for Turbo Codes

    Sakzad, Amin; Panario, Daniel; Eshghi, Nasim


    In this work we introduce and study a set of new interleavers based on permutation polynomials and functions with known inverses over a finite field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ for using in turbo code structures. We use Monomial, Dickson, M\\"{o}bius and R\\'edei functions in order to get new interleavers. In addition we employ Skolem sequences in order to find new interleavers with known cycle structure. As a byproduct we give an exact formula for the inverse of every R\\'edei function. The cycle structure of R\\'edei functions are also investigated. Finally, self-inverse versions of permutation functions are used to construct interleavers. These interleavers are their own de-interleavers and are useful for turbo coding and turbo decoding. Experiments carried out for self-inverse interleavers constructed using these kind of permutation polynomials and functions show excellent agreement with our theoretical results.

  2. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  3. Nonlinear Least Squares for Inverse Problems

    Chavent, Guy


    Presents an introduction into the least squares resolution of nonlinear inverse problems. This title intends to develop a geometrical theory to analyze nonlinear least square (NLS) problems with respect to their quadratic wellposedness, that is, both wellposedness and optimizability

  4. An Inverse Problem Statistical Methodology Summary


    R. Vogel, Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2002. [36] D. D. Wackerly, W. Mendenhall III, and R. L. Scheaffer , Mathematical Statistics with Applications, Duxbury Thompson Learning, USA, 2002. 56

  5. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    .... With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally...

  6. Inversion of hysteresis and creep operators

    Krejčí, Pavel; Al Janaideh, Mohammad; Deasy, Fergal


    The explicit inversion formula for rate dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii operators is extended to cases without the threshold dilation condition. This solves a problem in hysteresis and creep modeling of magnetostrictive behavior.

  7. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    Gurudas Khilnani


    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT


    Fuchs, Catherine; Le Goffic, Pierre


    International audience; Chapter 4 is devoted to a linguistic analysis of the 47 examples of locative inversions which are to be found in Robbe-Grillet's novel La Jalousie. We successively consider the ordering, the internal structure, the lexical characteristics and the determiners of the three main constituents (namely the Location Phrase, the Verbal Phrase and the nominal Subject Phrase). The analysis enlightens the non prototypical way in which the author uses locative inversion structures...

  9. Study of Inverse Creep In Textile Yarns

    P.G. Patil


    Full Text Available Creep has been known and studied for textilematerials for decades. In comparison, a newlyobserved phenomenon of inverse creep seems not tohave received much attention. A new instrument hasbeen fabricated to measure creep and inverse creep intextile materials particularly yarns. Creep and Inversecreep measurements of nylon multifilament yarn,polyester multifilament yarn, cotton and wool yarn atdifferent levels of stress have been studied using thenew instrument and results are reported in the presentpaper.

  10. Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries

    Lawson, Mark V


    Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.

  11. Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation Involving Position Shading

    Li, Zhengquan; WU Yaoxiang


    Considering the shortcomings of inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation in practical applications, this study improved the IDW algorithm and put forward a new spatial interpolation method that named as adjusted inverse distance weighted (AIDW). In interpolating process, the AIDW is capable of taking into account the comprehensive influence of distance and position of sample point to interpolation point, by adding a coefficient (K) into the normal IDW formula. The coefficient (K) is used...

  12. Inverse problems in stochastic computational dynamics

    Capiez-Lernout, Evangéline; Soize, Christian


    International audience; This paper deals with robust updating of dynamical systems using stochastic computational models for which model and parameter uncertainties are taken into account by the nonparametric probabilistic approach. Such a problem is formulated as an inverse problem consisting in identifying the parameters of the mean computational model and the parameters of the probabilistic model of uncertainties. This inverse problem leads us to solve an optimization problem for which the...

  13. Bayesian Inversion of Seabed Scattering Data


    uncertainties as well as parameter values, thereby quantifying the information content of the data to resolve the model parameters. Bayesian inversion...method based on deviance information criterion to determine the dominant scattering mechanism is in development. This work has been compiled in two... Bayesian Inversion of Seabed Scattering Data (Special Research Award in Ocean Acoustics) Gavin A.M.W. Steininger School of Earth & Ocean


    Liu Zhenhai; I.Szántó


    This paper is devoted to the class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic hemivariational inequality.The unknown coefficient of the operator depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained.

  15. An inverse problem in analytical dynamics

    Li Guang-Cheng; Mei-Feng-Xiang


    This paper presents an inverse problem in analytical dynamics.The inverse problem is to construct the Lagrangian when the integrals of a system are given.Firstly,the differential equations are obtained by using the time derivative of the integrals.Secondly,the differential equations can be written in the Lagrange equations under certain conditions and the Lagrangian can be obtained.Finally,two examples are given to illustrate the application of the result.

  16. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生


    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  17. Geoacoustic inversion with ships as sources.

    Koch, Robert A; Knobles, David P


    Estimation of geoacoustic parameters using acoustic data from a surface ship was performed for a shallow water region in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were recorded from hydrophones in a bottom mounted, horizontal line array (HLA). The techniques developed to produce the geoacoustic inversion are described, and an efficient method for geoacoustic inversion with broadband beam cross-spectral data is demonstrated. The performance of cost functions that involve coherent or incoherent sums over frequency and one or multiple time segments is discussed. Successful inversions for the first sediment layer sound speed and thickness and some of the parameters for the deeper layers were obtained with the surface ship at nominal ranges of 20, 30, or 50 water depths. The data for these inversions were beam cross-spectra from four subapertures of the HLA spanning a little more than two water depths. The subaperture beams included ten frequencies equally spaced in the 120-200 Hz band. The values of the geoacoustic parameters from the inversions are validated by comparisons with geophysical observations and with the parameter values from previous inversions by other invesigators, and by comparing transmission loss (TL) measured in the experiment with modeled TL based on the inverted geoacoustic parameters.

  18. Image Fusion for Travel Time Tomography Inversion

    Liu Linan


    Full Text Available The travel time tomography technology had achieved wide application, the hinge of tomography was inversion algorithm, the ray path tracing technology had a great impact on the inversion results. In order to improve the SNR of inversion image, comprehensive utilization of inversion results with different ray tracing can be used. We presented an imaging fusion method based on improved Wilkinson iteration method. Firstly, the shortest path method and the linear travel time interpolation were used for forward calculation; then combined the improved Wilkinson iteration method with super relaxation precondition method to reduce the condition number of matrix and accelerate iterative speed, the precise integration method was used to solve the inverse matrix more precisely in tomography inversion process; finally, use wavelet transform for image fusion, obtain the final image. Therefore, the ill-conditioned linear equations were changed into iterative normal system through two times of treatment and using images with different forward algorithms for image fusion, it reduced the influence effect of measurement error on imaging. Simulation results showed that, this method can eliminate the artifacts in images effectively, it had extensive practical significance.

  19. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    Saragiotis, Christos


    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Polymeric Inverse Glasses for Development of Noniridescent Structural Colors in Full Visible Range.

    Lee, Gun Ho; Sim, Jae Young; Kim, Shin-Hyun


    Amorphous colloidal array with short-range order displays noniridescent structural colors due to the isotropic nature of the colloidal arrangement. The low angle dependence renders the colloidal glasses, which is promising for various coloration applications. Nevertheless, the colloidal glasses are difficult to develop red structural color due to strong cavity-like resonance from individual particles in the blue region. To suppress the cavity mode and develop the colors in the full visible range, we prepare inverse glasses composed of amorphous array of air cavities with short-range order. To produce the structures in a simple and reproducible manner, monodisperse silica particles are dispersed in a photocurable resin of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) at a volume fraction of 0.3. The particles spontaneously form the amorphous array with short-range order, which is rapidly captured in polymeric films by photopolymerization of the resin. Selective removal of silica particles from the polymerized resin leaves behind amorphous array of air cavities. The inverse glasses display structural colors with negligible backscattering in blue due to short optical path and low index in each cavity. Therefore, the colors can be tuned in full visible range by simply controlling the cavity size. The photocurable suspensions of silica particles can be patterned by photolithography, which enables the production of freestanding films containing patterned inverse glasses with noniridescent structural colors.

  1. An Efficient Pseudo-Inverse Solution to the Inverse Kinematic Problem for 6-Joint Manipulators

    Stefano Chiaverini


    Full Text Available The use of the pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix makes the solution of the inverse kinematic problem well-defined even at singular configurations of the robot arm, in the neighbourhood of a singularity, however, the computed solution often results in high joint velocities which may not be feasible to the real manipulator. Furthermore, the pseudo-inverse solution is computationally expensive, thus preventing real-time applications.

  2. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Adrian Deaconu; Eleonor Ciurea


    A linear time method to decide if any inverse maximum flow (denoted General Inverse Maximum Flow problems (IMFG)) problem has solution is deduced. If IMFG does not have solution, methods to transform IMFG into a feasible problem are presented. The methods consist of modifying as little as possible the restrictions to the variation of the bounds of the flow. New inverse combinatorial optimization problems are introduced and solved.

  3. Childhood Short Stature



    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  4. Idiopathic short stature

    Vlaški Jovan


    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  5. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa


    The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.

  6. Monofrequency waveform acquisition and inversion: A new paradigm

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    In seismic inversion, we tend to use the geometrical behavior of the wavefield (the kinematics), extracted from the data, to constrain the long wavelength model components and use the recorded reections to invert for the short wavelength features in a process referred to as full waveform inversion (FWI). For such a recipe, single frequency (the right frequency) data are capable of providing the ingredients for both model components. A frequency that provides model wavelengths (through the transmission components) low enough to update the background and high enough (reections) to map the scattering may render the other frequencies almost obsolete, especially large offset data are available to provide the transition from background to scattering components. Thus, I outline a scenario in which we acquire dedicated mono frequency data, allowing for more time to inject more of that single frequency energy at a reduced cost. The cost savings can be utilized to acquire larger offsets, which is an important for constraining the background model. Combing this single frequency data with a hierarchical scattering angle filter strategy in FWI, and potentially reection FWI, provides an opportunity to invert for complex models starting even with poor initial velocity models. The objective of this new paradigm is a high resolution model of the Earth to replace our focus on the image, which requires a band of frequencies.

  7. Optical stability of silicon nitride MIS inversion layer solar cells

    Jaeger, K.; Hezel, R.


    For MIS inversion layer solar cells with silicon nitride as an AR coating, accelerated optical stress tests were performed. Degradation of the cell characteristics occurred which was found to be caused by photons with energies equal to or greater than 3.7 eV (wavelength of 335 nm or less). Generation of interface states at the silicon-insulator interface by UV light is shown to be the mechanism responsible. The original cell data could be completely restored by heat treatment (activation energy 0.5 eV) and partially by illumination with short-wavelength light. As the most striking result, however, it is demonstrated that the UV light-induced instability can be drastically improved by incorporation of cesium ions into the silicon nitride layer. An interpretation is given for this effect.

  8. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    Bulyak, Eugene


    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the `electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A `proof-of-prin...

  9. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Young, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    Beams of radioactive nuclides can be produced in a variety of ways. Effcient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for a number of applications. It is particularly interesting when the isotope is only a few nucleons away from stable isotopes. The production via charge exchange and stripping reactions has been explored at the TRI{mu}P magnetic double separator at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen. The balance between separator transmission efficiency and production yield and the corresponding choice for the beam energy has been investigated. The results of some exploratory experiments at the new TRI{mu}P facility will be presented. (orig.)

  10. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  11. 2D acoustic-elastic coupled waveform inversion in the Laplace domain

    Bae, Hoseuk


    successfully recovers the long-wavelength structures of the P- and S-wave velocity models from the noise-free data. The models inverted by the Laplace-domain waveform inversion were able to be successfully used as initial models in the subsequent frequency-domain waveform inversion, which is performed to describe the short-wavelength structures of the true models. © 2010 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  12. Congenital short pancreas

    DU Juan; XU Guo-qiang; XU Ping; JIN En-yun; LIU Qiong; LI You-ming


    @@ Congenital short pancreas, also known as partial agenesis or hypoplasia of the dorsal pancreas1 is a rare congenital abnormality consisting of the parenchyma and ductal system restricted to the head with some residual dorsal tapering and arborizing ducts communicating with the minor papill.2 Complete pancreatic agenesis is fatal, and only nine possible examples of partial agenesis have been previously reported in adults in the literature.3-10 Three of them were polysplenia syndrome associated with short pancreas,and only six patients with congenital short pancreas with normal situs. Here we present a new case associated with steatorrhoea.

  13. Imaging in short stature

    Vikas Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  14. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  15. Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  17. Inversion concept of the origin of life.

    Kompanichenko, V N


    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  18. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew


    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  19. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    Klammer, D.


    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  20. On the Block Independence in G-Inverse and Reflexive Inner Inverse of A Partitioned Matrix

    Yong Hui LIU; Mu Sheng WEI


    By applying the multiple quotient singular value decomposition QQQQQ-SVD, we study the block independence in g-inverse and reflexive inner inverse of 2×2 partitioned matrices, and prove a conjecture in [YijuWang,SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 19(2), 407-415(1998)].

  1. Inverse scattering theory: Inverse scattering series method for one dimensional non-compact support potential

    Yao, Jie, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Lesage, Anne-Cécile; Hussain, Fazle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bodmann, Bernhard G. [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kouri, Donald J. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)


    The reversion of the Born-Neumann series of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is one of the standard ways to solve the inverse acoustic scattering problem. One limitation of the current inversion methods based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series is that the velocity potential should have compact support. However, this assumption cannot be satisfied in certain cases, especially in seismic inversion. Based on the idea of distorted wave scattering, we explore an inverse scattering method for velocity potentials without compact support. The strategy is to decompose the actual medium as a known single interface reference medium, which has the same asymptotic form as the actual medium and a perturbative scattering potential with compact support. After introducing the method to calculate the Green’s function for the known reference potential, the inverse scattering series and Volterra inverse scattering series are derived for the perturbative potential. Analytical and numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Besides, to ensure stability of the numerical computation, the Lanczos averaging method is employed as a filter to reduce the Gibbs oscillations for the truncated discrete inverse Fourier transform of each order. Our method provides a rigorous mathematical framework for inverse acoustic scattering with a non-compact support velocity potential.

  2. Interplay of Nitrogen-Atom Inversion and Conformational Inversion in Enantiomerization of 1H-1-Benzazepines.

    Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M


    A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.

  3. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, ... Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make a Donation Make an Appointment Contact ...

  4. Short-cut math

    Kelly, Gerard W


    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  5. Shortness of Breath

    ... shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when climbing stairs. Allergic Reactions ... 75231 Copyright © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0009-7322. Online ISSN: 1524- ...

  6. Efficient Underwater RSS Value to Distance Inversion Using the Lambert Function

    Majid Hosseini


    Full Text Available There are many applications for using wireless sensor networks (WSN in ocean science; however, identifying the exact location of a sensor by itself (localization is still a challenging problem, where global positioning system (GPS devices are not applicable underwater. Precise distance measurement between two sensors is a tool of localization and received signal strength (RSS, reflecting transmission loss (TL phenomena, is widely used in terrestrial WSNs for that matter. Underwater acoustic sensor networks have not been used (UASN, due to the complexity of the TL function. In this paper, we addressed these problems by expressing underwater TL via the Lambert W function, for accurate distance inversion by the Halley method, and compared this to Newton-Raphson inversion. Mathematical proof, MATLAB simulation, and real device implementation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed equation in distance calculation, with fewer iterations, computation stability for short and long distances, and remarkably short processing time. Then, the sensitivities of Lambert W function and Newton-Raphson inversion to alteration in TL were examined. The simulation results showed that Lambert W function is more stable to errors than Newton-Raphson inversion. Finally, with a likelihood method, it was shown that RSS is a practical tool for distance measurement in UASN.

  7. Sparse nonlinear inverse imaging for shot count reduction in inverse lithography.

    Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Wen; Lam, Edmund Y


    Inverse lithography technique (ILT) is significant to reduce the feature size of ArF optical lithography due to its strong ability to overcome the optical proximity effect. A critical issue for inverse lithography is the complex curvilinear patterns produced, which are very costly to write due to the large number of shots needed with the current variable shape beam (VSB) writers. In this paper, we devise an inverse lithography method to reduce the shot count by incorporating a model-based fracturing (MBF) in the optimization. The MBF is formulated as a sparse nonlinear inverse imaging problem based on representing the mask as a linear combination of shots followed by a threshold function. The problem is approached with a Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is adapted to promote sparsity of the solution, corresponding to the reduction of the shot count. Simulations of inverse lithography are performed on several test cases, and results demonstrate reduced shot count of the resulting mask.

  8. Children's Understanding of the Arithmetic Concepts of Inversion and Associativity

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Gray, Melissa L.


    Previous studies have shown that even preschoolers can solve inversion problems of the form a + b - b by using the knowledge that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. In this study, a new type of inversion problem of the form d x e [divided by] e was also examined. Grade 6 and 8 students solved inversion problems of both types as well…

  9. Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.

    Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis


    A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.

  10. Fast inversion of solar Ca II spectra

    Beck, C; Rezaei, R; Louis, R E


    We present a fast (<< 1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log tau ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log tau = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  11. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)


    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.

  12. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.


    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  13. Estimating stellar mean density through seismic inversions

    Reese, D R; Goupil, M J; Thompson, M J; Deheuvels, S


    Determining the mass of stars is crucial both to improving stellar evolution theory and to characterising exoplanetary systems. Asteroseismology offers a promising way to estimate stellar mean density. When combined with accurate radii determinations, such as is expected from GAIA, this yields accurate stellar masses. The main difficulty is finding the best way to extract the mean density from a set of observed frequencies. We seek to establish a new method for estimating stellar mean density, which combines the simplicity of a scaling law while providing the accuracy of an inversion technique. We provide a framework in which to construct and evaluate kernel-based linear inversions which yield directly the mean density of a star. We then describe three different inversion techniques (SOLA and two scaling laws) and apply them to the sun, several test cases and three stars. The SOLA approach and the scaling law based on the surface correcting technique described by Kjeldsen et al. (2008) yield comparable result...

  14. Inversion of Stokes Profiles with Systematic Effects

    Ramos, A Asensio; Gonzalez, M J Martinez; Yabar, A Pastor


    Quantitative thermodynamical, dynamical and magnetic properties of the solar and stellar plasmas are obtained by interpreting their emergent non-polarized and polarized spectrum. This inference requires the selection of a set of spectral lines particularly sensitive to the physical conditions in the plasma and a suitable parametric model of the solar/stellar atmosphere. Nonlinear inversion codes are then used to fit the model to the observations. However, the presence of systematic effects like nearby or blended spectral lines, telluric absorption or incorrect correction of the continuum, among others, can strongly affect the results. We present an extension to current inversion codes that can deal with these effects in a transparent way. The resulting algorithm is very simple and can be applied to any existing inversion code with the addition of a few lines of code as an extra step in each iteration.

  15. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William


    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory.

  16. Inverse Scattering Approach to Improving Pattern Recognition

    Chapline, G; Fu, C


    The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the ''wake-sleep'' algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.

  17. Inverse obstacle scattering for elastic waves

    Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Zewen; Zhao, Yue


    Consider the scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave by a rigid obstacle which is embedded in an open space filled with a homogeneous and isotropic elastic medium. An exact transparent boundary condition is introduced to reduce the scattering problem into a boundary value problem in a bounded domain. Given the incident field, the direct problem is to determine the displacement of the wave field from the known obstacle; the inverse problem is to determine the obstacle’s surface from the measurement of the displacement on an artificial boundary enclosing the obstacle. In this paper, we consider both the direct and inverse problems. The direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution by examining its variational formulation. The domain derivative is derived for the displacement with respect to the variation of the surface. A continuation method with respect to the frequency is developed for the inverse problem. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Preference elicitation and inverse reinforcement learning

    Rothkopf, Constantin


    We state the problem of inverse reinforcement learning in terms of preference elicitation, resulting in a principled (Bayesian) statistical formulation. This generalises previous work on Bayesian inverse reinforcement learning and allows us to obtain a posterior distribution on the agent's preferences, policy and optionally, the obtained reward sequence, from observations. We examine the relation of the resulting approach to other statistical methods for inverse reinforcement learning via analysis and experimental results. We show that preferences can be determined accurately, even if the observed agent's policy is sub-optimal with respect to its own preferences. In that case, significantly improved policies with respect to the agent's preferences are obtained, compared to both other methods and to the performance of the demonstrated policy.

  19. Inverse Folding of RNA Pseudoknot Structures

    Gao, James Z M; Reidys, Christian M


    Background: RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and \\pairGU-base pairings (secondary structure) and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, {\\tt RNAinverse}, {\\tt RNA-SSD} as well as {\\tt INFO-RNA} are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm {\\tt Inv} which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results: In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm {\\tt Inv}. We give a detailed analysis of {\\tt Inv}, including pseudocodes. We show that {\\tt Inv} allows to...

  20. What is inverse-geometry CT?

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat


    Inverse-geometry computed tomography (IGCT) systems are being developed to provide improved volumetric imaging. In conventional multislice CT systems, x-rays are emitted from a small area and irradiate a large-area detector. In an IGCT system, x-ray sources are distributed over a large area, with each beam irradiating a small-area detector. Therefore, in the inverse geometry, a series of narrow x-ray beams are switched on and off while the gantry rotates. In conventional CT geometry, cone-beam and scatter artifacts increase with the imaged volume thickness. An inverse geometry may be less susceptible to scatter effects, because only a fraction of the field of view is irradiated at one time. The distributed source in the inverse geometry potentially improves sampling, leading to reduced cone-beam artifacts. In the inverse geometry, the tube current may be adjusted separately for each source location, which potentially reduces dose. Multiple IGCT prototypes have been constructed and tested on phantoms. A gantry-based IGCT system with one-second gantry rotation was developed, and images of phantoms and small animals were successfully acquired. Clinical feasibility with acceptable noise levels and scan times has not yet been shown. Overall, results from prototype systems suggest that the inverse geometry will enable imaging of a thick volume (∼16 cm) while potentially reducing cone-beam artifacts, scatter effects, and radiation dose. The magnitude of these benefits will depend on the specific IGCT implementation and need to be quantified relative to comparable multislice scanners. Copyright © 2011 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of Infinite Diluted Activity Coefficient of Solvents in Polymer by Inverse Gas Chromatography Method


    @@1 INTRODUCTION Due to its short experimental time, little sample needed, suitable for broad temperature range, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been widely used to measure variety of properties of polymer systems, such as the intinite diluted activity coefficients of solvent in polymer, the glass transition temperature of polymer and the surface properties of polymer[1-5], etc. Those data have been used to develop the group contribution method for the prediction of thermodynamic proper-ties of polymer solution[6].

  2. Relative risk regression models with inverse polynomials.

    Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark


    The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.

  3. Linear inverse problem of the reactor dynamics

    Volkov, N. P.


    The aim of this work is the study transient processes in nuclear reactors. The mathematical model of the reactor dynamics excluding reverse thermal coupling is investigated. This model is described by a system of integral-differential equations, consisting of a non-stationary anisotropic multispeed kinetic transport equation and a delayed neutron balance equation. An inverse problem was formulated to determine the stationary part of the function source along with the solution of the direct problem. The author obtained sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a generalized solution of this inverse problem.

  4. Inverse scattering of dispersive stratified structures

    Skaar, Johannes


    We consider the inverse scattering problem of retrieving the structural parameters of a stratified medium consisting of dispersive materials, given knowledge of the complex reflection coefficient in a finite frequency range. It is shown that the inverse scattering problem does not have a unique solution in general. When the dispersion is sufficiently small, such that the time-domain Fresnel reflections have durations less than the round-trip time in the layers, the solution is unique and can be found by layer peeling. Numerical examples with dispersive and lossy media are given, demonstrating the usefulness of the method for e.g. THz technology.

  5. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd harmonic component for imaging on any ultrasound system capable of PI. PI was used to perform 3rd harmonic Bmode scans of a water-filled wire phantom on an experimental ultrasound system. The 3rd harmonic...

  6. Emergent strategies for inverse molecular design

    BERATAN; David; N.


    Molecular design is essential and ubiquitous in chemistry,physics,biology,and material science.The immense space of available candidate molecules requires novel optimization strategies and algorithms for exploring the space and achieving efficient and effective molecular design.This paper summarizes the current progress toward developing practical theoretical optimization schemes for molecular design.In particular,we emphasize emergent strategies for inverse molecular design.Several representative design examples,based on recently developed strategies,are described to demonstrate the principles of inverse molecular design.

  7. Efficient matrix inversion based on VLIW architecture

    Li Zhang,Fu Li,; Guangming Shi


    Matrix inversion is a critical part in communication, signal processing and electromagnetic system. A flexible and scal-able very long instruction word (VLIW) processor with clustered architecture is proposed for matrix inversion. A global register file (RF) is used to connect al the clusters. Two nearby clusters share a local register file. The instruction sets are also designed for the VLIW processor. Experimental results show that the proposed VLIW architecture takes only 45 latency to invert a 4 × 4 matrix when running at 150 MHz. The proposed design is roughly five times faster than the DSP solution in processing speed.

  8. Inverse potential scattering in duct acoustics.

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B; Aktosun, Tuncay


    The inverse problem of the noninvasive measurement of the shape of an acoustical duct in which one-dimensional wave propagation can be assumed is examined within the theoretical framework of the governing Klein-Gordon equation. Previous deterministic methods developed over the last 40 years have all required direct measurement of the reflectance or input impedance but now, by application of the methods of inverse quantum scattering to the acoustical system, it is shown that the reflectance can be algorithmically derived from the radiated wave. The potential and area functions of the duct can subsequently be reconstructed. The results are discussed with particular reference to acoustic pulse reflectometry.

  9. 3D geophysical inversion for contact surfaces

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure volumetric inversions (performed on meshes of space-filling cells) recover smooth models inconsistent with such interpretations. There are several approaches through which geophysical inversion can help recover models with the desired characteristics. Some authors have developed iterative strategies in which several volumetric inversions are performed with regularization parameters changing to achieve sharper interfaces at automatically determined locations. Another approach is to redesign the regularization to be consistent with the desired model characteristics, e.g. L1-like norms or compactness measures. A few researchers have taken approaches that limit the recovered values to lie within particular ranges, resulting in sharp discontinuities; these include binary inversion, level set methods and clustering strategies. In most of the approaches mentioned above, the model parameterization considers the physical properties in each of the many space-filling cells within the volume of interest. The exception are level set methods, in which a higher dimensional function is parameterized and the contact surface is determined from the zero-level of that function. However, even level-set methods rely on an underlying volumetric mesh. We are researching a fundamentally different type of inversion that parameterizes the Earth in terms of the contact surfaces between rock units. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. This wireframe representation allows for flexible and efficient generation of complicated geological structures. Therefore, a natural approach for representing a geophysical model in an inversion is to parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The geological and

  10. Optimal Transport for Seismic Full Waveform Inversion

    Engquist, Bjorn; Yang, Yunan


    Full waveform inversion is a successful procedure for determining properties of the earth from surface measurements in seismology. This inverse problem is solved by a PDE constrained optimization where unknown coefficients in a computed wavefield are adjusted to minimize the mismatch with the measured data. We propose using the Wasserstein metric, which is related to optimal transport, for measuring this mismatch. Several advantageous properties are proved with regards to convexity of the objective function and robustness with respect to noise. The Wasserstein metric is computed by solving a Monge-Ampere equation. We describe an algorithm for computing its Frechet gradient for use in the optimization. Numerical examples are given.

  11. Reverberation Inversion Enhancements Using BASE 04 Data


    d’exploitation de modèle de RDDC Atlantique (DMOS) est une évolution de l’ensemble de programmes SWAMI (Initiative de modélisation de sonar actif en eau peu...du signal et la probabilité de détection pour un sonar actif . Un module d’inversion de réverbération, BREVER, est utilisé pour ces travaux. Le...d’inversion permet d’effectuer des études sur l’utilité des techniques de sondage au moyen de capteurs en tant qu’aides aux décisions tactiques

  12. Kelvin transformation and inverse multipoles in electrostatics

    Amaral, R L P G; Lemos, N A


    The inversion in the sphere or Kelvin transformation, which exchanges the radial coordinate for its inverse, is used as a guide to relate distinct electrostatic problems with dual features. The exact solution of some nontrivial problems are obtained through the mapping from simple highly symmetric systems. In particular, the concept of multipole expansion is revisited from a point of view opposed to the usual one: the sources are distributed in a region far from the origin while the electrostatic potential is described at points close to it.

  13. Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem

    Swendsen, Robert


    Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  14. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9[inv(9(p12q13]: Its association with genetic diseases

    Rao Babu


    Full Text Available Background: The chromosomal polymorphism of short arms of acrocentric chromosomes and heterochromatin variation of Chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and Y have been reported in humans. The pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 is commonly seen in normal humans and the frequency estimated to be 1 to 3% in general population and inherited in mendalian fashion or might occur spontaneously without any clinical significance. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the frequency of inv(9 and its clinical correlation with human genetic diseases. Materials and Methods:0 The chromosomal analysis using GTG-banding was carried out in 3,392 cases suspected with genetic diseases. Results: The pericentric inversion frequency of different chromosomes in our study was 1.24% and frequency of inv(9(p12q13 was high (64.29% compared to other pericentric inversions in our study. A high frequency (9.33% of inv(9(p12q13 was detected in children with dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. Conclusion: As a high frequency of inv(9(p12q13 detected in children with dysmorphic features, the inv(9 definitely have a role in the abnormal phenotype development. During inversion event there might be loss or suppression of euchromatin chromosome region and hence detailed chromosomal break point study is important to understand the clinical significance of the pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9.

  15. Inversion symmetry breaking of atomic bound states in strong and short laser fields

    Stooß, Veit; Ott, Christian; Blättermann, Alexander; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas


    In any atomic species, the spherically symmetric potential originating from the charged nucleus results in fundamental symmetry properties governing the structure of atomic states and transition rules between them. If atoms are exposed to external electric fields, these properties are modified giving rise to energy shifts such as the AC Stark-effect in varying fields and, contrary to this in a constant (DC) electric field for high enough field strengths, the breaking of the atomic symmetry which causes fundamental changes in the atom's properties. This has already been observed for atomic Rydberg states with high principal quantum numbers. Here, we report on the observation of symmetry breaking effects in Helium atoms for states with principal quantum number n=2 utilizing strong visible laser fields. These findings were enabled by temporally resolving the dynamics better than the sub-optical cycle of the applied laser field, utilizing the method of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS). We ident...

  16. Application of homotopy parameter inversion method in Miyun Reservoir

    LI Xin; LI Yong; CHEN Duowei


    The large-scale convergence of homotopy parametric inversion method on the water quality model parameters calculated was used, with application in parametric inversion calculation of total phosphorus of Beijing Miyun Reservoir. Through calculated and compared the error of sedimentation rate by homotopy parametric inversion method and genetic inversion calculation method, the results indicate that homotopy parametric inversion method has good stability, calculating speed, and even if the initial selection away from the objective function, the solution still has a good convergence.

  17. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  18. Direct Evidence for Inversion Formula in Multifractal Financial Volatility Measure

    JIANG Zhi-Qiang; ZHOU Wei-Xing


    The inversion formula for conservative multifractal measures was unveiled mathematically a decade ago, which is however not well tested in real complex systems. We propose to verify the inversion formula using high-frequency 1982 to 1999 and its inverse measure of exit time. Both the direct and inverse measures exhibit nice multifractal nature, whose scaling ranges are not irrelevant. Empirical investigation shows that the inversion formula holds in financial markets.

  19. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.


    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  20. Long-Short Portfolio

    Leo Shubert


    Full Text Available Long-short strategies are one of the most successful tools, applied by hedge funds manager. One under-evaluated stock is bought (long position and an over-evaluated stock is sold (short position at the same time. After a short term, when the values of the stocks are as expected, profit can be realized by a closing transaction. The possibility to find first obvious over- and under-evaluated stocks depends on the number of participants in this markets. While the hedge funds strategies become more popular, the chance to achieve profit by this strategies is shrinking.Therefore two models to generate long-short portfolios are proposed. By this approaches a portfolio A for the long- and a portfolio B for the short position were computed. The difference of the values of A and B is designed to oscillate from negative to positive and reverse. This behavior of oscillating or mean reverting stock prices was stated by e.g. E. Fama and K. R. French (1988. Mean reversion of portfolios can offer the possibility of statistical arbitrage. The proposed linear models were tested by stocks of the Tokyo stock exchange. The results seem to be applicable and show an additional advantage of low systematic risk.

  1. Combined Search for Lorentz Violation in Short-Range Gravity.

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecký, V Alan


    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of 10^{-9}  m^{2}, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  2. Combined search for Lorentz violation in short-range gravity

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecky, Alan


    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of $10^{-9}$ m$^2$, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  3. Riemann Zeros and the Inverse Phase Problem

    Tourigny, David S.


    Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centro-symmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform.

  4. Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion

    Sevaston, George E.


    A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.

  5. Improving Inversions of the Overlap Operator

    Krieg, S. [Department of Physics, Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 19, Wuppertal (Germany); Cundy, N. [Department of Physics, Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 19, Wuppertal (Germany); Eshof, J. van den [Department of Mathematics, University of Duesseldorf (Germany); Frommer, A. [Department of Mathematics, Univeritaet Wuppertal (Germany); Lippert, Th. [John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich Research Centre, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Schaefer, K. [Department of Mathematics, Univeritaet Wuppertal (Germany)


    We present relaxation and preconditioning techniques which accelerate the inversion of the overlap operator by a factor of four on small lattices, with larger gains as the lattice size increases. These improvements can be used in both propagator calculations and dynamical simulations.

  6. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    Berntsen, Svend


    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  7. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Treumann, R A; Narita, Y


    We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gel$'$fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory.

  8. Identification of Selective ERRγ Inverse Agonists

    Jina Kim


    Full Text Available GSK5182 (4 is currently one of the lead compounds for the development of estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ inverse agonists. Here, we report the design, synthesis, pharmacological and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET properties of a series of compounds related to 4. Starting from 4, a series of analogs were structurally modified and their ERRγ inverse agonist activity was measured. A key pharmacophore feature of this novel class of ligands is the introduction of a heterocyclic group for A-ring substitution in the core scaffold. Among the tested compounds, several of them are potent ERRγ inverse agonists as determined by binding and functional assays. The most promising compound, 15g, had excellent binding selectivity over related subtypes (IC50 = 0.44, >10, >10, and 10 μM at the ERRγ, ERRα, ERRβ, and ERα subtypes, respectively. Compound 15g also resulted in 95% transcriptional repression at a concentration of 10 μM, while still maintaining an acceptable in vitro ADMET profile. This novel class of ERRγ inverse agonists shows promise in the development of drugs targeting ERRγ-related diseases.

  9. Students' Confusions with Reciprocal and Inverse Functions

    Kontorovich, Igor'


    These classroom notes are focused on undergraduate students' understanding of the polysemous symbol of superscript (-1), which can be interpreted as a reciprocal or an inverse function. Examination of 240 scripts in a mid-term test identified that some first-year students struggle with choosing the contextually correct interpretation and there are…

  10. Seismic processing in the inverse data space

    Berkhout, A.J.


    Until now, seismic processing has been carried out by applying inverse filters in the forward data space. Because the acquired data of a seismic survey is always discrete, seismic measurements in the forward data space can be arranged conveniently in a data matrix (P). Each column in the data matrix




    Finding a universal method of crystal structure solution and proving the Riemann hypothesis are two outstanding challenges in apparently unrelated fields. For centrosymmetric crystals however, a connection arises as the result of a statistical approach to the inverse phase problem. It is shown that parameters of the phase distribution are related to the non-trivial Riemann zeros by a Mellin transform. PMID:24293780

  12. Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

    Taler, Jan


    Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part

  13. Novel Scalable 3-D MT Inverse Solver

    Kuvshinov, A. V.; Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.


    We present a new, robust and fast, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. As a forward modelling engine a highly-scalable solver extrEMe [1] is used. The (regularized) inversion is based on an iterative gradient-type optimization (quasi-Newton method) and exploits adjoint sources approach for fast calculation of the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT (single-site and/or inter-site) responses, and supports massive parallelization. Different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow for optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem set up. To parameterize an inverse domain a mask approach is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to high-performance clusters demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes. 1. Kruglyakov, M., A. Geraskin, A. Kuvshinov, 2016. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method, Computers and Geosciences, in press.

  14. The inverse problem of bioelectricity: an evaluation

    Oosterom, A. van


    This invited paper presents a personal view on the current status of the solution to the inverse problem of bioelectricity. Its focus lies on applications in the field of electrocardiography. The topic discussed is also relevant in other medical domains, such as electroencephalography, electroneurog

  15. Direct and inverse problems of infrared tomography

    Sizikov, Valery S.; Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander


    The problems of infrared tomography-direct (the modeling of measured functions) and inverse (the reconstruction of gaseous medium parameters)-are considered with a laboratory burner flame as an example of an application. The two measurement modes are used: active (ON) with an external IR source...

  16. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian


    Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon. It ...

  17. Air-induced inverse Chladni patterns

    Gerner, van Henk Jan; Weele, van der Ko; Hoef, van der Martin A.; Meer, van der Devaraj


    When very light particles are sprinkled on a resonating horizontal plate, inverse Chladni patterns are formed. Instead of going to the nodal lines of the plate, where they would form a standard Chladni pattern, the particles are dragged to the antinodes by the air currents induced by the vibration o

  18. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping


    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  19. General inverse problems for regular variation

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan


    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  20. On the Stewart-Lyth Inverse Problem

    Ayón-Beato, E; Mansilla, R; Terrero-Escalante, C A; Ay\\'on-Beato, Eloy; Garc\\'{\\i}a, Alberto; Mansilla, Ricardo


    In this paper the Stewart-Lyth inverse problem is rewritten using the comoving scales as the basic parameter. It is shown that some information on the inflaton potential can be obtained from observations taking into account only the scalar power spectrum.

  1. Optical tomography: forward and inverse problems

    Arridge, Simon


    This paper is a review of recent mathematical and computational advances in optical tomography. We discuss the physical foundations of forward models for light propagation on microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. We also consider direct and numerical approaches to the inverse problems that arise at each of these scales. Finally, we outline future directions and open problems in the field.

  2. Rapid probabilistic source inversion using pattern recognition

    Käufl, Paul J.


    Numerous problems in the field of seismology require the determination of parameters of a physical model that are compatible with a set of observations and prior assumptions. This type of problem is generally termed inverse problem. While, in many cases, we are able to predict observations, given a

  3. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.


    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of the goods traded. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse-selection problem: The market

  4. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.


    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of traded goods. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse selection problem: The market ten

  5. The role of nonlinearity in inverse problems

    Snieder, Roel


    In many practical inverse problems, one aims to retrieve a model that has infinitely many degrees of freedom from a finite amount of data. It follows from a simple variable count that this cannot be done in a unique way. Therefore, inversion entails more than estimating a model: any inversion is not complete without a description of the class of models that is consistent with the data; this is called the appraisal problem. Nonlinearity makes the appraisal problem particularly difficult. The first reason for this is that nonlinear error propagation is a difficult problem. The second reason is that for some nonlinear problems the model parameters affect the way in which the model is being interrogated by the data. Two examples are given of this, and it is shown how the nonlinearity may make the problem more ill-posed. Finally, three attempts are shown to carry out the model appraisal for nonlinear inverse problems that are based on an analytical approach, a numerical approach and a common sense approach.

  6. Rapid probabilistic source inversion using pattern recognition

    Käufl, Paul J.


    Numerous problems in the field of seismology require the determination of parameters of a physical model that are compatible with a set of observations and prior assumptions. This type of problem is generally termed inverse problem. While, in many cases, we are able to predict observations, given a

  7. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils;

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain ...

  8. Introduction to inverse problems for differential equations

    Hasanov Hasanoğlu, Alemdar


    This book presents a systematic exposition of the main ideas and methods in treating inverse problems for PDEs arising in basic mathematical models, though it makes no claim to being exhaustive. Mathematical models of most physical phenomena are governed by initial and boundary value problems for PDEs, and inverse problems governed by these equations arise naturally in nearly all branches of science and engineering. The book’s content, especially in the Introduction and Part I, is self-contained and is intended to also be accessible for beginning graduate students, whose mathematical background includes only basic courses in advanced calculus, PDEs and functional analysis. Further, the book can be used as the backbone for a lecture course on inverse and ill-posed problems for partial differential equations. In turn, the second part of the book consists of six nearly-independent chapters. The choice of these chapters was motivated by the fact that the inverse coefficient and source problems considered here a...

  9. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    Berntsen, Svend


    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  10. Unstructured discontinuous Galerkin for seismic inversion.

    van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ober, Curtis Curry; Collis, Samuel Scott


    This abstract explores the potential advantages of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the time-domain inversion of media parameters within the earth's interior. In particular, DG methods enable local polynomial refinement to better capture localized geological features within an area of interest while also allowing the use of unstructured meshes that can accurately capture discontinuous material interfaces. This abstract describes our initial findings when using DG methods combined with Runge-Kutta time integration and adjoint-based optimization algorithms for full-waveform inversion. Our initial results suggest that DG methods allow great flexibility in matching the media characteristics (faults, ocean bottom and salt structures) while also providing higher fidelity representations in target regions. Time-domain inversion using discontinuous Galerkin on unstructured meshes and with local polynomial refinement is shown to better capture localized geological features and accurately capture discontinuous-material interfaces. These approaches provide the ability to surgically refine representations in order to improve predicted models for specific geological features. Our future work will entail automated extensions to directly incorporate local refinement and adaptive unstructured meshes within the inversion process.

  11. Students' Confusions with Reciprocal and Inverse Functions

    Kontorovich, Igor'


    These classroom notes are focused on undergraduate students' understanding of the polysemous symbol of superscript (-1), which can be interpreted as a reciprocal or an inverse function. Examination of 240 scripts in a mid-term test identified that some first-year students struggle with choosing the contextually correct interpretation and there are…

  12. Inverse Perspective Transformation for Video Surveillance

    Schouten, Theo E.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Bouman, Charles A.; Miller, Eric L.; Pollak, Ilya


    In this research, we are considering the use of the inverse perspective transformation in video surveillance applications that observe (and possible influence) scenes consisting of moving and stationary objects; e.g., people on a parking area. In previous research, objects were detected on video str

  13. Seismic Waveform Inversion by Stochastic Optimization

    Tristan van Leeuwen


    Full Text Available We explore the use of stochastic optimization methods for seismic waveform inversion. The basic principle of such methods is to randomly draw a batch of realizations of a given misfit function and goes back to the 1950s. The ultimate goal of such an approach is to dramatically reduce the computational cost involved in evaluating the misfit. Following earlier work, we introduce the stochasticity in waveform inversion problem in a rigorous way via a technique called randomized trace estimation. We then review theoretical results that underlie recent developments in the use of stochastic methods for waveform inversion. We present numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of different types of stochastic optimization methods and investigate the sensitivity to the batch size and the noise level in the data. We find that it is possible to reproduce results that are qualitatively similar to the solution of the full problem with modest batch sizes, even on noisy data. Each iteration of the corresponding stochastic methods requires an order of magnitude fewer PDE solves than a comparable deterministic method applied to the full problem, which may lead to an order of magnitude speedup for waveform inversion in practice.

  14. An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory

    Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.


    This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.

  15. Inverse modeling for Large-Eddy simulation

    Geurts, Bernardus J.


    Approximate higher order polynomial inversion of the top-hat filter is developed with which the turbulent stress tensor in Large-Eddy Simulation can be consistently represented using the filtered field. Generalized (mixed) similarity models are proposed which improved the agreement with the kinetic

  16. Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction

    V. V. Voronin


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD approach. The properties of obtained solution are determined to a large extent by the properties of an inverse operator, which were numerically investigated. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry. The method proposed allows us to make a preliminary prediction of the efficiency of the inversion with a given set of the recording stations and to find out the most informative part of the existing observation system. This essential property of the method can prove to be useful in designing a monitoring system for tsunamis.

  17. Studies of GRACE Gravity Field Inversion Techniques

    Wang, L.; Shum, C.; Duan, J.; Schmidt, M.; Yuan, D.; Watkins, M. M.


    The geophysical inverse problem using satellite observations, such as GRACE, to estimate gravity change and mass variations at the Earth's surface is a well-known ill-posed problem. Different methods using different basis function (representing the gravity field) for different purposes (global or regional inversion) have been employed to obtain a stable solution, such as Bayesian estimation with prior information, the repro-BIQUUE of variance components and iterative least-squares estimation with simultaneous updating of a prior covariance, and to achieve enhanced spatial resolutions. The gravity field representation methods include spherical harmonics, regional gridded data (including mascons), and various wavelet representations (Poisson wavelets, Blackman band-limited regional wavelets with global representation). Finally, the use of data types (KBR range, range-rate, range-rate-rate) and data-generation methods (e.g., nonlinear orbit determination and geophysical inverse approach, energy conservation principle, etc) could also reflect relative inversion accuracy and the content of signal spectra in the resulting solution. In this contribution, we present results of a simulation experiment, which used various solution techniques and data types to attempt to quantify the relative advantage and disadvantage of each of the techniques.

  18. An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory

    Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.


    This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.

  19. Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics

    Almasy, Andrea A


    The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, als...

  20. Asymptotic inversion of the Erlang B formula

    J. van Leeuwaarden; N.M. Temme (Nico)


    textabstractThe Erlang B formula represents the steady-state blocking probability in the Erlang loss model or $M/M/s/s$ queue. We derive asymptotic expansions for the offered load that matches, for a given number of servers, a certain blocking probability. In addressing this inversion problem we mak

  1. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  2. Frame approximation of pseudo-inverse operators

    Christensen, Ole


    Let T denote an operator on a Hilbert space (H, [.,.]), and let {f(i)}(i=1)(infinity) be a frame for the orthogonal complement of the kernel NT. We construct a sequence of operators {Phi (n)} of the form Phi (n) (.) = Sigma (n)(i=1) [., g(t)(n)]f(i) which converges to the psuedo-inverse T+ of T i...

  3. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten


    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal...

  4. Auditory model inversion and its application

    ZHAO Heming; WANG Yongqi; CHEN Xueqin


    Auditory model has been applied to several aspects of speech signal processing field, and appears to be effective in performance. This paper presents the inverse transform of each stage of one widely used auditory model. First of all it is necessary to invert correlogram and reconstruct phase information by repetitious iterations in order to get auditory-nerve firing rate. The next step is to obtain the negative parts of the signal via the reverse process of the HWR (Half Wave Rectification). Finally the functions of inner hair cell/synapse model and Gammatone filters have to be inverted. Thus the whole auditory model inversion has been achieved. An application of noisy speech enhancement based on auditory model inversion algorithm is proposed. Many experiments show that this method is effective in reducing noise.Especially when SNR of noisy speech is low it is more effective than other methods. Thus this auditory model inversion method given in this paper is applicable to speech enhancement field.

  5. Frnakenstein: multiple target inverse RNA folding

    Lyngsø Rune B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA secondary structure prediction, or folding, is a classic problem in bioinformatics: given a sequence of nucleotides, the aim is to predict the base pairs formed in its three dimensional conformation. The inverse problem of designing a sequence folding into a particular target structure has only more recently received notable interest. With a growing appreciation and understanding of the functional and structural properties of RNA motifs, and a growing interest in utilising biomolecules in nano-scale designs, the interest in the inverse RNA folding problem is bound to increase. However, whereas the RNA folding problem from an algorithmic viewpoint has an elegant and efficient solution, the inverse RNA folding problem appears to be hard. Results In this paper we present a genetic algorithm approach to solve the inverse folding problem. The main aims of the development was to address the hitherto mostly ignored extension of solving the inverse folding problem, the multi-target inverse folding problem, while simultaneously designing a method with superior performance when measured on the quality of designed sequences. The genetic algorithm has been implemented as a Python program called Frnakenstein. It was benchmarked against four existing methods and several data sets totalling 769 real and predicted single structure targets, and on 292 two structure targets. It performed as well as or better at finding sequences which folded in silico into the target structure than all existing methods, without the heavy bias towards CG base pairs that was observed for all other top performing methods. On the two structure targets it also performed well, generating a perfect design for about 80% of the targets. Conclusions Our method illustrates that successful designs for the inverse RNA folding problem does not necessarily have to rely on heavy biases in base pair and unpaired base distributions. The design problem seems to become more

  6. Idiopathic short stature.

    Pasquino, A M; Albanese, A; Bozzola, M; Butler, G E; Buzi, F; Cherubini, V; Chiarelli, F; Cavallo, L; Drop, S L; Stanhope, R; Kelnar, C J


    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is a term used to describe the status of children with short stature that cannot be attributed to a specific cause. Many children diagnosed as having ISS have partial GH insensitivity, which can result from disturbances at various points of the GH-IGF-I axis. Several clinical studies on spontaneous growth in ISS showed that adult height was almost in the range of target height. GH treatment led to adult height not significantly higher than the pretreatment predicted adult height in most reports. No metabolic side effects have been observed, even when the dose was higher than in GH deficiency. Manipulation of puberty with gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues reported by a few authors in a small number of children has shown conflicting results. Long-term psychological benefits of GH therapy for short normal children have not been demonstrated to date.

  7. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: New developments for Inverse Problems


    2006 has proved to be a very successful year for Inverse Problems. After an increase for the fourth successive year, we achieved our highest impact factor to date, 1.541 (Source: 2005 ISI® Journal Citation Report), and the Editorial Board is keen to build on this success by continuing to improve the service we offer to our readers and authors. The Board has observed that Inverse Problems receives very few Letters to the Editor submissions, and that moreover those that we do receive rarely conform to the requirements for Letters to the Editor set out in the journal's editorial policy. The Board has therefore decided to merge the current Letters to the Editor section into our regular Papers section, which will now accommodate all research articles that meet the journal's high quality standards. Any submissions that would previously have been Letters to the Editor are still very welcome as Papers, and can be submitted by e-mail to or online using our online submissions form at Inverse Problems' processing times are already among the fastest in the field—on average, authors receive our decision on their paper in less than three months. Thanks to our easy-to-use online refereeing system, publishing a Paper is now just as fast as publishing a Letter to the Editor, and we are striving to ensure that the journal's high standards are applied consistently to all our Papers, maintaining Inverse Problems' position as the leading journal in the field. Our highly acclaimed Topical Review section will also continue and grow; providing timely insights into the development of all topical fields within Inverse Problems. We have many exciting Topical Reviews currently in preparation for 2007 and will continue to commission articles at the cutting edge of research. We look forward to receiving your contributions and to continuing to provide the best publication service available.

  8. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    Afonso, Juan Carlos


    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  9. Preconditioning Strategies in Elastic Full Waveform Inversion.

    Matharu, G.; Sacchi, M. D.


    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) is inherently more non-linear than its acoustic counterpart, a property that stems from the increased model space of the problem. Whereas acoustic media can be parametrized by density and P-wave velocity, visco-elastic media are parametrized by density, attenuation and 21 independent coefficients of the elastic tensor. Imposing assumptions of isotropy and perfect elasticity to simplify the physics, reduces the number of independent parameters required to characterize a medium. Isotropic, elastic media can be parametrized in terms of density and the Lamé parameters. The different parameters can exhibit trade-off that manifest as attributes in the data. In the context of FWI, this means that certain parameters cannot be uniquely resolved. An ideal model update in full waveform inversion is equivalent to a Newton step. Explicit computation of the Hessian and its inverse is not computationally feasible in elastic FWI. The inverse Hessian scales the gradients to account for trade-off between parameters as well as compensating for inadequate illumination related to source-receiver coverage. Gradient preconditioners can be applied to mimic the action of the inverse Hessian and partially correct for inaccuracies in the gradient. In this study, we investigate the effects of model reparametrization by recasting a regularized form of the least-squares waveform misfit into a preconditioned formulation. New model parameters are obtained by applying invertible weighting matrices to the model vector. The weighting matrices are related to estimates of the prior model covariance matrix and incorporate information about spatially variant correlations of model parameters as well as correlations between independent parameters. We compare the convergence of conventional FWI to FWI after model reparametrization.

  10. Using the ARTMO toolbox for automated retrieval of biophysical parameters through radiative transfer model inversion: Optimizing LUT-based inversion

    Verrelst, J.; Rivera, J. P.; Leonenko, G.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.


    Radiative transfer (RT) modeling plays a key role for earth observation (EO) because it is needed to design EO instruments and to develop and test inversion algorithms. The inversion of a RT model is considered as a successful approach for the retrieval of biophysical parameters because of being physically-based and generally applicable. However, to the broader community this approach is considered as laborious because of its many processing steps and expert knowledge is required to realize precise model parameterization. We have recently developed a radiative transfer toolbox ARTMO (Automated Radiative Transfer Models Operator) with the purpose of providing in a graphical user interface (GUI) essential models and tools required for terrestrial EO applications such as model inversion. In short, the toolbox allows the user: i) to choose between various plant leaf and canopy RT models (e.g. models from the PROSPECT and SAIL family, FLIGHT), ii) to choose between spectral band settings of various air- and space-borne sensors or defining own sensor settings, iii) to simulate a massive amount of spectra based on a look up table (LUT) approach and storing it in a relational database, iv) to plot spectra of multiple models and compare them with measured spectra, and finally, v) to run model inversion against optical imagery given several cost options and accuracy estimates. In this work ARTMO was used to tackle some well-known problems related to model inversion. According to Hadamard conditions, mathematical models of physical phenomena are mathematically invertible if the solution of the inverse problem to be solved exists, is unique and depends continuously on data. This assumption is not always met because of the large number of unknowns and different strategies have been proposed to overcome this problem. Several of these strategies have been implemented in ARTMO and were here analyzed to optimize the inversion performance. Data came from the SPARC-2003 dataset

  11. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  12. Sparse inversion of Stokes profiles. I. Two-dimensional Milne-Eddington inversions

    Ramos, A Asensio


    Inversion codes are numerical tools used for the inference of physical properties from the observations. Despite their success, the quality of current spectropolarimetric observations and those expected in the near future presents a challenge to current inversion codes. The pixel-by-pixel strategy of inverting spectropolarimetric data that we currently utilize needs to be surpassed and improved. The inverted physical parameters have to take into account the spatial correlation that is present in the data and that contains valuable physical information. We utilize the concept of sparsity or compressibility to develop an new generation of inversion codes for the Stokes parameters. The inversion code uses numerical optimization techniques based on the idea of proximal algorithms to impose sparsity. In so doing, we allow for the first time to exploit the presence of spatial correlation on the maps of physical parameters. Sparsity also regularizes the solution by reducing the number of unknowns. We compare the res...


    马兆丰; 马吉溥


    Let H1 and H2 be separable Hilbert spaces, and B(H1, H2) all of bounded linear operators from H1 into H2. In this note, we prove the following theorem: for any positive integer N and T ∈ B(H1, H2) with a closed range, there exists an outer inverse T#N with finite rank N such that T+y = lira T#Ny for any y ∈ H2, where T+N →∞denotes the Moore-Penrose inverse of T. Thus computing T+ is reduced to computing outer inverses T#N with finite rank N. Moreover, because of the stability of bounded outer inverse of a T ∈ B(H1,H2), this is very useful.


    Z Moinfar


    Full Text Available Short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS is a very rare congenital anomaly that is classified into four subtypes. It is an autosomal recessive inherited disease. We report a case of this syndrome without a previous family history of congenital defects.

  15. Short-rotation plantations

    Philip E. Pope; Jeffery O. Dawson


    Short-rotation plantations offer several advantages over longer, more traditional rotations. They enhance the natural productivity of better sites and of tree species with rapid juvenile growth. Returns on investment are realized in a shorter period and the risk of loss is reduced compared with long term investments. Production of wood and fiber can be maximized by...

  16. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Charles Antzelevitch


    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater by inverse fluidization: the inverse fluidized bed and the inverse turbulent bed reactors.

    Arnaiz, C; Buffiere, P; Elmaleh, S; Lebrato, J; Moletta, R


    This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m2m(-3)) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s(-1), 5.4 m h(-1)). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass.

  18. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Agullo, Y.


    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  19. On MSDT inversion with multi-angle remote sensing data


    With the wavelet transform, image of multi-angle remote sensing is decomposed into multi-resolution. With data of each resolution, we try target-based multi-stages inversion, taking the inversion result of coarse resolution as the prior information of the next inversion. The result gets finer and finer until the resolution of satellite observation. In this way, the target-based multi-stages inversion can be used in remote sensing inversion of large-scaled coverage. With MISR data, we inverse structure parameters of vegetation in semiarid grassland of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The result proves that this way is efficient.

  20. A Bayesian method for microseismic source inversion

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.


    Earthquake source inversion is highly dependent on location determination and velocity models. Uncertainties in both the model parameters and the observations need to be rigorously incorporated into an inversion approach. Here, we show a probabilistic Bayesian method that allows formal inclusion of the uncertainties in the moment tensor inversion. This method allows the combination of different sets of far-field observations, such as P-wave and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios, into one inversion. Additional observations can be included by deriving a suitable likelihood function from the uncertainties. This inversion produces samples from the source posterior probability distribution, including a best-fitting solution for the source mechanism and associated probability. The inversion can be constrained to the double-couple space or allowed to explore the gamut of moment tensor solutions, allowing volumetric and other non-double-couple components. The posterior probability of the double-couple and full moment tensor source models can be evaluated from the Bayesian evidence, using samples from the likelihood distributions for the two source models, producing an estimate of whether or not a source is double-couple. Such an approach is ideally suited to microseismic studies where there are many sources of uncertainty and it is often difficult to produce reliability estimates of the source mechanism, although this can be true of many other cases. Using full-waveform synthetic seismograms, we also show the effects of noise, location, network distribution and velocity model uncertainty on the source probability density function. The noise has the largest effect on the results, especially as it can affect other parts of the event processing. This uncertainty can lead to erroneous non-double-couple source probability distributions, even when no other uncertainties exist. Although including amplitude ratios can improve the constraint on the source probability

  1. An inversion strategy for hydraulic tomography: Coupling travel time and amplitude inversion

    Brauchler, R.; Cheng, J.-T.; Dietrich, P.; Everett, M.; Johnson, B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.


    SummaryWe present a hydraulic tomographic inversion strategy with an emphasis on the reduction of ambiguity of hydraulic travel time inversion results and the separation of the estimated diffusivity values into hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Our tomographic inversion strategy is tested by simulated multilevel interference slug tests in which the positions of the sources (injection ports) and the receivers (observation ports) isolated with packers are varied. Simulations include the delaying effect of wellbore storage on travel times which are quantified and shown to be of increasing importance for shorter travel distances. For the reduction of ambiguity of travel time inversion, we use the full travel time data set, as well as smaller data subsets of specified source-receiver angles. The inversion results of data subsets show different resolution characteristics and improve the reliability of the interpretation. The travel time of a pressure pulse is a function of the diffusivity of the medium between the source and receiver. Thus, it is difficult to directly derive values for hydraulic conductivity and specific storage by inverting travel times. In order to overcome this limitation, we exploit the great computational efficiency of hydraulic travel time tomography to define the aquifer structure, which is then input into the underlying groundwater flow model MODFLOW-96. Finally, we perform a model calibration (amplitude inversion) using the automatic parameter estimator PEST, enabling us to separate diffusivity into its two components hydraulic conductivity and specific storage.

  2. Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles

    Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E.


    Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints. PMID:23685532

  3. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    Ahmed, Rania F.


    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Sparse Matrix Inversion with Scaled Lasso

    Sun, Tingni


    We propose a new method of learning a sparse nonnegative-definite target matrix. Our primary example of the target matrix is the inverse of a population covariance matrix or correlation matrix. The algorithm first estimates each column of the matrix by scaled Lasso, a joint estimation of regression coefficients and noise level, and then adjusts the matrix estimator to be symmetric. The procedure is efficient in the sense that the penalty level of the scaled Lasso for each column is completely determined by the data via convex minimization, without using cross-validation. We prove that this method guarantees the fastest proven rate of convergence in the spectrum norm under conditions of weaker form than those in the existing analyses of other $\\ell_1$ algorithms, and has faster guaranteed rate of convergence when the ratio of the $\\ell_1$ and spectrum norms of the target inverse matrix diverges to infinity. A simulation study also demonstrates the competitive performance of the proposed estimator.

  5. Approximate inverse preconditioners for general sparse matrices

    Chow, E.; Saad, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Preconditioned Krylov subspace methods are often very efficient in solving sparse linear matrices that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. However, for general sparse indifinite matrices, the usual ILU preconditioners fail, often because of the fact that the resulting factors L and U give rise to unstable forward and backward sweeps. In such cases, alternative preconditioners based on approximate inverses may be attractive. We are currently developing a number of such preconditioners based on iterating on each column to get the approximate inverse. For this approach to be efficient, the iteration must be done in sparse mode, i.e., we must use sparse-matrix by sparse-vector type operatoins. We will discuss a few options and compare their performance on standard problems from the Harwell-Boeing collection.

  6. Ionogram inversion for a tilted ionosphere

    Wright, J.W. (British Antartic Survey, Cambridge (England))


    Digital ionosondes such as the Dynasonde disclose that the ionosphere is seldom horizontal even when it is plane stratified to a good approximation. The local magnetic dip does not then determine correctly the radiowave propagation angle for inversion of the ionogram to a plasma density profile. The measured echo direction of arrival can be used together with the known dip for an improved propagation angle. The effects are small for simple one-parameter laminae but become important when differential (ordinary, extraordinary) retardations are used to aid correction for valley and starting ambiguities. The resulting profile describes the plasma distribution along the direction of observation, rather than the vertical; it thus conveys information about horizontal gradients. Observations suggest that advantages in inversion methods may be practicable for application to modern ionosonde recordings, by which local lateral structure can be described in greater detail. 20 refs.

  7. Function representation with circle inversion map systems

    Boreland, Bryson; Kunze, Herb


    The fractals literature develops the now well-known concept of local iterated function systems (using affine maps) with grey-level maps (LIFSM) as an approach to function representation in terms of the associated fixed point of the so-called fractal transform. While originally explored as a method to achieve signal (and 2-D image) compression, more recent work has explored various aspects of signal and image processing using this machinery. In this paper, we develop a similar framework for function representation using circle inversion map systems. Given a circle C with centre õ and radius r, inversion with respect to C transforms the point p˜ to the point p˜', such that p˜ and p˜' lie on the same radial half-line from õ and d(õ, p˜)d(õ, p˜') = r2, where d is Euclidean distance. We demonstrate the results with an example.

  8. Lasing without inversion in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Marthaler, M; Utsumi, Y; Golubev, D S; Shnirman, A; Schön, Gerd


    We study the photon generation in a transmission line oscillator coupled to a driven qubit in the presence of a dissipative electromagnetic environment. It has been demonstrated previously that a population inversion in the qubit can lead to a lasing state of the oscillator. Here we show that the circuit can also exhibit the effect of "lasing without inversion." It arises since the coupling to the dissipative environment enhances photon emission as compared to absorption, similar to the recoil effect predicted for atomic systems. While the recoil effect is very weak, and so far elusive, the effect described here should be observable with realistic circuits. We analyze the requirements for system parameters and environment.

  9. Darwin's “strange inversion of reasoning”

    Dennett, Daniel


    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive “inversion of reasoning” (according to a 19th century critic): “to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it” [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own. PMID:19528651

  10. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    Zhang, Z.


    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  11. Optoacoustic inversion via Volterra kernel reconstruction

    Melchert, O; Roth, B


    In this letter we address the numeric inversion of optoacoustic signals to initial stress profiles. Therefore we put under scrutiny the optoacoustic kernel reconstruction problem in the paraxial approximation of the underlying wave-equation. We apply a Fourier-series expansion of the optoacoustic Volterra kernel and obtain the respective expansion coefficients for a given "apparative" setup by performing a gauge procedure using synthetic input data. The resulting effective kernel is subsequently used to solve the optoacoustic source reconstruction problem for general signals. We verify the validity of the proposed inversion protocol for synthetic signals and explore the feasibility of our approach to also account for the diffraction transformation of signals beyond the paraxial approximation.

  12. Inverse Vernier effect in coupled lasers

    Ge, Li; Türeci, Hakan E.


    In this report we study the Vernier effect in coupled laser systems consisting of two cavities. We show that depending on the nature of their coupling, not only can the "supermodes" formed at overlapping resonances of these two cavities have the lowest thresholds as previously found, leading to lasing at these overlapping resonances and a manifestation of the typical Vernier effect, but also they can have increased thresholds and are hence suppressed, which can be viewed as an inverse Vernier effect. The inverse Vernier effect can also lead to an increased free spectrum range and possibly single-mode lasing, which may explain the experimental findings in several previous studies. We illustrate this effect using two coupled micro-ring cavities and a micro-ring cavity coupled to a slab cavity, and we discuss its relation to the existence of exceptional points in coupled lasers.

  13. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramirez Suarez, Oscar Leonardo; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc


    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Pad\\'e expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Thir...

  14. Recursive Inversion Of Externally Defined Linear Systems

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram


    Technical memorandum discusses mathematical technique described in "Recursive Inversion by Finite-Impulse-Response Filters" (ARC-12247). Technique is recursive algorithm yielding finite-impulse-response approximation of unknown single-input/single-output, causal, time-invariant, linear, real system, response of which is sequence of impulses. Useful in such diverse applications as medical diagnoses, identification of military targets, geophysical exploration, and nondestructive testing.

  15. Variational Bayesian Approximation methods for inverse problems

    Mohammad-Djafari, Ali


    Variational Bayesian Approximation (VBA) methods are recent tools for effective Bayesian computations. In this paper, these tools are used for inverse problems where the prior models include hidden variables and where where the estimation of the hyper parameters has also to be addressed. In particular two specific prior models (Student-t and mixture of Gaussian models) are considered and details of the algorithms are given.

  16. Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin


    In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...... ratio. The inclusion of mechanical robustness in combination with conventional performance characteristics favors solutions relevant for practical applications, as mechanical stability is a critical issue not often addressed in idealized models....

  17. Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field

    Crocker, Steven E.

    The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.

  18. Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures

    Li Linda YM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at Conclusions The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.

  19. Inverse Scattering in a Multipath Environment

    A. Cuccaro


    Full Text Available In this contribution an inverse scattering problem is ad- dressed in a multipath environment. In particular, multipath is created by known ”extra” point-like scatterers (passive elements expressely deployed between the scene under in- vestigation and the source/measurement domains. Through a back-projection imaging scheme, the role of the passive elements on the achievable performance is shown and com- pared to the free-space case.

  20. The Stewart-Lyth Inverse Problem

    Ayón-Beato, E; Mansilla, R; Terrero-Escalante, C A; Ay\\'on-Beato, Eloy; Garc\\'{\\i}a, Alberto; Mansilla, Ricardo


    In this paper the Stewart-Lyth inverse problem is introduced. It consists of solving two non-linear differential equations for the first slow-roll parameter and finding the inflaton potential. The equations are derived from the Stewart-Lyth equations for the scalar and tensorial perturbations produced during the inflationary period. The geometry of the phase planes transverse to the trajectories is analyzed, and conclusions about the possible behaviour for general solutions are drawn.

  1. Investigating complex networks with inverse models

    Wens, Vincent


    Recent advances in neuroscience have motivated the study of network organization in spatially distributed dynamical systems from indirect measurements. However, the associated connectivity estimation, when combined with inverse modeling, is strongly affected by spatial leakage. We formulate this problem in a general framework and develop a new approach to model spatial leakage and limit its effects. It is analytically compared to existing regression-based methods used in electrophysiology, which are shown to yield biased estimates of amplitude and phase couplings.



    The inverse scattering problems are to detect the property of obstacles from the measurements outside the obstacles. One of important research areas in this topic is the recovery of boundary property for impenetrable obstacles. In this paper, we would like to give a brief review about the recently developed singular source methods. There are three different methods in this category, namely, linear sampling method, pointsource method and probe method. We also present some recent new results about the probe method.

  3. Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models

    Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos


    We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF) models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.

  4. Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models

    Holger Frahm


    Full Text Available We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.

  5. Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models

    Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos


    We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF) models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.

  6. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej


    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale invariant (or F\\"ul\\H{o}p-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  7. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri


    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  8. Monte Carlo Hamiltonian:Inverse Potential

    LUO Xiang-Qian; CHENG Xiao-Ni; Helmut KR(O)GER


    The Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method developed recently allows to investigate the ground state and low-lying excited states of a quantum system,using Monte Carlo(MC)algorithm with importance sampling.However,conventional MC algorithm has some difficulties when applied to inverse potentials.We propose to use effective potential and extrapolation method to solve the problem.We present examples from the hydrogen system.

  9. Numerical linear algebra for reconstruction inverse problems

    Nachaoui, Abdeljalil


    Our goal in this paper is to discuss various issues we have encountered in trying to find and implement efficient solvers for a boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation of an iterative method for solving a reconstruction problem. We survey some methods from numerical linear algebra, which are relevant for the solution of this class of inverse problems. We motivate the use of our constructing algorithm, discuss its implementation and mention the use of preconditioned Krylov methods.

  10. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W


    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  11. Efficient Numerical Inversion for Financial Simulations

    Derflinger, Gerhard; Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef; Sak, Halis


    Generating samples from generalized hyperbolic distributions and non-central chi-square distributions by inversion has become an important task for the simulation of recent models in finance in the framework of (quasi-) Monte Carlo. However, their distribution functions are quite expensive to evaluate and thus numerical methods like root finding algorithms are extremely slow. In this paper we demonstrate how our new method based on Newton interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature can be util...

  12. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    Lu, Yang; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan


    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input ...

  13. Matched Field Tomographic Inversion for Geoacoustic Properties


    covariance matrix of the sampled models, and adjusts the annealing temperature adaptively to account for parameters with different sensitivities. The method...geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom, including sound speed profiles, densities , attenuations and sediment layer depths, have a significant effect on...sound propagation in shallow water . The long term goal of this work is to develop a new tomographic inversion method based on matched field processing of

  14. Differential equations inverse and direct problems

    Favini, Angelo



  15. Voltammetry: mathematical modelling and Inverse Problem

    Koshev, N A; Kuzina, V V


    We propose the fast semi-analytical method of modelling the polarization curves in the voltammetric experiment. The method is based on usage of the special func- tions and shows a big calculation speed and a high accuracy and stability. Low computational needs of the proposed algorithm allow us to state the set of Inverse Problems of voltammetry for the reconstruction of metal ions concentrations or the other parameters of the electrolyte under investigation.

  16. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    Beydoun, Wafik B.


    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More:

  17. About some inverse problems of nuclear physics

    Belashev, B Z


    Some inverse problems of high energy physics and NMR spectroscopy are observed. The methods of the Fourier transformation and the maximum entropy technique have been applied for their solutions. The integral images of the experimental distributions are informative for determination of the space-time characteristics of the particles generation domain and for the analysis of blurring spectra. These methods have been tested in comparison with the results which have been obtained independently

  18. Sequential Geoacoustic Filtering and Geoacoustic Inversion


    typical high-resolution beamformers. We use least squares optimization with an L1-norm regularization term, also known as the least absolute actually performs better than conventional beamforming and MVDR/ MUSIC (see Figs. 1-2). Compressive geoacoustic inversion Geoacoustic...histograms based on 100 Monte Carlo simulations, and c)(CS, exhaustive-search, CBF, MVDR, and MUSIC performance versus SNR. The true source positions



    This paper discusses the inverse center location problem restricted on a tree with different costs and bound constraints.The authors first show that the problem can be formulated as a series of combinatorial linear programs,then an O(|V|2 log |V|)time algorithm to solve the problem is presented.For the equal cost case,the authors further give an O(|V|)time algorithm.

  20. Representations of Inverse Covariances by Differential Operators

    Qin XU


    In the cost function of three- or four-dimensional variational data assimilation, each term is weighted by the inverse of its associated error covariance matrix and the background error covariance matrix is usually much larger than the other covariance matrices. Although the background error covariances are traditionally normalized and parameterized by simple smooth homogeneous correlation functions, the covariance matrices constructed from these correlation functions are often too large to be inverted or even manipulated. It is thus desirable to find direct representations of the inverses of background errorcorrelations. This problem is studied in this paper. In particular, it is shown that the background term can be written into ∫ dx|Dv(x)|2, that is, a squared L2 norm of a vector differential operator D, called the D-operator, applied to the field of analysis increment v(x). For autoregressive correlation functions, the Doperators are of finite orders. For Gaussian correlation functions, the D-operators are of infinite order. For practical applications, the Gaussian D-operators must be truncated to finite orders. The truncation errors are found to be small even when the Gaussian D-operators are truncated to low orders. With a truncated D-operator, the background term can be easily constructed with neither inversion nor direct calculation of the covariance matrix. D-operators are also derived for non-Gaussian correlations and transformed into non-isotropic forms.

  1. Geomechanical paleostress inversion using fracture data

    Maerten, Laurent; Maerten, Frantz; Lejri, Mostfa; Gillespie, Paul


    We describe a fast geomechanically-based paleostress inversion technique that uses observed fracture data to constrain stress through multiple simulations. The method assumes that the local stress field around individual fractures is heterogeneous and derives the far field tectonic stress, that we also call the far field boundary conditions. We show how such far field tectonic stress can be recovered through a mechanical stress inversion technique using local observations of natural fractures (i.e. mechanical type, orientation and location). We test the paleostress inversion against outcrop analogues of fractured carbonates from both Nash Point, U.K., where there are well exposed faults and joints and the Matelles, France, where there are well exposed faults, veins and stylolites. We demonstrate through these case studies how the method can be efficiently applied to natural examples and we highlight its advantages and limitations. We discuss how such method could be applied to subsurface problems and how it can provide complementary constraints to drive discrete fracture models for better fractured reservoir characterization and modelling.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Inverse problems in elasticity

    Bonnet, Marc; Constantinescu, Andrei


    This review is devoted to some inverse problems arising in the context of linear elasticity, namely the identification of distributions of elastic moduli, model parameters or buried objects such as cracks. These inverse problems are considered mainly for three-dimensional elastic media under equilibrium or dynamical conditions, and also for thin elastic plates. The main goal is to overview some recent results, in an effort to bridge the gap between studies of a mathematical nature and problems defined from engineering practice. Accordingly, emphasis is given to formulations and solution techniques which are well suited to general-purpose numerical methods for solving elasticity problems on complex configurations, in particular the finite element method and the boundary element method. An underlying thread of the discussion is the fact that useful tools for the formulation, analysis and solution of inverse problems arising in linear elasticity, namely the reciprocity gap and the error in constitutive equation, stem from variational and virtual work principles, i.e., fundamental principles governing the mechanics of deformable solid continua. In addition, the virtual work principle is shown to be instrumental for establishing computationally efficient formulae for parameter or geometrical sensitivity, based on the adjoint solution method. Sensitivity formulae are presented for various situations, especially in connection with contact mechanics, cavity and crack shape perturbations, thus enriching the already extensive known repertoire of such results. Finally, the concept of topological derivative and its implementation for the identification of cavities or inclusions are expounded.

  3. Solar structure inversion with LOWL data

    Basu, Sarbani; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, Michael J.; Tomczyk, Steven


    Inversion results for the radial hydrostatic structure of the Sun, using six months of oscillation data obtained with the LOWL instrument, are presented. Both low and intermediate degree modes are used, thus avoiding the systematic errors that might have occurred in previous inversions by merging more than one data set. Using modes of between 0 deg and 90 deg and frequencies of between 1.5 mHz and 3.5 mHz, the variations with depth of the speed of sound, the density and the pressure were inferred for radii of between 0.05 and 0.85 stellar radius. It was found that in this region, the sound speed was within 0.15% of that of a model constructed using an equation of state that incorporated helium diffusion. The density difference between the Sun and the model was less than 0.8%. Given the small error bars on the inversion results, these differences are considered as being significant.

  4. Tsunami waveform inversion by adjoint methods

    Pires, Carlos; Miranda, Pedro M. A.


    An adjoint method for tsunami waveform inversion is proposed, as an alternative to the technique based on Green's functions of the linear long wave model. The method has the advantage of being able to use the nonlinear shallow water equations, or other appropriate equation sets, and to optimize an initial state given as a linear or nonlinear function of any set of free parameters. This last facility is used to perform explicit optimization of the focal fault parameters, characterizing the initial sea surface displacement of tsunamigenic earthquakes. The proposed methodology is validated with experiments using synthetic data, showing the possibility of recovering all relevant details of a tsunami source from tide gauge observations, providing that the adjoint method is constrained in an appropriate manner. It is found, as in other methods, that the inversion skill of tsunami sources increases with the azimuthal and temporal coverage of assimilated tide gauge stations; furthermore, it is shown that the eigenvalue analysis of the Hessian matrix of the cost function provides a consistent and useful methodology to choose the subset of independent parameters that can be inverted with a given dataset of observations and to evaluate the error of the inversion process. The method is also applied to real tide gauge series, from the tsunami of the February 28, 1969, Gorringe Bank earthquake, suggesting some reasonable changes to the assumed focal parameters of that event. It is suggested that the method proposed may be able to deal with transient tsunami sources such as those generated by submarine landslides.

  5. Compressed word problems for inverse monoids

    Lohrey, Markus


    The compressed word problem for a finitely generated monoid M asks whether two given compressed words over the generators of M represent the same element of M. For string compression, straight-line programs, i.e., context-free grammars that generate a single string, are used in this paper. It is shown that the compressed word problem for a free inverse monoid of finite rank at least two is complete for Pi^p_2 (second universal level of the polynomial time hierarchy). Moreover, it is shown that there exists a fixed finite idempotent presentation (i.e., a finite set of relations involving idempotents of a free inverse monoid), for which the corresponding quotient monoid has a PSPACE-complete compressed word problem. It was shown previously that the ordinary uncompressed word problem for such a quotient can be solved in logspace. Finally, a PSPACE-algorithm that checks whether a given element of a free inverse monoid belongs to a given rational subset is presented. This problem is also shown to be PSPACE-complet...

  6. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad


    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  7. Full waveform inversion for ultrasonic flaw identification

    Seidl, Robert; Rank, Ernst


    Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing is concerned with detecting flaws inside components without causing physical damage. It is possible to detect flaws using ultrasound measurements but usually no additional details about the flaw like position, dimension or orientation are available. The information about these details is hidden in the recorded experimental signals. The idea of full waveform inversion is to adapt the parameters of an initial simulation model of the undamaged specimen by minimizing the discrepancy between these simulated signals and experimentally measured signals of the flawed specimen. Flaws in the structure are characterized by a change or deterioration in the material properties. Commonly, full waveform inversion is mostly applied in seismology on a larger scale to infer mechanical properties of the earth. We propose to use acoustic full waveform inversion for structural parameters to visualize the interior of the component. The method is adapted to US NDT by combining multiple similar experiments on the test component as the typical small amount of sensors is not sufficient for a successful imaging. It is shown that the combination of simulations and multiple experiments can be used to detect flaws and their position, dimension and orientation in emulated simulation cases.

  8. Inverse problems biomechanical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Oberai, Assad A.


    It is now well recognized that a host of imaging modalities (a list that includes Ultrasound, MRI, Optical Coherence Tomography, and optical microscopy) can be used to "watch" tissue as it deforms in response to an internal or external excitation. The result is a detailed map of the deformation field in the interior of the tissue. This deformation field can be used in conjunction with a material mechanical response to determine the spatial distribution of material properties of the tissue by solving an inverse problem. Images of material properties thus obtained can be used to quantify the health of the tissue. Recently, they have been used to detect, diagnose and monitor cancerous lesions, detect vulnerable plaque in arteries, diagnose liver cirrhosis, and possibly detect the onset of Alzheimer's disease. In this talk I will describe the mathematical and computational aspects of solving this class of inverse problems, and their applications in biology and medicine. In particular, I will discuss the well-posedness of these problems and quantify the amount of displacement data necessary to obtain a unique property distribution. I will describe an efficient algorithm for solving the resulting inverse problem. I will also describe some recent developments based on Bayesian inference in estimating the variance in the estimates of material properties. I will conclude with the applications of these techniques in diagnosing breast cancer and in characterizing the mechanical properties of cells with sub-cellular resolution.

  9. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    Li, Yuanyuan


    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  10. Computationally efficient Bayesian inference for inverse problems.

    Marzouk, Youssef M.; Najm, Habib N.; Rahn, Larry A.


    Bayesian statistics provides a foundation for inference from noisy and incomplete data, a natural mechanism for regularization in the form of prior information, and a quantitative assessment of uncertainty in the inferred results. Inverse problems - representing indirect estimation of model parameters, inputs, or structural components - can be fruitfully cast in this framework. Complex and computationally intensive forward models arising in physical applications, however, can render a Bayesian approach prohibitive. This difficulty is compounded by high-dimensional model spaces, as when the unknown is a spatiotemporal field. We present new algorithmic developments for Bayesian inference in this context, showing strong connections with the forward propagation of uncertainty. In particular, we introduce a stochastic spectral formulation that dramatically accelerates the Bayesian solution of inverse problems via rapid evaluation of a surrogate posterior. We also explore dimensionality reduction for the inference of spatiotemporal fields, using truncated spectral representations of Gaussian process priors. These new approaches are demonstrated on scalar transport problems arising in contaminant source inversion and in the inference of inhomogeneous material or transport properties. We also present a Bayesian framework for parameter estimation in stochastic models, where intrinsic stochasticity may be intermingled with observational noise. Evaluation of a likelihood function may not be analytically tractable in these cases, and thus several alternative Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) schemes, operating on the product space of the observations and the parameters, are introduced.


    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef


    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  12. Effects of size, fixation location, and inversion on face identification

    Sekuler, Allison; Pachai, Matthew; Hashemi, Ali; Bennett, Patrick


    One possible explanation for the face inversion effect (FIE) is that inversion swaps the eye and mouth locations relative to fixation, and attention typically is directed to the top of a stimulus for faces...

  13. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian Sea, during winter has been studied using Bathythermograph data collected from 1132 stations. It is found that the inversion in this area is a stable seasonal feature...


    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef


    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  15. Multi-objective optimization of inverse planning for accurate radiotherapy

    曹瑞芬; 吴宜灿; 裴曦; 景佳; 李国丽; 程梦云; 李贵; 胡丽琴


    The multi-objective optimization of inverse planning based on the Pareto solution set, according to the multi-objective character of inverse planning in accurate radiotherapy, was studied in this paper. Firstly, the clinical requirements of a treatment pl

  16. An overview of joint inversion in earthquake source imaging

    Koketsu, Kazuki


    We reviewed joint inversion studies of the rupture processes of significant earthquakes, using the definition of a joint inversion in earthquake source imaging as a source inversion of multiple kinds of datasets (waveform, geodetic, or tsunami). Yoshida and Koketsu (Geophys J Int 103:355-362, 1990), and Wald and Heaton (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:668-691, 1994) independently initiated joint inversion methods, finding that joint inversion provides more reliable rupture process models than single-dataset inversion, leading to an increase of joint inversion studies. A list of these studies was made using the finite-source rupture model database (Mai and Thingbaijam in Seismol Res Lett 85:1348-1357, 2014). Outstanding issues regarding joint inversion were also discussed.

  17. Term frequency inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique and ...

    Term frequency inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique and artificial neural ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Electronic mail contents are extracted and Term Frequency Inverse ...

  18. Approximate inverse preconditioning of iterative methods for nonsymmetric linear systems

    Benzi, M. [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Tuma, M. [Inst. of Computer Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)


    A method for computing an incomplete factorization of the inverse of a nonsymmetric matrix A is presented. The resulting factorized sparse approximate inverse is used as a preconditioner in the iterative solution of Ax = b by Krylov subspace methods.


    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef


    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron

  20. A-optimal encoding weights for nonlinear inverse problems, with application to the Helmholtz inverse problem

    Crestel, Benjamin; Alexanderian, Alen; Stadler, Georg; Ghattas, Omar


    The computational cost of solving an inverse problem governed by PDEs, using multiple experiments, increases linearly with the number of experiments. A recently proposed method to decrease this cost uses only a small number of random linear combinations of all experiments for solving the inverse problem. This approach applies to inverse problems where the PDE solution depends linearly on the right-hand side function that models the experiment. As this method is stochastic in essence, the quality of the obtained reconstructions can vary, in particular when only a small number of combinations are used. We develop a Bayesian formulation for the definition and computation of encoding weights that lead to a parameter reconstruction with the least uncertainty. We call these weights A-optimal encoding weights. Our framework applies to inverse problems where the governing PDE is nonlinear with respect to the inversion parameter field. We formulate the problem in infinite dimensions and follow the optimize-then-discretize approach, devoting special attention to the discretization and the choice of numerical methods in order to achieve a computational cost that is independent of the parameter discretization. We elaborate our method for a Helmholtz inverse problem, and derive the adjoint-based expressions for the gradient of the objective function of the optimization problem for finding the A-optimal encoding weights. The proposed method is potentially attractive for real-time monitoring applications, where one can invest the effort to compute optimal weights offline, to later solve an inverse problem repeatedly, over time, at a fraction of the initial cost.

  1. Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics

    Almasy, A.A.


    The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A

  2. Full Waveform Inversion Using Waveform Sensitivity Kernels

    Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang


    We present a full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, in which the steps of forward simulation, computation of sensitivity kernels, and the actual inversion are kept separate of each other. We derive waveform sensitivity kernels from Born scattering theory, which for unit material perturbations are identical to the Born integrand for the considered path between source and receiver. The evaluation of such a kernel requires the calculation of Green functions and their strains for single forces at the receiver position, as well as displacement fields and strains originating at the seismic source. We compute these quantities in the frequency domain using the 3D spectral element code SPECFEM3D (Tromp, Komatitsch and Liu, 2008) and the 1D semi-analytical code GEMINI (Friederich and Dalkolmo, 1995) in both, Cartesian and spherical framework. We developed and implemented the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion) to compute waveform sensitivity kernels from wavefields generated by any of the above methods (support for more methods is planned), where some examples will be shown. As the kernels can be computed independently from any data values, this approach allows to do a sensitivity and resolution analysis first without inverting any data. In the context of active seismic experiments, this property may be used to investigate optimal acquisition geometry and expectable resolution before actually collecting any data, assuming the background model is known sufficiently well. The actual inversion step then, can be repeated at relatively low costs with different (sub)sets of data, adding different smoothing conditions. Using the sensitivity kernels, we expect the waveform inversion to have better convergence properties compared with strategies that use gradients of a misfit function. Also the propagation of the forward wavefield and the backward propagation from the receiver

  3. Towards Full-Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Afanasiev, Michael; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    Noise tomography usually works under the assumption that the inter-station ambient noise correlation is equal to a scaled version of the Green function between the two receivers. This assumption, however, is only met under specific conditions, e.g. wavefield diffusivity and equipartitioning, or the isotropic distribution of both mono- and dipolar uncorrelated noise sources. These assumptions are typically not satisfied in the Earth. This inconsistency inhibits the exploitation of the full waveform information contained in noise correlations in order to constrain Earth structure and noise generation. To overcome this limitation, we attempt to develop a method that consistently accounts for the distribution of noise sources, 3D heterogeneous Earth structure and the full seismic wave propagation physics. This is intended to improve the resolution of tomographic images, to refine noise source distribution, and thereby to contribute to a better understanding of both Earth structure and noise generation. First, we develop an inversion strategy based on a 2D finite-difference code using adjoint techniques. To enable a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we investigate the following aspects: i) the capability of different misfit functionals to image wave speed anomalies and source distribution and ii) possible source-structure trade-offs, especially to what extent unresolvable structure can be mapped into the inverted noise source distribution and vice versa. In anticipation of real-data applications, we present an extension of the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus ( It allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface and the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the distribution of noise sources and Earth structure. By studying the effect of noise sources on correlation functions in 3D, we validate the aforementioned inversion strategy and prepare the

  4. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Narita, Yasuhito


    We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes advantage of a particular

  5. The Inverse Method Application for Non-Classical Logics

    Pavlov, V.; Paky, V.


    Maslov’s inverse method is an automated theorem proving method: it can be used to develop computer programs that prove theorems automatically (such programs are called theorem provers). The inverse method can be applied to a wide range of logical calculi: propositional logic, first-order logic, intuitionistic logic, modal logics etc. We give a brief historical background of the inverse method, then discuss existing modifications and implementations of the inverse method for non-classical logics...

  6. Practical waveform inversion in anisotropic media: The natural combination of the data and image objectives

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Addressing anisotropy in full wavenumber inversion (FWI) is crucial to obtaining credible models, and it is extremely challenging considering the multi parameter nature of the inversion. A successful FWI in anisotropic media takes into account the sensitivity of the data (or the wave) to the long and short wavelength components of the anisotropic parameters. Considering the low sensitivity of FWI to the anellipticity parameter ? when parametrizing the acoustic transversely isotropic model with the horizontal velocity, η and ε, we develop a combined FWI and reflection waveform inversion (RWI) to invert for the anisotropic parameters that influence surface seismic data. This practical waveform inversion (PWI) separates the parameters to their resolvable scales, with information accessed from the data fitting (FWI) and the image focusing (RWI) objectives. With this parametrization, the RWI role is to obtain a smooth ηmodel, as well as velocity, while FWI focusses on the scattering potential of the horizontal velocity. The parameter η is used to produce the Born scattered wavefield for the RWI part and eventually fit the amplitude for the imperfect physics in the FWI part.

  7. Solving and analyzing PD0L inverse process

    樊勇兵; 陈刚; 董光昌


    The importance of L inverse process is emphasized and an algorithm is given to realize PD0L inverse process. On the basis of algorithm analysis, this note discusses the possibility of applying L inverse process to data compression and the difficulties in doing that.

  8. Microlocal analysis of a seismic linearized inverse problem

    Stolk, C.C.


    The seismic inverse problem is to determine the wavespeed c x in the interior of a medium from measurements at the boundary In this paper we analyze the linearized inverse problem in general acoustic media The problem is to nd a left inverse of the linearized forward map F or equivalently to nd the

  9. Mechanism and Modeling for Polymerization of Acrylamide in Inverse Microemulsions

    LiXiao; ZhangWeiying; YuanHuigen


    After discussion on the mechanism of polymer particle nucleation and growth in inverse microemulsion polymerization, a schematic physical model for polymerization of acrylamide in inverse microemulsions was presented. Furthermore, several key problems in mathematically modeling of inverse microemulsion polymerization were pointed out.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater by inverse fluidization: the inverse fluidized bed and the inverse turbulent bed reactors

    Arnaiz, C.; Buffiere, P.; Elmaleh, S.; Lebrato, J.; Moletta, R.


    This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m{sup 2} m{sup -3}) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s{sup -1}, 5.4 m h{sup -1}). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kg{sub COD} m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass. (Author)

  11. Modified inverse square sensitometry for the determination of the characteristic curve of radiographic screen/film systems.



    Full Text Available To determine the characteristic curve of the radiographic screen/film systems in a short focal spot-film distance, the inverse square sensitometric method was modified by changing the radiation intensity with two kinds of filters. The characteristic curves obtained in the two exposure series with these two kinds of filters were overlapped to obtain a complete one. The characteristic curve thus obtained was almost the same as the one obtained by the original inverse square sensitometric method. The accuracy of the characteristic curves obtained by the modified method was well-reflected in the clinical radiographs.

  12. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Ge Song


    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  13. Short QT syndrome

    Fiorenzo Gaita


    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  14. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan


    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  15. Minimal inversion, command matching and disturbance decoupling in multivariable systems

    Seraji, H.


    The present treatment of the related problems of minimal inversion and perfect output control in linear multivariable systems uses a simple analytical expression for the inverse of a square multivariate system's transfer-function matrix to construct a minimal-order inverse of the system. Because the poles of the minimal-order inverse are the transmission zeros of the system, necessary and sufficient conditions for the inverse system's stability are simply stated in terms of the zero polynomial of the original system. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the required controllers is that the plant zero polynomial be neither identical to zero nor unstable.

  16. Application of Coherence Inversion Method to Shallow Reflection

    吴建成; 曹德欣; 田宗勇


    Because of the disturbance of some regular waves, the deformity of reflective wave occurs, making the coherence inversion method unreliable. By using the event time from multi-fold reflective stack the range of model parameters obtained by coherence inversion is limited in coherence inversion. Then by adjusting the initial values of the model parameters to make the waveform from the coherence inversion method be consistent with that from the original reflective gathers, the result of the inversion becomes more reliable. The application of this method in processing the reflective gathers in Songzikou by the Jingjiang River of Hubei demonstrates the efficiency of the method.

  17. Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory

    Sophia Chui-Wai Ha


    Full Text Available Ankle inversion ligamentous sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. The most direct way is to investigate real injury incidents, but it is unethical and impossible to replicate on test participants. Simulators including tilt platforms, trapdoors, and fulcrum devices were designed to mimic ankle inversion movements in laboratories. Inversion angle was the only element considered in early designs; however, an ankle sprain is composed of inversion and plantarflexion in clinical observations. Inversion velocity is another parameter that increased the reality of simulation. This review summarised the simulators, and aimed to compare and contrast their features and settings.

  18. Toward Joint Inversion of Gravity and Dyanamics

    Jacoby, W. R.

    To better understand geodynamic processes as seafloor spreading, plumes, subduction, and isostatic adjustment, gravity is inverted with "a prioriinformation from topography/bathymetry, seismic structure and dynamic models. Examples are subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate below Vancouver Island, the passive Black Sea­Turkey margin and Iceland ridge-plume interaction. Gravity and other data are averaged 50 km wide strips. Mass balances are estimated (showing also that the free air anomaly is misleading for narrow structures). The mass balances represent plate forces and plate bending, affecting the gravity signals and the isostatic state of continental margins and ridge-plume effects, which are highly correlated in space and cannot be separated without a priori information from modelling. The examples from widely different tectonic situations demonstrate that the art of regional-scale gravity inversion requires extensive background knowledge and inclusion of dynamic processes. It is difficult to conceive any formal, globally applicable procedure taking care of this; it is even a question, what is data, what a priori information? They are not distinguishable if all are included as foreward routines. The "accuracy" of models cannot be perfectly determined, if the "real" mass distribution is not known ­ if known, gravity inversion would be unnecessary. In reality only guesses are possible on the basis of observations and physical laws governing geodynamics. A priori information and gravity data limit the resolution of gravity inversion. Different model types are indistinguishable because adjustments within their parameter uncertainties permit a good fit. But gravity excludes wrong models (Karl Popper: science evolves by falsification of wrong models), and precise gravity guides and defines aims, targets and strategies for new observations.

  19. MAP estimators for piecewise continuous inversion

    Dunlop, M. M.; Stuart, A. M.


    We study the inverse problem of estimating a field u a from data comprising a finite set of nonlinear functionals of u a , subject to additive noise; we denote this observed data by y. Our interest is in the reconstruction of piecewise continuous fields u a in which the discontinuity set is described by a finite number of geometric parameters a. Natural applications include groundwater flow and electrical impedance tomography. We take a Bayesian approach, placing a prior distribution on u a and determining the conditional distribution on u a given the data y. It is then natural to study maximum a posterior (MAP) estimators. Recently (Dashti et al 2013 Inverse Problems 29 095017) it has been shown that MAP estimators can be characterised as minimisers of a generalised Onsager-Machlup functional, in the case where the prior measure is a Gaussian random field. We extend this theory to a more general class of prior distributions which allows for piecewise continuous fields. Specifically, the prior field is assumed to be piecewise Gaussian with random interfaces between the different Gaussians defined by a finite number of parameters. We also make connections with recent work on MAP estimators for linear problems and possibly non-Gaussian priors (Helin and Burger 2015 Inverse Problems 31 085009) which employs the notion of Fomin derivative. In showing applicability of our theory we focus on the groundwater flow and EIT models, though the theory holds more generally. Numerical experiments are implemented for the groundwater flow model, demonstrating the feasibility of determining MAP estimators for these piecewise continuous models, but also that the geometric formulation can lead to multiple nearby (local) MAP estimators. We relate these MAP estimators to the behaviour of output from MCMC samples of the posterior, obtained using a state-of-the-art function space Metropolis-Hastings method.


    Hussain Mobarak Albarakati


    Full Text Available The Forward Problem (FB of Boolean equations consists of finding solutions of a system of Boolean equations, or equivalently, a single Boolean equation of the form f(X = 0 where f(X: Bn → B and B is an arbitrary Boolean algebra. By contrast, the Inverse Problem (IB of Boolean equations aims to reconstruct the equation f (X = 0 given the set of solutions and hence to verify the correctness of this set. This study derives methods that handle this inverse problem for the main types of solutions of Boolean equations. These include: (a Subsumptive general solutions, in which each of the variables is expressed as an interval by deriving successive conjunctive or disjunctive eliminants of the original function, (b Parametric general solutions, in which each of the variables is expressed via arbitrary parameters which are freely chosen elements of the underlying Boolean algebra and (c Particular solutions, each of which is an assignment from the underlying Boolean algebra to every pertinent variable that makes the Boolean equation an identity. The reconstructed function f(X in every case is set in a canonical form, such as the complete-sum form, to facilitate proving its equivalence to the original function. The methods presented herein are demonstrated with carefully-chosen illustrative examples over big Boolean algebras of various sizes. Among the methods utilized in handling the inverse problem for Boolean equations, the ones utilizing the variable-entered Karnaugh map offered pictorial insight and exhibited an efficient divide-and-conquer strategy.

  1. Jets or vortices - what flows are generated by an inverse turbulent cascade?

    Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory


    An inverse cascade - energy transfer to progressively larger scales - is a salient feature of two-dimensional turbulence. If the cascade reaches the system scale, it creates a coherent flow expected to have the largest available scale and conform with the symmetries of the domain. In a doubly periodic rectangle, the mean flow with zero total momentum was therefore believed to be unidirectional, with two jets along the short side; while for an aspect ratio close to unity, a vortex dipole was expected. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that in fact neither the box symmetry is respected nor the largest scale is realized: the flow is never purely unidirectional since the inverse cascade produces coherent vortices, whose number and relative motion are determined by the aspect ratio. This spontaneous symmetry breaking is closely related to the hierarchy of averaging times. Long-time averaging restores translational invariance due to vortex wandering along one direction, and gives jets whose profile, howev...

  2. Reconstruction of landslide movements by inversion of 4-D electrical resistivity tomography monitoring data

    Wilkinson, Paul; Chambers, Jonathan; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Meldrum, Philip; Smith, Alister; Dixon, Neil; Loke, Meng Heng


    Reliable tomographic inversion of geoelectrical monitoring data from unstable slopes relies critically on knowing the electrode positions, which may move over time. We develop and present an innovative inverse method to recover movements in both surface directions from geoelectrical measurements made on a grid of monitoring electrodes. For the first time, we demonstrate this method using field data from an active landslide to recover sequences of movement over timescales of days to years. Comparison with GPS measurements demonstrated an accuracy of within 10% of the electrode spacing, sufficient to correct the majority of artifacts that would occur in subsequent image reconstructions if incorrect positions are used. Over short timescales where the corresponding subsurface resistivity changes were smaller, the constraints could be relaxed and an order-of-magnitude better accuracy was achievable. This enabled the onset and acceleration of landslide activity to be detected with a temporal resolution of a few days.

  3. The natural combination of full and image-based waveform inversion

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Integrating migration velocity analysis and full waveform inversion can help reduce the high non-linearity of the classic full waveform inversion objective function. The combination of inverting for the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model using a dual objective function that is sensitive to both components is still very expensive and have produced mixed results. We develop an approach that includes both components integrated to complement each other. We specifically utilize the image to generate reflections in our synthetic data only when the velocity model is not capable of producing such reflections. As a result, we get the migration velocity analysis working when we need it, and we mitigate its influence when the velocity model produces accurate reflections (possibly first for the low frequencies). This is achieved using a novel objective function that includes both objectives. Applications to a layered model and the Marmousi model demonstrate the main features of the approach. © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  4. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze


    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  5. Direct and inverse cascades in the geodynamo

    Reshetnyak, M


    The rapid rotation of planets causes cyclonic thermal turbulence in their cores which may generate the large-scale magnetic fields observed outside the planets. We consider the model which enables us reproduce the typical features of small-scale geostrophic flows in physical and wave spaces. We present estimates of kinetic and magnetic energy fluxes as a function of the wave number. The joint existence of forward and inverse cascades are demonstrated. We also consider the mechanism of magnetic field saturation at the end of the kinematic dynamo regime.

  6. Direct and inverse cascades in the geodynamo

    M. Reshetnyak


    Full Text Available The rapid rotation of planets causes cyclonic thermal turbulence in their cores which may generate the large-scale magnetic fields observed outside the planets. We investigate numerically a model based on the geodynamo equations in simplified geometry, which enables us to reproduce the main features of small-scale geostrophic flows in physical and wave vector spaces. We find fluxes of kinetic and magnetic energy as a function of the wave number and demonstrate the co-existence of forward and inverse cascades. We also explain the mechanism of magnetic field saturation at the end of the kinematic dynamo regime.

  7. Inverse of the String Theory KLT Kernel

    Mizera, Sebastian


    The field theory Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) kernel, which relates scattering amplitudes of gravitons and gluons, turns out to be the inverse of a matrix whose components are bi-adjoint scalar partial amplitudes. In this note we propose an analogous construction for the string theory KLT kernel. We present simple diagrammatic rules for the computation of the $\\alpha'$-corrected bi-adjoint scalar amplitudes that are exact in $\\alpha'$. We find compact expressions in terms of graphs, where the standard Feynman propagators $1/p^2$ are replaced by either $1/\\sin (\\pi \\alpha' p^2)$ or $1/\\tan (\\pi \\alpha' p^2)$, which is determined by a recursive procedure.

  8. Inverse Faraday Effect driven by Radiation Friction

    Liseykina, T V; Macchi, A


    In the interaction of extremely intense ($>10^{23}~\\mbox{W cm}^{-2}$), circularly polarized laser pulses with thick targets, theory and simulations show that a major fraction of the laser energy is converted into incoherent radiation because of collective electron motion during the "hole boring" dynamics. The effective dissipation due to radiative losses allows the absorption of electromagnetic angular momentum, which in turn leads to the generation of an axial magnetic field of tens of gigagauss value. This peculiar "inverse Faraday effect" is demonstrated in three-dimensional simulations including radiation friction.

  9. Uncertainty estimation in finite fault inversion

    Dettmer, Jan; Cummins, Phil R.; Benavente, Roberto


    This work considers uncertainty estimation for kinematic rupture models in finite fault inversion by Bayesian sampling. Since the general problem of slip estimation on an unknown fault from incomplete and noisy data is highly non-linear and currently intractable, assumptions are typically made to simplify the problem. These almost always include linearization of the time dependence of rupture by considering multiple discrete time windows, and a tessellation of the fault surface into a set of 'subfaults' whose dimensions are fixed below what is subjectively thought to be resolvable by the data. Even non-linear parameterizations are based on a fixed discretization. This results in over-parametrized models which include more parameters than resolvable by the data and require regularization criteria that stabilize the inversion. While it is increasingly common to consider slip uncertainties arising from observational error, the effects of the assumptions implicit in parameterization choices are rarely if ever considered. Here, we show that linearization and discretization assumptions can strongly affect both slip and uncertainty estimates and that therefore the selection of parametrizations should be included in the inference process. We apply Bayesian model selection to study the effect of parametrization choice on inversion results. The Bayesian sampling method which produces inversion results is based on a trans-dimensional rupture discretization which adapts the spatial and temporal parametrization complexity based on data information and does not require regularization. Slip magnitude, direction and rupture velocity are unknowns across the fault and causal first rupture times are obtained by solving the Eikonal equation for a spatially variable rupture-velocity field. The method provides automated local adaptation of rupture complexity based on data information and does not assume globally constant resolution. This is an important quality since seismic data do not

  10. The Inverse Problem for the Dipole Field

    Epp, V


    The Inverse problem for an electromagnetic field produced by a dipole is solved. It is assumed that the field of an arbitrary changing dipole is known. Obtained formulae allow calculation of the position and dynamics of the dipole which produces the measured field. The derived results can be used in investigations on radiative process in solids caused by changing of the charge distribution. For example, generation of the electromagnetic field caused by oscillations of atoms or electron gas at the trace of a particle channeling in a crystal, or fields arising at solids cracking or dislocation formation -- in any case when one is interested in the details of the dipole field source.

  11. Inverse Eigenvalue Problem in Structural Dynamics Design

    Huiqing Xie; Hua Dai


    A kind of inverse eigenvalue problem in structural dynamics design is considered. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The properties of this problem are analyzed, and the existence of the optimum solution is proved. The directional derivative of the objective function is obtained and a necessary condition for a point to be a local minimum point is given. Then a numerical algorithm for solving the problem is presented and a plane-truss problem is discussed to show the applications of the theories and the algorithm.

  12. The inverse variational problem in classical mechanics

    Lopuszánski, Jan T


    This book provides a concise description of the current status of a fascinating scientific problem - the inverse variational problem in classical mechanics. The essence of this problem is as follows: one is given a set of equations of motion describing a certain classical mechanical system, and the question to be answered is: Do these equations of motion correspond to some Lagrange function as its Euler-Lagrange equations? In general, not for every system of equations of motion does a Lagrange function exist; it can, however, happen that one may modify the given equations of motion in such a w

  13. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.


    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  14. Amplification Without Inversion in Semiconductor Quantum Dot

    Hajibadali, A.; Abbasian, K.; Rostami, A.

    In this paper, we have realized amplification without inversion (AWI) in quantum dot (QD). A Y-type four-level system of InxGa1-xN quantum dot has been obtained and investigated for AWI. It has been shown that, with proper setting of control fields' amplitude, we can obtain reasonable gain. With proper setting of phase difference of control fields and probe field, we can obtain considerable gain in resonant wavelength. We have designed this system by solving the Schrödinger-Poisson equations for InxGa1-xN quantum dot in GaN substrate, self-consistently.

  15. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E


    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  16. Transmuted New Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Muhammad Shuaib Khan


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the transmuted new generalized inverse Weibull distribution by using the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM scheme studied by Shaw et al. (2007. The proposed model contains the twenty three lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some mathematical properties of the new distribution are formulated, such as quantile function, Rényi entropy, mean deviations, moments, moment generating function and order statistics. The method of maximum likelihood is used for estimating the model parameters. We illustrate the flexibility and potential usefulness of the new distribution by using reliability data.

  17. Low-complexity systolic architecture for inversion

    Yuan Danshou; Rong Mengtian


    A modified extended binary Euclid's algorithm which is more regularly iterative for computing an inversion in GF(2m) is presented. Based on above modified algorithm, a serial-in serial-out architecture is proposed. It has area complexity of O(m), latency of 5m-2, and throughput of 1/m. Compared with other serial systolic architectures, the proposed one has the smallest area complexity, shorter latency. It is highly regular, modular, and thus well suited for high-speed VLSI design.

  18. Thermodynamic inversion origin of living systems

    Kompanichenko, Vladimir N


    This book discusses the theory, general principles, and energy source conditions allowing for the emergence of life in planetary systems. The author examines the material conditions found in natural hydrothermal sites, the appropriate analogs of prebiotic environments on early Earth. He provides an overview of current laboratory experiments in prebiotic materials chemistry and substantiation of a new direction for the experiments in the origin of life field. Describes thermodynamic inversion and how it relates to the living cell; Examines the current direction of experiments on prebiotic materials chemistry; Introduces and substantiates necessary conditions for the emergence of life.

  19. Observation of the inverse Doppler effect.

    Seddon, N; Bearpark, T


    We report experimental observation of an inverse Doppler shift, in which the frequency of a wave is increased on reflection from a receding boundary. This counterintuitive effect has been produced by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in an electrical transmission line. Doppler shifts produced by this system can be varied in a reproducible manner by electronic control of the transmission line and are typically five orders of magnitude greater than those produced by solid objects with kinematic velocities. Potential applications include the development of tunable and multifrequency radiation sources.

  20. Multiscale phase inversion of seismic marine data

    Fu, Lei


    We test the feasibility of applying multiscale phase inversion (MPI) to seismic marine data. To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. Results with synthetic data and field data from the Gulf of Mexico produce robust and accurate results if the model does not contain strong velocity contrasts such as salt-sediment interfaces.

  1. Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data

    Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus


    We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.

  2. Linearized inversion of two components seismic data; Inversion linearisee de donnees sismiques a deux composantes

    Lebrun, D.


    The aim of the dissertation is the linearized inversion of multicomponent seismic data for 3D elastic horizontally stratified media, using Born approximation. A Jacobian matrix is constructed; it will be used to model seismic data from elastic parameters. The inversion technique, relying on single value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix, is described. Next, the resolution of inverted elastic parameters is quantitatively studies. A first use of the technique is shown in the frame of an evaluation of a sea bottom acquisition (synthetic data). Finally, a real data set acquired with conventional marine technique is inverted. (author) 70 refs.

  3. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  4. Short bowel syndrome.

    Donohoe, Claire L


    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  5. The short toric polynomial

    Hetyei, Gábor


    We introduce the short toric polynomial associated to a graded Eulerian poset. This polynomial contains the same information as the two toric polynomials introduced by Stanley, but allows different algebraic manipulations. The intertwined recurrence defining Stanley's toric polynomials may be replaced by a single recurrence, in which the degree of the discarded terms is independent of the rank. A short toric variant of the formula by Bayer and Ehrenborg, expressing the toric $h$-vector in terms of the $cd$-index, may be stated in a rank-independent form, and it may be shown using weighted lattice path enumeration and the reflection principle. We use our techniques to derive a formula expressing the toric $h$-vector of a dual simplicial Eulerian poset in terms of its $f$-vector. This formula implies Gessel's formula for the toric $h$-vector of a cube, and may be used to prove that the nonnegativity of the toric $h$-vector of a simple polytope is a consequence of the Generalized Lower Bound Theorem holding for ...

  6. Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics at REX-ISOLDE

    Tengborn, E

    Research on the structure of exotic nuclei is one of the most intriguing topics in present day nuclear physics. With the use of facilities for isotope separation on-line, such as ISOLDE at CERN, short-lived isotopes can be studied experimentally. Since 2002, the REX-ISOLDE facility enables radioactive ions produced by ISOLDE to be post-accelerated, increasing the energy of the ions enough to do nuclear transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. In this thesis, transfer reactions are used to study the structure of neutron-rich lithium isotopes through a series of experiments at REX-ISOLDE. The first experiment used a 9Li beam at 2.36 MeV/u impinging on a deuterated polyethylene target to study 10Li, 9Li and 8Li. For the (d,p)-channel the resonance ground state and a first excited state are observed and the results agree with theoretical calculations. The elastic channel agrees with Optical Model, OM, calculations. For the (d,t)-channel the shape of the angular distribution agrees with Distorted Wave Born Approx...

  7. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which small scattering-angles of the gradient update are initially muted out. The model update hierarchical filtering strategy include applying varying degrees of filtering to the different anisotropic parameter updates, a feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using FWI and reflection-based FWI, when the modeled data are obtained with the single-scattering theory, allows access to additional low model wavenumber components. Combining such access to wavenumbers with scattering-angle filters applied to the individual parameter gradients allows for multiple strategies to avoid complex FWI nonlinearity as well as the parameter trade-off.

  8. Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator

    Ikhsan Eka Prasetia


    Full Text Available In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desired position by Denso robot manipulator. Forward kinematics produce the desired position by the end-effector. Inverse kinematics produce joint angle, where the inverse kinematics produce eight conditions obtained from closed form solution with geometry approach to reach the desired position by the end-effector.



    Time-Lapse Seismic improves oil recovery ratio by dynamic reservoir monitoring. Because of the large number of seismic explorations in the process of time-lapse seismic inversion, traditional methods need plenty of inversion calculations which cost high computational works. The method is therefore inefficient. In this paper, in order to reduce the repeating computations in traditional, a new time-lapse seismic inversion method is put forward. Firstly a homotopy-regularization method is proposed for the first time inversion. Secondly, with the first time inversion results as the initial value of following model, a model of the second time inversion is rebuilt by analyzing the characters of time-lapse seismic and localized inversion method is designed by using the model. Finally, through simulation, the comparison between traditional method and the new scheme is given. Our simulation results show that the new scheme could save the algorithm computations greatly.

  10. GeV emission from short Gamma-Ray Bursts: the case of GRB 081024B

    Corsi, Alessandra; Piro, Luigi


    We investigate the origin of the high energy tail detected by Fermi/LAT in the short GRB 081024B through synchrotron and self-Compton emission in either the internal or external shock models. In the internal shock scenario, we explore the possibility of generating the high energy photons directly through synchrotron process, or through inverse Compton emission in which target photons are synchrotron photons produced in internal shocks taking place either in the short prompt phase, or in a lately emitted shell (delayed internal shocks). In the external shock scenario, we consider the possibility of the high energy tail being the extension of the afterglow synchrotron emission, or alternatively the inverse Compton component associated to the afterglow synchrotron photons. For the internal shock scenario we conclude that, given the constraints set by the observations on the prompt emission spectrum, only an inverse Compton component from delayed internal shocks can accommodate the presence of a high energy tail ...

  11. Minimax approach to inverse problems of geophysics

    Balk, P. I.; Dolgal, A. S.; Balk, T. V.; Khristenko, L. A.


    A new approach is suggested for solving the inverse problems that arise in the different fields of applied geophysics (gravity, magnetic, and electrical prospecting, geothermy) and require assessing the spatial region occupied by the anomaly-generating masses in the presence of different types of a priori information. The interpretation which provides the maximum guaranteed proximity of the model field sources to the real perturbing object is treated as the best interpretation. In some fields of science (game theory, economics, operations research), the decision-making principle that lies in minimizing the probable losses which cannot be prevented if the situation develops by the worst-case scenario is referred to as minimax. The minimax criterion of choice is interesting as, instead of being confined to the indirect (and sometimes doubtful) signs of the "optimal" solution, it relies on the actual properties of the information in the results of a particular interpretation. In the hierarchy of the approaches to the solution of the inverse problems of geophysics ordered by the volume and quality of the retrieved information about the sources of the field, the minimax approach should take special place.

  12. Floppy Molecules with Internal Rotation and Inversion

    Kreglewski, Marek


    There are different ways to analyze rovibrational structure of molecules having several large amplitude motions of different type, like internal rotation and inversion or ring-puckering. In my research group we have developed and used methods starting from potential surfaces for large amplitude motions but also applied purely effective Hamiltonians, where tunneling splittings were key parameters. Whatever is the method the following problems must be solved when addressing a rovibrational problem with large amplitude vibrations: 1) a definition of the permutation-inversion molecular symmetry group, 2) a choice of the internal coordinates and their transformation in the symmetry group, 3) derivation of the Hamiltonian in chosen coordinates, 4) calculation of the Hamiltonian matrix elements in a symmetrized basis set. These points will be discussed. The advantage of methods which start from the geometry and potential surface for large amplitude vibrations give much clearer picture of internal dynamics of molecules but generally the fit to experimental data is much poorer. The fitting procedure is strongly non-linear and the iteration procedure much longer. The effective Hamiltonians the fit is generally much better since almost all optimized parameters are linear but the parameters have no clear physical meaning. This method is very useful in the assignment of experimental spectra. Results of the application of both method to methylamine and hydrazine will be presented.

  13. Inverse PCR for Point Mutation Introduction.

    Silva, Diogo; Santos, Gustavo; Barroca, Mário; Collins, Tony


    Inverse PCR is a powerful tool for the rapid introduction of desired mutations at desired positions in a circular double-stranded DNA sequence. Here, custom-designed mutant primers oriented in the inverse direction are used to amplify the entire circular template with incorporation of the required mutation(s). By careful primer design it can be used to perform such diverse modifications as the introduction of point mutations and multiple mutations, the insertion of new sequences, and even sequence deletions. Three primer formats are commonly used; nonoverlapping, partially overlapping and fully overlapping primers, and here we describe the use of nonoverlapping primers for introduction of a point mutation. Use of such a primer setup in the PCR reaction, with one of the primers containing the desired mismatch mutation, results in the amplification of a linear, double-stranded, mutated product. Methylated template DNA is removed from the nonmethylated PCR product by DpnI digestion and the PCR product is then phosphorylated by polynucleotide kinase treatment before being recircularized by ligation, and transformed to E. coli. This relatively simple site-directed mutagenesis procedure is of major importance in biology and biotechnology today where it is commonly employed for the study and engineering of DNA, RNA, and proteins.

  14. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  15. Inverse Variational Problem for Nonstandard Lagrangians

    Saha, A.; Talukdar, B.


    In the mathematical physics literature the nonstandard Lagrangians (NSLs) were introduced in an ad hoc fashion rather than being derived from the solution of the inverse problem of variational calculus. We begin with the first integral of the equation of motion and solve the associated inverse problem to obtain some of the existing results for NSLs. In addition, we provide a number of alternative Lagrangian representations. The case studies envisaged by us include (i) the usual modified Emden-type equation, (ii) Emden-type equation with dissipative term quadratic in velocity, (iii) Lotka-Volterra model and (vi) a number of the generic equations for dissipative-like dynamical systems. Our method works for nonstandard Lagrangians corresponding to the usual action integral of mechanical systems but requires modification for those associated with the modified actions like S =∫abe L(x ,x˙ , t) dt and S =∫abL 1 - γ(x ,x˙ , t) dt because in the latter case one cannot construct expressions for the Jacobi integrals.

  16. Wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion

    Zhang, Sanzong


    The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion using a gradient optimization method is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated within the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. No travel-time picking is needed and no high-frequency approximation is assumed. The mathematical derivation and the numerical examples are presented to partly demonstrate its efficiency and robustness. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. Engineering magnetic nanostructures with inverse hysteresis loops

    Beatriz Mora; Nastassia Soriano; Carolina Redondo; Alberto Arteche; David Navas; Rafael Morales


    Top-down lithography techniques allow the fabrication of nanostructured elements with novel spin configurations,which provide a new route to engineer and manipulate the magnetic response of sensors and electronic devices and understand the role of fundamental interactions in materials science.In this study, shallow nanostructure-pattemed thin films were designed to present inverse magnetization curves,i.e.,an anomalous magnetic mechanism characterized by a negative coercivity and negative remanence.This procedure involved a method for manipulating the spin configuration that yielded a negative coercivity after the patterning of a single material layer.Patterned NiFe thin films with trench depths between 15%-25% of the total film thickness exhibited inverse hysteresis loops for a wide angular range of the applied field and the trench axis.A model based on two exchange-coupled subsystems accounts for the experimental results and thus predicts the conditions for the appearance of this magnetic behavior.The findings of the study not only advance our understanding of patterning effects and confined magnetic systems but also enable the local design and control of the magnetic response of thin materials with potential use in sensor engineering.

  18. Approaching the Island of Inversion: 34P

    Bender, P.C.; Hoffman, C.R.; Wiedeking, M.; Allmond, J.M.; Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T.; Bleuel, D.L.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Goldblum, B.L.; Hinners, T.A.; Jeppesen, H.B.; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, I.Y.; Lesher, S.R.; Machiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M.A.; Morris, D.; Perry, M.; Phair, L.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tabor, S.L.; Tripathi, Vandana; Volya, A.


    Yrast states in 34P were investigated using the 18O(18O,pn) reaction at energies of 20, 24, 25, 30, and 44 MeV at Florida State University and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The level scheme was expanded, ray angular distributions were measured, and lifetimes were inferred with the Doppler-shift attenuation method by detecting decay protons in coincidence with one or more rays. The results provide a clearer picture of the evolution of structure approaching the 'Island of Inversion', particularly how the 1 and 2 particle-hole (ph) states fall in energy with increasing neutro number approaching inversion. However, the agreement of the lowest few states with pure sd shell model predictions shows that the level scheme of 34P is not itself inverted. Rather, the accumulated evidence indicates that the 1-ph states start at 2.3 MeV. A good candidate for the lowest 2-ph state lies at 6236 keV, just below the neutron separation energy of 6291 keV. Shell model calculations made using a small modification of the WBP interaction reproduce the negative-parity, 1-ph states rather well.

  19. Fabrication of silicon inverse woodpile photonic crystals

    Hermatschweiler, Martin; Wegener, Martin [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) and Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ozin, Geoffrey A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Ledermann, Alexandra; Freymann, Georg von [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    We fabricate silicon inverse woodpile structures for the first time. Direct laser writing of polymeric templates and a novel silicon-singleinversion procedure lead to structures with gap/midgap ratios of 14.2% centered at 2.5 {mu}m wavelength. First, polymer templates are fabricated by direct laser writing or other means. Next, we deposit a thin silica coating via atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the polymer and - without removing the polymer - infiltrate the composite structure with Si via Si chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The silica shell provides sufficient and reliable stabilization for the high temperature CVD process. Finally, the silica is etched out and the polymer is calcined in air, leading to a Si inverse woodpile structure. Optical measurements and comparison to bandstructure and scattering-matrix calculations reveal a gap/midgap ratio of 14.2% centered at 2.5 {mu}m. An optimized structure could open a band gap with a gap/midgap ratio of up to 20.5%.

  20. An Entropic Estimator for Linear Inverse Problems

    Amos Golan


    Full Text Available In this paper we examine an Information-Theoretic method for solving noisy linear inverse estimation problems which encompasses under a single framework a whole class of estimation methods. Under this framework, the prior information about the unknown parameters (when such information exists, and constraints on the parameters can be incorporated in the statement of the problem. The method builds on the basics of the maximum entropy principle and consists of transforming the original problem into an estimation of a probability density on an appropriate space naturally associated with the statement of the problem. This estimation method is generic in the sense that it provides a framework for analyzing non-normal models, it is easy to implement and is suitable for all types of inverse problems such as small and or ill-conditioned, noisy data. First order approximation, large sample properties and convergence in distribution are developed as well. Analytical examples, statistics for model comparisons and evaluations, that are inherent to this method, are discussed and complemented with explicit examples.