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Sample records for respiratory temperature responses

  1. Cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses to temperature and hypoxia of the winter frog Rana catesbeiana

    Rocha P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hypoxia and temperature on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and plasma glucose levels of the winter bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Body temperature was maintained at 10, 15, 25 and 35oC for measurements of breathing frequency, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, metabolic rate, plasma glucose levels, blood gases and acid-base status. Reducing body temperature from 35 to 10oC decreased (P<0.001 heart rate (bpm from 64.0 ± 3.1 (N = 5 to 12.5 ± 2.5 (N = 6 and blood pressure (mmHg (P<0.05 from 41.9 ± 2.1 (N = 5 to 33.1 ± 2.1 (N = 6, whereas no significant changes were observed under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced changes in breathing frequency and acid-base status were proportional to body temperature, being pronounced at 25oC, less so at 15oC, and absent at 10oC. Hypoxia at 35oC was lethal. Under normoxia, plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl decreased (P<0.01 from 53.0 ± 3.4 (N = 6 to 35.9 ± 1.7 (N = 6 at body temperatures of 35 and 10oC, respectively. Hypoxia had no significant effect on plasma glucose concentration at 10 and 15oC, but at 25oC there was a significant increase under conditions of 3% inspired O2. The arterial PO2 and pH values were similar to those reported in previous studies on non-estivating Rana catesbeiana, but PaCO2 (37.5 ± 1.9 mmHg, N = 5 was 3-fold higher, indicating increased plasma bicarbonate levels. The estivating bullfrog may be exposed not only to low temperatures but also to hypoxia. These animals show temperature-dependent responses that may be beneficial since during low body temperatures the sensitivity of most physiological systems to hypoxia is reduced

  2. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  3. Respiratory response to temperature of three populations of Aurelia aurita polyps in northern Europe.

    Danja P Höhn

    Full Text Available The benthic life stage (polyp or scyphistoma of the bloom-forming jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1759, also known as the moon jellyfish, contributes to the seasonal occurrence and abundance of medusa blooms via asexual reproduction. A. aurita is widely distributed in coastal areas in northern Europe, and one of the most studied jellyfish species. While the physiology of the visible medusa is largely understood, understanding of the physiology of the perennial benthic life-stage is scarce. To measure the physiological tolerance of A. aurita, the scyphistoma's temperature sensitivity across its distributional range was investigated. Respiration rates of polyps from three northern European locations exposed to 11 temperatures between 2 and 22°C were measured. There was a significant difference in respiration rate among the three polyp populations, which may reflect on differences in their thermal tolerance window. A critical temperature was reached at 14°C with the metabolic rate decreasing below and above that temperature. This pattern was less pronounced in the Norwegian population but polyps were able to survive, at least temporarily, those temperatures exceeding their natural range. While polyps collected from northern Norway, with a narrow environmental thermal window, displayed a low baseline metabolism with a Q10 value of 1.2, polyps from southern England and Scotland had Q10 values of 1.6 and 2.5, respectively. Differences in polyps' respiration rates across their distributional range suggest that populations have evolved adaptations to local environmental thermal conditions.

  4. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  5. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... of IAV while reducing the respiratory burst response to virus....

  6. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0360 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Min Chen PhD...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0360 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...entitled “ENHANCEMENT OF IMMUNE MEMORY RESPONSES TO RESPIRATORY INFECTION: AUTOPHAGY IN MEMORY B-CELLS RESPONSE TO INFLUENZA VACCINE (AMBRIV

  7. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  8. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  9. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  10. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  11. Carbon dioxide induces erratic respiratory responses in bipolar disorder.

    Mackinnon, Dean F; Craighead, Brandie; Lorenz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    CO(2) respiration stimulates both anxiety and dyspnea ("air hunger") and has long been used to study panic vulnerability and respiratory control. High comorbidity with panic attacks suggests individuals with bipolar disorder may also mount a heightened anxiety response to CO(2). Moreover, problems in the arousal and modulation of appetites are central to the clinical syndromes of mania and depression; hence CO(2) may arouse an abnormal respiratory response to "air hunger". 72 individuals (34 bipolar I, 25 depressive and bipolar spectrum, 13 with no major affective diagnosis) breathed air and air with 5% CO(2) via facemask for up to 15 min each; subjective and respiratory responses were recorded. Nearly half the subjects diverged from the typical response to a fixed, mildly hypercapneic environment, which is to increase breathing acutely, and then maintain a hyperpneic plateau. The best predictors of an abnormal pattern were bipolar diagnosis and anxiety from air alone. 25 individuals had a panic response; panic responses from CO(2) were more likely in subjects with bipolar I compared to other subjects, however the best predictors of a panic response overall were anxiety from air alone and prior history of panic attacks. Heterogeneous sample, liberal definition of panic attack. Carbon dioxide produces abnormal respiratory and heightened anxiety responses among individuals with bipolar and depressive disorders. These may be due to deficits in emotional conditioning related to fear and appetite. Although preliminary, this work suggests a potentially useful test of a specific functional deficit in bipolar disorder.

  12. The CD8 T Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Schmidt, Megan E; Varga, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection. However, the mucosal antibody response to many respiratory viruses is not long-lasting and declines with age. CD8 T cells are critical for mediating clearance following many acute viral infections in the lung. In addition, memory CD8 T cells are capable of providing protection against secondary infections. Therefore, the combined induction of virus-specific CD8 T cells and antibodies may provide optimal protective immunity. Herein, we review the current literature on CD8 T cell responses induced by respiratory virus infections. Additionally, we explore how this knowledge could be utilized in the development of future vaccines against respiratory viruses, with a special emphasis on RSV vaccination.

  13. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  14. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Wang Cong-Yi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  15. Respiratory Changes in Response to Cognitive Load: A Systematic Review.

    Grassmann, Mariel; Vlemincx, Elke; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Mittelstädt, Justin M; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    When people focus attention or carry out a demanding task, their breathing changes. But which parameters of respiration vary exactly and can respiration reliably be used as an index of cognitive load? These questions are addressed in the present systematic review of empirical studies investigating respiratory behavior in response to cognitive load. Most reviewed studies were restricted to time and volume parameters while less established, yet meaningful parameters such as respiratory variability have rarely been investigated. The available results show that respiratory behavior generally reflects cognitive processing and that distinct parameters differ in sensitivity: While mentally demanding episodes are clearly marked by faster breathing and higher minute ventilation, respiratory amplitude appears to remain rather stable. The present findings further indicate that total variability in respiratory rate is not systematically affected by cognitive load whereas the correlated fraction decreases. In addition, we found that cognitive load may lead to overbreathing as indicated by decreased end-tidal CO2 but is also accompanied by elevated oxygen consumption and CO2 release. However, additional research is needed to validate the findings on respiratory variability and gas exchange measures. We conclude by outlining recommendations for future research to increase the current understanding of respiration under cognitive load.

  16. Cellular and mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of ...

    Summary: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the cellular and mucosal responses in the respiratory tract of Nigerian goats vaccinated intranasally with recombinant Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine. Twenty one goats were divided into five groups, five goats each in three vaccinated groups while three goats each ...

  17. Respiratory

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  18. Temperature responsive track membranes

    Omichi, H.; Yoshido, M.; Asano, M.; Tamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new track membrane was synthesized by introducing polymeric hydrogel to films. Such a monomer as amino acid group containing acryloyl or methacryloyl was either co-polymerized with diethylene glycol-bis-ally carbonate followed by on beam irradiation and chemical etching, or graft co-polymerized onto a particle track membrane of CR-39. The pore size was controlled in water by changing the water temperature. Some films other than CR-39 were also examined. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs

  19. Respiratory activity as a determinant of radiation survival response

    Bruce, A K; Berner, J D [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA). Dept. of Biology

    1976-09-01

    Respiration is depressed in irradiated bacteria reaching a minimum level in most strains at 1-3 h after exposure when incubated in growth medium. Since a delay in response is observed, direct action on respiratory enzymes is unlikely. The dosage response of respiration varies widely in the strains studied. All strains exhibit two-component dosage-response curves. The facts suggest that respiration is a major factor in influencing cell survival and may be the principal mechanism through which chemical agents modify radiation response.

  20. Acute renal response to rapid onset respiratory acidosis.

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Stewart, Randolph H; Cudd, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Renal strong ion compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis has been established, but the nature of the response to acute respiratory acidosis is not well defined. We hypothesized that the response to acute respiratory acidosis in sheep is a rapid increase in the difference in renal fractional excretions of chloride and sodium (Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na)). Inspired CO(2) concentrations were increased for 1 h to significantly alter P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) from 32 ± 1 mm Hg and 7.52 ± 0.02 to 74 ± 2 mm Hg and 7.22 ± 0.02, respectively. Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) increased significantly from 0.372 ± 0.206 to 1.240 ± 0.217% and returned to baseline at 2 h when P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) were 37 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 7.49 ± 0.01, respectively. Arterial pH and Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) were significantly correlated. We conclude that the kidney responds rapidly to acute respiratory acidosis, within 30 min of onset, by differential reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

  1. Impact of the Respiratory Microbiome on Host Responses to Respiratory Viral Infection

    Maxime Pichon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for most of both upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs. The microbiome—the ecological community of microorganisms sharing the body space, which has gained considerable interest over the last decade—is modified in health and disease states. Even if most of these disturbances have been previously described in relation to chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal microbiome, after a short reminder of microbiome characteristics and methods of characterization, this review will describe the impact of the microbiome (mainly respiratory on host responses to viral ARIs. The microbiome has a direct environmental impact on the host cells but also an indirect impact on the immune system, by enhancing innate or adaptive immune responses. In microbial infections, especially in viral infections, these dramatic modifications could lead to a dramatic impact responsible for severe clinical outcomes. Studies focusing on the microbiome associated with transcriptomic analyses of the host response and deep characterization of the pathogen would lead to a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and open avenues for biomarker development and innovative therapeutics.

  2. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for different broiler chicken strains

    Sheila Tavares Nascimento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate ideal bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for broiler chicken strains during the rearing period and to evaluate the influence of time of exposure on bird physiological variables under different thermal stress conditions. The research was conducted in a climatic chamber during the six weeks of the rearing period, with Avian and Cobb strains exposed to two climatic conditions (comfort and stress, in three distinct times of exposure, in three conditions (before going to the chamber; at the end of exposure time; 30 minutes after the end of exposure, in four treatments: comfort with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 30 minutes of exposure; stress with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 90 minutes of exposure. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature were elaborated for both strains, for each one of the weeks of the rearing period. Strains differed, regardless of treatments and conditions adopted in the research on the third, fifth and sixth weeks of life in relation to the cloacal temperature. The Cobb strain is more tolerant to thermal stress in comparison with the Avian. There was difference for both variables between comfort and stress, but time of exposure to stress did not influence the physiological response of birds, except for cloacal temperature on the second week of life.

  3. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    2017-08-01

    Unlimited Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Maintenance of long - term immunological memory against pathogens is crucial for the rapid...highly expressed in memory B cells in mice, and Atg7 is required for maintenance of long - term memory B cells needed to protect against influenza...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0361 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Farrah

  4. Renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders.

    Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory acid-base disorders are those abnormalities in acid-base equilibrium that are expressed as primary changes in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). An increase in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) acidifies body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory acidosis. By contrast, a decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) alkalinizes body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory alkalosis. The impact on systemic acidity of these primary changes in PaCO2 is ameliorated by secondary, directional changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that occur in 2 stages. Acutely, hypercapnia or hypocapnia yields relatively small changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that originate virtually exclusively from titration of the body's nonbicarbonate buffers. During sustained hypercapnia or hypocapnia, much larger changes in plasma [HCO3¯] occur that reflect adjustments in renal acidification mechanisms. Consequently, the deviation of systemic acidity from normal is smaller in the chronic forms of these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders. We also identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  5. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  6. Seasonal temperature variability and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: a population-based cohort study.

    Sun, Shengzhi; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wong, Chit Ming; Lee, Ruby Siu-Yin; Tian, Linwei

    2018-04-05

    Climate change increases global mean temperature and changes short-term (eg, diurnal) and long-term (eg, intraseasonal) temperature variability. Numerous studies have shown that mean temperature and short-term temperature variability are both associated with increased respiratory morbidity or mortality. However, data on the impact of long-term temperature variability are sparse. We aimed to assess the association of intraseasonal temperature variability with respiratory disease hospitalisations among elders. We ascertained the first occurrence of emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in a prospective Chinese elderly cohort of 66 820 older people (≥65 years) with 10-13 years of follow-up. We used an ordinary kriging method based on 22 weather monitoring stations in Hong Kong to spatially interpolate daily ambient temperature for each participant's residential address. Seasonal temperature variability was defined as the SD of daily mean summer (June-August) or winter (December-February) temperatures. We applied Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying exposure of seasonal temperature variability to respiratory admissions. During the follow-up time, we ascertained 12 689 cases of incident respiratory diseases, of which 6672 were pneumonia and 3075 were COPD. The HRs per 1°C increase in wintertime temperature variability were 1.20 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.32), 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31) and 1.41 (1.15 to 1.71) for total respiratory diseases, pneumonia and COPD, respectively. The associations were not statistically significant for summertime temperature variability. Wintertime temperature variability was associated with higher risk of incident respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Respiratory symptoms, sensitization, and exposure-response relationships in spray painters exposed to isocyanates

    Pronk, A.; Preller, L.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Jonkers, I.C.L.; Lammers, J.-W.; Wouters, I.M.; Doekes, G.; Wisnewski, A.V.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure-response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large

  9. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  10. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Relationship between daily mean temperature and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: a time-series analysis].

    Mo, Yun-zheng; Zheng, Ya-an; Tao, Hui; Xu, Mei-mei; Li, Guo-xing; Dong, Feng-ming; Liu, Jun-han; Pan, Xiao-chuan

    2012-06-18

    To quantitatively evaluate the influences of daily mean air temperature (DMT) on Emergency Department Visits (EDVs) for the respiratory diseases. The EDV data from medical records for respiratory diseases in Peking University Third Hospital between January 2004 and June 2009 were collected. The data of the air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and PM(10)) and meteorological factors at the same time periods were also collected from the local authorities of Beijing. Time-series analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) were used to explore the exposurrre-response relationship between DMT and EDVs for respiratory diseases. A total of 35 073 patients [males 14 707(41.93%,14 707/35 073), females 19 122(54.52%,19 122/35 073) and gender missing 1 244(3.55%, 1 244/35 073)] EDVs for respiratory diseases were included. The relationship between DMT and EDVs for the respiratory diseases was mainly of "V" shape, the optimum temperature(OT) was about 4 °C and the effect of DMT was significant with a 0-3 day lag structure for most of the models. When DMT≤OT, each 1°C decrease in DMT corresponded to 3.75% (95% CI of RR: 0.938 3-0.965 3), 3.10% (95% CI of RR:0.949 2-0.989 1), 4.09% (95% CI of RR:0.940 7-0.977 8) increase of EDVs for the overall, male, and female, respectively. When DMT>OT, the value caused by each increase in 1°C in DMT was 1.54% (95% CI of RR:1.006 6-1.024 3), 1.80% (95% CI of RR:1.005 3-1.030 9), and 1.51 (95% CI of RR:1.003 2- 1.027 2), respectively. The effect was statistically significant within the 0-3 day lag. When DMT≤OT, the effect was stronger for the older people, while the effect was strongest for the 45-59 years old people. The relationship between DMT and EDVs for respiratory diseases is mainly of "V" type, with an optimum temperature of 4 °C.Both DMT decrease when DMT≤OT and increase when DMT>OT correspond to different increase of EDVs for respiratory diseases. Low DMT has stronger effect than high DMT. Different age group and gender have

  12. Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, Hortensia; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Susana; Villena, Julio

    2013-08-15

    Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible

  13. Respiratory epithelial cell responses to cigarette smoke: the unfolded protein response.

    Kelsen, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Cigarette smoking exposes the respiratory epithelium to highly toxic, reactive oxygen nitrogen species which damage lung proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cell organelle in which all secreted and membrane proteins are processed. Accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins in the ER, a condition termed ER stress, activates a complex cellular process termed the unfolded protein responses (UPR). The UPR acts to restore cellular protein homeostasis by regulating all aspects of protein metabolism including: protein translation and syntheses; protein folding; and protein degradation. However, activation of the UPR may also induce signaling pathways which induce inflammation and cell apoptosis. This review discusses the role of UPR in the respiratory epithelial cell response to cigarette smoke and the pathogenesis of lung diseases like COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory Pathogens Adopt a Chronic Lifestyle in Response to Bile

    Reen, F. Jerry; Woods, David F.; Mooij, Marlies J.; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, most particularly in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The recent finding that gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in CF patients led us to investigate the impact of bile on the behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other CF-associated respiratory pathogens. Bile increased biofilm formation, Type Six Secretion, and quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa, all of which are associated with the switch from acute to persistent infection. Furthermore, bile negatively influenced Type Three Secretion and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa, phenotypes associated with acute infection. Bile also modulated biofilm formation in a range of other CF-associated respiratory pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, our results suggest that GER-derived bile may be a host determinant contributing to chronic respiratory infection. PMID:23049911

  15. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, Joanna C.; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Burton, Andrew J.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Emmett, Bridget; Frey, Serita D.; Heskel, Mary A.; Jiang, Lifen; Machmuller, Megan B.; Mohan, Jacqueline; Panetta, Anne Marie; Reich, Peter B.; Reinsch, Sabine; Wang, Xin; Allison, Steven D.; Bamminger, Chris; Bridgham, Scott; Collins, Scott L.; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Eddy, William C.; Enquist, Brian J.; Estiarte, Marc; Harte, John; Henderson, Amanda; Johnson, Bart R.; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Luo, Yiqi; Marhan, Sven; Melillo, Jerry M.; Penuelas, Josep; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Poll, Christian; Rastetter, Edward B.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Lorien L.; Schmidt, Inger K.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Suseela, Vidya; Tietema, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation of soil respiration to experimental warming in several major biome types, contrary to the results from multiple single-site studies. Moreover, across all nondesert biomes, respiration rates with and without experimental warming follow a Gaussian response, increasing with soil temperature up to a threshold of ∼25 °C, above which respiration rates decrease with further increases in temperature. This consistent decrease in temperature sensitivity at higher temperatures demonstrates that rising global temperatures may result in regionally variable responses in soil respiration, with colder climates being considerably more responsive to increased ambient temperatures compared with warmer regions. Our analysis adds a unique cross-biome perspective on the temperature response of soil respiration, information critical to improving our mechanistic understanding of how soil carbon dynamics change with climatic warming.

  16. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    Rabouw, Huib H; Langereis, Martijn A; Knaap, Robert C M; Dalebout, Tim J; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I

  17. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  18. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    Donna Green

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1 overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2 extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3 no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  19. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, Joanna C; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific...... attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies......, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation...

  20. Elevated temperature triggers human respiratory syncytial virus F protein six-helix bundle formation

    Yunus, Abdul S.; Jackson, Trent P.; Crisafi, Katherine; Burimski, Irina; Kilgore, Nicole R.; Zoumplis, Dorian; Allaway, Graham P.; Wild, Carl T.; Salzwedel, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane during virus entry and is a primary target for antiviral drug and vaccine development. The F protein contains two heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Peptides corresponding to these regions form a six-helix bundle structure that is thought to play a critical role in membrane fusion. However, characterization of six-helix bundle formation in native RSV F protein has been hindered by the fact that a trigger for F protein conformational change has yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that RSV F protein on the surface of infected cells undergoes a conformational change following exposure to elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of the six-helix bundle structure. We first generated and characterized six-helix bundle-specific antibodies raised against recombinant peptides modeling the RSV F protein six-helix bundle structure. We then used these antibodies as probes to monitor RSV F protein six-helix bundle formation in response to a diverse array of potential triggers of conformational changes. We found that exposure of 'membrane-anchored' RSV F protein to elevated temperature (45-55 deg. C) was sufficient to trigger six-helix bundle formation. Antibody binding to the six-helix bundle conformation was detected by both flow cytometry and cell-surface immunoprecipitation of the RSV F protein. None of the other treatments, including interaction with a number of potential receptors, resulted in significant binding by six-helix bundle-specific antibodies. We conclude that native, untriggered RSV F protein exists in a metastable state that can be converted in vitro to the more stable, fusogenic six-helix bundle conformation by an increase in thermal energy. These findings help to better define the mechanism of

  1. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in competitive swimmers.

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Stensrud, Trine; Carlsen, Kai-Haakon

    2011-03-01

    A high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and respiratory symptoms has been reported among competitive swimmers. From the 2002 Winter Olympics, BHR measurements or bronchodilator reversibility have been required for approved use of β2-agonists in sports. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among respiratory symptoms in young elite swimmers, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), and the inhaled dose of methacholine, causing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; PD(20 methacholine)). The second aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the EVH test. For this study, 15 male and 9 female adolescent elite swimmers, aged 15 to 25 yr, performed one PD(20 methacholine) test and two EVH tests in a randomized order. Dry air containing 5% CO2 was inhaled for 6 min with a target ventilation of ≥85% of maximum voluntary ventilation (minimum = 65%). PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol and EVH with FEV1 reduction ≥10% were considered positive. Respiratory symptoms and medication were reported in the modified AQUA2008 questionnaire. Twenty swimmers (83%) reported respiratory symptoms, 13 (65%) of them had a positive provocation test. Fourteen (58%) had at least one positive test to either EVH or PD(20 methacholine); three had only one positive EVH test. One athlete had BHR without symptoms. The sensitivity of PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol for respiratory symptoms was 50% versus 60% and 47.37% for the two EVH tests, respectively, and 75% for PD(20 methacholine) ≤4 μmol. The Bland-Altman plot of the two EVH tests showed a consistent distribution, with only one subject outside the limits of agreement. BHR was frequently found among adolescent competitive swimmers. PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol and EVH ≥ 10% compared well, but PD(20 methacholine) ≤4 μmol had the highest sensitivity for respiratory symptoms. The EVH test has high repeatability but is very expensive and uncomfortable to perform.

  2. Associations between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China: a time-series analysis.

    Liu, Liqun; Breitner, Susanne; Pan, Xiaochuan; Franck, Ulrich; Leitte, Arne Marian; Wiedensohler, Alfred; von Klot, Stephanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2011-05-25

    Associations between air temperature and mortality have been consistently observed in Europe and the United States; however, there is a lack of studies for Asian countries. Our study investigated the association between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China. Death counts for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for adult residents (≥15 years), meteorological parameters and concentrations of particulate air pollution were obtained from January 2003 to August 2005. The effects of two-day and 15-day average temperatures were estimated by Poisson regression models, controlling for time trend, relative humidity and other confounders if necessary. Effects were explored for warm (April to September) and cold periods (October to March) separately. The lagged effects of daily temperature were investigated by polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models. We observed a J-shaped exposure-response function only for 15-day average temperature and respiratory mortality in the warm period, with 21.3°C as the threshold temperature. All other exposure-response functions could be considered as linear. In the warm period, a 5°C increase of two-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.098 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.057-1.140) for cardiovascular and 1.134 (95%CI: 1.050-1.224) for respiratory mortality; a 5°C decrease of 15-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.040 (95%CI: 0.990-1.093) for cardiovascular mortality. In the cold period, a 5°C increase of two-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.149 (95%CI: 1.078-1.224) for respiratory mortality; a 5°C decrease of 15-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.057 (95%CI: 1.022-1.094) for cardiovascular mortality. The effects remained robust after considering particles as additional confounders. Both increases and decreases in air temperature are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The effects of

  3. Associations between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China: a time-series analysis

    Wiedensohler Alfred

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between air temperature and mortality have been consistently observed in Europe and the United States; however, there is a lack of studies for Asian countries. Our study investigated the association between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China. Methods Death counts for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for adult residents (≥15 years, meteorological parameters and concentrations of particulate air pollution were obtained from January 2003 to August 2005. The effects of two-day and 15-day average temperatures were estimated by Poisson regression models, controlling for time trend, relative humidity and other confounders if necessary. Effects were explored for warm (April to September and cold periods (October to March separately. The lagged effects of daily temperature were investigated by polynomial distributed lag (PDL models. Results We observed a J-shaped exposure-response function only for 15-day average temperature and respiratory mortality in the warm period, with 21.3°C as the threshold temperature. All other exposure-response functions could be considered as linear. In the warm period, a 5°C increase of two-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.098 (95% confidence interval (95%CI: 1.057-1.140 for cardiovascular and 1.134 (95%CI: 1.050-1.224 for respiratory mortality; a 5°C decrease of 15-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.040 (95%CI: 0.990-1.093 for cardiovascular mortality. In the cold period, a 5°C increase of two-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.149 (95%CI: 1.078-1.224 for respiratory mortality; a 5°C decrease of 15-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.057 (95%CI: 1.022-1.094 for cardiovascular mortality. The effects remained robust after considering particles as additional confounders. Conclusions Both increases and decreases in air temperature are associated with an

  4. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes.

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Makowska, Joanna S; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2014-04-15

    Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are

  5. INTERACTION BETWEEN DELTA OPIOID RECEPTORS AND BENZODIAZEPINES IN CO2- INDUCED RESPIRATORY RESPONSES IN MICE

    Borkowski, Anne H.; Barnes, Dylan C.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Klein, Donald F.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The false-suffocation hypothesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993) suggested δ-opioid receptors as a possible source of the respiratory dysfunction manifested in panic attacks occurring in panic disorder (Preter and Klein, 2008). This study sought to determine if a lack of δ-opioid receptors in a mouse model affects respiratory response to elevated CO2, and whether the response is modulated by benzodiazepines, which are widely used to treat panic disorder. In a whole-body plethysmograph, respiratory responses to 5% CO2 were compared between δ-opioid receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice after saline, diazepam (1 mg/kg), and alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg) injection. The results show that lack of δ-opioid receptors does not affect normal response to elevated CO2, but does prevent benzodiazepines from modulating that response. Thus, in the presence of benzodiazepine agonists, respiratory responses to elevated CO2 were enhanced in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. This suggests an interplay between benzodiazepine receptors and δ-opioid receptors in regulating the respiratory effects of elevated CO2, which might be related to CO2 induced panic. PMID:21561601

  6. Body temperature and motion: Evaluation of an online monitoring system in pigs challenged with Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Süli, Tamás; Halas, Máté; Benyeda, Zsófia; Boda, Réka; Belák, Sándor; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Highly contagious and emerging diseases cause significant losses in the pig producing industry worldwide. Rapid and exact acquisition of real-time data, like body temperature and animal movement from the production facilities would enable early disease detection and facilitate adequate response. In this study, carried out within the European Union research project RAPIDIA FIELD, we tested an online monitoring system on pigs experimentally infected with the East European subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) strain Lena. We linked data from different body temperature measurement methods and the real-time movement of the pigs. The results showed a negative correlation between body temperature and movement of the animals. The correlation was similar with both body temperature obtaining methods, rectal and thermal sensing microchip, suggesting some advantages of body temperature measurement with transponders compared with invasive and laborious rectal measuring. We also found a significant difference between motion values before and after the challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain. The decrease in motion values was noticeable before any clinical sign was recorded. Based on our results the online monitoring system could represent a practical tool in registering early warning signs of health status alterations, both in experimental and commercial production settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral temperature and cardiovascular responses of apparently ...

    Oral temperature and cardiovascular responses of apparently healthy subjects to passive and active warm-up. BOA Adegoke, OO Ogwumike, FA Maruf. Abstract. This study investigated and compared the effects of active and passive warm-up on oral temperature and cardiovascular parameters of forty (20 males and 20 ...

  8. Variation among sows in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    Rashidi, H.; Mulder, H.A.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease with negative impacts on reproduction of sows. Genetic selection to improve the response of sows to PRRS could be an approach to control the disease. Determining sow response to PRRS requires knowing pathogen burden and sow

  9. Dose-response relationships and threshold levels in skin and respiratory allergy

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mommers, C.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. With respect to the skin, dose-response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induction, as well

  10. Dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence in cement mill workers.

    Meo, Sultan A; Azeem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Aijaz A; Ghori, G Moinudin; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Feisal Subhan, Mirza Muhammad

    2006-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of respiratory muscles is a reliable method of assessing the ventilatory muscle function, but still its use has not been fully utilized to determine the occupational and environmental hazards on respiratory muscles. Therefore, EMG of intercostal muscles was performed to determine the dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence. Matched cross-sectional study of EMG in 50 non-smoking cement mill workers with an age range of 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of cement dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. EMG was performed by using surface electrodes and chart recorder. Significant reduction was observed in number of peaks (p competence and stratification of results shows a dose-effect of years of exposure in cement mill.

  11. [Temperature that modifies the effect of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases in Beijing, China].

    Wang, L L; Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze the temperature modification effect on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution, in Beijing. Methods: Data on both circulatory and respiratory diseases in 2010 and 2011 were collected, Both meteorological and air pollutants related data were obtained from the National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health. By using the stratified time-series models, we analyzed the effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases under different temperature zones, from 2010 to 2011, in Beijing. Results: Low temperature (daily average temperatureeffect of air pollution index (API) on emergency room visits for circulatory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval appeared as 1.067 (1.054-1.080). However, high (daily average temperature between 24.4 ℃ and 28.5 ℃) and extra-high temperature (daily average temperature >28.5 ℃) could enhance the effect of API on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval were 1.021 (1.015-1.028) and 1.006 (1.003-1.008), respectively. Conclusion: Temperature seemed to have modified the association between air pollution and both circulatory and respiratory diseases.

  12. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  13. The interaction effects of temperature and humidity on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Beijing, China.

    Su, Qin; Liu, Hongsheng; Yuan, Xiaoling; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Xian; Sun, Rongju; Dang, Wei; Zhang, Jianbo; Qin, Yuhong; Men, Baozhong; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Few epidemiological studies have been reported as to whether there was any interactive effect between temperature and humidity on respiratory morbidity, especially in Asian countries. The present study used time-series analysis to explore the modification effects of humidity on the association between temperature and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory, upper respiratory tract infection (URI), pneumonia, and bronchitis in Beijing between 2009 and 2011. Results showed that an obvious joint effect of temperature and humidity was revealed on ER visits for respiratory, URI, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Below temperature threshold, the temperature effect was stronger in low humidity level and presented a trend fall with humidity level increase. The effect estimates per 1 °C increase in temperature in low humidity level were -2.88 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) -3.08, -2.67) for all respiratory, -3.24 % (-3.59, -2.88) for URI, -1.48 % (-1.93, -1.03) for pneumonia, and -3.79 % (-4.37, -3.21) for bronchitis ER visits, respectively. However, above temperature threshold, temperature effect was greater in high humidity level and trending upward with humidity level increasing. In high humidity level, a 1 °C increase in temperature, the effect estimates were 1.84 % (1.55, 2.13) for all respiratory, 1.76 % (1.41, 2.11) for URI, and 7.48 % (4.41, 10.65) for bronchitis ER visits. But, there was no statistically significant for pneumonia. This suggests that the modifying effects of the humidity should be considered when analyzing health impacts of temperature.

  14. Temperature Dependence of Apparent Respiratory Quotients and Oxygen Penetration Depth in Contrasting Lake Sediments

    Sobek, Sebastian; Gudasz, Cristian; Koehler, Birgit; Tranvik, Lars J.; Bastviken, David; Morales-Pineda, María.

    2017-11-01

    Lake sediments constitute an important compartment in the carbon cycle of lakes, by burying carbon over geological timescales and by production and emission of greenhouse gases. The degradation of organic carbon (OC) in lake sediments is linked to both temperature and oxygen (O2), but the interactive nature of this regulation has not been studied in lake sediments in a quantitative way. We present the first systematic investigation of the effects of temperature on the apparent respiratory quotient (RQ, i.e., the molar ratio between carbon dioxide (CO2) production and O2 consumption) in two contrasting lake sediments. Laboratory incubations of sediment cores of a humic lake and an eutrophic lake across a 1-21°C temperature gradient over 157 days revealed that both CO2 production and O2 consumption were positively, exponentially, and similarly dependent on temperature. The apparent RQ differed significantly between the lake sediments (0.63 ± 0.26 and 0.99 ± 0.28 in the humic and the eutrophic lake, respectively; mean ± SD) and was significantly and positively related to temperature. The O2 penetration depth into the sediment varied by a factor of 2 over the 1-21°C temperature range and was significantly, negatively, and similarly related to temperature in both lake sediments. Accordingly, increasing temperature may influence the overall extent of OC degradation in lake sediments by limiting O2 supply to aerobic microbial respiration to the topmost sediment layer, resulting in a concomitant shift to less effective anaerobic degradation pathways. This suggests that temperature may represent a key controlling factor of the OC burial efficiency in lake sediments.

  15. Respiratory Responses to Stimulation of Branchial Vagus Nerve Ganglia of a Teleost Fish

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation of epibranchial vagus ganglia upon respiration of the carp were investigated. Single shocks evoked fast twitch responses in a number of respiratory muscles with latencies around 18 msec to the beginning and 30-35 msec to the peak of activity. Shocks given during

  16. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  17. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  18. The influence of diurnal temperature range on the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus in Japan.

    Onozuka, D

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been reported to exhibit seasonal variation. However, the impact of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on RSV has not been investigated. After acquiring data related to cases of RSV and weather parameters of DTR in Fukuoka, Japan, between 2006 and 2012, we used negative binomial generalized linear models and distributed lag nonlinear models to assess the possible relationship between DTR and RSV cases, adjusting for confounding factors. Our analysis revealed that the weekly number of RSV cases increased with a relative risk of 3·30 (95% confidence interval 1·65-6·60) for every 1°C increase in DTR. Our study provides quantitative evidence that the number of RSV cases increased significantly with increasing DTR. We suggest that preventive measures for limiting the spread of RSV should be considered during extended periods of high DTR.

  19. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    Sana, Furrukh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation of the ultra-wideband channel impulse response. We suggest techniques for dealing with background clutter in situations when it might be time variant. We also present a novel methodology for reducing the required sampling rate of the system significantly while achieving the accuracy offered by the Nyquist rate. Performance results from simulations conducted with pre-recorded respiratory signals demonstrate the robustness of our scheme for tackling the above challenges and providing a low-complexity solution for the monitoring of respiratory movements.

  20. Fluoxetine treatment abolishes the in vitro respiratory response to acidosis in neonatal mice.

    Voituron, Nicolas; Shvarev, Yuri; Menuet, Clément; Bevengut, Michelle; Fasano, Caroline; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Hilaire, Gérard

    2010-10-26

    To secure pH homeostasis, the central respiratory network must permanently adapt its rhythmic motor drive to environment and behaviour. In neonates, it is commonly admitted that the retrotrapezoid/parafacial respiratory group of neurons of the ventral medulla plays the primary role in the respiratory response to acidosis, although the serotonergic system may also contribute to this response. Using en bloc medullary preparations from neonatal mice, we have shown for the first time that the respiratory response to acidosis is abolished after pre-treatment with the serotonin-transporter blocker fluoxetine (25-50 µM, 20 min), a commonly used antidepressant. Using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology, we have also shown the expression of the serotonin transporter mRNA and serotonin-containing neurons in the vicinity of the RTN/pFRG of neonatal mice. These results reveal that the serotonergic system plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis. Although obtained in vitro in neonatal mice, they suggest that drugs targeting the serotonergic system should be used with caution in infants, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers.

  1. Respiratory behavior of turning stage mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under closed system at different temperature

    Ranjeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiration rate and respiratory quotient of mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. ‘Himsona’ fruits harvested at the turning stage were determined under closed system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 °C (ambient temperatures. The rate of respiration was higher at the start of the experiment and gradually declined as the storage period prolonged, before becoming almost constant. The steady-state respiration rate for CO2 evolution were observed to be 14.35, 15.04,19.95, 21.7 and 20.3 ml/kg-h at 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. The RQ values for tomato varied from 0.55 to 1.10 with time under the experimental conditions. The respiration rate at steady state based on carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption in closed condition decreased by about 46 % and 73 %, respectively relative to initial respiration rate values at normal air atmosphere. The results suggest that the respiration rate of tomato increased with temperature and decrease with storage time.

  2. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  3. RSV-induced bronchiolitis but not upper respiratory tract infection is accompanied by an increased nasal IL-18 response

    van Benten, Inesz J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Koopman, Laurens P.; Kleinjan, Alex; van Middelkoop, Barbara C.; de Waal, Leon; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Neijens, Herman J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in the local nasal immune response between bronchiolitis and upper respiratory tract infection induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nasal brush samples were obtained from 14 infants with RSV bronchiolitis and from 8 infants with

  4. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  5. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection

  6. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, J.C.; Tang, J.; Templer, P.H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crowther, T.W.; Burton, A.J.; Dukes, J.S.; Emmett, B.; Frey, S.D.; Heskel, M.A.; Jiang, L.; Machmuller, M.B.; Mohan, J.; Panetta, A.M.; Reich, P.B.; Reinsch, S.; Wang, X.; Allison, S.D.; Bamminger, C.; Bridgham, S.; Collins, S.L.; de Dato, G.; Eddy, W.C.; Enquist, B.J.; Estiarte, M.; Harte, J.; Henderson, A.; Johnson, B.R.; Larsen, K.S.; Luo, Y.; Marhan, S.; Melillo, J.M.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Rastetter, E.; Reinmann, A.B.; Reynolds, L.L.; Schmidt, I.K.; Shaver, G.R.; Strong, A.L.; Suseela, V.; Tietema, A.

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific

  7. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  8. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  9. Reassessment of the cardio-respiratory stress response, using the king penguin as a model.

    Willener, Astrid S T; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán; Enstipp, Manfred R; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Research in to short-term cardio-respiratory changes in animals in reaction to a psychological stressor typically describes increases in rate of oxygen consumption (V̇(O2)) and heart rate. Consequently, the broad consensus is that they represent a fundamental stressor response generalizable across adult species. However, movement levels can also change in the presence of a stressor, yet studies have not accounted for this possible confound on heart rate. Thus the direct effects of psychological stressors on the cardio-respiratory system are not resolved. We used an innovative experimental design employing accelerometers attached to king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to measure and thus account for movement levels in a sedentary yet free-to-move animal model during a repeated measures stress experiment. As with previous studies on other species, incubating king penguins (N = 6) exhibited significant increases in both V̇(O2) and heart rate when exposed to the stressor. However, movement levels, while still low, also increased in response to the stressor. Once this was accounted for by comparing periods of time during the control and stress conditions when movement levels were similar as recorded by the accelerometers, only V̇(O2) significantly increased; there was no change in heart rate. These findings offer evidence that changing movement levels have an important effect on the measured stress response and that the cardio-respiratory response per se to a psychological stressor (i.e. the response as a result of physiological changes directly attributable to the stressor) is an increase in V̇(O2) without an increase in heart rate.

  10. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed...... to characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  11. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  12. Non-response in a cross-sectional study of respiratory health in Norway

    Abrahamsen, Regine; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Henneberger, Paul K; Gundersen, G?lin Finckenhagen; Tor?n, Kjell; Kongerud, Johny; Fell, Anne Kristin M?ller

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Declining participation in epidemiological studies has been reported in recent decades and may lead to biased prevalence estimates and selection bias. The aim of the study was to identify possible causes and effects of non-response in a population-based study of respiratory health in Norway. Design The Telemark study is a longitudinal study that began with a cross-sectional survey in 2013. Setting In 2013, a random sample of 50?000 inhabitants aged 16?50?years, living in Telemark c...

  13. The effects of non-invasive respiratory support on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity: a neonatal manikin study.

    Roberts, Calum T; Kortekaas, Rebecca; Dawson, Jennifer A; Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Davis, Peter G

    2016-05-01

    Heating and humidification of inspired gases is routine during neonatal non-invasive respiratory support. However, little is known about the temperature and humidity delivered to the upper airway. The International Standards Organization (ISO) specifies that for all patients with an artificial airway humidifiers should deliver ≥33 g/m(3) absolute humidity (AH). We assessed the oropharyngeal temperature and humidity during different non-invasive support modes in a neonatal manikin study. Six different modes of non-invasive respiratory support were applied at clinically relevant settings to a neonatal manikin, placed in a warmed and humidified neonatal incubator. Oropharyngeal temperature and relative humidity (RH) were assessed using a thermohygrometer. AH was subsequently calculated. Measured temperature and RH varied between devices. Bubble and ventilator continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) produced temperatures >34°C and AH >38 g/m(3). Variable flow CPAP resulted in lower levels of AH than bubble or ventilator CPAP, and AH decreased with higher gas flow. High-flow (HF) therapy delivered by Optiflow Junior produced higher AH with higher gas flow, whereas with Vapotherm HF the converse was true. Different non-invasive devices deliver inspiratory gases of variable temperature and humidity. Most AH levels were above the ISO recommendation; however, with some HF and variable flow CPAP devices at higher gas flow this was not achieved. Clinicians should be aware of differences in the efficacy of heating and humidification when choosing modes of non-invasive respiratory support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. [Lower lymphocyte response in severe cases of acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus].

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Antúnez-Fernández, Cristina; Milano-Manso, Guillermo; Cordón-Martínez, Ana María; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-08-14

    Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015. Those with a full blood count in the first 48hours of respiratory distress were included. Infants with underlying disease, bacterial superinfection, and premature infants <32 weeks of gestation were excluded. The main dichotomous variable was PICU admission. Other variables were: gender, age, post-menstrual age, gestational and post-natal tobacco exposure, admission month, type of lactation, and days of onset of respiratory distress. Lymphocyte counts were categorised by quartiles. Bivariate analysis was performed with the main variable and then by logistic regression to analyse confounding factors. The study included 252 infants, of whom 6.6% (17) required PICU admission. The difference in mean±SD of lymphocytes for patients admitted to and not admitted to PICU was 4,044±1755 and 5,035±1786, respectively (Student-t test, P<.05). An association was found between PICU admission and lymphocyte count <3700/ml (Chi-squared, P=.019; OR: 3.2) and it was found to be maintained in the logistic regression, regardless of age and all other studied factors (Wald 4.191 P=.041, OR: 3.8). A relationship was found between lymphocytosis <3700/ml in the first days of respiratory distress and a worse outcome in previously healthy infants <12 months and gestational age greater than 32 weeks with RSV-AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Respiratory responses of the air-breathing fish Hoplosternum littorale to hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide.

    Affonso, E G; Rantin, F T

    2005-07-01

    The present study analyzes the respiratory responses of the neotropical air-breathing fish Hoplosternum littorale to graded hypoxia and increased sulfide concentrations. The oxygen uptake (VO2), critical O2 tension (PcO2), respiratory (fR) and air-breathing (fRA) frequencies in response to graded hypoxia were determined for fish acclimated to 28 degrees C. H. littorale was able to maintain a constant VO2 down to a PcO2 of 50 mm Hg, below which fish became dependent on the environmental O2 even with significant increases in fR. The fRA was kept constant around 1 breath h(-1) above 50 mm Hg and increased significantly below 40 mm Hg, reaching maximum values (about 4.5 breaths h(-1)) at 10 mm Hg. The lethality to sulfide concentrations under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were also determined along with the fRA. For the normoxic fish the sulfide lethal limit was about 70 microM, while in the hypoxic ones this limit increased to 87 muM. The high sulfide tolerance of H. littorale may be attributed to the air-breathing capability, which is stimulated by this compound.

  16. Factors affecting responses of infants with respiratory distress syndrome to exogenous surfactant therapy.

    Ho, N K

    1993-02-01

    Approximately 20% to 30% of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) do not respond to surfactant replacement therapy. Unfortunately there is no uniform definition of 'response' or 'non-response' to surfactant therapy. Response was based on improvement in a/A PO2 and/or mean airway pressure (MAP) by some and on improvement in FIO2 and/or MAP by others. Even the point of time at which evaluation of response was done is different in various reports. There is an urgent need to adopt an uniform definition. Most premature babies are surfactant deficient which is the aetiological factor of RDS. Generally good antenatal care and perinatal management are essential in avoidance of premature birth. Babies with lung hypoplasia and who are extremely premature (less than 24 weeks of gestation) do not respond well to exogenous surfactant replacement because of structural immaturity. Prompt management of asphyxiated birth and shock are necessary as there may be negative response to surfactant replacement. Foetal exposure to glucocorticoids improves responsiveness to postnatal administration of surfactant. Antenatal steroid therapy has become an important part of management of RDS with surfactant replacement. The premature lungs with high alveolar permeability tend to develop pulmonary oedema. With the presence of plasma-derived surfactant inhibitors, the response to exogenous surfactant may be affected. These inhibitors may also be released following ventilator barotrauma. The standard of neonatal intensive care such as ventilatory techniques has an important bearing on the outcome of the RDS babies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FEVER AS KEY SYMPTOM OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND MODERN METHODS OF THERAPY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE IN CHILDREN

    O.A. Solntseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is the key symptom of acute respiratory infections (ARI. An increase in the body temperature is accompanied with phagocytosis activation, increased interferon synthesis, antibody genesis stimulation, lymphocytes activation and differentiation. Nevertheless, significant hyperthermia may result in my unfavourable consequences. It may particularly cause an exacerbation of chronic diseases. Modern therapy for hyperthermia is, therefore, an important aspect of treating children with ARI. The article outlines the modern approach to treating fever in children, identifies key criteria for selecting a medication. It also contains a case study of applying ibuprofen and data from various trials which verify the rationale for applying ibuprofen in children with hyperthermia that developed in conjunction with ARI.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, hyperthermia, ibuprofen.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:80-84

  19. Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters.

    Gottlieb-Vedi, M; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A

    1996-12-01

    Five Standardbred trotters performed treadmill exercise with incrementally increasing trotting velocities for 2 min intervals in three different tests until fatigue. Each test was performed with draught loads of either 10, 20 or 30 kilopond (kp). Each trotting interval was followed by 2 min periods at a walk without draught load. Recordings were made of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), plasma lactate (PLA) and stride frequency (SF) at the end of each trotting interval. The HR increased to average values of 191 +/- 10,203 +/- 10 and 214 +/- 7 bpm and PLA increased to 3.8 +/- 0.7, 7.3 +/- 3.8 and 10.8 +/- 6.4 mmol/l at 9 m/s in the three tests, respectively. The HR response to exercise was significantly higher with increasing draught loads, and PLA was significantly higher with 30 kp compared to 10 kp draught resistance. The lowest respiratory rate was seen in the test with 30 kp loading. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured in a separate test on a sloped treadmill with increasing velocities without draught load and averaged 70.4 +/- 9.11/min. Muscle biopsies were taken from the gluteus muscle. Individual variations were seen in VO2peak, muscle fibre composition and HR and PLA responses to exercise. In conclusion, at a certain velocity a small increase in draught resistance from 10 to 30 kp significantly increases both the HR and PLA responses. At comparable work intensities the horses differed in circulatory and metabolic responses to exercise.

  20. Associations between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China: a time-series analysis

    Liu, Liqun; Breitner, Susanne; Pan, Xiaochuan; Franck, Ulrich; Leitte, Arne Marian; Wiedensohler, Alfred; von Klot, Stephanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Associations between air temperature and mortality have been consistently observed in Europe and the United States; however, there is a lack of studies for Asian countries. Our study investigated the association between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China. Methods Death counts for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for adult residents (≥15 years), meteorological parameters and concentrations of particulate air pollution...

  1. Effect of daily temperature range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM_1_0 exposures

    Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. - Highlights: • Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections. • Low education level and poor living conditions are strong modifiers of this relationship. • In Cordoba city higher risk for respiratory infections were observed during summertime. - Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections, particularly for populations with low educational level or poor living conditions.

  2. Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium.

    Idir Akhouayri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier epithelia that are persistently exposed to microbes have evolved potent immune tools to eliminate such pathogens. If mechanisms that control Drosophila systemic responses are well-characterized, the epithelial immune responses remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a genetic dissection of the cascades activated during the immune response of the Drosophila airway epithelium i.e. trachea. We present evidence that bacteria induced-antimicrobial peptide (AMP production in the trachea is controlled by two signalling cascades. AMP gene transcription is activated by the inducible IMD pathway that acts non-cell autonomously in trachea. This IMD-dependent AMP activation is antagonized by a constitutively active signalling module involving the receptor Toll-8/Tollo, the ligand Spätzle2/DNT1 and Ect-4, the Drosophila ortholog of the human Sterile alpha and HEAT/ARMadillo motif (SARM. Our data show that, in addition to Toll-1 whose function is essential during the systemic immune response, Drosophila relies on another Toll family member to control the immune response in the respiratory epithelium.

  3. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY IN APPLICATION OF TOPICAL IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE MODIFIER FOR PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    I.N. Lytkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of bacterial lysate for prevention of acute respiratory infections. The article provides results of monitoring children in the orphanage who were administered the medication of this group as a prophylactic drug against acute respiratory infections. Children also from orphanages who were not administered the medication were selected as a control group. It was found that out of 80 children who underwent preventive treatment, only 26 children fell ill, while out of 80 children in the control group so did 78 orphans. The results achieved allowed the topical immunologic response modifier to be recommended as a general preventive medication for wide use in children in the period of seasonal respiratory infection incidence rate pickup.Key words: influenza, acute respiratory infections, preventive treatment, children.

  5. Evaluation of riser 14 temperature response

    OGDEN, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The initial sluicing activities of Project WRSS resulted in a two month increase in temperatures as measured by the Riser 14 thermocouple tree of tank 241-C-106. While this increase was anticipated, the maximum temperature was higher than expected. An evaluation was performed to determine if adequate subcooling exists in the waste to continue sluicing activities. It was determined that a minimum of 10 F subcooling exists in the waste and that the higher Riser 14 temperatures were the result of higher than assumed waste saturation temperature

  6. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  7. The viral transcription group determines the HLA class I cellular immune response against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A; David, Chella S; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The Viral Transcription Group Determines the HLA Class I Cellular Immune Response Against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus*

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A.; David, Chella S.; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. PMID:25635267

  9. Expression profile of immune response genes in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Tai Dessmon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS emerged in later February 2003, as a new epidemic form of life-threatening infection caused by a novel coronavirus. However, the immune-pathogenesis of SARS is poorly understood. To understand the host response to this pathogen, we investigated the gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from SARS patients, and compared with healthy controls. Results The number of differentially expressed genes was found to be 186 under stringent filtering criteria of microarray data analysis. Several genes were highly up-regulated in patients with SARS, such as, the genes coding for Lactoferrin, S100A9 and Lipocalin 2. The real-time PCR method verified the results of the gene array analysis and showed that those genes that were up-regulated as determined by microarray analysis were also found to be comparatively up-regulated by real-time PCR analysis. Conclusions This differential gene expression profiling of PBMCs from patients with SARS strongly suggests that the response of SARS affected patients seems to be mainly an innate inflammatory response, rather than a specific immune response against a viral infection, as we observed a complete lack of cytokine genes usually triggered during a viral infection. Our study shows for the first time how the immune system responds to the SARS infection, and opens new possibilities for designing new diagnostics and treatments for this new life-threatening disease.

  10. Lipoxin A4, a 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolite, modulates immune response during acute respiratory tularemia.

    Singh, Anju; Rahman, Tabassum; Bartiss, Rose; Arabshahi, Alireza; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Musteata, Florin Marcel; Sellati, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection. The addition of exogenous LXA 4 inhibits PGE 2 release by Ft-infected murine monocytes in vitro and diminishes apoptotic cell death. Tularemia pathogenesis was characterized in 5‑lipoxygenase-deficient (Alox5 -/- ) mice that are incapable of generating LXA 4 Increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased apoptosis, was observed in Alox5 -/- mice as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Alox5 -/- mice also exhibited elevated recruitment of neutrophils during the early phase of infection and increased resistance to lethal challenge. Conversely, administration of exogenous LXA 4 to Alox5 -/- mice made them more susceptible to infection thus mimicking wild-type animals. Taken together, our results suggest that 5-LO activity is a critical regulator of immunopathology observed during the acute phase of respiratory tularemia, regulating bacterial burden and neutrophil recruitment and production of proinflammatory modulators and increasing morbidity and mortality. These studies identify a detrimental role for the 5-LO-derived lipid mediator LXA 4 in Ft-induced immunopathology. Targeting this pathway may have therapeutic benefit as an adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and conventional antimicrobial peptides, which often have limited efficacy against intracellular bacteria. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. The acute thermal respiratory response is unique among species in a guild of larval anuran amphibians-Implications for energy economy in a warmer future.

    Rowe, Christopher L; Crandall, Erin A

    2018-03-15

    Climate change is bringing about increased temperatures of amphibian habitats throughout the world, where ectothermic larvae will experience elevated respiratory (metabolic) energy demands. We compared the acute, thermal respiratory response ("TRR") of four species of sympatric larval amphibians (Lithobates sphenocephalus, L. catesbeianus, Scaphiopus holbrookii, and Hyla chrysoscelis) to determine species-specific differences in the rate at which metabolic energy requirements increase with temperature. The TRR, the slope of the relationship between respiration rate and temperature within critical thermal limits, varied significantly among species such that the absolute, per capita change in metabolic energy requirement as temperature increased was greater for L. sphenocephalus and L. catesbeianus than for H. chrysoscelis and S. holbrookii. This was also reflected in the temperature coefficients (Q 10,18.5-25.5 ), which ranged from 1.77 (S. holbrookii) to 2.70 (L. sphenocephalus) for per capita respiration rates. Our results suggest that L. sphenocephalus and L. catesbeianus will experience a more rapid increase in energetic requirements as temperature increases relative to the other species, possibly magnifying their influences on the resource pool. There is a critical paucity of information on the metabolic responses of most larval amphibians across a range of temperatures, despite that this relationship dictates the magnitude of the priority investment of assimilated energy in respiration, thus shaping the energetic economy of the individual. A broader knowledge of species-specific TRRs, combined with research to determine thermal acclimatory or adaptive potentials over chronic time scales, will provide a framework for evaluating whether asymmetric, climate-mediated differences in energetic demands among species could ultimately influence larval amphibian ecology in a warmer future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of concrete response at high temperature

    Pfeiffer, P.; Marchertas, A.

    1984-01-01

    A rate-type creep law is implemented into the computer code TEMP-STRESS for high temperature concrete analysis. The disposition of temperature, pore pressure and moisture for the particular structure in question is provided as input for the thermo-mechanical code. The loss of moisture from concrete also induces material shrinkage which is accounted for in the analytical model. Examples are given to illustrate the numerical results

  13. Study Progress of Physiological Responses in High Temperature Environment

    Li, K.; Zheng, G. Z.; Bu, W. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lu, Y. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Certain workers are exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Heat stress will result in a series of physiological responses, and cause adverse effects on the health and safety of workers. This paper summarizes the physiological changes of cardiovascular system, core temperature, skin temperature, water-electrolyte metabolism, alimentary system, neuroendocrine system, reaction time and thermal fatigue in high temperature environments. It can provide a theoretical guidance for labor safety in high temperature environment.

  14. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  15. Cytokine responses to two common respiratory pathogens in children are dependent on interleukin-1β

    Alice C-H. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB in young children is a common cause of prolonged wet cough and may be a precursor to bronchiectasis in some children. Although PBB and bronchiectasis are both characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation and a prominent interleukin (IL-1β signature, the contribution of the IL-1β pathway to host defence is not clear. This study aimed to compare systemic immune responses against common pathogens in children with PBB, bronchiectasis and control children and to determine the importance of the IL-1β pathway. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from control subjects (n=20, those with recurrent PBB (n=20 and bronchiectasis (n=20 induced high concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN-γ and IL-10. Blocking with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra modified the cellular response to pathogens, inhibiting cytokine synthesis by NTHi-stimulated PBMCs and rhinovirus-stimulated PBMCs (in a separate PBB cohort. Inhibition of IFN-γ production by IL-1Ra was observed across multiple cell types, including CD3+ T cells and CD56+ NK cells. Our findings highlight the extent to which IL-1β regulates the cellular immune response against two common respiratory pathogens. While blocking the IL-1β pathway has the potential to reduce inflammation, this may come at the cost of protective immunity against NTHi and rhinovirus.

  16. Metabolic response to feeding in Tupinambis merianae: circadian rhythm and a possible respiratory constraint.

    Klein, Wilfried; Perry, Steven F; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2006-01-01

    The diurnal tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae exhibits a marked circadian variation in metabolism that is characterized by the significant increase in metabolism during part of the day. These increases in metabolic rate, found in the fasting animal, are absent during the first 2 d after meal ingestion but reappear subsequently, and the daily increase in metabolic rate is added to the increase in metabolic rate caused by digestion. During the first 2 d after feeding, priority is given to digestion, while on the third and following days, the metabolic demands are clearly added to each other. This response seems to be a regulated response of the animal, which becomes less active after food ingestion, rather than an inability of the respiratory system to support simultaneous demands at the beginning of digestion. The body cavity of Tupinambis is divided into two compartments by a posthepatic septum (PHS). Animals that had their PHS surgically removed showed no significant alteration in the postprandial metabolic response compared to tegus with intact PHS. The maximal metabolic increment during digestion, the relative cost of meal digestion, and the duration of the process were virtually unaffected by the removal of the PHS.

  17. Changing patterns of inpatient respiratory care services over a decade at the Cleveland Clinic: challenges posed and proposed responses.

    Orens, Douglas K; Kester, Lucy; Konrad, Dale J; Stoller, James K

    2005-08-01

    ,921 services/y). The number of respiratory therapy consults performed yearly, beginning in 1992 when the service was first implemented, rose to over 10,000/y by 2001. At the same time, the cost of respiratory therapy services delivered per patient decreased by 4.2%. Regarding staffing trends, the number of full-time-equivalent employees increased by 50% (from 65 to 97.5). However, the percent turnover rate among respiratory therapists decreased by 2.3-fold (from 11.5% to 5%). In the face of these trends, the hospital mortality rate for patients with diagnosis-related group 088 (high users of respiratory care services) decreased by 53%, and the length of hospital stay for all patients receiving respiratory treatments decreased by 30%. This analysis shows that trends of growing demands for respiratory care services have been accompanied by generally improving clinical outcomes and favorable retention of respiratory therapists in our section. We believe that a focus on the process of care, including enhanced professionalism, communication, and participation, has permitted a favorable response to these rising demands.

  18. Temperature responses of exercizing dogs to infusion of electrolytes

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Brzezinska, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of infusions with solutions of various ionic and osmotic composition on exercise temperature responses was studied in dogs who do not regulate their temperature by sweating. The results suggest an association between plasma Na+ and Ca++ level within the normal physiological range and the control of body temperature during exercise.

  19. LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RATS

    2003 AAR PM MeetingParticulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences,Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human HealthLACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPs) IN RATS. JA Dye, LC Walsh, C...

  20. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Amaral, A.F.S.; Ramasamy, A.; Castro-Giner, F.; Minelli, C.; Accordini, S.; Sorheim, I.C.; Pin, I.; Kogevinas, M.; Jögi, R.; Balding, D.J.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Janson, C.; Zock, J.P.; Heinrich, J.; Jarvis, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on

  1. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  2. Effect of temperature on growth, survival and respiratory rate of larval allis shad Alosa alosa

    Hundt M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior species distribution models identified temperature as one of the most important environmental variables defining the present and future distribution of anadromous allis shad (Alosa alosa. The current study analysed effects of temperature on the recruitment-potential of allis shad by investigating growth and survival at 16, 20, 24 and 28 °C during a ten day rearing trial and by measuring mass-specific respiration. Highest growth in length was at 28 °C; growth at 16 °C was minimal. At the end of the rearing-period, no significant differences in survival between tested rearing-temperatures were found. Exposure to temperatures of 13 to 30 °C and subsequent measurement of mass-specific respiration revealed tolerance of temperatures up to 30 °C and a lower temperature limitation close to 16 °C. After acclimatization of larvae to temperatures ranging from 16−28 °C for 10 days, Q10-values of mass-specific respiration indicated a high adaptive capacity to increasing temperatures, but also the ability to adapt to temperatures as low as 16 °C. Our results indicate that the predicted temperature sensitivity of A. alosa cannot be explained by a direct physiological relationship. The obtained results can help to improve predictive modelling and the conservation of allis shad throughout its current distribution range.

  3. Predictors of bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with wheezing associated respiratory tract infection.

    Deerojanawong, J; Prapphal, N

    1994-07-01

    The responsiveness to bronchodilator is variable in infants with wheezing associated respiratory illness (WARI). Factors for prediction of the response will lead to more rational use of the bronchodilator in these infants. We examined the possible predictive factors in 44 children under 2 years of age who had their first episode of WARI. All of them were treated with 0.15 mg/kg of nebulized salbutamol. Thirty patients (68%) with decreasing clinical score > or = 3 after treatment were considered as the responders while the remainder (14 infants) were non responders. By using Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test to compare the data of the 2 groups, the significant factors for the responders were older than 6 months and history of previous LRI (p < 0.01). The significant factors for the non-responders included concurrent diarrhea, patchy pulmonary infiltration and positive RSV in the nasopharyngeal secretion (p < 0.01). These results suggested effective bronchodilator therapy in infants older than 6 months or having a history of previous LRI. Those who had acute RSV infection or patchy infiltration in chest X-ray and associated diarrhea were less likely to respond.

  4. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  5. Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues During Severe Influenza

    Short, Kirsty R; Veeris, Rebecca; Leijten, Lonneke M; van den Brand, Judith M; Jong, Victor L; Stittelaar, Koert J; Osterhaus, Ab D M E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; Andeweg, Arno C; van Riel, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show

  6. Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues during Severe Influenza

    Short, Kirsty R.; Veeris, Rebecca; Leijten, Lonneke M.; van den Brand, Judith M A; Jong, Victor L.; Stittelaar, Koert; Osterhaus, Ab D.M.E.; Andeweg, Arno C; Van Riel, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show

  7. Exposure of neonates to Respiratory Syncytial Virus is critical in determining subsequent airway response in adults

    Daly Melissa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of subsequent wheeze and asthma development. However, the mechanism by which RSV contributes to asthma is complex and remains largely unknown. A recent study indicates that the age of initial RSV infection is a key factor in determining airway response to RSV rechallenge. We hypothesized that severe RSV infection during neonatal development significantly alters lung structure and the pulmonary immune micro-environment; and thus, neonatal RSV infection is crucial in the development of or predisposition to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Methods To investigate this hypothesis the present study was conducted in a neonatal mouse model of RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway dysfunction. Seven-day-old mice were infected with RSV (2 × 105 TCID50/g body weight and allowed to mature to adulthood. To determine if neonatal RSV infection predisposed adult animals to enhanced pathophysiological responses to allergens, these mice were then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Various endpoints including lung function, histopathology, cytokine production, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage were examined. Results RSV infection in neonates alone led to inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperreactivity, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, and subepithelial fibrosis in adults. If early RSV infection was followed by allergen exposure, this pulmonary phenotype was exacerbated. The initial response to neonatal RSV infection resulted in increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, increased levels of IL-13 and mucus hyperproduction were observed almost three months after the initial infection with RSV. Conclusion Neonatal RSV exposure results in long term

  8. FDG PET/CT for therapeutic response monitoring in multi-site non-respiratory tuberculosis

    Geng Tian; Yong Xiao; Bin Chen; Jun Xia; Hong Guan; Qunyi Deng

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) can produce positive signals during 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) scanning. Until now, there has been no better method than clinical assessment to evaluate the therapeutic response of non-respiratory TB (NRTB). Purpose: To retrospectively assess the ability of FDG PET/CT to evaluate the response to anti-TB treatment in patients with NRTB. Material and Methods: Three patients with multi-site NRTB underwent repeat PET/CT scans during anti-TB treatment. Changes in maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the TB lesions on PET/CT images were analyzed between two scans. Initial PET/CT scans were performed before the start of anti-TB treatment, and later scans were performed after completion of the treatment. Results: Patient 1, a 63-year-old female, and patient 2, a 50-year-old male, were diagnosed as multi-site NRTB by biopsy. Patient 3, a 37-year-old male was diagnosed clinically. These patients demonstrated multiple FDG-avid lesions in whole body on initial PET/CT images. The highest SUVmax of patient 1, 2, and 3 were 13.6, 17.7, and 13.9 separately. After completion of the treatment, all positive signals of patient 1, 2, and 3 decreased to undetectable value on repeated PET/CT scans with intervals of 318 days, 258 days, and 182 days separately. Conclusion: FDG PET/CT scan may be useful for monitoring responses to anti-TB treatment in patients with NRTB

  9. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  10. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  11. Quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.

    Richard J Leach

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501 which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV vaccination. Regions of the bovine genome which influenced the immune response induced by BRSV vaccination were identified, as well as regions associated with the clearance of maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies. Significant positive correlations were detected within traits across time, with negative correlations between the pre- and post-vaccination time points. The whole genome scan identified 27 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL on 13 autosomes. Many QTL were associated with the Thymus Helper 1 linked IgG2 response, especially at week 2 following vaccination. However the most significant QTL, which reached 5% genome-wide significance, was on BTA 17 for IgG1, also 2 weeks following vaccination. All animals had declining maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies prior to vaccination and the levels of BRSV specific antibody prior to vaccination were found to be under polygenic control with several QTL detected.Heifers from the same population (n = 195 were subsequently immunised with a 40-mer Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus peptide (FMDV in a previous publication. Several of these QTL associated with the FMDV traits had overlapping peak positions with QTL in the current study, including the QTL on BTA23 which included the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (BoLA, and QTL on BTA9 and BTA24, suggesting that the genes underlying these QTL may control responses to multiple antigens. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations to identify the

  12. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    Sana, Furrukh; Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation

  13. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  15. Temperature Response in Hardened Concrete Subjected to Tropical Rainforest Environment

    E. I. Egba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterize concrete micro-environment temperature response to the natural climate of the tropical rainforest. The peculiar warmth, high humidity, and low pressure nature of the tropical rainforest necessitated the present study. Temperature probes were inserted into concrete specimens subjected to the sheltered and unsheltered environment to measure the micro-environment temperature of the concrete, and study the hysteresis characteristics in relation to the climate temperature. Some mathematical relationships for forecasting the internal temperature of concrete in the tropical rainforest environment were proposed and tested. The proposed relationships were found reliable. It was observed that the micro-environment temperature was lower at the crest, and higher at the trough than the climate environment temperature with a temperature difference of 1-3 oC. Also, temperature response in concrete for the unsheltered micro-environment was 1.85 times faster than the response in the sheltered micro-environment. The findings of the study may be used to assist the durability assessment of concrete.

  16. Phrenic and hypoglossal nerve activity during respiratory response to hypoxia in 6-OHDA unilateral model of Parkinson's disease.

    Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Budzińska, Krystyna; Kaczyńska, Katarzyna

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients apart from motor dysfunctions exhibit respiratory disturbances. Their mechanism is still unknown and requires investigation. Our research was designed to examine the activity of phrenic (PHR) and hypoglossal (HG) nerves activity during a hypoxic respiratory response in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Male adult Wistar rats were injected unilaterally with 6-OHDA (20μg) or the vehicle into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Two weeks after the surgery the activity of the phrenic and hypoglossal nerve was registered in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated rats under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Lesion effectiveness was confirmed by the cylinder test, performed before the MFB injection and 14days after, before the respiratory experiment. 6-OHDA lesioned animals showed a significant increase in normoxic inspiratory time. Expiratory time and total time of the respiratory cycle were prolonged in PD rats after hypoxia. The amplitude of the PHR activity and its minute activity were increased in comparison to the sham group at recovery time and during 30s of hypoxia. The amplitude of the HG activity was increased in response to hypoxia in 6-OHDA lesioned animals. The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons decreased the pre-inspiratory/inspiratory ratio of the hypoglossal burst amplitude during and after hypoxia. Unilateral MFB lesion changed the activity of the phrenic and hypoglossal nerves. The altered pre-inspiratory hypoglossal nerve activity indicates modifications to the central mechanisms controlling the activity of the HG nerve and may explain respiratory disorders seen in PD, i.e. apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Oman

    I.S. Al-Abaidani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV. The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman.

  18. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Renal responses of trout to chronic respiratory and metabolic acidoses and metabolic alkalosis.

    Wood, C M; Milligan, C L; Walsh, P J

    1999-08-01

    Exposure to hyperoxia (500-600 torr) or low pH (4.5) for 72 h or NaHCO(3) infusion for 48 h were used to create chronic respiratory (RA) or metabolic acidosis (MA) or metabolic alkalosis in freshwater rainbow trout. During alkalosis, urine pH increased, and [titratable acidity (TA) - HCO(-)(3)] and net H(+) excretion became negative (net base excretion) with unchanged NH(+)(4) efflux. During RA, urine pH did not change, but net H(+) excretion increased as a result of a modest rise in NH(+)(4) and substantial elevation in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] efflux accompanied by a large increase in inorganic phosphate excretion. However, during MA, urine pH fell, and net H(+) excretion was 3.3-fold greater than during RA, reflecting a similar increase in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] and a smaller elevation in phosphate but a sevenfold greater increase in NH(+)(4) efflux. In urine samples of the same pH, [TA - HCO(-)(3)] was greater during RA (reflecting phosphate secretion), and [NH(+)(4)] was greater during MA (reflecting renal ammoniagenesis). Renal activities of potential ammoniagenic enzymes (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and plasma levels of cortisol, phosphate, ammonia, and most amino acids (including glutamine and alanine) increased during MA but not during RA, when only alanine aminotransferase increased. The differential responses to RA vs. MA parallel those in mammals; in fish they may be keyed to activation of phosphate secretion by RA and cortisol mobilization by MA.

  20. Circulatory, respiratory and metabolic responses in Thoroughbred horses during the first 400 meters of exercise.

    Littlejohn, A; Snow, D H

    1988-01-01

    These studies investigated circulatory, respiratory and metabolic responses in four Thoroughbred geldings during the first 400 metres of galloping (mean speed 14.4 +/- 0.38 m.s-1), cantering (mean speed 10.0 +/- 0.61 m.s-1) and walking (mean speed 1.58 +/- 0.05 m.s-1) from a standing start. A radio-controlled device which collected blood samples anaerobically during each 100 m section of the exercise track allowed analyses of changes in and functional relationships of the variables measured. During the 400 m gallop, the mean heart rate (HR) increased from 125 to 201 beats.min-1 and the haematocrit (Hct) from 0.513 to 0.589 l/l-1. The haemoglobin [Hb], lactate [LA] and potassium [K+] concentrations increased significantly, while the pH and the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly. The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and the plasma bicarbonate concentration did not change significantly. There were significant correlations between HR and Hct, HR and [Hb], HR and PaO2, HR and pH, HR and PvCO2, HR and [LA], HR and [K+], pH and [K+], Hct and PaO2, [Hb] and PaO2, PaCO2 and PaO2, [LA] and PaO2, pH and PaO2, [K+] and PaO2, stride frequency and PaO2. With the exception of the PvCO2 which increased significantly, changes in venous blood during the gallop were in the same direction as those of arterial blood. Thirty seconds before the start of the gallop, both HR and [Hb] were significantly higher than at rest, providing an approximate three-fold increase in oxygen delivery compared to that of the resting state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Differential gene expression responses distinguish contact and respiratory sensitizers and nonsensitizing irritants in the local lymph node assay.

    Adenuga, David; Woolhiser, Michael R; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Boverhof, Darrell R

    2012-04-01

    Genomic approaches have the potential to enhance the specificity and predictive accuracy of existing toxicology endpoints, including those for chemical sensitization. The present study was conducted to determine whether gene expression responses can distinguish contact sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [DNCB] and hexyl cinnamic aldehyde [HCA]), respiratory sensitizers (ortho-phthalaldehyde and trimellitic anhydride [TMA]), and nonsensitizing irritants (methyl salicylate [MS] and nonanoic acid [NA]) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice received doses of each chemical as per the standard LLNA dosing regimen on days 1, 2, and 3. Auricular lymph nodes were analyzed for tritiated thymidine ((3)HTdR) incorporation on day 6 and for gene expression responses on days 6 and 10. All chemicals induced dose-dependent increases in stimulation index, which correlated strongly with the number of differentially expressed genes. A majority of genes modulated by the irritants were similarly altered by the sensitizers, consistent with the irritating effects of the sensitizers. However, a select number of responses involved with immune-specific functions, such as dendritic cell activation, were unique to the sensitizers and may offer the ability to distinguish sensitizers from irritants. Genes for the mast cell proteases 1 and 8, Lgals7, Tim2, Aicda, Il4, and Akr1c18 were more strongly regulated by respiratory sensitizers compared with contact sensitizers and may represent potential biomarkers for discriminating between contact and respiratory sensitizers. Collectively, these data suggest that gene expression responses may serve as useful biomarkers to distinguish between respiratory and contact sensitizers and nonsensitizing irritants in the LLNA.

  2. Exposure to Silver Nanospheres Leads to Altered Respiratory Mechanics and Delayed Immune Response in an in Vivo Murine Model

    Danielle Botelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we examine the organ level toxicology of both carbon black (CB and silver nanoparticles (AgNP. We aim to determine metal-specific effects to respiratory function, inflammation and potential interactions with lung lining fluid (LLF. C57Bl6/J male mice were intratracheally instilled with saline (control, low (0.05 μg/g or high (0.5 μg/g doses of either AgNP or CB 15 nm nanospheres. Lung histology, cytology, surfactant composition and function, inflammatory gene expression, and pulmonary function were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days post-exposure. Acutely, high dose CB resulted in an inflammatory response, increased neutrophilia and cytokine production, without alteration in surfactant composition or respiratory mechanics. Low dose CB had no effect. Neither low nor high dose AgNPs resulted in an acute inflammatory response, but there was an increase in work of breathing. Three days post-exposure with CB, a persistent neutrophilia was noted. High dose AgNP resulted in an elevated number of macrophages and invasion of lymphocytes. Additionally, AgNP treated mice displayed increased expression of IL1B, IL6, CCL2, and IL10. However, there were no significant changes in respiratory mechanics. At day 7, inflammation had resolved in AgNP-treated mice, but tissue stiffness and resistance were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by an increase in surfactant protein D (SP-D content. These data demonstrate that the presence of metal alters the response of the lung to nanoparticle exposure. AgNP-surfactant interactions may alter respiratory function and result in a delayed immune response, potentially due to modified airway epithelial cell function.

  3. Cross-shift study of exposure-response relationships between bioaerosol exposure and respiratory effects in the Norwegian grain and animal feed production industry

    Straumfors, Anne; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Eduard, Wijnand; Wouters, Inge M; Ellingsen, Dag G; Skogstad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have studied cross-shift respiratory responses of several individual bioaerosol components of the dust in the grain and feed industry in Norway. METHODS: Cross-shift changes in lung function and nasal congestion, as well as in respiratory and systemic symptoms of 56 exposed workers and

  4. Reduced nasal IL-10 and enhanced TNFalpha responses during rhinovirus and RSV-induced upper respiratory tract infection in atopic and non-atopic infants

    van Benten, I. J.; van Drunen, C. M.; Koevoet, J. L. M.; Koopman, L. P.; Hop, W. C. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Neijens, H. J.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most prevalent inducers of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in infants and may stimulate immune maturation. To estimate the amount of immune stimulation, nasal immune responses were examined during rhinovirus and RSV-induced URTI in

  5. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and insignificant bronchodilator reversibility

    Price, David B; Buhl, Roland; Chan, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic non-specific respiratory symptoms are difficult to manage. This trial aimed to evaluate the association between baseline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms. METHODS: In this doub...

  6. The retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons expressing Atoh1 and Phox2b are essential for the respiratory response to CO2

    Ruffault, Pierre Louis; D’Autréaux, Fabien; Hayes, John A.

    2015-01-01

    . Photostimulation of these neurons entrains the respiratory rhythm. Conversely, abrogating expression of Atoh1 or Phox2b or glutamatergic transmission in these cells curtails the phrenic nerve response to low pH in embryonic preparations and abolishes the respiratory chemoreflex in behaving animals. Thus, the RTN...

  7. Attend or defend? Sex differences in behavioral, autonomic, and respiratory response patterns to emotion-eliciting films.

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Rattel, Julina A; Wegerer, Melanie; Liedlgruber, Michael; Schweighofer, Simon; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This indicates a prototypical threat-related defense response in women, while men showed a pattern of sustained orienting, which can be understood as a shift toward less threat proximity in the defense cascade model. Clinical implications are discussed within a socio-evolutionary framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics.

    Moran, Kelly R; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12%) more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics.

    Kelly R Moran

    Full Text Available Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport. Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12% more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.

  11. Respiratory acidosis

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  12. High Fat Diet Inhibits Dendritic Cell and T Cell Response to Allergens but Does Not Impair Inhalational Respiratory Tolerance.

    Angela Pizzolla

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has risen to epidemic proportions in recent decades, most commonly attributed to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a 'western' diet high in fat and low in fibre. Although non-allergic asthma is a well-established co-morbidity of obesity, the influence of obesity on allergic asthma is still under debate. Allergic asthma is thought to result from impaired tolerance to airborne antigens, so-called respiratory tolerance. We sought to investigate whether a diet high in fats affects the development of respiratory tolerance. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks showed weight gain, metabolic disease, and alteration in gut microbiota, metabolites and glucose metabolism compared to age-matched mice fed normal chow diet (ND. Respiratory tolerance was induced by repeated intranasal (i.n. administration of ovalbumin (OVA, prior to induction of allergic airway inflammation (AAI by sensitization with OVA in alum i.p. and subsequent i.n. OVA challenge. Surprisingly, respiratory tolerance was induced equally well in HFD and ND mice, as evidenced by decreased lung eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE production. However, in a pilot study, HFD mice showed a tendency for impaired activation of airway dendritic cells and regulatory T cells compared with ND mice after induction of respiratory tolerance. Moreover, the capacity of lymph node cells to produce IL-5 and IL-13 after AAI was drastically diminished in HFD mice compared to ND mice. These results indicate that HFD does not affect the inflammatory or B cell response to an allergen, but inhibits priming of Th2 cells and possibly dendritic cell and regulatory T cell activation.

  13. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  14. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria.

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. The objective was to characterize in vitro the early life systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria and study the possible association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the 3 different bacterial stimulations significantly identified children at risk of LRI (P = 0.006). The immune response pattern associated with LRI was characterized by perturbed production of several cytokines rather than production of one specific cytokine, and was independent of concurrent asthma. TNF-α and IL-5 were key drivers but did not explain the entire variation in LRI susceptibility. Children at risk of future LRI present a perturbed systemic immune response upon exposure to common airway pathogens in early life.

  15. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  16. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2......, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. RESULTS:: A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the three different bacterial stimulations...

  17. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  18. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  19. Respiratory immune responses in the chicken; Towards development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    de Geus, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Several important poultry pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), enter the host through the mucosae of the respiratory tract (RT) and subsequently disseminate towards other organs in the body. Therefore, animal health significantly depends on the control of infection in the lung tissue by

  20. Autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses to exercise in Brugada Syndrome patients

    Raoyrin Chanavirut, MSc

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Thai BrS patients had a more rapid rate of restoration of the parasympathetic and smaller level of sympathetic activation after exercise. They had mild hyperkalemia which is reduced according to the exercise. Furthermore, they exhibited impaired cardio-respiratory fitness.

  1. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks : effects of task factors and RSA indices

    Overbeek, T.; Boxtel, van Anton; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  2. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: Effects of task factors and RSA indices

    Overbeek, T.J.M.; van Boxtel, A.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  3. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E. A.; San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Schuuring, Ed M. D.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(A (R))) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  4. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    Tjon Pian Gi, R.E.A.; San Giorgi, M.R.M.; Pawlita, M.; Michel, A.; van Hemel, B.M.; Schuuring, E.M.D.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Dikkers, F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil®) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  5. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity accurately predicts fluid responsiveness in children undergoing neurosurgery under general anesthesia.

    Morparia, Kavita G; Reddy, Srijaya K; Olivieri, Laura J; Spaeder, Michael C; Schuette, Jennifer J

    2018-04-01

    The determination of fluid responsiveness in the critically ill child is of vital importance, more so as fluid overload becomes increasingly associated with worse outcomes. Dynamic markers of volume responsiveness have shown some promise in the pediatric population, but more research is needed before they can be adopted for widespread use. Our aim was to investigate effectiveness of respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity and pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness, and determine their optimal cutoff values. We performed a prospective, observational study at a single tertiary care pediatric center. Twenty-one children with normal cardiorespiratory status undergoing general anesthesia for neurosurgery were enrolled. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity (ΔVpeak ao) was measured both before and after volume expansion using a bedside ultrasound device. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) value was obtained from the bedside monitor. All patients received a 10 ml/kg fluid bolus as volume expansion, and were qualified as responders if stroke volume increased >15% as a result. Utility of ΔVpeak ao and PPV and to predict responsiveness to volume expansion was investigated. A baseline ΔVpeak ao value of greater than or equal to 12.3% best predicted a positive response to volume expansion, with a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 89% and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. PPV failed to demonstrate utility in this patient population. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity is a promising marker for optimization of perioperative fluid therapy in the pediatric population and can be accurately measured using bedside ultrasonography. More research is needed to evaluate the lack of effectiveness of pulse pressure variation for this purpose.

  6. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    -days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species....... There was an overall decrease, across species, in an index of thermal requirement (cumulative degree-days) for egg development with increasing temperature. Within an empirically derived optimal thermal range for egg survival, the thermal requirement was more variable in species adapted to cold waters compared...... to species adapted to warmer waters. Moreover, the sensitivity of survival of eggs from different species to increases in temperature differed, reflecting a pattern of sensitivity along a stenotherm-eurytherm gradient of vulnerability to temperature among species. The results quantify physiological effects...

  7. European temperature responses to blocking and ridge regional patterns

    Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Barriopedro, David; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Santos, João A.

    2018-01-01

    Blocking occurrence and its impacts on European temperature have been studied in the last decade. However, most previous studies on blocking impacts have focused on winter only, disregarding its fingerprint in summer and differences with other synoptic patterns that also trigger temperature extremes. In this work, we provide a clear distinction between high-latitude blocking and sub-tropical ridges occurring in three sectors of the Euro-Atlantic region, describing their climatology and consequent impacts on European temperature during both winter and summer. Winter blocks (ridges) are generally associated to colder (warmer) than average conditions over large regions of Europe, in some areas with anomalies larger than 5 °C, particularly for the patterns occurring in the Atlantic and Central European sectors. During summer, there is a more regional response characterized by above average temperature for both blocking and ridge patterns, especially those occurring in continental areas, although negative temperature anomalies persist in southernmost areas during blocking. An objective analysis of the different forcing mechanisms associated to each considered weather regime has been performed, quantifying the importance of the following processes in causing the temperature anomalies: horizontal advection, vertical advection and diabatic heating. While during winter advection processes tend to be more relevant to explain temperature responses, in summer radiative heating under enhanced insolation plays a crucial role for both blocking and ridges. Finally, the changes in the distributions of seasonal temperature and in the frequencies of extreme temperature indices were also examined for specific areas of Europe. Winter blocking and ridge patterns are key drivers in the occurrence of regional cold and warm extreme temperatures, respectively. In summer, they are associated with substantial changes in the frequency of extremely warm days, but with different signatures in

  8. Repetitive hypoxia rapidly depresses cardio-respiratory responses during active sleep but not quiet sleep in the newborn lamb

    Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M

    1999-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is an important protective response to hypoxia that becomes rapidly depressed in active sleep (AS) when hypoxia is repeated. This study questioned whether there might also be selective depression of cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia during AS. Nine newborn lambs (7-22 days of age) were studied over three successive nights. The first and third nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, Fi,O2= 0.21). During the second night, during every epoch of sleep, lambs were exposed to 60 s episodes of isocapnic hypoxia (Fi,O2= 0.10). During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousal in hypoxia exceeded the probability of spontaneous arousal (P ventilatory and blood pressure responses in AS, but not in QS. Selective depression of responses during AS may render the newborn particularly vulnerable to hypoxia in this state. PMID:10457072

  9. Variation between cut chrysanthemum cultivars in response to suboptimal temperature

    Ploeg, van der A.; Kularathne, R.J.K.N.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2007-01-01

    To breed for more energy-efficient cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars it is important to know the variation of the temperature response existing in modern cultivars. In a greenhouse experiment with 25 chrysanthemum cultivars, a significant variation was observed in

  10. Native temperature regime influences soil response to simulated warming

    Timothy G. Whitby; Michael D. Madritch

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to increase global temperatures and potentially increase soil carbon (C) mineralization, which could lead to a positive feedback between global warming and soil respiration. However the magnitude and spatial variability of belowground responses to warming are not yet fully understood. Some of the variability may depend...

  11. Preparation of temperature responsive fragrance release membranes by UV curing

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Okuda, Jyunya; Kitami, Toshiaki; Matsubara, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The authors have studied the preparation and the function of intelligent drug release membranes by UV curing. Temperature responsive fragrance release membranes were prepared by UV curing process and the release functions were investigated as the function of thickness and composition of membrane. Microscopic observations were used to prove the postulated release mechanism

  12. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  13. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  14. Responses of hadrons to the chemical potential at finite temperature

    Choe, S.; Liu, Y.; Miyamura, O.; Forcrand, Ph. de; Garcia Perez, M.; Hioki, S.; Matsufuru, H.; Nakamura, A.; Stamatescu, I.-O.; Takaishi, T.; Umeda, T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a framework to compute the responses of hadron masses to the chemical potential in lattice QCD simulations. As a first trial, the screening mass of the pseudoscalar meson and its first and second responses are evaluated. We present results on a 16x8 2 x4 lattice with two flavors of staggered quarks below and above T c . The responses to both the isoscalar and isovector chemical potentials are obtained. They show different behavior in the low and the high temperature phases, which may be explained as a consequence of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration, respectively

  15. Temperature- and light-responsive smart polymer materials.

    Jochum, Florian D; Theato, Patrick

    2013-09-07

    Stimuli-responsive polymers have been attracting great interest within the scientific community for several decades. The unique feature to respond to small changes in the environmental conditions has made this class of materials very promising for several applications in the field of nanoscience, nanotechnology and nanomedicine. So far, several different chemical, physical or biochemical stimuli have been investigated within natural or synthetic polymers. Very interesting and appealing seems to be the combination of several stimuli to tune the properties of these materials in manifold ways. Within this present review, we want to highlight the recent progress in the field of synthetic stimuli-responsive polymers combining temperature and light responsiveness.

  16. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children.

    Pistelli, R; Forastiere, F; Corbo, G M; Dell'Orco, V; Brancato, G; Agabiti, N; Pizzabiocca, A; Perucci, C A

    1993-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary salt intake and urinary sodium and potassium levels are related to respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness, a cross-sectional study among 2593 subjects aged 9 to 16 was conducted in four communities of the Latium region (Italy). Questionnaires were administered to the parents, urine samples were collected, lung function, methacholine challenge tests and prick tests were performed. Information about familial and personal dietary salt use and respiratory health was collected from the parents of 2439 (94%) subjects. A total of 2020 methacholine challenge tests and 916 urinary sodium and potassium levels were available for analysis. Personal table salt use was strongly related to cough and phlegm apart from colds (adjusted odds ratios, OR, 1.87, 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.20-2.90), wheezing apart from colds (OR, 2.19, 95% CI, 1.27-3.77), wheezing with dyspnoea (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 0.98-2.12) and wheezing after exercise (OR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These associations were mainly found in boys. Use of familial table salt and canned food showed no relation to respiratory symptoms. Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with a higher urinary potassium excretion in boys, but not with urinary sodium. In conclusion, personal table salt use is related to an increased prevalence of bronchial symptoms; an increase in bronchial responsiveness among those with higher potassium excretion also seems to be implied. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of this study in causal terms, the findings might be relevant to the distribution of bronchial symptoms and diseases in the population.

  17. Temperature and angular dependence of substrate response in SEGR

    Mouret, I.; Allenspach, M.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Brews, J.R.; Galloway, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    This work examines the role of the substrate response in determining the temperature and angular dependence of Single-Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). Experimental data indicate that the likelihood of SEGR increases when the temperature of the device is increased or when the incident angle is made closer to normal. In this work, simulations are used to explore this influence of high temperature on SEGR and to support physical explanations for this effect. The reduced hole mobility at high temperature causes the hole concentration at the oxide-silicon interface to be greater, increasing the transient oxide field near the strike position. In addition, numerical calculations show that the transient oxide field decreases as the ion's angle of incidence is changed from normal. This decreased field suggests a lowered likelihood for SEGR, in agreement with the experimental trend

  18. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  19. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    Goncalves, I.M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author) [pt

  20. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Complex terrain influences ecosystem carbon responses to temperature and precipitation

    Reyes, W. M.; Epstein, H. E.; Li, X.; McGlynn, B. L.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem responses to temperature and precipitation have major implications for the global carbon cycle. Case studies demonstrate that complex terrain, which accounts for more than 50% of Earth's land surface, can affect ecological processes associated with land-atmosphere carbon fluxes. However, no studies have addressed the role of complex terrain in mediating ecophysiological responses of land-atmosphere carbon fluxes to climate variables. We synthesized data from AmeriFlux towers and found that for sites in complex terrain, responses of ecosystem CO2 fluxes to temperature and precipitation are organized according to terrain slope and drainage area, variables associated with water and energy availability. Specifically, we found that for tower sites in complex terrain, mean topographic slope and drainage area surrounding the tower explained between 51% and 78% of site-to-site variation in the response of CO2 fluxes to temperature and precipitation depending on the time scale. We found no such organization among sites in flat terrain, even though their flux responses exhibited similar ranges. These results challenge prevailing conceptual framework in terrestrial ecosystem modeling that assumes that CO2 fluxes derive from vertical soil-plant-climate interactions. We conclude that the terrain in which ecosystems are situated can also have important influences on CO2 responses to temperature and precipitation. This work has implications for about 14% of the total land area of the conterminous U.S. This area is considered topographically complex and contributes to approximately 15% of gross ecosystem carbon production in the conterminous U.S.

  2. Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis.

    Wang Huili

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis (ASP is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328. The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport, translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and

  3. Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules.

    Kanazawa, Hideko; Okano, Teruo

    2011-12-09

    Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules utilizing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and its copolymer-modified stationary phase is performed with an aqueous mobile phase without using organic solvent. The surface properties and function of the stationary phase are controlled by external temperature changes without changing the mobile-phase composition. This analytical system is based on nonspecific adsorption by the reversible transition of a hydrophilic-hydrophobic PNIPAAm-grafted surface. The driving force for retention is hydrophobic interaction between the solute molecules and the hydrophobized polymer chains on the stationary phase surface. The separation of the biomolecules, such as nucleotides and proteins was achieved by a dual temperature- and pH-responsive chromatography system. The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could be modulated simultaneously with the temperature in an aqueous mobile phase, thus the separation system would have potential applications in the separation of biomolecules. Additionally, chromatographic matrices prepared by a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) exhibit a strong interaction with analytes, because the polymerization procedure forms a densely packed polymer, called a polymer brush, on the surfaces. The copolymer brush grafted surfaces prepared by ATRP was an effective tool for separating basic biomolecules by modulating the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Applications of thermally responsive columns for the separations of biomolecules are reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature-responsive PLLA/PNIPAM nanofibers for switchable release

    Elashnikov, Roman; Slepička, Petr [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, Silvie; Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic); Lyutakov, Oleksiy, E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    Smart antimicrobial materials with on-demand drug release are highly desired for biomedical applications. Herein, we report about temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanospheres doped with crystal violet (CV) and incorporated into the poly-L-lactide (PLLA) nanofibers. The nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, using different initial polymers ratios. The morphology of the nanofibers and polymers distribution in the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interaction between PNIPAM and PLLA in the nanofibers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and its effect on the PNIPAM phase transition was also investigated. It was shown that by the changing of the environmental temperature across the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, the switchable wettability and controlled CV release can be achieved. The temperature-dependent release kinetics of CV from polymer nanofibers was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis). The temperature-responsive release of antibacterial CV was also tested for triggering of antibacterial activity, which was examined on Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thus, the proposed material is promising value for controllable drug-release.

  5. Time response of temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2010-01-01

    In a PWR nuclear power plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors). These RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs is characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature. Nuclear reactor service conditions are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory, and an in-situ test method called LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. >From this test, the time constant of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat-transfer model. This calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. For this reason an Artificial Neural Network has been developed to predict the time constant of RTD from LCSR test transient. It eliminates the transformations involved in the LCSR application. A series of LCSR tests on RTDs generates the response transients of the sensors, the input data of the networks. Plunge tests are used to determine the time constants of the RTDs, the desired output of the ANN, trained using these sets of input/output data. This methodology was firstly applied to theoretical data simulating 10 RTDs with different time constant values, resulting in an average error of about 0.74 %. Experimental data from three different RTDs was used to predict time constant resulting in a maximum error of 3,34 %. The time constants values predicted from ANN were compared with those obtained from traditional way resulting in an average error of about 18 % and that shows the network is able to predict accurately the sensor time constant. (author)

  6. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Leduc, Dimitri; Fally, Sophie; De Vuyst, Paul; Wollast, Roland; Yernault, Jean Claude

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fog...

  7. Facial Involuntary Movements and Respiratory Failure in CANOMAD, Responsive to IVIG Therapy

    Kate Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CANOMAD is a rare chronic neuropathy, characterized by chronic sensory ataxia and intermittent brain stem symptoms due to antidisialosyl antibodies. The disorder results in significant morbidity but is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. We describe a unique case of CANOMAD, associated with involuntary movements of the face; patient reported exacerbations with citrus and chocolate and respiratory muscle weakness. Our patient was initially misdiagnosed with Miller Fisher Syndrome, highlighting the need for vigilance should neurological symptoms recur in patients initially diagnosed with a Guillain Barre variant. Moreover, the optimal treatment is unknown. This patient responded remarkably to intravenous immunoglobulin and has been maintained on this treatment, without further exacerbations.

  8. Remodeling pathway control of mitochondrial respiratory capacity by temperature in mouse heart: electron flow through the Q-junction in permeabilized fibers.

    Lemieux, Hélène; Blier, Pierre U; Gnaiger, Erich

    2017-06-06

    Fuel substrate supply and oxidative phosphorylation are key determinants of muscle performance. Numerous studies of mammalian mitochondria are carried out (i) with substrate supply that limits electron flow, and (ii) far below physiological temperature. To analyze potentially implicated biases, we studied mitochondrial respiratory control in permeabilized mouse myocardial fibers using high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of oxidative phosphorylation at 37 °C was nearly two-fold higher when fueled by physiological substrate combinations reconstituting tricarboxylic acid cycle function, compared with electron flow measured separately through NADH to Complex I or succinate to Complex II. The relative contribution of the NADH pathway to physiological respiratory capacity increased with a decrease in temperature from 37 to 25 °C. The apparent excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase above physiological pathway capacity increased sharply under hypothermia due to limitation by NADH-linked dehydrogenases. This mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in the hypothermic mammalian heart is comparable to the pattern in ectotherm species, pointing towards NADH-linked mt-matrix dehydrogenases and the phosphorylation system rather than electron transfer complexes as the primary drivers of thermal sensitivity at low temperature. Delineating the link between stress and remodeling of oxidative phosphorylation is important for understanding metabolic perturbations in disease evolution and cardiac protection.

  9. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  10. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Oman.

    Al-Abaidani, I S; Al-Maani, A S; Al-Kindi, H S; Al-Jardani, A K; Abdel-Hady, D M; Zayed, B E; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Shaqsi, K H; Al-Abri, S S

    2014-12-01

    Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  12. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival.

  13. Heightened fire risk in Indonesia in response to increasing temperature

    Fernandes, K.; Baethgen, W.; Verchot, L. V.; Gutierrez-Velez, V.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2016-12-01

    In Indonesia, drought driven fires occur typically during the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as those of 1997 and 2015 that resulted in months-long hazardous atmospheric pollution levels in Equatorial Asia and record greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, anomalously active fire seasons have also been observed in non-drought years. In this work, we investigated whether fires are impacted by temperature anomalies and if so, if the responses differ under contrasting precipitation regimes. Our findings show that when the July-October dry-season is anomalously dry, the sensitivity of fires to temperature anomalies is similar regardless of the sign of the anomalies. In contrast, in wet condition, fire risk increases sharply when the dry season is anomalously warm. We also present a characterization of near-term regional climate projections over the next few decades and the implications of continuing global temperature increase in future fire probability in Indonesia.

  14. Anatomical architecture and responses to acidosis of a novel respiratory neuron group in the high cervical spinal cord (HCRG) of the neonatal rat.

    Okada, Y; Yokota, S; Shinozaki, Y; Aoyama, R; Yasui, Y; Ishiguro, M; Oku, Y

    2009-01-01

    It has been postulated that there exists a neuronal mechanism that generates respiratory rhythm and modulates respiratory output pattern in the high cervical spinal cord. Recently, we have found a novel respiratory neuron group in the ventral portion of the high cervical spinal cord, and named it the high cervical spinal cord respiratory group (HCRG). In the present study, we analyzed the detailed anatomical architecture of the HCRG region by double immunostaining of the region using a neuron-specific marker (NeuN) and a marker for motoneurons (ChAT) in the neonatal rat. We found a large number of small NeuN-positive cells without ChAT-immunoreactivity, which were considered interneurons. We also found two and three clusters of motoneurons in the ventral portion of the ventral horn at C1 and C2 levels, respectively. Next, we examined responses of HCRG neurons to respiratory and metabolic acidosis in vitro by voltage-imaging together with cross correlation techniques, i.e., by correlation coefficient imaging, in order to understand the functional role of HCRG neurons. Both respiratory and metabolic acidosis caused the same pattern of changes in their spatiotemporal activation profiles, and the respiratory-related area was enlarged in the HCRG region. After acidosis was introduced, preinspiratory phase-dominant activity was recruited in a number of pixels, and more remarkably inspiratory phase-dominant activity was recruited in a large number of pixels. We suggest that the HCRG composes a local respiratory neuronal network consisting of interneurons and motoneurons and plays an important role in respiratory augmentation in response to acidosis.

  15. The Nitrocarburising Response of Low Temperature Bainite Steel

    Daniel Fabijanic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nitrocarburising response of low transformation temperature ultrafine and nanoscale bainitic steel was investigated and compared with martensite and pearlite from the same steel composition. It was found that the retained austenite content of the bainitic steel dictated the core hardness after nitrocarburising. The refined bainitic structure showed improvements in the nitriding depth and hardness of the nitrocarburised layer, compared to coarser grained martensitic and pearlitic structures, possibly due to the fine structure and the distribution of nitride forming elements.

  16. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Influence of temperature in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosemeters response

    Napolitano, Celia Marina; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Camargo, Fabio de; Goncalves, Josemary Angelica Correa; Tobias, Carmen Cecilia Bueno

    2005-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation sterilization processes in medical products and food preservation has encouraged the emergence of industrial facilities responsible for generation of doses as high as a few dozen kGy. The characterization of this radiation field requires the use of dosimeters with high spatial resolution, high resistance to radiation damage, maintenance of information absorbed doses at a time suitable for the analysis and processing of data, easy handling, etc. The dosimeters that meet most of these requirements are based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with dyes sensitive to radiation. The dose that can be measured with these dosimeters extends from 100Gy to 50kGy, with the estimated accuracies by manufacturers from 2 to 3%. However, in practice, there are procedures that require irradiation in different conditions of temperature, which results in changes in the response of the dosimeter. This way, considering the irradiations made in the center of radiation technology of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP - Brazilian nuclear and energy research institute -, has studied the effect of temperature on the response of routine dosimeters PMMA type where the operational characteristics of Gammachrome YR dosimeters type and Red Perspex are being investigated respect to temperature and dose, whose results will be presented in this paper

  18. Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes

    Portner, H.; Wolf, A.; Bugmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    Many biogeochemical models have been applied to study the response of the carbon cycle to changes in climate, whereby the process of carbon uptake (photosynthesis) has usually gained more attention than the equally important process of carbon release by respiration. The decomposition of soil organic matter is driven by a combination of factors with a prominent one being soil temperature [Berg and Laskowski(2005)]. One uncertainty concerns the response function used to describe the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to temperature. This relationship is often described by one out of a set of similar exponential functions, but it has not been investigated how uncertainties in the choice of the response function influence the long term predictions of biogeochemical models. We built upon the well-established LPJ-GUESS model [Smith et al.(2001)]. We tested five candidate functions and calibrated them against eight datasets from different Ameriflux and CarboEuropeIP sites [Hibbard et al.(2006)]. We used a simple Exponential function with a constant Q10, the Arrhenius function, the Gaussian function [Tuomi et al.(2008), O'Connell(1990)], the Van't Hoff function [Van't Hoff(1901)] and the Lloyd&Taylor function [Lloyd and Taylor(1994)]. We assessed the impact of uncertainty in model formulation of temperature response on estimates of present and future long-term carbon storage in ecosystems and hence on the CO2 feedback potential to the atmosphere. We specifically investigated the relative importance of model formulation and the error introduced by using different data sets for the parameterization. Our results suggested that the Exponential and Arrhenius functions are inappropriate, as they overestimated the respiration rates at lower temperatures. The Gaussian, Van't Hoff and Lloyd&Taylor functions all fit the observed data better, whereby the functions of Gaussian and Van't Hoff underestimated the response at higher temperatures. We suggest, that the

  19. Respiratory alkalosis

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  20. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E A; San Giorgi, Michel R M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M; Schuuring, Ed M D; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(®)) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was measured were included. Multiplex HPV Serology was used to determine HPV-specific antibodies pre- and post-vaccination. Surgical interventions and patient records were analyzed. Five HPV6 and 1 HPV11 infected patient were included. Mean antibody reactivity against the associated HPV type rose from 1125 median fluorescence intensity (MFI) pre-vaccination to 4690 MFI post-vaccination (p immunological increase can cause decrease in number of surgeries.

  1. Temperature modulates phototrophic periphyton response to chronic copper exposure

    Lambert, Anne Sophie; Dabrin, Aymeric; Morin, Soizic; Gahou, Josiane; Foulquier, Arnaud; Coquery, Marina; Pesce, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Streams located in vineyard areas are highly prone to metal pollution. In a context of global change, aquatic systems are generally subjected to multi-stress conditions due to multiple chemical and/or physical pressures. Among various environmental factors that modulate the ecological effects of toxicants, special attention should be paid to climate change, which is driving an increase in extreme climate events such as sharp temperature rises. In lotic ecosystems, periphyton ensures key ecological functions such as primary production and nutrient cycling. However, although the effects of metals on microbial communities are relatively well known, there is scant data on possible interactions between temperature increase and metal pollution. Here we led a study to evaluate the influence of temperature on the response of phototrophic periphyton to copper (Cu) exposure. Winter communities, collected in a 8 °C river water, were subjected for six weeks to four thermal conditions in microcosms in presence or not of Cu (nominal concentration of 15 μg L"−"1). At the initial river temperature (8 °C), our results confirmed the chronic impact of Cu on periphyton, both in terms of structure (biomass, distribution of algal groups, diatomic composition) and function (photosynthetic efficiency). At higher temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C), Cu effects were modulated. Indeed, temperature increase reduced Cu effects on algal biomass, algal class proportions, diatom assemblage composition and photosynthetic efficiency. This reduction of Cu effects on periphyton may be related to lower bioaccumulation of Cu and/or to selection of more Cu-tolerant species at higher temperatures. - Highlights: • At in situ temperature, Cu impacted structure and activity of phototrophic biofilms. • Cu effects were reduced with increasing temperature (from +5 °C to +15 °C). • The decrease in Cu effects may be related to lower Cu bioaccumulation in biofilms. • Changes in diatom

  2. Characterization of the CD8(+)T cell responses directed against respiratory syncytial virus during primary and secondary infection in C57BL/6 mice

    Lukens, M.V.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Graaff, de P.M.A.; Dijk, van M.E.A.; Hoogerhout, P.; Toebes, M.; Schumacher, T.N.; Most, van der R.G.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bleek, van G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The BALB/c mouse model for human respiratory syncytial virus infection has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relative role for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to immune protection and pathogenic immune responses. To enable comparison of RSV-specific T cell responses in different mouse

  3. Cigarette smoke induces molecular responses in respiratory tissues of ApoE−/− mice that are progressively deactivated upon cessation

    Boué, Stéphanie; De León, Héctor; Schlage, Walter K.; Peck, Michael J.; Weiler, Horst; Berges, An; Vuillaume, Grégory; Martin, Florian; Friedrichs, Baerbel; Lebrun, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a risk factor for both lung and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, which are rarely investigated concomitantly. Although smoking cessation shows clear CV risk benefit, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. We sought to determine the differential molecular responses of murine respiratory tissues to better understand the toxicity pathways involved in smoking-related disease risk and those related to the benefits of smoking cessation. ApoE −/− mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to 6 months and transcriptomics analysis of nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma performed. We supported our gene expression profiling approach with standard lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Many BALF analytes involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were found elevated in BALF. Gene expression levels of these molecules were also increased in lung tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from murine lungs and nasal epithelium showed distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways during CS exposure that were deactivated upon smoking cessation. Pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were activated by CS and progressively deactivated upon smoke exposure cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization and exposure along the respiratory tract

  4. Acute respiratory syndrome after inhalation of waterproofing sprays: a posteriori exposure-response assessment in 102 cases.

    Vernez, David; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; De-Batz, Alice; Droz, Pierre; Lazor, Romain

    2006-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely used to protect leather and textiles in both domestic and occupational activities. An outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome following exposure to waterproofing sprays occurred during the winter 2002-2003 in Switzerland. About 180 cases were reported by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between October 2002 and March 2003, whereas fewer than 10 cases per year had been recorded previously. The reported cases involved three brands of sprays containing a common waterproofing mixture, that had undergone a formulation change in the months preceding the outbreak. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in collaboration with the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and the Swiss Registries for Interstitial and Orphan Lung Diseases to clarify the circumstances and possible causes of the observed health effects. Individual exposure data were generated with questionnaires and experimental emission measurements. The collected data was used to conduct numeric simulation for 102 cases of exposure. A classical two-zone model was used to assess the aerosol dispersion in the near- and far-field during spraying. The resulting assessed dose and exposure levels obtained were spread on large scales, of several orders of magnitude. No dose-response relationship was found between exposure indicators and health effects indicators (perceived severity and clinical indicators). Weak relationships were found between unspecific inflammatory response indicators (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) and the maximal exposure concentration. The results obtained disclose a high interindividual response variability and suggest that some indirect mechanism(s) predominates in the respiratory disease occurrence. Furthermore, no threshold could be found to define a safe level of exposure. These findings suggest that the improvement of environmental exposure conditions during spraying alone does not constitute a sufficient measure to prevent future outbreaks of

  5. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Temperature

    Introduction to the temperature module, when to list temperature as a candidate cause, ways to measure temperature, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for temperature, temperature module references and literature reviews.

  7. Adjuvants and the vaccine response to the DS-Cav1-stabilized fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus.

    Mallika Sastry

    Full Text Available Appropriate adjuvant selection may be essential to optimize the potency and to tailor the immune response of subunit vaccines. To induce protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-a highly prevalent childhood pathogen without a licensed vaccine-we previously engineered a pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric RSV F (pre-F "DS-Cav1" immunogen, which induced high titer RSV-neutralizing antibodies, in mice and non-human primates, when formulated with adjuvants Poly (I:C and Poly (IC:LC, respectively. To assess the impact of different adjuvants, here we formulated RSV F DS-Cav1 with multiple adjuvants and assessed immune responses. Very high RSV-neutralizing antibody responses (19,006 EC50 were observed in naïve mice immunized with 2 doses of DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Sigma adjuvant system (SAS, an oil-in-water adjuvant, plus Carbopol; high responses (3658-7108 were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Alum, SAS alone, Adjuplex, Poly (I:C and Poly (IC:LC; and moderate responses (1251-2129 were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist MPLA, Alum plus MPLA or AddaVax. In contrast, DS-Cav1 without adjuvant induced low-level responses (6. A balanced IgG1 and IgG2a (Th2/Th1 immune response was elicited in most of the high to very high response groups (all but Alum and Adjuplex. We also tested the immune response induced by DS-Cav1 in elderly mice with pre-existing DS-Cav1 immunity; we observed that DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol boosted the response 2-3-fold, whereas DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with alum boosted the response 5-fold. Finally, we tested whether a mixture of ISA 71 VG and Carbopol would enhanced the antibody response in DS-Cav1 immunized calves. While pre-F-stabilized bovine RSV F induced very high titers in mice when adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol, the addition of Carbopol to ISA 71 VG did not enhance immune responses in calves. The vaccine response to pre-F-stabilized RSV F is augmented by adjuvant, but the

  8. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  9. Structural and Nonstructural Viral Proteins Are Targets of T-Helper Immune Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Mir, Carmen; Gebe, John A; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Proper antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides that are bound to HLA class II molecules, which are exposed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The helper immune response is critical for the control and the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection, a virus with severe health risk in infected pediatric, immunocompromised, and elderly populations. In this study, using a mass spectrometry analysis of complex HLA class II-bound peptide pools that were isolated from large amounts of HRSV-infected cells, 19 naturally processed HLA-DR ligands, most of them included in a complex nested set of peptides, were identified. Both the immunoprevalence and the immunodominance of the HLA class II response to HRSV were focused on one nonstructural (NS1) and two structural (matrix and mainly fusion) proteins of the infective virus. These findings have clear implications for analysis of the helper immune response as well as for antiviral vaccine design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination

    Meier, William A.; Galeota, Judy; Osorio, Fernando A.; Husmann, Robert J.; Schnitzlein, William M.; Zuckermann, Federico A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4 - /CD8αβ + T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization

  11. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  12. Forest ecotone response to climate change: sensitivity to temperature response functional forms

    Loehle, C. [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Naperville, IL (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Past simulation studies have been in general agreement that climatic change could have adverse effects on forests, including geographic range shrinkages, conversion to grassland, and catastrophic forest decline or dieback. Some other recent studies, however, concluded that this agreement is generally based on parabolic temperature response rather than functional responses or data, and may therefore exaggerate dieback effects. This paper proposes a new model of temperature response that is based on a trade-off between cold tolerance and growth rate. In this model, the growth rate increases at first, and then levels off with increasing growing degree-days. Species from more southern regions have a higher minimum temperature and a faster maximum height growth rate. It is argued that faster growth rates of southern types lead to their competitive superiority in warmer environments and that such temperature response should produce less dieback and slower rates of change than the more common parabolic response model. Theoretical justification of this model is provided, followed by application of the model to a simulated ecotone under a warming scenario. Results of the study based on the proposed asymptotic model showed no dieback and only a gradual ecotone movement north, suggesting that ecotone shifts will, in fact, take many hundreds to thousands of years, with the result that species will not face the risk of extinction. 56 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  13. Responses to high seawater temperatures in zooxanthellate octocorals.

    Sammarco, Paul W; Strychar, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Increases in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as a result of global warming have caused reef-building scleractinian corals to bleach worldwide, a result of the loss of obligate endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Since the 1980's, bleaching severity and frequency has increased, in some cases causing mass mortality of corals. Earlier experiments have demonstrated that zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals from three families from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Faviidae, Poritidae, and Acroporidae) are more sensitive to heat stress than their hosts, exhibiting differential symptoms of programmed cell death - apoptosis and necrosis. Most zooxanthellar phylotypes are dying during expulsion upon release from the host. The host corals appear to be adapted or exapted to the heat increases. We attempt to determine whether this adaptation/exaptation occurs in octocorals by examining the heat-sensitivities of zooxanthellae and their host octocoral alcyonacean soft corals - Sarcophyton ehrenbergi (Alcyoniidae), Sinularia lochmodes (Alcyoniidae), and Xenia elongata (Xeniidae), species from two different families. The soft coral holobionts were subjected to experimental seawater temperatures of 28, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C for 48 hrs. Host and zooxanthellar cells were examined for viability, apoptosis, and necrosis (in hospite and expelled) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescent microscopy (FM), and flow cytometry (FC). As experimental temperatures increased, zooxanthellae generally exhibited apoptotic and necrotic symptoms at lower temperatures than host cells and were expelled. Responses varied species-specifically. Soft coral hosts were adapted/exapted to higher seawater temperatures than their zooxanthellae. As with the scleractinians, the zooxanthellae appear to be the limiting factor for survival of the holobiont in the groups tested, in this region. These limits have now been shown to operate in six species within five families and two orders of the Cnidaria

  14. Responses to high seawater temperatures in zooxanthellate octocorals.

    Paul W Sammarco

    Full Text Available Increases in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs as a result of global warming have caused reef-building scleractinian corals to bleach worldwide, a result of the loss of obligate endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Since the 1980's, bleaching severity and frequency has increased, in some cases causing mass mortality of corals. Earlier experiments have demonstrated that zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals from three families from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Faviidae, Poritidae, and Acroporidae are more sensitive to heat stress than their hosts, exhibiting differential symptoms of programmed cell death - apoptosis and necrosis. Most zooxanthellar phylotypes are dying during expulsion upon release from the host. The host corals appear to be adapted or exapted to the heat increases. We attempt to determine whether this adaptation/exaptation occurs in octocorals by examining the heat-sensitivities of zooxanthellae and their host octocoral alcyonacean soft corals - Sarcophyton ehrenbergi (Alcyoniidae, Sinularia lochmodes (Alcyoniidae, and Xenia elongata (Xeniidae, species from two different families. The soft coral holobionts were subjected to experimental seawater temperatures of 28, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C for 48 hrs. Host and zooxanthellar cells were examined for viability, apoptosis, and necrosis (in hospite and expelled using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fluorescent microscopy (FM, and flow cytometry (FC. As experimental temperatures increased, zooxanthellae generally exhibited apoptotic and necrotic symptoms at lower temperatures than host cells and were expelled. Responses varied species-specifically. Soft coral hosts were adapted/exapted to higher seawater temperatures than their zooxanthellae. As with the scleractinians, the zooxanthellae appear to be the limiting factor for survival of the holobiont in the groups tested, in this region. These limits have now been shown to operate in six species within five families and two orders of

  15. The high temperature impact response of tungsten and chromium

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock waves has been studied in pure polycrystalline tungsten and chromium at room and elevated temperatures over propagation distances ranging from 0.05 to 3 mm (tungsten) and from 0.1 to 2 mm (chromium). The use of fused silica windows in all but one experiment with chromium and in several high temperature experiments with tungsten led to the need for performing shock and optic characterization of these windows over the 300-1200 K temperature interval. Experiments with tungsten and chromium samples showed that annealing of the metals transforms the initial ramping elastic wave into a jump-like wave, substantially increasing the Hugoniot elastic limits of the metals. With increased annealing time, the spall strength of the two metals slightly increases. Both at room and at high temperatures, the elastic precursor in the two metals decays in two distinct regimes. At propagation distances smaller than ˜1 mm (tungsten) or ˜0.5 mm (chromium), decay is fast, with the dislocation motion and multiplication being controlled by phonon viscous drag. At greater distances, the rate of decay becomes much lower, with control of the plastic deformation being passed to the thermally activated generation and motion of dislocation double-kinks. The stress at which this transition takes place virtually coincides with the Peierls stress τP of the active glide system. Analysis of the annealing effects in both presently and previously studied BCC metals (i.e., Ta, V, Nb, Mo, W, and Cr) and of the dependencies of their normalized Peierls stresses τP(θ) /τP(0 ) on the normalized temperature θ=T /Tm allows one to conclude that the non-planar, split into several glide planes, structure of the dislocation core in these metals is mainly responsible for their plastic deformation features.

  16. Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines

    Mitov, Mihail I., E-mail: m.mitov@uky.edu [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Harris, Jennifer W. [Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Alstott, Michael C.; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y. [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Butterfield, D. Allan [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C using assay medium conditions and equipment settings adjusted to produce equal oxygen and pH levels ubiquitously at the beginning of all experiments. The results suggest that temperature significantly changes multiple components of glycolytic and mitochondrial function of all cell lines tested. Under hypothermia conditions (32 °C), the extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) of CRC cells were significantly lower compared to the same basal ECAR levels measured at 37 °C. Mitochondrial stress test for SW480 cells at 37 °C vs 42 °C demonstrated increased proton leak while all other OCR components remained unchanged (similar results were detected also for the patient-derived xenograft cells Pt.93). Interestingly, the FCCP dose response at 37 °C vs 42 °C show significant shifts in profiles, suggesting that single dose FCCP experiments might not be sufficient to characterize the mitochondrial metabolic potential when comparing groups, conditions or treatments. These findings provide valuable insights for the metabolic and bioenergetic changes of CRC cells under hypo- and hyperthermia conditions that could potentially lead to development of better targeted and personalized strategies for patients undergoing combined thermotherapy with chemotherapy.

  17. Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines

    Mitov, Mihail I.; Harris, Jennifer W.; Alstott, Michael C.; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y.; Evers, B. Mark; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2017-01-01

    Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C using assay medium conditions and equipment settings adjusted to produce equal oxygen and pH levels ubiquitously at the beginning of all experiments. The results suggest that temperature significantly changes multiple components of glycolytic and mitochondrial function of all cell lines tested. Under hypothermia conditions (32 °C), the extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) of CRC cells were significantly lower compared to the same basal ECAR levels measured at 37 °C. Mitochondrial stress test for SW480 cells at 37 °C vs 42 °C demonstrated increased proton leak while all other OCR components remained unchanged (similar results were detected also for the patient-derived xenograft cells Pt.93). Interestingly, the FCCP dose response at 37 °C vs 42 °C show significant shifts in profiles, suggesting that single dose FCCP experiments might not be sufficient to characterize the mitochondrial metabolic potential when comparing groups, conditions or treatments. These findings provide valuable insights for the metabolic and bioenergetic changes of CRC cells under hypo- and hyperthermia conditions that could potentially lead to development of better targeted and personalized strategies for patients undergoing combined thermotherapy with chemotherapy.

  18. Age related changes in T cell mediated immune response and effector memory to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV in healthy subjects

    Campoccia Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major pathogen causing respiratory disease in young infants and it is an important cause of serious illness in the elderly since the infection provides limited immune protection against reinfection. In order to explain this phenomenon, we investigated whether healthy adults of different age (20-40; 41-60 and > 60 years, have differences in central and effector memory, RSV-specific CD8+ T cell memory immune response and regulatory T cell expression status. In the peripheral blood of these donors, we were unable to detect any age related difference in term of central (CD45RA-CCR7+ and effector (CD45RA-CCR7- memory T cell frequency. On the contrary, we found a significant increase in immunosuppressive regulatory (CD4+25+FoxP3+ T cells (Treg in the elderly. An immunocytofluorimetric RSV pentamer analysis performed on these donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, in vitro sensitized against RSV antigen, revealed a marked decline in long-lasting RSV specific CD8+ memory T cell precursors expressing interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα, in the elderly. This effect was paralleled by a progressive switch from a Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α to a Th2 (IL-10 functional phenotype. On the contrary, an increase in Treg was observed with aging. The finding of Treg over-expression status, a prominent Th2 response and an inefficient RSV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cell expansion in older donors could explain the poor protection against RSV reinfection and the increased risk to develop an RSV-related severe illness in this population. Our finding also lays the basis for new therapeutic perspectives that could limit or prevent severe RSV infection in elderly.

  19. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  20. Temperature extremes in Europe: mechanisms and responses to climatic change

    Cattiaux, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Europe witnessed a spate of record-breaking warm seasons during the 2000's. As illustrated by the devastating heat-wave of the summer 2003, these episodes induced strong societal and environmental impacts. Such occurrence of exceptional events over a relatively short time period raised up many questionings in the present context of climate change. In particular, can recent temperature extremes be considered as 'previews' of future climate conditions? Do they result from an increasing temperature variability? These questions constitute the main motivations of this thesis. Thus, our work aims to contribute to the understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for seasonal temperature extremes in Europe, in order to anticipate their future statistical characteristics. Involved processes are assessed by both statistical data-analysis of observations and climate projections and regional modeling experiments. First we show that while the inter-annual European temperature variability appears driven by disturbances in the North-Atlantic dynamics, the recent warming is likely to be dissociated with potential circulation changes. This inconsistency climaxes during the exceptionally mild autumn of 2006, whose temperature anomaly is only half explained by the atmospheric flow. Recent warm surface conditions in the North-Atlantic ocean seem to substantially contribute to the European warming in autumn-winter, through the establishment of advective and radiative processes. In spring-summer, since both advection by the westerlies and Atlantic warming are reduced, more local processes appear predominant (e.g. soil moisture, clouds, aerosols). Then the issue of future evolution of the relationship between North-Atlantic dynamics and European temperatures is addressed, based on climate projections of the International Panel on Climate Change. Multi-model analysis, using both flow-analogues and weather regimes methods, show that the inconsistency noticed over recent decades is

  1. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Nuss, Aaron Mischa; Schuster, Franziska; Roselius, Louisa; Klein, Johannes; Bücker, René; Herbst, Katharina; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Pisano, Fabio; Wittmann, Christoph; Münch, Richard; Müller, Johannes; Jahn, Dieter; Dersch, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  2. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Aaron Mischa Nuss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  3. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacilli improves emergency granulopoiesis in protein-malnourished mice and enhances respiratory innate immune response.

    Matias Herrera

    Full Text Available This work studied the effect of protein malnutrition on the hemato-immune response to the respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated whether the dietary recovery with a probiotic strain has a beneficial effect in that response. Three important conclusions can be inferred from the results presented in this work: a protein-malnutrition significantly impairs the emergency myelopoiesis induced by the generation of the innate immune response against pneumococcal infection; b repletion of malnourished mice with treatments including nasally or orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 are able to significantly accelerate the recovery of granulopoiesis and improve innate immunity and; c the immunological mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics vary according to the route of administration. The study demonstrated that dietary recovery of malnourished mice with oral or nasal administration of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 improves emergency granulopoiesis and that CXCR4/CXCR12 signaling would be involved in this effect. Then, the results summarized here are a starting point for future research and open up broad prospects for future applications of probiotics in the recovery of immunocompromised malnourished hosts.

  4. Respiratory gas exchange as a new aid to monitor acidosis in endotoxemic rats: relationship to metabolic fuel substrates and thermometabolic responses.

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Flatow, Elizabeth A; Brito, Camila F; Fonseca, Monique T; Komegae, Evilin N

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the respiratory exchange ratio (RER; the ratio of whole-body CO 2 production to O 2 consumption) as an aid to monitor metabolic acidosis during the early phase of endotoxic shock in unanesthetized, freely moving rats. Two serotypes of lipopolysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] O55:B5 and O127:B8) were tested at shock-inducing doses (0.5-2 mg/kg). Phasic rises in RER were observed consistently across LPS serotypes and doses. The RER rise often exceeded the ceiling of the quotient for oxidative metabolism, and was mirrored by depletion of arterial bicarbonate and decreases in pH It occurred independently of ventilatory adjustments. These data indicate that the rise in RER results from a nonmetabolic CO 2 load produced via an acid-induced equilibrium shift in the bicarbonate buffer. Having validated this new experimental aid, we asked whether acidosis was interconnected with the metabolic and thermal responses that accompany endotoxic shock in unanesthetized rats. Contrary to this hypothesis, however, acidosis persisted regardless of whether the ambient temperature favored or prevented downregulation of mitochondrial oxidation and regulated hypothermia. We then asked whether the substrate that fuels aerobic metabolism could be a relevant factor in LPS-induced acidosis. Food deprivation was employed to divert metabolism away from glucose oxidation and toward fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, this intervention attenuated the RER response to LPS by 58%, without suppressing other key aspects of systemic inflammation. We conclude that acid production in unanesthetized rats with endotoxic shock results from a phasic activation of glycolysis, which occurs independently of physiological changes in mitochondrial oxidation and body temperature. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus to low temperature.

    Jinwei Hu

    Full Text Available The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity.

  6. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...

  7. Respiratory Allergy to Trimellitic Anhydride in Rats: Concentration-Response Relationships during Elicitation

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W. de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated whether airway responses of sensitized rats to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) were concentration dependent and whether these were related to irritation by TMA. Groups of BN and Wistar rats were sensitized by two dermal applications of TMA (50% w/v, followed by 25% w/v in

  8. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  9. Interferon alpha inhibits viral replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFNa), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and c...

  10. GH and cortisol responses following an acute session of respiratory muscle endurance training in severely obese patients.

    Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Gattico, A; Tringali, G; Giunta, M; Muller, E E; Rigamonti, A E

    2013-03-01

    It is well established that obese patients are hypo-responsive to classical GH-releasing stimuli, including aerobic exercise. Recently, we have demonstrated that whole body vibration was able to markedly stimulate GH secretion in obese patients, thus suggesting that this refractoriness is not absolute but dependent on the GH-releasing stimulus. Furthermore, we have shown the ability of a respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) to stimulate GH and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RMET on GH and cortisol responses in severely obese patients. Eight severely obese patients (4 M/4 F, mean age±SEM: 22.8±1.6 years, body mass index, BMI: 39.9±1.1 kg/m2) underwent an incremental progressive RMET protocol of 11 daily sessions, obtained through the use of a specifically designed respiratory device (Spiro Tiger®). The 12th session of RMET (15 min duration: 1 min at a respiration rate of 28 acts/min, 5 min at 32 acts/min, 5 min at 34 acts/min, 4 min at 36 acts/min) was associated with blood samplings for determination of GH, cortisol, and lactate (LA) levels. An age- and sex-matched normal-weighted control group (n=7, 4 M/3 F, age: 26.1±3.1 years, BMI: 22.4±0.6 kg/m2) was also recruited. In both normal-weighted subjects and obese patients, GH secretion significantly increased after a 15-min RMET session. Although serum GH levels at 30 min were higher in normal-weighted subjects than in obese patients, there was no statistically significant difference in either GH peaks or net GH areas under the curve between the 2 groups. RMET significantly increased serum cortisol levels in normal-weighted subjects, but was associated to a progressive cortisol decline in obese patients. RMET stimulated LA production, with no significant differences in normal-weighted subjects and in obese patients. A 15-min RMET session was capable to induce a GH response in severely obese patients, which was comparable to that

  11. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  12. ABO blood group is associated with response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with respiratory failure.

    George T El-Ferzli

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO reduces death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. However, the response to iNO is variable and only 50-60% of infants demonstrate a response to iNO. It is not known why only some infants respond to iNO. Adults and children with blood groups B or AB do not respond as well to iNO as those with blood groups O/A.To determine if blood group was associated with iNO response in newborn infants, a retrospective medical record review was done of infants admitted to a regional NICU from 2002-9 with a diagnosis of PPHN. Data were collected during the first twelve hours post-initiation of treatment. Of 86 infants diagnosed with PPHN, 23 infants had blood group A [18 received iNO], 21 had group B [18 with iNO], 40 had group O [36 with iNO], and 2 had group AB [both received iNO]. Change in PaO(2/FiO(2 was less in infants with blood group A, of whom less than half were responders (ΔPaO(2/FiO(2>20% at 12 h versus 90% of infants with either O or B. Race, sex, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and baseline PaO(2/FiO(2 were similar among groups. Outcomes including need for ECMO, death, length of ventilatory support, length of iNO use, and hospital stay were statistically not different by blood groups.Our results indicate that blood group influences iNO response in neonates. We hypothesize that either there is genetic linkage of the ABO gene locus with vasoregulatory genes, or that blood group antigens directly affect vascular reactivity.

  13. High temperature viscoplastic ratchetting: Material response or modeling artifact

    Freed, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Ratchetting, the net accumulation of strain over a loading cycle, is a deformation mechanism that leads to distortions in shape, often resulting in a loss of function that culminates in structural failure. Viscoplastic ratchetting is prevalent at high homologous temperatures where viscous characteristics are prominent in material response. This deformation mechanism is accentuated by the presence of a mean stress; a consequence of interaction between thermal gradients and structural constraints. Favorable conditions for viscoplastic ratchetting exist in the Stirling engines being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for space and terrestrial power applications. To assess the potential for ratchetting and its effect on durability of high temperature structures requires a viscoplastic analysis of the design. But ratchetting is a very difficult phenomenon to accurately model. One must therefore ask whether the results from such an analysis are indicative of actual material behavior, or if they are artifacts of the theory being used in the analysis. There are several subtle aspects in a viscoplastic model that must be dealt with in order to accurately model ratchetting behavior, and therefore obtain meaningful predictions from it. In this paper, some of these subtlties and the necessary ratchet experiments needed to obtain an accurate viscoplastic representation of a material are discussed

  14. Concurrent Probabilistic Simulation of High Temperature Composite Structural Response

    Abdi, Frank

    1996-01-01

    A computational structural/material analysis and design tool which would meet industry's future demand for expedience and reduced cost is presented. This unique software 'GENOA' is dedicated to parallel and high speed analysis to perform probabilistic evaluation of high temperature composite response of aerospace systems. The development is based on detailed integration and modification of diverse fields of specialized analysis techniques and mathematical models to combine their latest innovative capabilities into a commercially viable software package. The technique is specifically designed to exploit the availability of processors to perform computationally intense probabilistic analysis assessing uncertainties in structural reliability analysis and composite micromechanics. The primary objectives which were achieved in performing the development were: (1) Utilization of the power of parallel processing and static/dynamic load balancing optimization to make the complex simulation of structure, material and processing of high temperature composite affordable; (2) Computational integration and synchronization of probabilistic mathematics, structural/material mechanics and parallel computing; (3) Implementation of an innovative multi-level domain decomposition technique to identify the inherent parallelism, and increasing convergence rates through high- and low-level processor assignment; (4) Creating the framework for Portable Paralleled architecture for the machine independent Multi Instruction Multi Data, (MIMD), Single Instruction Multi Data (SIMD), hybrid and distributed workstation type of computers; and (5) Market evaluation. The results of Phase-2 effort provides a good basis for continuation and warrants Phase-3 government, and industry partnership.

  15. Respiratory dysfunction in swine production facility workers: dose-response relationships of environmental exposures and pulmonary function.

    Donham, K J; Reynolds, S J; Whitten, P; Merchant, J A; Burmeister, L; Popendorf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Human respiratory health hazards for people working in livestock confinement buildings have been recognized since 1974. However, before comprehensive control programs can be implemented, more knowledge is needed of specific hazardous substances present in the air of these buildings, and at what concentrations they are harmful. Therefore, a medical epidemiological and exposure-response study was conducted on 207 swine producers using intensive housing systems (108 farms). Dose-response relationships between pulmonary function and exposures are reported here. Positive correlations were seen between change in pulmonary function over a work period and exposure to total dust, respirable dust, ammonia, respirable endotoxin, and the interactions of age-of-producer and dust exposure and years-of-working-in-the-facility and dust exposure. Relationships between baseline pulmonary function and exposures were not strong and therefore, not pursued in this study. The correlations between exposure and response were stronger after 6 years of exposure. Multiple regression models were used to identify total dust and ammonia as the two primary environmental predictors of pulmonary function decrements over a work period. The regression models were then used to determine exposure concentrations related to pulmonary function decrements suggestive of a health hazard. Total dust concentrations > or = 2.8 mg/m3 were predictive of a work period decrement of > or = 10% in FEV1. Ammonia concentrations of > or = 7.5 ppm were predictive of a > or = 3% work period decrement in FEV1. These predictive concentrations were similar to a previous dose-response study, which suggested 2.5 mg/m3 of total dust and 7 ppm of NH3 were associated with significant work period decrements. Therefore, dust > or = 2.8 mg/m3 and ammonia > or = 7.5 ppm should be considered reasonable evidence for guidelines regarding hazardous exposure concentrations in this work environment.

  16. Effects of xylazine, medetomidine, detomidine, and diazepam on sedation, heart and respiratory rates, and cloacal temperature in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca).

    Uzun, Metehan; Onder, Feyyaz; Atalan, Gultekin; Cenesiz, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet; Yildiz, Sedat

    2006-06-01

    In this study, heart and respiratory rates, cloacal temperature, and quality of sedation were evaluated before (0 min) and after (10, 20, and 30 min) i.m. administration of xylazine (10 mg/kg; n = 7), medetomidine (75 li; n = 6), detcmidine (0.3 mg/kg; n = 6), or diazepam (6 mg/kg; n = 7) in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca). All partridges recovered from sedation without any disturbance. Xylazine and diazepam administration did not induce significant changes in heart rate, which did decrease significantly after medetomidine and detomidine administration (P detomidine injection (P detomidine, 2.6 +/- 0.4 min for diazepam, 3.1 -+/-.4 min for xylazine, and 4.8+/-0.8 min for medetomidine application. There was an extreme variability in time to recovery for each drug: 205 +/-22.2 min for xylazine, 95 -12.2 min for medetomidine, 260+/-17.6 min for detomidine, and 149 + 8.3 min for diazepam. In conclusion, xylazine, medetomidine, detomidine, and diazepam produced sedation, which could permit some clinical procedures such as handling and radiographic examination of partridges to occur. Of the four drugs, xylazine produced stronger and more efficient sedation compared to the others, which could permit only minor procedures to be performed. However, depending on the drug used, monitoring of heart and respiratory rates and cloacal temperature might be required.

  17. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P physiological responses induced by ETC and VS, separately or in association, on chronically heat-stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  18. Systemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination in Cattle Promotes Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells at the Respiratory Tract and Triggers Local Anamnestic Responses upon Aerosol Infection.

    Pega, J; Di Giacomo, S; Bucafusco, D; Schammas, J M; Malacari, D; Barrionuevo, F; Capozzo, A V; Rodríguez, L L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated FMD virus (FMDV), are regularly used worldwide to control the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. Animals immunized with a high-payload monovalent FMD vaccine developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies at 7 days postvaccination (dpv), reaching a plateau at 29 dpv. FMDV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), predominantly IgM, were evident at 7 dpv in the prescapular lymph node (LN) draining the vaccination site and in distal LN draining the respiratory mucosa, although in lower numbers. At 29 dpv, a significant switch to IgG1 was clear in prescapular LN, while FMDV-specific ASC were detected in all lymphoid tissues draining the respiratory tract, mostly as IgM-secreting cells. None of the animals (n = 10) exhibited FMD symptoms after oronasal challenge at 30 dpv. Three days postinfection, a large increase in ASC numbers and rapid isotype switches to IgG1 were observed, particularly in LN-draining virus replication sites already described. These results indicate for the first time that systemic FMD vaccination in cattle effectively promotes the presence of anti-FMDV ASC in lymphoid tissues associated with the respiratory system. Oronasal infection triggered an immune reaction compatible with a local anamnestic response upon contact with the replicating FMDV, suggesting that FMD vaccination induces the circulation of virus-specific B lymphocytes, including memory B cells that differentiate into ASC soon after contact with the infective virus. Over recent decades, world animal health organizations as well as national sanitary authorities have supported the use of vaccination as an essential component of the official FMD control programs in both endemic and disease-free settings. Very few

  19. Respiratory Failure

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  20. Respiratory system

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  1. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  2. Evaluation of the ability of standardized supports to improve public health response to syndromic surveillance for respiratory diseases in Canada

    Laura A. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Syndromic Surveillance Evaluation Study was to develop and implement standardized supports in local public health agencies in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the ability of these supports to affect actions taken as part of public health communicable disease control programs. Methods Local public health agencies (LPHA in Ontario, which used syndromic surveillance based on emergency department visits for respiratory disease, were recruited and randomly allocated to the study intervention or control group. The intervention group health agencies received standardized supports in terms of a standardized aberrant event detection algorithm and a response protocol dictating steps to investigate and assess the public health significance of syndromic surveillance alerts. The control group continued with their pre-existing syndromic surveillance infrastructure and processes. Outcomes were assessed using logbooks, which collected quantitative and qualitative information about alerts received, investigation steps taken, and public health responses. The study was conducted prospectively for 15 months (October 2013 to February 2015. Results Fifteen LPHAs participated in the study (n = 9 intervention group, n = 6 control group. A total of 1,969 syndromic surveillance alerts were received by all LPHAs. Variations in the types and amount of responses varied by LPHA, in particularly differences were noted by the size of the health unit. Smaller health units had more challenges to both detect and mount a response to any alerts. LPHAs in the control group were more likely to declare alerts to have public

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers

    Jespersen, Lillian; Tarnow, Inge; Eskesen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics can modulate the immune system in healthy individuals and may help reduce symptoms related to respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 (Chr...... inhibition) 21 d after vaccination. Other outcomes were seroconversion rate and mean titers, influenza A-specific antibodies and incidence, and duration and severity of upper respiratory symptoms. Antibiotic use and use of health care resources were recorded. RESULTS: There was no effect of L. casei 431...... on immune responses to influenza vaccination. Generalized linear mixed modeling showed a shorter duration of upper respiratory symptoms in the probiotic group compared with placebo (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 6.1 d vs. 7.3 ± 9.7 d, P = 0.0059) in the last 3 wk of the intervention period. No statistically significant...

  4. Immune sensitization to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI resulting from skin exposure: albumin as a carrier protein connecting skin exposure to subsequent respiratory responses

    Redlich Carrie A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI, a reactive chemical used for commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. The major focus of disease prevention efforts to date has been respiratory tract exposure; however, skin exposure may also be an important route for inducing immune sensitization, which may promote subsequent airway inflammatory responses. We developed a murine model to investigate pathogenic mechanisms by which MDI skin exposure might promote subsequent immune responses, including respiratory tract inflammation. Methods Mice exposed via the skin to varying doses (0.1-10% w/v of MDI diluted in acetone/olive oil were subsequently evaluated for MDI immune sensitization. Serum levels of MDI-specific IgG and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA, while respiratory tract inflammation, induced by intranasal delivery of MDI-mouse albumin conjugates, was evaluated based on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Autologous serum IgG from "skin only" exposed mice was used to detect and guide the purification/identification of skin proteins antigenically modified by MDI exposure in vivo. Results Skin exposure to MDI resulted in specific antibody production and promoted subsequent respiratory tract inflammation in animals challenged intranasally with MDI-mouse albumin conjugates. The degree of (secondary respiratory tract inflammation and eosinophilia depended upon the (primary skin exposure dose, and was maximal in mice exposed to 1% MDI, but paradoxically limited in mice receiving 10-fold higher doses (e.g. 10% MDI. The major antigenically-modified protein at the local MDI skin exposure site was identified as albumin, and demonstrated biophysical changes consistent with MDI conjugation. Conclusions MDI skin exposure can induce MDI-specific immune sensitivity and promote subsequent respiratory tract inflammatory responses and thus, may play an important role in MDI asthma

  5. Distinct respiratory responses of soils to complex organic substrate are governed predominantly by soil architecture and its microbial community.

    Fraser, F C; Todman, L C; Corstanje, R; Deeks, L K; Harris, J A; Pawlett, M; Whitmore, A P; Ritz, K

    2016-12-01

    Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder). Four respiratory response archetypes were observed, characterised by different rates of respiration as well as different time-dependent patterns. We also found that it was possible to predict, with 95% accuracy, which type of respiratory behaviour a soil would exhibit based on certain physical and chemical soil properties combined with the size and phenotypic structure of the microbial community. Bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity and microbial community phenotype were identified as the four most important factors in predicting the soils' respiratory responses using a Bayesian belief network. These results show that the size and constitution of the microbial community are as important as physico-chemical properties of a soil in governing the respiratory response to OM addition. Such a combination suggests that the 'architecture' of the soil, i.e. the integration of the spatial organisation of the environment and the interactions between the communities living and functioning within the pore networks, is fundamentally important in regulating such processes.

  6. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  7. Temperature response of respiration across heterogeneous microtopography in the Arctic tundra, Utqiaġvik, Alaska

    Wilkman, E.; Zona, D.; Tang, Y.; Gioli, B.; Lipson, D.; Oechel, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    The response of ecosystem respiration to warming in the Arctic is not well constrained, partly due to the presence of ice-wedge polygons in continuous permafrost areas. These formations lead to substantial variation in vegetation, soil moisture, water table, and active layer depth over the meter scale that can drive respiratory carbon loss. Accurate calculations of in-situ temperature sensitivities (Q10) are vital for the prediction of future Arctic emissions, and while the eddy covariance technique has commonly been used to determine the diurnal and season patterns of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2, the lack of suitable dark periods in the Arctic summer has limited our ability to estimate and interpret ecosystem respiration. To therefore improve our understanding of and define controls on ecosystem respiration, we directly compared CO2 fluxes measured from automated chambers across the main local polygonised landscape forms (high and low centers, polygon rims, and polygon troughs) to estimates from an adjacent eddy covariance tower. Low-centered polygons and polygon troughs had the greatest cumulative respiration rates, and ecosystem type appeared to be the most important explanatory variable for these rates. Despite the difference in absolute respiration rates, Q10 was surprisingly similar across all microtopographic features, despite contrasting water levels and vegetation types. Conversely, Q10 varied temporally, with higher values during the early and late summer and lower values during the peak growing season. Finally, good agreement was found between chamber and tower based Q10 estimates during the peak growing season. Overall, this study suggests that it is possible to simplify estimates of the temperature sensitivity of respiration across heterogeneous landscapes, but that seasonal changes in Q10 should be incorporated into current and future model simulations.

  8. Analysis of the influence of respiratory disorders observed in preoperative spirometry on the dynamics of early inflammatory response in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Szylińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Mariusz J; Rotter, Iwona; Rył, Aleksandra; Biskupski, Andrzej; Brykczyński, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative spirometry provides measurable information about the occurrence of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association between preoperative spirometry abnormalities and the intensification of early inflammatory responses in patients following coronary artery bypass graft in extracorporeal circulation. The study involved 810 patients (625 men and 185 women) aged 65.4±7.9 years who were awaiting isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. On the basis of spirometry performed on the day of admittance to the hospital, the patients were divided into three groups. Patients without respiratory problems constituted 78.8% of the entire group. Restricted breathing was revealed by spirometry in 14.9% and obstructive breathing in 6.3% of patients. Inter-group analysis showed statistically significant differences in C-reactive protein (CRP) between patients with restrictive spirometry abnormalities and patients without any pulmonary dysfunction. CRP concentrations differed before surgery ( P =0.006) and on the second ( P spirometry results from restrictive respiratory disorders have an elevated level of generalized inflammatory response both before and after the isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Therefore, this group of patients should be given special postoperative monitoring and, in particular, intensive respiratory rehabilitation immediately after reconstitution.

  9. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  10. Novel insights into host responses and reproductive pathophysiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome caused by PRRSV-2.

    Harding, John C S; Ladinig, Andrea; Novakovic, Predrag; Detmer, Susan E; Wilkinson, Jamie M; Yang, Tianfu; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham S

    2017-09-01

    A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining. Viral load at the maternal-fetal interface was a strong predictor of viral load in fetal thymus and odds of fetal death. However, interferon-alpha suppression, a consequence of PRRSV infection, was protective against fetal death. Although the prevalence of fetal lesions was low, their presence in fetal organs and umbilical cord was strongly associated with fetal compromise. Fetal death and viral load clustered in litters suggesting inter-fetal transmission starting from a limited number of index fetuses. Factors associated with index fetal infection are unclear, but large fetuses appear at greater risk. Disease progression in fetuses was associated with an up-regulation of genes associated with inflammation, innate immunity, and cell death signaling, and down-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle and lymphocyte quality. A number of maternal transcriptomic responses were associated with PRRS resilience including higher basal gene expression correlated with platelet function, interferon and pro-inflammatory responses. Twenty-one genomic regions across 10 chromosomes were associated with important traits including fetal viral load, fetal death and viability suggesting that selection for reproductive PRRS resilience may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Temperature

    water temperature changes associated with urbanization, heated surface runoff associated with urbanization, how temperature changes associated with urbanization can affect stream biota, interactive effects of urbanizaiton and climate change.

  12. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures.

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-06-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  13. Temperature and relative humidity dependence of radiochromic film dosimeter response to gamma electron radiation

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Puhl, J.M.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    on some earlier studies, their response functions have been reported to be dependent on the temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The present study investigates differences in response over practical ranges of temperature, relative humidity, dose, and for different recent batches of films...... humidity) and should be calibrated under environmental conditions (temperature) at which they will be used routinely....

  14. Temperature response of soil respiration is dependent on concentration of readily decomposable C

    Larionova, A. A.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting soil CO2 efflux associated with the increase in global mean temperature. A reasonable explanation for an apparent acclimation proposed by Davidson and colleagues (2006) based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggests that temperature sensitivity decreases when both maximal activity of respiratory enzymes (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Ks) cancel each other upon temperature increase. We tested the hypothesis of the canceling effect by the mathematical simulation of data obtained in incubation experiments with forest and arable soils. Our data support the hypothesis and suggest that concentration of readily decomposable C substrate (as glucose equivalents) and temperature dependent substrate release are the important factors controlling temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The highest temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was observed when substrate release was temperature dependent and C substrate concentration was much lower than Ks. Increase of substrate content to the half-saturation constant by glucose addition resulted in temperature acclimation associated with the canceling effect. Addition of the substrate to the level providing respiration at a maximal rate Vmax leads to the acclimation of the whole microbial community as such. However, growing microbial biomass was more sensitive to the temperature alterations. This study improves our understanding of the instability of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under field conditions, attributing this phenomenon to changes in concentration of readily decomposable C substrate.

  15. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal differences in human responses to increasing temperatures

    Kitazawa, Sachie; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    to be sleepier. Heart rate slightly increased during exposure, and SpO2 and ETCO2 began to decrease while core temperature started to increase. Performance of Tsai-partington test and addition test improved during exposures due to learning though lesser in winter. Results show negative effects of the temperature......Experiments were conducted in late summer and winter with 80 young and elderly Danish subjects exposed for 3.5 hours in a climate chamber to the temperature increasing from 24°C to 35.2°C at a rate of 3.7K/h. Psychological and physiological measurements were performed during exposure and subjects...... assessed comfort and acute health symptoms. Thermal sensation increased with increasing chamber temperature and did not differ during late summer and winter exposures. Skin temperature increased with increasing temperature and was slightly but significantly higher in the late summer in the first half...

  17. Respiratory properties of blood and arterial blood gases in the tegu lizard: effects of temperature and hypercapnia.

    Wood, S C; Glass, M L; Andersen, N A; Heisler, N

    1987-01-01

    The effects of body temperature and hypercapnia (7% inspired CO2) on arterial blood gases, plasma pH, and the characteristics of the blood oxygen dissociation curve were determined in Tegu lizards (Tupinambis nigropunctatus). Arterial pH fell from 7.59 to 7.50 when body temperature was increased from 25 to 35 degrees C. The pH/temperature coefficient (delta pH/delta t = -0.009 U/degrees C) was half of that predicted on the basis of 'constant relative alkalinity' and the alphastat hypothesis. The fall in plasma pH resulted from a decrease in plasma [HCO3-], and a rise in plasma Pco2. The O2 affinity of Tegu blood, expressed by the partial pressure at half saturation (P50), decreased with temperature in vitro from 42.3 to 49.6 torr at pH 7.4. The apparent enthalpy (delta H = -3.1 kcal/mol) is about 1/4 of that of human blood. In vivo, the arterial blood oxygen saturation decreased from 89% at 25 degrees to 82% at 35 degrees C. Arterial Po2 increased from 61 to 71 torr as expected from the right-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. During environmental hypercapnia (7% CO2, 21% O2, 72% N2 inspired concentrations), arterial pH decreased to 7.28. Arterial O2 saturation remained constant and arterial Po2 increased from 61 to 85 torr due to the right-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. The comparatively small effect of changes in temperature on the oxygen affinity of Tegu blood (directly according to the delta H value, and indirectly via changes in blood pH) results in a relatively small right shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, and accordingly in relatively high arterial and tissue Po2 values also at higher temperatures.

  18. Exposure to field vs. storage wheat dust: different consequences on respiratory symptoms and immune response among grain workers.

    Barrera, Coralie; Wild, Pascal; Dorribo, Victor; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Laboissière, Audrey; Pralong, Jacques A; Danuser, Brigitta; Krief, Peggy; Millon, Laurence; Reboux, Gabriel; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2018-05-26

    The aim of this study was to understand the differential acute effects of two distinct wheat-related dusts, such as field or stored wheat dust handling, on workers' health and how those effects evolved at 6 month intervals. Exposure, work-related symptoms, changes in lung function, and blood samples of 81 workers handling wheat and 61 controls were collected during the high exposure season and 6 months after. Specific IgG, IgE, and precipitins against 12 fungi isolated from wheat dust were titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay, and electrosyneresis. The level of fungi was determined in the workers' environment. Levels of exhaled fraction of nitrogen monoxide (F E NO) and total IgE were obtained. Exposure response associations were investigated by mixed logistic and linear regression models. The recent exposure to field wheat dust was associated with a higher prevalence for five of six self-reported airway symptoms and with a lower F E NO than those in the control population. Exposure to stored wheat dust was only associated with cough. No acute impact of exposure on respiratory function was observed. Exposure to field wheat dust led to workers' sensitization against the three field fungi Aureobasidum, Cryptococcus, and Phoma, although exposure to storage wheat dust was associated with tolerance. The level of Ig remained stable 6 months after exposure. The clinical picture of workers exposed to field or storage wheat dust differed. The systematic characterization of the aerosol microbial profile may help to understand the reasons for those differences.

  19. SaeRS Is Responsive to Cellular Respiratory Status and Regulates Fermentative Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; Gries, Casey M; Scherr, Tyler D; Kielian, Tammy; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms living as a quorum rather than as individual cells. The bacterial human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor during respiration. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. We recently reported that impaired respiration elicits a p rogrammed c ell l ysis (PCL) phenomenon in S. aureus leading to the release of cellular polymers that are utilized to form biofilms. PCL is dependent upon the AtlA murein hydrolase and is regulated, in part, by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS). In the current study, we report that the SaeRS TCRS also governs fermentative biofilm formation by positively influencing AtlA activity. The SaeRS-modulated factor fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) also contributed to the fermentative biofilm formation phenotype. SaeRS-dependent biofilm formation occurred in response to changes in cellular respiratory status. Genetic evidence presented suggests that a high cellular titer of phosphorylated SaeR is required for biofilm formation. Epistasis analyses found that SaeRS and SrrAB influence biofilm formation independently of one another. Analyses using a mouse model of orthopedic implant-associated biofilm formation found that both SaeRS and SrrAB govern host colonization. Of these two TCRSs, SrrAB was the dominant system driving biofilm formation in vivo We propose a model wherein impaired cellular respiration stimulates SaeRS via an as yet undefined signal molecule(s), resulting in increasing expression of AtlA and FnBPA and biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Physiologic response to varying levels of pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in patients with acute respiratory failure.

    Colombo, Davide; Cammarota, Gianmaria; Bergamaschi, Valentina; De Lucia, Marta; Corte, Francesco Della; Navalesi, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a new mode wherein the assistance is provided in proportion to diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi). We assessed the physiologic response to varying levels of NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV). ICU of a University Hospital. Fourteen intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. DESIGN AND PROTOCOL: Cross-over, prospective, randomized controlled trial. PSV was set to obtain a VT/kg of 6-8 ml/kg with an active inspiration. NAVA was matched with a dedicated software. The assistance was decreased and increased by 50% with both modes. The six assist levels were randomly applied. Arterial blood gases (ABGs), tidal volume (VT/kg), peak EAdi, airway pressure (Paw), neural and flow-based timing. Asynchrony was calculated using the asynchrony index (AI). There was no difference in ABGs regardless of mode and assist level. The differences in breathing pattern, ventilator assistance, and respiratory drive and timing between PSV and NAVA were overall small at the two lower assist levels. At the highest assist level, however, we found greater VT/kg (9.1 +/- 2.2 vs. 7.1 +/- 2 ml/kg, P < 0.001), and lower breathing frequency (12 +/- 6 vs. 18 +/- 8.2, P < 0.001) and peak EAdi (8.6 +/- 10.5 vs. 12.3 +/- 9.0, P < 0.002) in PSV than in NAVA; we found mismatch between neural and flow-based timing in PSV, but not in NAVA. AI exceeded 10% in five (36%) and no (0%) patients with PSV and NAVA, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to PSV, NAVA averted the risk of over-assistance, avoided patient-ventilator asynchrony, and improved patient-ventilator interaction.

  1. Distinct mechanisms underlie adaptation of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in response to chronic metabolic and respiratory acidosis.

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Imenez; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2012-04-01

    The Na(+/)H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is essential for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The expression and function of NHE3 must adapt to acid-base conditions. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for higher proton secretion in proximal tubules during acidosis and to evaluate whether there are differences between metabolic and respiratory acidosis with regard to NHE3 modulation and, if so, to identify the relevant parameters that may trigger these distinct adaptive responses. We achieved metabolic acidosis by lowering HCO(3)(-) concentration in the cell culture medium and respiratory acidosis by increasing CO(2) tension in the incubator chamber. We found that cell-surface NHE3 expression was increased in response to both forms of acidosis. Mild (pH 7.21 ± 0.02) and severe (6.95 ± 0.07) metabolic acidosis increased mRNA levels, at least in part due to up-regulation of transcription, whilst mild (7.11 ± 0.03) and severe (6.86 ± 0.01) respiratory acidosis did not up-regulate NHE3 expression. Analyses of the Nhe3 promoter region suggested that the regulatory elements sensitive to metabolic acidosis are located between -466 and -153 bp, where two consensus binding sites for SP1, a transcription factor up-regulated in metabolic acidosis, were localised. We conclude that metabolic acidosis induces Nhe3 promoter activation, which results in higher mRNA and total protein level. At the plasma membrane surface, NHE3 expression was increased in metabolic and respiratory acidosis alike, suggesting that low pH is responsible for NHE3 displacement to the cell surface.

  2. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  3. Physiological responses of rice to increased day and night temperatures

    Shi, Wanju

    2017-01-01

    A more rapid increase in night-time temperature compared with day-time temperature and the increased frequency of heat waves associated with climate change present a serious threat to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and food security. This thesis aims to understand the impact of high

  4. The progestin etonogestrel enhances the respiratory response to metabolic acidosis in newborn rats. Evidence for a mechanism involving supramedullary structures.

    Loiseau, Camille; Osinski, Diane; Joubert, Fanny; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Central congenital hypoventilation syndrome is a neuro-respiratory disease characterized by the dysfunction of the CO2/H(+) chemosensitive neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group. A recovery of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity has been observed in some central congenital hypoventilation syndrome patients coincidental with contraceptive treatment by a potent progestin, desogestrel (Straus et al., 2010). The mechanisms of this progestin effect remain unknown, although structures of medulla oblongata, midbrain or diencephalon are known to be targets for progesterone. In the present study, on ex vivo preparations of central nervous system of newborn rats, we show that acute exposure to etonogestrel (active metabolite of desogestrel) enhanced the increased respiratory frequency induced by metabolic acidosis via a mechanism involving supramedullary structures located in pontine, mesencephalic or diencephalic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response localization of the pharmacological agents histamine and salbutamol along the respiratory system by forced oscillations in asthmatic subjects.

    Wouters, E F; Polko, A H; Visser, B F

    1989-01-01

    The bronchodilating effect of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 25 asthmatic subjects after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine caused an increase of respiratory resistance (Rrs) at lower frequencies and a frequency dependence of Rrs. Respiratory reactance (Xrs) decreased at all frequencies after histamine challenge. These changes can be explained by peripheral airway obstruction. Impedance measurements performed 5 min after inhalation of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol showed a decrease of Rrs values at lower frequencies, a disappearance of the frequency dependence of Rrs, and a significant increase of Xrs values. No significant differences in absolute changes of Rrs and Xrs are observed between the salbutamol regimens. These changes after inhalation of salbutamol can be explained by supposing a predominant action on the peripheral airways.

  6. Cellular respiration, oxygen consumption, and trade-offs of the jellyfish Cassiopea sp. in response to temperature change

    Aljbour, Samir M.; Zimmer, Martin; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Pelagic jellyfish blooms are increasing worldwide as a potential response to climate-change. However, virtually nothing is known about physiological responses of jellyfish to e.g. sudden changes in water temperature due to extreme weather events. When confronted with a sudden decrease or increase in water temperature by 6 °C, medusae of Cassiopea sp. exhibited a strong response in locomotor activity (i.e., bell pulsation increased and decreased by ca. 37 and 46% in hot and cold acute (2 h) treatments, respectively) relative to control. Although medusae significantly gained in body mass (wet weight) upon chronic (2 weeks) heat treatment, their body size (e.g., bell diameter) did not change over this time interval. In contrast, chronic cold treatment resulted in both significant shrinking (reduced diameter) and mass loss. Measurements of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) activities and rate of respiratory oxygen uptake (MO2) are good estimates of energy consumption and the potential aerobic metabolic rates of an organism. While both acute treatments significantly increased ETS-activities, acclimation over two weeks resulted in a drop in activities to the control levels. Whereas acute heat treatment significantly increased MO2, chronic exposure resulted in significant MO2 decrease compared to control; however no changes in MO2 could be observed in both acute and chronic cold treatments. Overall these results suggest an enhanced growth in response to global warming, whereas low temperatures may set the limits for successful invasion of Cassiopea into colder water bodies. Our results provide a framework for understanding the physiological tolerance of Cassiopea under possible future climate changes.

  7. Different patterns of transcriptomic response to high temperature ...

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The objectives of this study were: (i) to shed light on how genome doubling affects ... for 24 h with the same photoperiod and light intensity as control. After the high temperature ..... in photosynthesis. Photosynth. Res., 98: ...

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Levels of electrolyte leak and MDA were lower than in UD189 or UD191. Poplar hybrid clones ... humidity, exposure, and water status and health conditions of ... consecutive low temperature treatment; and to detect variation ...

  9. Decline in snowfall in response to temperature in Satluj basin ...

    The study also consists an analysis of average values of annual snowfall and temperature ... During the study, it was observed that the snowfall exhibited declining trends in the basin. ... National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247 667, India.

  10. Respiratory mechanics

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  11. The responses of microbial temperature relationships to seasonal change and winter warming in a temperate grassland.

    Birgander, Johanna; Olsson, Pål Axel; Rousk, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    Microorganisms dominate the decomposition of organic matter and their activities are strongly influenced by temperature. As the carbon (C) flux from soil to the atmosphere due to microbial activity is substantial, understanding temperature relationships of microbial processes is critical. It has been shown that microbial temperature relationships in soil correlate with the climate, and microorganisms in field experiments become more warm-tolerant in response to chronic warming. It is also known that microbial temperature relationships reflect the seasons in aquatic ecosystems, but to date this has not been investigated in soil. Although climate change predictions suggest that temperatures will be mostly affected during winter in temperate ecosystems, no assessments exist of the responses of microbial temperature relationships to winter warming. We investigated the responses of the temperature relationships of bacterial growth, fungal growth, and respiration in a temperate grassland to seasonal change, and to 2 years' winter warming. The warming treatments increased winter soil temperatures by 5-6°C, corresponding to 3°C warming of the mean annual temperature. Microbial temperature relationships and temperature sensitivities (Q 10 ) could be accurately established, but did not respond to winter warming or to seasonal temperature change, despite significant shifts in the microbial community structure. The lack of response to winter warming that we demonstrate, and the strong response to chronic warming treatments previously shown, together suggest that it is the peak annual soil temperature that influences the microbial temperature relationships, and that temperatures during colder seasons will have little impact. Thus, mean annual temperatures are poor predictors for microbial temperature relationships. Instead, the intensity of summer heat-spells in temperate systems is likely to shape the microbial temperature relationships that govern the soil-atmosphere C

  12. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  13. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik

    2010-01-01

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  14. Temperature response to future urbanization and climate change

    Argüeso, Daniel; Evans, Jason P.; Fita, Lluís; Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the impact of future urban expansion on local near-surface temperature for Sydney (Australia) using a future climate scenario (A2). The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the present (1990-2009) and future (2040-2059) climates of the region at 2-km spatial resolution. The standard land use of the model was replaced with a more accurate dataset that covers the Sydney area. The future simulation incorporates the projected changes in the urban area of Sydney to account for the expected urban expansion. A comparison between areas with projected land use changes and their surroundings was conducted to evaluate how urbanization and global warming will act together and to ascertain their combined effect on the local climate. The analysis of the temperature changes revealed that future urbanization will strongly affect minimum temperature, whereas little impact was detected for maximum temperature. The minimum temperature changes will be noticeable throughout the year. However, during winter and spring these differences will be particularly large and the increases could be double the increase due to global warming alone at 2050. Results indicated that the changes were mostly due to increased heat capacity of urban structures and reduced evaporation in the city environment.

  15. Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid production.

    Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Aizawa, Masayo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Fujii, Masamitsu; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2009-03-01

    In acute respiratory alkalosis, the severity of alkalaemia is ameliorated by a decrease in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] of 0.2 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg decrease in PaCO(2). Although hyperventilation in panic disorder patients is frequently encountered in outpatients, the drop in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] sometimes surpasses the expectation calculated from the above formula. The quantitative relationship between reduced PaCO(2) and plasma [HCO(3)(-)] in acute respiratory alkalosis has not been studied in panic disorder patients. Our objective was to provide reference data for the compensatory metabolic changes in acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder patients. In 34 panic disorder patients with hyperventilation attacks, we measured arterial pH, PaCO(2), plasma [HCO(3)(-)] and lactate on arrival at the emergency room. For each decrease of 1 mmHg in PaCO(2), plasma [HCO(3)(-)] decreased by 0.41 mEq/L. During hypocapnia, panic disorder patients exhibited larger increases in serum lactate levels (mean +/- SD; 2.59 +/- 1.50 mmol/L, range; 0.78-7.78 mmol/L) than previously reported in non-panic disorder subjects. Plasma lactate accumulation was correlated with PaCO(2) (P respiratory alkalosis is exaggerated by increased lactic acid production in panic disorder patients. Here, we call attention to the diagnosis of acid-base derangements by means of plasma [HCO(3)(-)] and lactate concentration in panic disorder patients.

  16. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance

    Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.P.; Salguero, F.J.; Sánchez Cordón, P.J.; Mokhtar, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Weesendorp, E.; Bodman-Smith, K.B.; Steinbach, F.; Frossard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the

  17. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  18. Will jumping snails prevail? Influence of near-future CO₂, temperature and hypoxia on respiratory performance in the tropical conch Gibberulus gibberulus gibbosus.

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L; Nilsson, Göran E

    2015-10-01

    Tropical coral reef organisms are predicted to be especially sensitive to ocean warming because many already live close to their upper thermal limit, and the expected rise in ocean CO2 is proposed to further reduce thermal tolerance. Little, however, is known about the thermal sensitivity of a diverse and abundant group of reef animals, the gastropods. The humpbacked conch (Gibberulus gibberulus gibbosus), inhabiting subtidal zones of the Great Barrier Reef, was chosen as a model because vigorous jumping, causing increased oxygen uptake (ṀO2 ), can be induced by exposure to odour from a predatory cone snail (Conus marmoreus). We investigated the effect of present-day ambient (417-454 µatm) and projected-future (955-987 µatm) PCO2 on resting (ṀO2 , rest) and maximum (ṀO2 , max) ṀO2 , as well as ṀO2 during hypoxia and critical oxygen tension (PO2 , crit), in snails kept at present-day ambient (28°C) or projected-future temperature (33°C). ṀO2 , rest and ṀO2 , max were measured both at the acclimation temperature and during an acute 5°C increase. Jumping caused a 4- to 6-fold increase in ṀO2 , and ṀO2 , max increased with temperature so that absolute aerobic scope was maintained even at 38°C, although factorial scope was reduced. The humpbacked conch has a high hypoxia tolerance with a PO2 , crit of 2.5 kPa at 28°C and 3.5 kPa at 33°C. There was no effect of elevated CO2 on respiratory performance at any temperature. Long-term temperature records and our field measurements suggest that habitat temperature rarely exceeds 32.6°C during the summer, indicating that these snails have aerobic capacity in excess of current and future needs. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis.

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R; Nilsson, Göran E; Stecyk, Jonathan A W

    2014-12-15

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (Ṁ(O₂)) in normoxia (19.8 kPa P(O₂)) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard Ṁ(O₂) in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum Ṁ(O₂) and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard Ṁ(O₂) was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard Ṁ(O₂) in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain Ṁ(O₂) through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard Ṁ(O₂) was reduced by ∼30-50%. P(crit) was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in P(crit), gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes

    Mokochinski, Joao Benhur; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric Cornelis Hendricus; Hall, Robert David

    2018-01-01

    Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may

  1. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in pacing rhythm are translated into functional and metabolic changes that can be significantly reflected in the final results of an athlete. Method: Ten male subjects, with moderate performance level (age: 25.2 ± 2.2 years; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 ml kg−1 min−1, performed four 5-min races with different pacing strategies: constant-pace (CP, record-pace (RP, kicker-pace (KP, incremental-pace (IP. Results: The cardio-respiratory response did not show statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the energetic efficiency among the protocols CP vs. RP, CP vs. KP and RP vs. IP. When results were analyzed by partials (1-min duration phases, significant differences were observed in the energetic efficiency during the 3rd-min among CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP and KP vs. IP. These significant differences were extended to the 4th-min when comparing CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP and KP vs. IP. In the last minute of the test, there were significant differences among CP vs. KP. No significant differences were found in any of the variables assessing anaerobic metabolism (accumulated oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate between both protocols. Conclusions: Results suggest that the main functional systems response are significantly affected by the pacing strategy used by middle-level subjects during middle-distance running. Resumen: Objetivo: Los cambios en el ritmo de carrera se traducen en cambios funcionales y metabólicos que pueden reflejarse significativamente en los resultados finales de un atleta. Método: Diez sujetos varones, con un nivel medio (edad: 25.2 ± 2.2 años; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 mlkg−1min−1, llevaron a cabo carreras de 5 minutos con diferentes estrategias: ritmo constante (RC, ritmo récord (RR, ritmo kicker (RK y ritmo incremental (RI. Resultados: La respuesta

  2. Adsorption behavior of proteins on temperature-responsive resins

    Poplewska, I.; Muca, R.; Strachota, Adam; Piatkowski, W.; Antos, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1324, 10 January (2014), s. 181-189 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bioseparations * N-isopropylacrylamide * thermo-responsible resins Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  3. Predicting long-term temperature increase for time-dependent SAR levels with a single short-term temperature response.

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Bruno, Mary; Collins, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Present a novel method for rapid prediction of temperature in vivo for a series of pulse sequences with differing levels and distributions of specific energy absorption rate (SAR). After the temperature response to a brief period of heating is characterized, a rapid estimate of temperature during a series of periods at different heating levels is made using a linear heat equation and impulse-response (IR) concepts. Here the initial characterization and long-term prediction for a complete spine exam are made with the Pennes' bioheat equation where, at first, core body temperature is allowed to increase and local perfusion is not. Then corrections through time allowing variation in local perfusion are introduced. The fast IR-based method predicted maximum temperature increase within 1% of that with a full finite difference simulation, but required less than 3.5% of the computation time. Even higher accelerations are possible depending on the time step size chosen, with loss in temporal resolution. Correction for temperature-dependent perfusion requires negligible additional time and can be adjusted to be more or less conservative than the corresponding finite difference simulation. With appropriate methods, it is possible to rapidly predict temperature increase throughout the body for actual MR examinations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing

    2015-03-01

    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  5. CATALYSTS BASED ON UKRAINIAN NATURAL SORBENTS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE CARBON MONOXIDE OXIDATION MEANT FOR INDIVIDUAL RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES

    T. L. Rakyts’ka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a great number of patented formulas of catalysts for neutralization of carbon monoxide (CO which is the most widespread atmospheric pollutant, only batch-produced hopcalite and alumina supported palladium (Pd/Al2O3 are used in practice. The named catalysts have significant defects: hopcalite is poisonable in the presence of water vapor and Pd/Al2O3 is characterized by the great content of palladium. We have found the possibility of using inexpensive Ukrainian natural sorbents differing by their mineralogical and chemical compositions, i.e. zeolites, bentonites, basalt tuffs, and disperse silicas, as supports for development and subsequent application of palladium(II and copper(II based catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation. Acid-thermally modified Ukrainian sorbents have been found to be proper for obtaining supported copper-palladium complexes the most catalytically active in the reaction. Application of Ukrainian natural tripolis permitted to avoid the step of acid-thermal modification complicating the technique of catalyst production. As was found, the origin and phase composition of tripolis affect the activity of catalysts supported on them in the reaction of low-temperature Co oxidation. The most active catalyst permitting sanitary purification of air from CO to a level permissible for atmosphere of populated areas have been obtained in the case of insignificantly (thermally or hydrothermally modified tripoli from Konoplianskoe deposit.

  6. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response...... was found to correlate well with the severity of clinical signs (fever) and with the extent of lung consolidation while SAA responded most rapidly to infection....

  7. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly...... at higher temperature, faster than the rate of increase in the atmosphere's water-holding capacity, termed the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. Invigoration of convective precipitation (such as thunderstorms) has been favoured over a rise in stratiform precipitation (such as large-scale frontal precipitation......) as a cause for this increase , but the relative contributions of these two types of precipitation have been difficult to disentangle. Here we combine large data sets from radar measurements and rain gauges over Germany with corresponding synoptic observations and temperature records, and separate convective...

  8. Temperature response of soil respiration is dependent on concentration of readily decomposable C

    A. A. Larionova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting soil CO2 efflux associated with the increase in global mean temperature. A reasonable explanation for an apparent acclimation proposed by Davidson and colleagues (2006 based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggests that temperature sensitivity decreases when both maximal activity of respiratory enzymes (Vmax and half-saturation constant (Ks cancel each other upon temperature increase. We tested the hypothesis of the canceling effect by the mathematical simulation of data obtained in incubation experiments with forest and arable soils. Our data support the hypothesis and suggest that concentration of readily decomposable C substrate (as glucose equivalents and temperature dependent substrate release are the important factors controlling temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The highest temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was observed when substrate release was temperature dependent and C substrate concentration was much lower than Ks. Increase of substrate content to the half-saturation constant by glucose addition resulted in temperature acclimation associated with the canceling effect. Addition of the substrate to the level providing respiration at a maximal rate Vmax leads to the acclimation of the whole microbial community as such. However, growing microbial biomass was more sensitive to the temperature alterations. This study improves our understanding of the instability of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under field conditions, attributing this phenomenon to changes in concentration of readily decomposable C substrate.

  9. The underestimated role of temperature-oxygen relationship in large-scale studies on size-to-temperature response.

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2017-09-01

    The observation that ectotherm size decreases with increasing temperature (temperature-size rule; TSR) has been widely supported. This phenomenon intrigues researchers because neither its adaptive role nor the conditions under which it is realized are well defined. In light of recent theoretical and empirical studies, oxygen availability is an important candidate for understanding the adaptive role behind TSR. However, this hypothesis is still undervalued in TSR studies at the geographical level. We reanalyzed previously published data about the TSR pattern in diatoms sampled from Icelandic geothermal streams, which concluded that diatoms were an exception to the TSR. Our goal was to incorporate oxygen as a factor in the analysis and to examine whether this approach would change the results. Specifically, we expected that the strength of size response to cold temperatures would be different than the strength of response to hot temperatures, where the oxygen limitation is strongest. By conducting a regression analysis for size response at the community level, we found that diatoms from cold, well-oxygenated streams showed no size-to-temperature response, those from intermediate temperature and oxygen conditions showed reverse TSR, and diatoms from warm, poorly oxygenated streams showed significant TSR. We also distinguished the roles of oxygen and nutrition in TSR. Oxygen is a driving factor, while nutrition is an important factor that should be controlled for. Our results show that if the geographical or global patterns of TSR are to be understood, oxygen should be included in the studies. This argument is important especially for predicting the size response of ectotherms facing climate warming.

  10. Multimodel Surface Temperature Responses to Removal of U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    Conley, A. J.; Westervelt, D. M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Fiore, A. M.; Shindell, D.; Correa, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    Three Earth System models are used to derive surface temperature responses to removal of U.S. anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Using multicentury perturbation runs with and without U.S. anthropogenic SO2 emissions, the local and remote surface temperature changes are estimated. In spite of a temperature drift in the control and large internal variability, 200 year simulations yield statistically significant regional surface temperature responses to the removal of U.S. SO2 emissions. Both local and remote surface temperature changes occur in all models, and the patterns of changes are similar between models for northern hemisphere land regions. We find a global average temperature sensitivity to U.S. SO2 emissions of 0.0055 K per Tg(SO2) per year with a range of (0.0036, 0.0078). We examine global and regional responses in SO4 burdens, aerosol optical depths (AODs), and effective radiative forcing (ERF). While changes in AOD and ERF are concentrated near the source region (United States), the temperature response is spread over the northern hemisphere with amplification of the temperature increase toward the Arctic. In all models, we find a significant response of dust concentrations, which affects the AOD but has no obvious effect on surface temperature. Temperature sensitivity to the ERF of U.S. SO2 emissions is found to differ from the models' sensitivity to radiative forcing of doubled CO2.

  11. SIgA response and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections during intensified training in youth basketball players.

    Moraes, H; Aoki, M S; Freitas, C G; Arruda, Afs; Drago, G; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an intensified training phase followed by a tapering phase on the salivary immunoglobulin A concentration and on the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in young male basketball players. The session rating of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the internal training load, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. The Yo-Yo IR1 test and saliva collection were carried out at the beginning of the study (T1), after the intensified phase (T2), and after tapering (T3). A higher internal training load was observed for the intensified phase compared with the tapering phase (t=19.10; ptraining load followed by a tapering period negatively affects the mucosal immune function with no significant change in severity of URTI in young basketball players.

  12. A case of imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection and public health response, Greece, April 2014.

    Tsiodras, S; Baka, A; Mentis, A; Iliopoulos, D; Dedoukou, X; Papamavrou, G; Karadima, S; Emmanouil, M; Kossyvakis, A; Spanakis, N; Pavli, A; Maltezou, H; Karageorgou, A; Spala, G; Pitiriga, V; Kosmas, E; Tsiagklis, S; Gkatzias, S; Koulouris, Ng; Koutsoukou, A; Bakakos, P; Markozanhs, E; Dionellis, G; Pontikis, K; Rovina, N; Kyriakopoulou, M; Efstathiou, P; Papadimitriou, T; Kremastinou, J; Tsakris, A; Saroglou, G

    2014-04-24

    On 18 April 2014, a case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was laboratory confirmed in Athens, Greece in a patient returning from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Main symptoms upon initial presentation were protracted fever and diarrhoea, during hospitalisation he developed bilateral pneumonia and his condition worsened. During 14 days prior to onset of illness, he had extensive contact with the healthcare environment in Jeddah. Contact tracing revealed 73 contacts, no secondary cases had occurred by 22 April.

  13. Evaluation of random temperature fluctuation problems with frequency response approach

    Lejeail, Yves; Kasahara, Naoto

    2000-01-01

    Since thermal striping is a coupled thermohydraulic and thermomechanical phenomenon, sodium mock-up tests were usually required to confirm structural integrity. Authors have developed the frequency response function to establish design-by-analysis methodology for this phenomenon. Applicability of this method to sinusoidal fluctuation was validated through two benchmark problems with FAENA and TIFFSS facilities under EJCC contract. This report describes the extension of the frequency response method to random fluctuations. As an example of application, fatigue strength of a Tee junction of PHENIX secondary piping system was investigated. (author)

  14. Temperature dependence of the Al2O3:C response in medical luminescence dosimetry

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2007-01-01

    is not varied. The RL response only depends on the irradiation temperature. We recommend that calibration should be carried out at the same irradiation temperature at which the measurement is performed (i.e. at body temperature for in vivo measurements). The overall change in the integrated OSL and RL signals...... and detection wavelengths. The reported temperature dependence seems to be a general property of Al2O3:C. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Temperature-dependent stress response in oysters, Crassostrea virginica: Pollution reduces temperature tolerance in oysters

    Lannig, Gisela; Flores, Jason F.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2006-01-01

    Combined effects of temperature and a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), on energy metabolism were studied in a model marine bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, acclimated at 20, 24 and 28 deg. C and exposed to 50 μg l -1 of Cd. Both increasing temperature and Cd exposure led to a rise in standard metabolic rates, and combined stressors appeared to override the capability for aerobic energy production resulting in impaired stress tolerance. Oysters exposed to elevated temperature but not Cd showed no significant change in condition, survival rate and lipid peroxidation, whereas those exposed to both Cd and temperature stress suffered high mortality accompanied by low condition index and elevated lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, RNA/DNA ratios indicative of protein synthesis rate, and levels of glutathione, which is involved in metal detoxification, increased in Cd-exposed oysters at 20 deg. C but not at 28 deg. C. Implications of the synergism between elevated temperatures and cadmium stress on energy metabolism of oysters are discussed in the light of the potential effects of climate change on oyster populations in polluted areas

  16. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; de Wit, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, productivity and performance. A dynamic thermophysiological model was used to examine the possibility of simulating human thermal responses and thermal comfort...... temperature corresponding with a neutral thermal sensation (control situation). During the experiments both physiological responses and thermal sensation were measured. Productivity and performance were assessed with a ‘Remote Performance Measurement’ (RPM) method. Physiological and thermal sensation data...

  17. DOG1-imposed dormancy mediates germination responses to temperature cues

    Murphey, M.; Kovach, K.; Elnacash, T.; He, H.; Bentsink, L.; Donohue, K.

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy and environment-dependent germination requirements interact to determine the timing of germination in natural environments. This study tested the contribution of the dormancy gene Delay Of Germination 1 (DOG1) to primary and secondary dormancy induction in response to environmental

  18. Decline in snowfall in response to temperature in Satluj basin ...

    Snow is an essential resource present in the Himalaya. ... essential for the development of ecosystems, human ... and stability of the air mass) that influence snow ... better management of agriculture, irrigation, .... the present basin, which is measured by melting ...... response of vegetation to environmental change at high.

  19. The Role of Microbial Community Composition in Controlling Soil Respiration Responses to Temperature.

    Auffret, Marc D; Karhu, Kristiina; Khachane, Amit; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Fraser, Fiona; Hopkins, David W; Wookey, Philip A; Singh, Brajesh K; Freitag, Thomas E; Hartley, Iain P; Prosser, James I

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperatures may increase the rates of soil organic matter decomposition by heterotrophic microorganisms, potentially accelerating climate change further by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, the possibility that microbial community responses to prolonged warming may modify the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration creates large uncertainty in the strength of this positive feedback. Both compensatory responses (decreasing temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in the long-term) and enhancing responses (increasing temperature sensitivity) have been reported, but the mechanisms underlying these responses are poorly understood. In this study, microbial biomass, community structure and the activities of dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase enzymes were determined for 18 soils that had previously demonstrated either no response or varying magnitude of enhancing or compensatory responses of temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic microbial respiration to prolonged cooling. The soil cooling approach, in contrast to warming experiments, discriminates between microbial community responses and the consequences of substrate depletion, by minimising changes in substrate availability. The initial microbial community composition, determined by molecular analysis of soils showing contrasting respiration responses to cooling, provided evidence that the magnitude of enhancing responses was partly related to microbial community composition. There was also evidence that higher relative abundance of saprophytic Basidiomycota may explain the compensatory response observed in one soil, but neither microbial biomass nor enzymatic capacity were significantly affected by cooling. Our findings emphasise the key importance of soil microbial community responses for feedbacks to global change, but also highlight important areas where our understanding remains limited.

  20. Proteomic responses to elevated ocean temperature in ovaries of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Chelsea E. Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciona intestinalis, a common sea squirt, exhibits lower reproductive success at the upper extreme of the water temperatures it experiences in coastal New England. In order to understand the changes in protein expression associated with elevated temperatures, and possible response to global temperature change, we reared C. intestinalis from embryos to adults at 18°C (a temperature at which they reproduce normally at our collection site in Rhode Island and 22°C (the upper end of the local temperature range. We then dissected ovaries from animals at each temperature, extracted protein, and measured proteomic levels using shotgun mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. 1532 proteins were detected at a 1% false discovery rate present in both temperature groups by our LC-MS/MS method. 62 of those proteins are considered up- or down-regulated according to our statistical criteria. Principal component analysis shows a clear distinction in protein expression pattern between the control (18°C group and high temperature (22°C group. Similar to previous studies, cytoskeletal and chaperone proteins are upregulated in the high temperature group. Unexpectedly, we find evidence that proteolysis is downregulated at the higher temperature. We propose a working model for the high temperature response in C. intestinalis ovaries whereby increased temperature induces upregulation of signal transduction pathways involving PTPN11 and CrkL, and activating coordinated changes in the proteome especially in large lipid transport proteins, cellular stress responses, cytoskeleton, and downregulation of energy metabolism.

  1. The association between diurnal temperature range and emergency room admissions for cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and genitourinary disease among the elderly: a time series study.

    Wang, Min-zhen; Zheng, Shan; He, Shi-lin; Li, Bei; Teng, Huai-jin; Wang, Shi-gong; Yin, Ling; Shang, Ke-zheng; Li, Tan-shi

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on emergency room (ER) admissions among elderly adults in Beijing. After controlling the long-time and seasonal trend, weather, air pollution and other confounding factors, a semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between DTR and daily ER admissions among elderly adults with different lag structures from 2009 to 2011 in Beijing. We examined the effects of DTR for stratified groups by age and gender, and conducted the modifying effect of season on DTR to test the possible interaction. Significant associations were found between DTR and four major causes of daily ER admissions among elderly adults in Beijing. A 1 °C increase in the 8-day moving average of DTR (lag 07) corresponded to an increase of 2.08% (95% CI: 0.88%-3.29%) in respiratory ER admissions and 2.14% (95% CI: 0.71%-3.59%) in digestive ER admissions. A 1 °C increase in the 3-day and 6-day moving average of DTR (lag 02 and lag 05) corresponded to a 0.76% (95% CI: 0.07%-1.46%) increase in cardiovascular ER admissions, and 1.81% (95% CI: 0.21%-3.45%) increase in genitourinary ER admissions, respectively. The people aged 75 years and older were associated more strongly with DTR than the 65-74 age group. The modifying effect of season on DTR was observed and it was various in four causes. This study strengthens the evidence that DTR is an independent risk factor for ER admissions among elderly persons. Some prevention programs that target the elderly and other high risk subgroups for impending large temperature changes may reduce the impact of DTR on people's health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acclimation responses to temperature vary with vertical stratification: implications for vulnerability of soil-dwelling species to extreme temperature events.

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Berg, Matty P; Ellers, Jacintha

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of summer heat waves is predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the near future, but the consequences of such extreme events are largely unknown, especially for belowground organisms. Soil organisms usually exhibit strong vertical stratification, resulting in more frequent exposure to extreme temperatures for surface-dwelling species than for soil-dwelling species. Therefore soil-dwelling species are expected to have poor acclimation responses to cope with temperature changes. We used five species of surface-dwelling and four species of soil-dwelling Collembola that habituate different depths in the soil. We tested for differences in tolerance to extreme temperatures after acclimation to warm and cold conditions. We also tested for differences in acclimation of the underlying physiology by looking at changes in membrane lipid composition. Chill coma recovery time, heat knockdown time and fatty acid profiles were determined after 1 week of acclimation to either 5 or 20 °C. Our results showed that surface-dwelling Collembola better maintained increased heat tolerance across acclimation temperatures, but no such response was found for cold tolerance. Concordantly, four of the five surface-dwelling Collembola showed up to fourfold changes in relative abundance of fatty acids after 1 week of acclimation, whereas none of the soil-dwelling species showed a significant adjustment in fatty acid composition. Strong physiological responses to temperature fluctuations may have become redundant in soil-dwelling species due to the relative thermal stability of their subterranean habitat. Based on the results of the four species studied, we expect that unless soil-dwelling species can temporarily retreat to avoid extreme temperatures, the predicted increase in heat waves under climatic change renders these soil-dwelling species more vulnerable to extinction than species with better physiological capabilities. Being able to act under a larger thermal

  3. A sandwich-designed temperature-gradient incubator for studies of microbial temperature responses

    Elsgaard, Lars; Jørgensen, L.W.

    2002-01-01

    of 28-ml test tubes. An electric plate heats one end of the TGI end and the other end is cooled by thermoelectric Peltier elements in combination with a liquid cooling system. The TGI is equipped with 24 calibrated Pt-100 temperature sensors and insulated by polyurethane plates. A PC-operated SCADA...

  4. Roots affect the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature in tussock grass microcosms.

    Graham, Scott L; Millard, Peter; Hunt, John E; Rogers, Graeme N D; Whitehead, David

    2012-07-01

    While the temperature response of soil respiration (R(S)) has been well studied, the partitioning of heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) by soil microbes from autotrophic respiration (R(A)) by roots, known to have distinct temperature sensitivities, has been problematic. Further complexity stems from the presence of roots affecting R(H), the rhizosphere priming effect. In this study the short-term temperature responses of R(A) and R(H) in relation to rhizosphere priming are investigated. Temperature responses of R(A), R(H) and rhizosphere priming were assessed in microcosms of Poa cita using a natural abundance δ(13)C discrimination approach. The temperature response of R(S) was found to be regulated primarily by R(A), which accounted for 70 % of total soil respiration. Heterotrophic respiration was less sensitive to temperature in the presence of plant roots, resulting in negative priming effects with increasing temperature. The results emphasize the importance of roots in regulating the temperature response of R(S), and a framework is presented for further investigation into temperature effects on heterotrophic respiration and rhizosphere priming, which could be applied to other soil and vegetation types to improve models of soil carbon turnover.

  5. Extended exposure to elevated temperature affects escape response behaviour in coral reef fishes

    Donald T. Warren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat of predation, and the prey’s response, are important drivers of community dynamics. Yet environmental temperature can have a significant effect on predation avoidance techniques such as fast-start performance observed in marine fishes. While it is known that temperature increases can influence performance and behaviour in the short-term, little is known about how species respond to extended exposure during development. We produced a startle response in two species of damselfish, the lemon damsel Pomacentrus moluccensis, and the Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, by the repeated use of a drop stimulus. We show that the length of thermal exposure of juveniles to elevated temperature significantly affects this escape responses. Short-term (4d exposure to warmer temperature affected directionality and responsiveness for both species. After long-term (90d exposure, only P. moluccensis showed beneficial plasticity, with directionality returning to control levels. Responsiveness also decreased in both species, possibly to compensate for higher temperatures. There was no effect of temperature or length of exposure on latency to react, maximum swimming speed, or escape distance suggesting that the physical ability to escape was maintained. Evidence suggests that elevated temperature may impact some fish species through its effect on the behavioural responses while under threat rather than having a direct influence on their physical ability to perform an effective escape response.

  6. Temperature dependence of the Al2O3:C response in medical luminescence dosimetry

    Edmund, Jens M.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, attention has been given to applications of Al 2 O 3 :C in space and medical dosimetry. One such application is in vivo dose verification in radiotherapy of cancer patients and here we investigate the temperature effects on the radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals in the room-to-body temperature region. We found that the OSL response changes with both irradiation and stimulation temperatures as well as the OSL integration time. We conclude that temperature effects on the OSL response can be removed by integration if the irradiation temperature is not varied. The RL response only depends on the irradiation temperature. We recommend that calibration should be carried out at the same irradiation temperature at which the measurement is performed (i.e. at body temperature for in vivo measurements). The overall change in the integrated OSL and RL signals with irradiation and stimulation temperature covers an interval from -0.2% to 0.6% per deg. C. This indicates the correction factor one must take into account when performing luminescence dosimetry at different temperatures. The same effects were observed regardless of crystal type, test doses and stimulation and detection wavelengths. The reported temperature dependence seems to be a general property of Al 2 O 3 :C

  7. Review of resistance temperature detector time response characteristics. Safety evaluation report

    1981-08-01

    A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is used extensively for monitoring water temperatures in nuclear reactor plants. The RTD element does not respond instantaneously to changes in water temperature, but rather there is a time delay before the element senses the temperature change, and in nuclear reactors this delay must be factored into the computation of safety setpoints. For this reason it is necessary to have an accurate description of the RTD time response. This report is a review of the current state of the art of describing and measuring this time response

  8. Sound characteristics of Terapon jorbua as a response to temperature changes

    Amron; Jaya, I.; Hestirianoto, T.; Juterzenka, K. v.

    2017-10-01

    The change of water temperature has potential impact on the behavior of aquatic animal including fish which generated by their sound productivity and characteristics. This research aimed to study the response of sound productivity and characteristics of Terapon jorbua to temperature change. As a response to temperature increase, T. jorbua to have decreased the number of sound productivity. Two characteristic parameters of fish sound, i.e. intensity and frequency as were quadratic increased during the water temperature rises. In contrast, pulse duration was quadratic decreased.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, microbial response, and pulmonary outcomes of multidose intravenous azithromycin in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization.

    Merchan, L Marcela; Hassan, Hazem E; Terrin, Michael L; Waites, Ken B; Kaufman, David A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Donohue, Pamela; Dulkerian, Susan J; Schelonka, Robert; Magder, Laurence S; Shukla, Sagar; Eddington, Natalie D; Viscardi, Rose M

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to refine the population pharmacokinetics (PK) model, determine microbial clearance, and assess short-term pulmonary outcomes of multiple-dose azithromycin treatment in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization. Fifteen subjects (7 of whom were Ureaplasma positive) received intravenous azithromycin at 20 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h for 3 doses. Azithromycin concentrations were determined in plasma samples obtained up to 168 h post-first dose by using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Respiratory samples were obtained predose and at three time points post-last dose for Ureaplasma culture, PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and cytokine concentration determinations. Pharmacokinetic data from these 15 subjects as well as 25 additional subjects (who received either a single 10-mg/kg dose [n = 12] or a single 20-mg/kg dose [n = 13]) were analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effect population modeling (NONMEM) approach. Pulmonary outcomes were assessed at 36 weeks post-menstrual age and 6 months adjusted age. A 2-compartment model with all PK parameters allometrically scaled on body weight best described the azithromycin pharmacokinetics in preterm neonates. The population pharmacokinetics parameter estimates for clearance, central volume of distribution, intercompartmental clearance, and peripheral volume of distribution were 0.15 liters/h · kg(0.75), 1.88 liters · kg, 1.79 liters/h · kg(0.75), and 13 liters · kg, respectively. The estimated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC24)/MIC90 value was ∼ 4 h. All posttreatment cultures were negative, and there were no drug-related adverse events. One Ureaplasma-positive infant died at 4 months of age, but no survivors were hospitalized for respiratory etiologies during the first 6 months (adjusted age). Thus, a 3-day course of 20 mg/kg/day intravenous azithromycin shows preliminary efficacy in eradicating

  10. Response of ferritic steels to nonsteady loading at elevated temperatures

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature operating experience is lacking in pressure vessel materials that have strength levels above 586 MPa. Because of their tendency toward strain softening, we have been concerned about their behavior under nonsteady loading. Testing was undertaken to explore the extent of softening produced by monotonic and cyclic strains. The specific materials included bainitic 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel containing vanadium, titanium, and boron, and a martensitic 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel. Tests included tensile, creep, variable stress creep, relaxation, strain cycling, stress cycling, and non-isothermal creep ratchetting experiments. We found that these steels had very low uniform elongation and exhibited small strains to the onset of tertiary creep compared to annealed 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel. Repeated relaxation test data also indicated a limited capacity for strain hardening. Reversal strains produced softening. The degree of softening increased with increased initial strength level. We concluded that the high strength bainitic and martensitic steels should perform well when used under conditions where severe cyclic operation does not occur

  11. Temperature dependence on shock response of stainless steel

    Gu Zhuowei; Jin Xiaogang

    1998-01-01

    Free surface velocity measurements were reported for HR-2(Cr-Ni-Mn-N) stainless steel, initially heated to 300K∼1000K and shock-compressed to about 8GPa. The corresponding spall strength σ f and Hugoniot elastic limit σ HEL were determined from the wave profiles. It is demonstrated that σ f and σ HEL decrease linearly with increasing temperature T in the range from 300K to 806K, i.e., σ f =5.63-4.32x10 -3 T and σ HEL =2.08-1.54x10 -3 T, and in the range of 806K∼980K, σ HEL increases from 0.84GPa at 806K to 0.93GPa at 980K, σ f has a negligible increase to 2.15GPa from 2.14GPa. Primary TEM test on recovery samples identified the existence of intermatallic compound Ni 3 Ti in the sample of 980K

  12. Temperature Response of a Small Mountain Stream to Thunderstorm Cloud-Cover: Application of DTS Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensing

    Thayer, D.; Klatt, A. L.; Miller, S. N.; Ohara, N.

    2014-12-01

    From a hydrologic point of view, the critical zone in alpine areas contains the first interaction of living systems with water which will flow to streams and rivers that sustain lowland biomes and human civilization. A key to understanding critical zone functions is understanding the flow of energy, and we can measure temperature as a way of looking at energy transfer between related systems. In this study we installed a Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) and fiber-optic cable in a zero-order stream at 9,000 ft in the Medicine Bow National Forest in southern Wyoming. We measured the temperature of the stream for 17 days from June 29 to July 16; the first 12 days were mostly sunny with occasional afternoon storms, and the last 5 experienced powerful, long-lasting storms for much of the day. The DTS measurements show a seasonal warming trend of both minimum and maximum stream temperature for the first 12 days, followed by a distinct cooling trend for the five days that experienced heavy storm activity. To gain insights into the timing and mechanisms of energy flow through the critical zone systems, we analyzed the timing of stream temperature change relative to solar short-wave radiation, and compared the stream temperature temporal response to the temporal response of soil temperature adjacent to the stream. Since convective thunderstorms are a dominant summer weather pattern in sub-alpine regions in the Rocky Mountains, this study gives us further insight into interactions of critical zone processes and weather in mountain ecosystems.

  13. Response of chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae to water temperature: effects on species distribution in specific habitats

    L. Marziali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of 443 chironomid species to water temperature was analyzed, with the aim of defining their thermal optimum, tolerance limits and thermal habitat. The database included 4442 samples mainly from Italian river catchments collected from the 1950s up to date. Thermal preferences were calculated separately for larval and pupal specimens and for different habitats: high altitude and lowland lakes in the Alpine ecoregion; lowland lakes in the Mediterranean ecoregion; heavily modified water bodies; kryal, krenal, rhithral and potamal in running waters. Optimum response was calculated as mean water temperature, weighted by species abundances; tolerance as weighted standard deviation; skewness and kurtosis as 3rd and 4th moment statistics. The responses were fitted to normal uni- or plurimodal Gaussian models. Cold stenothermal species showed: i unimodal response, ii tolerance for a narrow temperature range, iii optima closed to their minimum temperature values, iv leptokurtic response. Thermophilous species showed: i optima at different temperature values, ii wider tolerance, iii optima near their maximum temperature values, iv platikurtic response, often fitting a plurimodal model. As expected, lower optima values and narrower tolerance were obtained for kryal and krenal, than for rhithral, potamal and lakes. Thermal response curves were produced for each species and were discussed according to species distribution (i.e. altitudinal range in running water and water depth in lakes, voltinism and phylogeny. Thermal optimum and tolerance limits and the definition of the thermal habitat of species can help predicting the impact of global warming on freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Characterization of the CD8+ T cell responses directed against respiratory syncytial virus during primary and secondary infection in C57BL/6 mice

    Lukens, Michael V.; Claassen, Erwin A.W.; Graaff, Patricia M.A. de; Dijk, Mariska E.A. van; Hoogerhout, Peter; Toebes, Mireille; Schumacher, Ton N.; Most, Robbert G. van der; Kimpen, Jan L.L.; Bleek, Grada M. van

    2006-01-01

    The BALB/c mouse model for human respiratory syncytial virus infection has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relative role for CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to immune protection and pathogenic immune responses. To enable comparison of RSV-specific T cell responses in different mouse strains and allow dissection of immune mechanisms by using transgenic and knockout mice that are mostly available on a C57BL/6 background, we characterized the specificity, level and functional capabilities of CD8 + T cells during primary and secondary responses in lung parenchyma, airways and spleens of C57BL/6 mice. During the primary response, epitopes were recognized originating from the matrix, fusion, nucleo- and attachment proteins, whereas the secondary response focused predominantly on the matrix epitope. C57BL/6 mice are less permissive for hRSV infection than BALB/c mice, yet we found CD8 + T cell responses in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage, comparable to the responses described for BALB/c mice

  15. Prescriber and Patient Responsibilities in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections — Essential for Conservation of Antibiotics

    Antonio C. Pignatari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs, such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP—is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the community, and facilitate a change from prescribing empiric antibiotic treatment towards cautious deferment combined with symptomatic relief, there is a need to introduce and enhance evidence-based dialogue between primary care practitioners and their patients. Communication with patients should focus on the de-medicalisation of self-limiting viral infections, which can be achieved via a coherent globally endorsed framework outlining the rationale for appropriate antibiotic use in acute RTIs in the context of antibiotic stewardship and conservancy. The planned framework is intended to be adaptable at a country level to reflect local behaviours, cultures and healthcare systems, and has the potential to serve as a model for change in other therapeutic areas.

  16. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...... and distributional patterns corresponded well with the long-term (weeks) results obtained, but with some important deviations. The long-term responses of the two species to low temperature (12 °C) were more similar than expected. In contrast, high temperature (35 °C), which stimulated photosynthesis in C. submersum...... in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...

  17. Climate change impact of livestock CH4 emission in India: Global temperature change potential (GTP) and surface temperature response.

    Kumari, Shilpi; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Kumari, Nisha; Naik, S N; Dahiya, R P

    2018-01-01

    Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH 4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH 4 emission. The results show that the CH 4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH 4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 20 ) and 62 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 100 ) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively. The study also illustrates that livestock-related CH 4 emissions in India can cause a surface temperature increase of up to 0.7mK and 0.036mK over the 20 and 100 year time periods, respectively. The surface temperature response to a year of Indian livestock emission peaks at 0.9mK in the year 2021 (9 years after the time of emission). The AGTP gives important information in terms of temperature change due to annual CH 4 emissions, which is useful when comparing policies that address multiple gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

    Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

    2014-10-07

    A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

  19. Characterization of the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection

    Kristensen, K; Barington, T; Pressler, T

    1995-01-01

    single total IgG subclass, but total IgG measured as the sum of all four subclasses was significantly lower in the children with RLRI than in the controls (P = 0.036). Before vaccination, the children with RLRI had significantly less IgG antipolysaccharide Hib antibody than the controls (P = 0......M response to Hib conjugate vaccine in these children, since this isotype predominates in the primary immune response, i.e., in the absence of immunologic memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......Children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (RLRI) may respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens. To examine how such children respond to a polysaccharide coupled to a protein carrier, we immunized 15 children with RLRI aged 8-69 months and 15 carefully age-matched healthy controls...

  20. Quantitative analysis of circadian single cell oscillations in response to temperature.

    Abraham, Ute; Schlichting, Julia Katharina; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    Body temperature rhythms synchronize circadian oscillations in different tissues, depending on the degree of cellular coupling: the responsiveness to temperature is higher when single circadian oscillators are uncoupled. So far, the role of coupling in temperature responsiveness has only been studied in organotypic tissue slices of the central circadian pacemaker, because it has been assumed that peripheral target organs behave like uncoupled multicellular oscillators. Since recent studies indicate that some peripheral tissues may exhibit cellular coupling as well, we asked whether peripheral network dynamics also influence temperature responsiveness. Using a novel technique for long-term, high-resolution bioluminescence imaging of primary cultured cells, exposed to repeated temperature cycles, we were able to quantitatively measure period, phase, and amplitude of central (suprachiasmatic nuclei neuron dispersals) and peripheral (mouse ear fibroblasts) single cell oscillations in response to temperature. Employing temperature cycles of different lengths, and different cell densities, we found that some circadian characteristics appear cell-autonomous, e.g. period responses, while others seem to depend on the quality/degree of cellular communication, e.g. phase relationships, robustness of the oscillation, and amplitude. Overall, our findings indicate a strong dependence on the cell's ability for intercellular communication, which is not only true for neuronal pacemakers, but, importantly, also for cells in peripheral tissues. Hence, they stress the importance of comparative studies that evaluate the degree of coupling in a given tissue, before it may be used effectively as a target for meaningful circadian manipulation.

  1. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  2. Co-chaperone p23 regulates C. elegans Lifespan in Response to Temperature.

    Makoto Horikawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature potently modulates various physiologic processes including organismal motility, growth rate, reproduction, and ageing. In ectotherms, longevity varies inversely with temperature, with animals living shorter at higher temperatures. Thermal effects on lifespan and other processes are ascribed to passive changes in metabolic rate, but recent evidence also suggests a regulated process. Here, we demonstrate that in response to temperature, daf-41/ZC395.10, the C. elegans homolog of p23 co-chaperone/prostaglandin E synthase-3, governs entry into the long-lived dauer diapause and regulates adult lifespan. daf-41 deletion triggers constitutive entry into the dauer diapause at elevated temperature dependent on neurosensory machinery (daf-10/IFT122, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (daf-16/FOXO, and steroidal signaling (daf-12/FXR. Surprisingly, daf-41 mutation alters the longevity response to temperature, living longer than wild-type at 25°C but shorter than wild-type at 15°C. Longevity phenotypes at 25°C work through daf-16/FOXO and heat shock factor hsf-1, while short lived phenotypes converge on daf-16/FOXO and depend on the daf-12/FXR steroid receptor. Correlatively daf-41 affected expression of DAF-16 and HSF-1 target genes at high temperature, and nuclear extracts from daf-41 animals showed increased occupancy of the heat shock response element. Our studies suggest that daf-41/p23 modulates key transcriptional changes in longevity pathways in response to temperature.

  3. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance of elderly during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    Schellen, L.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.D.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Toftum, J.; Wit, de M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of ageing and a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance. A climate room set-up with experimental subjects in the age 67-73 was used to examine the effect of a moderate temperature ramp. Eight

  4. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response.

    Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Hopkins, David W; Prosser, James I; Singh, Brajesh K; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A; Agren, Göran I; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Gouriveau, Fabrice; Bergkvist, Göran; Meir, Patrick; Nottingham, Andrew T; Salinas, Norma; Hartley, Iain P

    2014-09-04

    Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system models, which suggest that warming-induced increases in carbon dioxide release from soils represent an important positive feedback loop that could influence twenty-first-century climate change. The magnitude of this feedback remains uncertain, however, not least because the response of soil microbial communities to changing temperatures has the potential to either decrease or increase warming-induced carbon losses substantially. Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid- to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. Furthermore, the strongest enhancing responses were observed in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold climatic regions. After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. This suggests that the substantial carbon stores in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  5. Temperature-Responsive Anisotropic Slippery Surface for Smart Control of the Droplet Motion.

    Wang, By Lili; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2018-02-28

    Development of stimulus-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces is important because of the high demand for such materials in the field of liquid directional-driven systems. However, current studies in the field of slippery surfaces are mainly conducted to prepare isotropic slippery surfaces. Although we have developed electric-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces that enable smart control of the droplet motion, there remain challenges for designing temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces to control the liquid droplet motion on the surface and in the tube. In this work, temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces have been prepared by using paraffin, a thermo-responsive phase-transition material, as a lubricating fluid and directional porous polystyrene (PS) films as the substrate. The smart regulation of the droplet motion of several liquids on this surface was accomplished by tuning the substrate temperature. The uniqueness of this surface lies in the use of an anisotropic structure and temperature-responsive lubricating fluids to achieve temperature-driven smart control of the anisotropic motion of the droplets. Furthermore, this surface was used to design temperature-driven anisotropic microreactors and to manipulate liquid transfer in tubes. This work advances the understanding of the principles underlying anisotropic slippery surfaces and provides a promising material for applications in the biochip and microreactor system.

  6. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  7. Antigen-specific H1N1 influenza antibody responses in acute respiratory tract infections and their relation to influenza infection and disease course.

    Haran, John Patrick; Hoaglin, David C; Chen, Huaiqing; Boyer, Edward W; Lu, Shan

    2014-08-01

    Early antibody responses to influenza infection are important in both clearance of virus and fighting the disease. Acute influenza antibody titers directed toward H1-antigens and their relation to infection type and patient outcomes have not been well investigated. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, we aimed to characterize the H1-specific antibody titers in patients with influenza infection or another respiratory infection before and after the H1N1-pandemic influenza outbreak. Among patients with acute influenza infection we related duration of illness, severity of symptoms, and need for hospitalization to antibody titers. There were 134 adult patients (average age 34.7) who presented to an urban academic emergency department (ED) from October through March during the 2008-2011 influenza seasons with symptoms of fever and a cough. Nasal aspirates were tested by viral culture, and peripheral blood serum was run in seven H1-subtype HI assays. Acutely infected influenza patients had markedly lower antibody titers for six of the seven pseudotype viruses. For the average over the seven titers (log units, base 2) their mean was 7.24 (95% CI 6.88, 7.61) compared with 8.60 (95% CI 8.27, 8.92) among patients who had a non-influenza respiratory illness, pinfection, titers of some antibodies correlated with severity of symptoms and with total duration of illness (pacute respiratory infections, lower concentrations of H1-influenza-specific antibodies were associated with influenza infection. Among influenza-infected patients, higher antibody titers were present in patients with a longer duration of illness and with higher severity-of-symptom scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  9. The oxygen effect and adaptive response of cells. Report 3. Simulation of respiratory oxygenation and oxygen permeability of cells

    Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the oxygen concentration in extracellural [O 2 ] 0 and intracellular [Osub(2)]sub(i) media of cells small in size (d = 2 ] 0 - t-curves). It is shown that the Value of [Osub(2)]sub(i) may be expressed by four variants of its functional dependence: (a) on enzymic reaction of oxygen consumption, (b) on the order of reaction with respect to oxygen, (c) on physiological parameters of cells, and (d) on characteristic oxygen concentrations in the system. Items (c) and (d) are based on the postulated diffusion-kinetic model of oxygen consumption by an idealized cell of small size that consists of a drop of homogenous solution of the respiratory enzyme which is characterized by an equivalent Michaelis constant. The drop is enveloped in a uniform membrane that possesses a definite diffuse resistance to oxygen

  10. Global patterns in lake ecosystem responses to warming based on the temperature dependence of metabolism.

    Kraemer, Benjamin M; Chandra, Sudeep; Dell, Anthony I; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M; Tamatamah, Rashid; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming is expected to have large effects on ecosystems in part due to the temperature dependence of metabolism. The responses of metabolic rates to climate warming may be greatest in the tropics and at low elevations because mean temperatures are warmer there and metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature (with exponents >1). However, if warming rates are sufficiently fast in higher latitude/elevation lakes, metabolic rate responses to warming may still be greater there even though metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature. Thus, a wide range of global patterns in the magnitude of metabolic rate responses to warming could emerge depending on global patterns of temperature and warming rates. Here we use the Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation, published estimates of activation energy, and time series of temperature from 271 lakes to estimate long-term (1970-2010) changes in 64 metabolic processes in lakes. The estimated responses of metabolic processes to warming were usually greatest in tropical/low-elevation lakes even though surface temperatures in higher latitude/elevation lakes are warming faster. However, when the thermal sensitivity of a metabolic process is especially weak, higher latitude/elevation lakes had larger responses to warming in parallel with warming rates. Our results show that the sensitivity of a given response to temperature (as described by its activation energy) provides a simple heuristic for predicting whether tropical/low-elevation lakes will have larger or smaller metabolic responses to warming than higher latitude/elevation lakes. Overall, we conclude that the direct metabolic consequences of lake warming are likely to be felt most strongly at low latitudes and low elevations where metabolism-linked ecosystem services may be most affected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Equal temperature-size responses of the sexes are widespread within arthropod species

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Horne, Curtis; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often affected by environmental conditions, but the effect of temperature on SSD in ectotherms still requires rigorous investigation. We compared the plastic responses of size-at-maturity to temperature between males and females within 85 diverse arthropod species...... of animal body sizes, variation in degree of SSD and differences in the sign of the T-S response. We find no support for Rensch's rule, which predicts greater variation in male size, or indeed the reverse, greater female size variation. SSD shows no systematic temperature dependence in any of the 17...

  12. Effect of Upper-Cycle Temperature on the Load-Biased, Strain-Temperature Response of NiTi

    Padula, Santo, II; Noebe, Ronald; Bigelow, Glen; Qiu, Shipeng; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, interest in shape memory alloy based actuators has increased as the primary benefits of these solid-state devices have become more apparent. However, much is still unknown about the characteristic behavior of these materials when used in actuator applications. Recently we have shown that the maximum temperature reached during thermal cycling under isobaric conditions could significantly affect the observed mechanical response of NiTi (55 wt% Ni), especially the amount of transformation strain available for actuation and thus work output. The investigation we report here extends that original work to ascertain whether further increases in the upper-cycle temperature would produce additional changes in the work output of the material, which has a stress-free austenite finish temperature of 113 C, and to determine the optimum cyclic conditions. Thus, isobaric, thermal-cycle experiments were conducted on the aforementioned alloy at various stresses from 50-300 MPa using upper-cycle temperatures of 165, 200, 230, 260, 290, 320 and 350 C. The data indicated that the amount of applied stress influenced the transformation strain, as would be expected. However, the maximum temperature reached during the thermal excursion also plays an equally significant role in determining the transformation strain, with the maximum transformation strain observed during thermal cycling to 290 C. In situ neutron diffraction at stress and temperature showed that the differences in transformation strain were mostly related to changes in martensite texture when cycling to different upper-cycle temperatures. Hence, understanding this effect is important to optimizing the operation of SMA-based actuators and could lead to new methods for processing and training shape memory alloys for optimal performance.

  13. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    M. Staudt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs. Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc accounted for about 90% of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m−2 projected leaf area s−1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g−1 leaf dry weight h−1 and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox and sesquiterpenes (SQTs accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C, but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all

  14. Seismic Responses of a Cable-Stayed Bridge with Consideration of Uniform Temperature Load

    Junjun Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature load on the dynamic responses of cable-stayed bridges have attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. However, these investigations mainly focus on the influence of temperature on the dynamic characteristics of structures, such as vibration mode and frequency. This paper discusses the effects of uniform temperature changes on the seismic responses of a cable-stayed bridge. A three dimensional finite element model of a cable-stayed bridge using OpenSees is established for nonlinear time history analysis, and uniform temperature load is applied to the prototype bridge before the conducting of seismic excitation. Three ground motion records are selected from the PEER strong motion database based on the design spectrum. Case studies are then performed considering the varying temperature and the connections between the deck and pylons of the bridge. The result shows that the seismic responses of the bridge are significantly increased with the consideration of temperature load. Meanwhile, the types between the deck and pylon also have notable impacts on the seismic responses of the bridge with and without temperature changes. This research could provide a reference for designers during the design phase of cable-stayed brides.

  15. Respiratory Home Health Care

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  16. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Interferon alpha inhibits replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine.

    Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Eberle, Kirsten C; Hau, Samantha J; Buckley, Alexandra; Van Geelen, Albert; Montiel, Nestor A; Nicholson, Tracy; Lager, Kelly M

    2017-12-01

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFN-α), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and costly viruses to the swine industry world-wide and has been shown to induce a meager IFN-α response. Previously we administered porcine IFN-α using a replication-defective adenovirus vector (Ad5-IFN-α) at the time of challenge with virulent PRRSV and demonstrated an increase in the number of virus-specific IFNγ secreting cells, indicating that the presence of IFN-α at the time of infection can alter the adaptive immune responses to PRRSV. In the current experiment, we explored the use of IFN-α as an adjuvant administered with live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine as a method to enhance immune response to the vaccine. Unlike the previous studies with fully virulent virus, one injection of the Ad5-IFN-α abolished replication of the vaccine virus and as a result there was no detectible adaptive immune response. Although IFN-α did not have the desired adjuvant effect, the results further highlight the use of IFN-α as a treatment for PRRSV infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluation of serologic and antigenic relationships between middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses to develop vaccine platforms for the rapid response to emerging coronaviruses.

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gopal, Robin; Yount, Boyd L; Donaldson, Eric F; Menachery, Vineet D; Graham, Rachel L; Scobey, Trevor D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Denison, Mark R; Zambon, Maria; Baric, Ralph S

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, causing severe acute respiratory disease and pneumonia, with 44% mortality among 136 cases to date. Design of vaccines to limit the virus spread or diagnostic tests to track newly emerging strains requires knowledge of antigenic and serologic relationships between MERS-CoV and other CoVs.  Using synthetic genomics and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons (VRPs) expressing spike and nucleocapsid proteins from MERS-CoV and other human and bat CoVs, we characterize the antigenic responses (using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and serologic responses (using neutralization assays) against 2 MERS-CoV isolates in comparison with those of other human and bat CoVs.  Serologic and neutralization responses against the spike glycoprotein were primarily strain specific, with a very low level of cross-reactivity within or across subgroups. CoV N proteins within but not across subgroups share cross-reactive epitopes with MERS-CoV isolates. Our findings were validated using a convalescent-phase serum specimen from a patient infected with MERS-CoV (NA 01) and human antiserum against SARS-CoV, human CoV NL63, and human CoV OC43.  Vaccine design for emerging CoVs should involve chimeric spike protein containing neutralizing epitopes from multiple virus strains across subgroups to reduce immune pathology, and a diagnostic platform should include a panel of nucleocapsid and spike proteins from phylogenetically distinct CoVs.

  20. Effect of temperatures up to 130 deg C on the responses of TLD 700

    Douglas, J A; Binns, P J [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-01-01

    The need to measure doses at temperatures up to 130 deg C led to an investigation into the effect of exposure and storage at these temperatures on the response of TLD 700 before and after UV phototransfer. As a preliminary, the delays required during the UV re-estimation process were optimised. The effects of storage and exposure were compared. This was followed by a detailed examination of the effects of storage at temperatures up to 130 deg C. Glow curves were analysed to investigate the rates of growth and decay of the different peaks. The findings for peaks 6 and 7 are compatible with previously reported effects at lower temperatures on peaks 3, 4 and 5. Storage at temperatures of 130 deg C or below for periods up to 28 days does not affect the UV photo-transfer response.

  1. Temperature dependent dual hydrogen sensor response of Pd nanoparticle decorated Al doped ZnO surfaces

    Gupta, D.; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K., E-mail: surajithazra@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173234 (India); Dutta, D. [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, M.; Som, T. [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2015-10-28

    Sputter deposited Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films exhibit a dual hydrogen sensing response in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C after surface modifications with palladium nanoparticles. The unmodified AZO films showed no response in hydrogen in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C. The operational temperature windows on the low and high temperature sides have been estimated by isolating the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature zone of the sensor device. The gas response pattern was modeled by considering various adsorption isotherms, which revealed the dominance of heterogeneous adsorption characteristics. The Arrhenius adsorption barrier showed dual variation with change in hydrogen gas concentration on either side of the semiconductor-to-metal transition. A detailed analysis of the hydrogen gas response pattern by considering the changes in nano palladium due to hydrogen adsorption, and semiconductor-to-metal transition of nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO layer due to temperature, along with material characterization studies by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, are presented.

  2. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    Astrid eWingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g. via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellins (GA and jasmonate (JA play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor (CBF dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants.

  3. Behavioural response to combined insecticide and temperature stress in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Fournier-Level, A; Neumann-Mondlak, A; Good, R T; Green, L M; Schmidt, J M; Robin, C

    2016-05-01

    Insecticide resistance evolves extremely rapidly, providing an illuminating model for the study of adaptation. With climate change reshaping species distribution, pest and disease vector control needs rethinking to include the effects of environmental variation and insect stress physiology. Here, we assessed how both long-term adaptation of populations to temperature and immediate temperature variation affect the genetic architecture of DDT insecticide response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mortality assays and behavioural assays based on continuous activity monitoring were used to assess the interaction between DDT and temperature on three field-derived populations from climate extremes (Raleigh for warm temperate, Tasmania for cold oceanic and Queensland for hot tropical). The Raleigh population showed the highest mortality to DDT, whereas the Queensland population, epicentre for derived alleles of the resistance gene Cyp6g1, showed the lowest. Interaction between insecticide and temperature strongly affected mortality, particularly for the Tasmanian population. Activity profiles analysed using self-organizing maps show that the insecticide promoted an early response, whereas elevated temperature promoted a later response. These distinctive early or later activity phases revealed similar responses to temperature and DDT dose alone but with more or less genetic variance depending on the population. This change in genetic variance among populations suggests that selection particularly depleted genetic variance for DDT response in the Queensland population. Finally, despite similar (co)variation between traits in benign conditions, the genetic responses across population differed under stressful conditions. This showed how stress-responsive genetic variation only reveals itself in specific conditions and thereby escapes potential trade-offs in benign environments. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European

  4. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  5. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model

  6. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  7. Detection of 12 respiratory viruses by duplex real time PCR assays in respiratory samples.

    Arvia, Rosaria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Ciccone, Nunziata; Della Malva, Nunzia; Azzi, Alberta

    2015-12-01

    Different viruses can be responsible for similar clinical manifestations of respiratory infections. Thus, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory viral diseases requires the detection of a large number of viruses. In this study, 6 duplex real-time PCR assays, using EvaGreen intercalating dye, were developed to detect 12 major viruses responsible for respiratory diseases: influenza A and B viruses, enteroviruses (including enterovirus spp, and rhinovirus spp), respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses group I (of which CoV 229E and CoV NL63 are part) and II (including CoV OC43 and CoV HKU1), parainfluenza viruses type 1, 2, 3 and 4, human adenoviruses and human bocaviruses. The 2 target viruses of each duplex reaction were distinguishable by the melting temperatures of their amplicons. The 6 duplex real time PCR assays were applied for diagnostic purpose on 202 respiratory samples from 157 patients. One hundred fifty-seven samples were throat swabs and 45 were bronchoalveolar lavages. The results of the duplex PCR assays were confirmed by comparison with a commercial, validated, assay; in addition, the positive results were confirmed by sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of the duplex PCR assays varied from 10(3) copies/ml to 10(4) copies/ml. For parainfluenza virus 2 only it was 10(5) copies/ml. Seventy clinical samples (35%) from 55 patients (30 children and 25 adults) were positive for 1 or more viruses. In adult patients, influenza A virus was the most frequently detected respiratory virus followed by rhinoviruses. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus in children, followed by enteroviruses, influenza A virus and coronavirus NL63. The small number of samples/patients does not allow us to draw any epidemiological conclusion. Altogether, the results of this study indicate that the 6 duplex PCR assays described in this study are sensitive, specific and cost-effective. Thus, this assay could be

  8. Effects of dexamethasone treatment and respiratory vaccination on rectal temperature, complete blood count, and functional capacities of neutrophils in beef steers

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on various aspects of immunity following administration of a multivalent respiratory vaccine, using a model intended to mimic acute versus chronic stress. Angus × Hereford steers (n = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) were str...

  9. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol.

    Hodges, Gary J; Kellogg, Dean L; Johnson, John M

    2015-04-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography. Data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure). Pharmacological agents were administered via intradermal microdialysis. We prepared four skin sites: one site was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 34°C (32 ± 10%CVCmax) one site was heated to 39°C (38 ± 11%CVCmax); and two sites were cooled, one to 29°C (22 ± 7%CVCmax) and the other 24°C (16 ± 4%CVCmax). After 20 min at these temperatures to allow stabilization of skin blood flow, isoproterenol was perfused in concentrations of 10, 30, 100, and 300 μM. Each concentration was perfused for 15 min. Relative to the CVC responses to isoproterenol at the thermoneutral skin temperature (34°C) (+21 ± 10%max), low skin temperatures reduced (at 29°C) (+17 ± 6%max) or abolished (at 24°C) (+1 ± 5%max) the vasodilator response, and warm (39°C) skin temperatures enhanced the vasodilator response (+40 ± 9%max) to isoproterenol. These data indicate that β-adrenergic function was influenced by local skin temperature. This finding raises the possibility that a part of the vasoconstrictor response to direct skin cooling could include reduced background β-receptor mediated vasodilation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Body temperature responses to handling stress in wintering Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus L.).

    Lewden, Agnès; Nord, Andreas; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2017-10-01

    Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6.6°C), and indoors, in milder ambient temperature close to thermoneutrality (mean: 18.7°C). Our results show that the change in body temperature in response to the same handling stressor differs in these conditions. In cold environments, we noted a significant decrease in core body temperature (-2.9°C), whereas the response in mild indoor conditions was weak and non-significant (-0.6°C). Heat loss in outdoor birds was exacerbated when birds were handled for longer time. This may highlight the role of behavioral thermoregulation and heat substitution from activity to body temperature maintenance in harsh condition. Importantly, our work also indicates that changes in the physical properties of the bird during handling (conductive cooling from cold hands, decreased insulation from compression of plumage and prevention of ptiloerection) may have large consequences for thermoregulation. This might explain why females, the smaller sex, lost more heat than males in the experiment. Because physiological and physical changes during handling may carry over to affect predation risk and maintenance of energy balance during short winter days, we advice caution when designing experimental protocols entailing prolonged handling of small birds in cold conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  12. Temperature-Responsive Smart Nanocarriers for Delivery Of Therapeutic Agents: Applications and Recent Advances.

    Karimi, Mahdi; Sahandi Zangabad, Parham; Ghasemi, Alireza; Amiri, Mohammad; Bahrami, Mohsen; Malekzad, Hedieh; Ghahramanzadeh Asl, Hadi; Mahdieh, Zahra; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Ghasemi, Amir; Rahmani Taji Boyuk, Mohammad Reza; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-08-24

    Smart drug delivery systems (DDSs) have attracted the attention of many scientists, as carriers that can be stimulated by changes in environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, light, electromagnetic fields, mechanical forces, etc. These smart nanocarriers can release their cargo on demand when their target is reached and the stimulus is applied. Using the techniques of nanotechnology, these nanocarriers can be tailored to be target-specific, and exhibit delayed or controlled release of drugs. Temperature-responsive nanocarriers are one of most important groups of smart nanoparticles (NPs) that have been investigated during the past decades. Temperature can either act as an external stimulus when heat is applied from the outside, or can be internal when pathological lesions have a naturally elevated termperature. A low critical solution temperature (LCST) is a special feature of some polymeric materials, and most of the temperature-responsive nanocarriers have been designed based on this feature. In this review, we attempt to summarize recent efforts to prepare innovative temperature-responsive nanocarriers and discuss their novel applications.

  13. Variation in the transcriptional response of threatened coral larvae to elevated temperatures.

    Polato, Nicholas R; Altman, Naomi S; Baums, Iliana B

    2013-03-01

    Coral populations have declined worldwide largely due to increased sea surface temperatures. Recovery of coral populations depends in part upon larval recruitment. Many corals reproduce during the warmest time of year when further increases in temperature can lead to low fertilization rates of eggs and high larval mortality. Microarray experiments were designed to capture and assess variability in the thermal stress responses of Acropora palmata larvae from Puerto Rico. Transcription profiles showed a striking acceleration of normal developmental gene expression patterns with increased temperature. The transcriptional response to heat suggested rapid depletion of larval energy stores via peroxisomal lipid oxidation and included key enzymes that indicated the activation of the glyoxylate cycle. High temperature also resulted in expression differences in key developmental signalling genes including the conserved WNT pathway that is critical for pattern formation and tissue differentiation in developing embryos. Expression of these and other important developmental and thermal stress genes such as ferritin, heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal components, cell adhesion and autophagy proteins also varied among larvae derived from different parent colonies. Disruption of normal developmental and metabolic processes will have negative impacts on larval survival and dispersal as temperatures rise. However, it appears that variation in larval response to high temperature remains despite the dramatic population declines. Further research is needed to determine whether this variation is heritable or attributable to maternal effects. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Temperature response of the neuronal cytoskeleton mapped via atomic force and fluorescence microscopy

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal cells change their growth properties in response to external physical stimuli such as variations in external temperature, stiffness of the growth substrate, or topographical guidance cues. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms that control these biomechanical responses is necessary for understanding the basic principles that underlie neuronal growth and regeneration. Here, we present elasticity maps of living cortical neurons (embryonic rat) as a function of temperature, and correlate these maps to the locations of internal structural components of the cytoskeleton. Neurons display a significant increase in the average elastic modulus upon a decrease in ambient temperature from 37 to 25 °C. We demonstrate that the dominant mechanism by which the elasticity of the neurons changes in response to temperature is the stiffening of the actin components of the cytoskeleton induced by myosin II. We also report a reversible shift in the location and composition of the high-stiffness areas of the neuron cytoskeleton with temperature. At 37 °C the areas of the cell displaying high elastic modulus overlap with the tubulin-dense regions, while at 25 °C these high-stiffness areas correspond to the actin-dense regions of the cytoskeleton. These results demonstrate the importance of considering temperature effects when investigating cytoskeletal dynamics in cells. (paper)

  15. Brassinosteroid signaling-dependent root responses to prolonged elevated ambient temperature.

    Martins, Sara; Montiel-Jorda, Alvaro; Cayrel, Anne; Huguet, Stéphanie; Roux, Christine Paysant-Le; Ljung, Karin; Vert, Grégory

    2017-08-21

    Due to their sessile nature, plants have to cope with and adjust to their fluctuating environment. Temperature elevation stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis aerial parts. This process is mediated by increased biosynthesis of the growth-promoting hormone auxin. How plant roots respond to elevated ambient temperature is however still elusive. Here we present strong evidence that temperature elevation impinges on brassinosteroid hormone signaling to alter root growth. We show that elevated temperature leads to increased root elongation, independently of auxin or factors known to drive temperature-mediated shoot growth. We further demonstrate that brassinosteroid signaling regulates root responses to elevated ambient temperature. Increased growth temperature specifically impacts on the level of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 to downregulate brassinosteroid signaling and mediate root elongation. Our results establish that BRI1 integrates temperature and brassinosteroid signaling to regulate root growth upon long-term changes in environmental conditions associated with global warming.Moderate heat stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis shoots in an auxin-dependent manner. Here, Martins et al. show that elevated ambient temperature modifies root growth by reducing the BRI1 brassinosteroid-receptor protein level and downregulating brassinosteroid signaling.

  16. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  17. The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions

    Wang, Enli; Martre, Pierre; Zhao, Zhigan

    2017-01-01

    , we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C. We derived a set of new temperature......Quality) and analysing their results against the HSC data and an additional global dataset from the International Heat Stress Genotpye Experiment (IHSGE)8 carried out by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). More importantly, we derive, based on newest knowledge and data, a set of new...

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  19. The Chamber for Studying Rice Response to Elevated Nighttime Temperature in Field

    Song Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ temperature-controlled field chamber was developed for studying a large population of rice plant under different nighttime temperature treatments while maintaining conditions similar to those in the field during daytime. The system consists of a pipe hoop shed-type chamber with manually removable covers manipulated to provide a natural environment at daytime and a relatively stable and accurate temperature at night. Average air temperatures of 22.4 ± 0.3°C at setting of 22°C, 27.6 ± 0.4°C at 27°C, and 23.8 ± 0.7°C ambient conditions were maintained with the system. No significant horizontal and vertical differences in temperature were found and only slight changes in water temperatures were observed between the chambers and ambient conditions at 36 days after transplanting. A slight variation in CO2 concentration was observed at the end of the treatment during the day, but the 10-μmol CO2 mol−1 difference was too small to alter plant response. The present utilitarian system, which only utilizes an air conditioner/heater, is suitable for studying the effect of nighttime temperature on plant physiological responses with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors. At the same time, it will enable in situ screening of many rice genotypes.

  20. Auditory brainstem evoked responses and temperature monitoring during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Rodriguez, R A; Edmonds, H L; Auden, S M; Austin, E H

    1999-09-01

    To examine the effects of temperature on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in infants during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for total circulatory arrest (TCA). The relationship between ABRs (as a surrogate measure of core-brain temperature) and body temperature as measured at several temperature monitoring sites was determined. In a prospective, observational study, ABRs were recorded non-invasively at normothermia and at every 1 or 2 degrees C change in ear-canal temperature during cooling and rewarming in 15 infants (ages: 2 days to 14 months) that required TCA. The ABR latencies and amplitudes and the lowest temperatures at which an ABR was identified (the threshold) were measured during both cooling and rewarming. Temperatures from four standard temperature monitoring sites were simultaneously recorded. The latencies of ABRs increased and amplitudes decreased with cooling (P < 0.01), but rewarming reversed these effects. The ABR threshold temperature as related to each monitoring site (ear-canal, nasopharynx, esophagus and bladder) was respectively determined as 23 +/- 2.2 degrees C, 20.8 +/- 1.7 degrees C, 14.6 +/- 3.4 degrees C, and 21.5 +/- 3.8 degrees C during cooling and 21.8 +/- 1.6 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.0 degrees C, 27.6 +/- 3.6 degrees C, and 23.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C during rewarming. The rewarming latencies were shorter and Q10 latencies smaller than the corresponding cooling values (P < 0.01). Esophageal and bladder sites were more susceptible to temperature variations as compared with the ear-canal and nasopharynx. No temperature site reliably predicted an electrophysiological threshold. A faster latency recovery during rewarming suggests that body temperature monitoring underestimates the effects of rewarming in the core-brain. ABRs may be helpful to monitor the effects of cooling and rewarming on the core-brain during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

  1. Peripheral blood leukocyte phagocytosis and respiratory response to certain macromolecular substances in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study, Hiroshima

    Barerras, R F; Finch, S C

    1974-01-01

    The functional integrity of the peripheral blood leukocytes of 10 heavily exposed subjects and 10 matched controls was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption following the addition of latex particles and E. coli endotoxin, and measuring sensitized and unsensitized starch granule phagocytosis. There was no significant difference in the responses of leukocytes from exposed subjects and controls following the addition of latex particles. The ultimate response of leukocytes from exposed subjects to the stimulus of E. coli endotoxin was comparable to that of the controls. Depressed early response in 5 of 10 exposed and 1 of 10 control subjects was observed. Interpretation is unclear. No evidence of radiation-related impairment of starch granule phagocytosis was observed. Results fail to demonstrate any late radiation-related functional impairment of peripheral blood leukocytes during phagocytosis. The serum-related changes were inconstant and probably were of little significance. (auth)

  2. Metabolome Integrated Analysis of High-Temperature Response in Pinus radiata

    Mónica Escandón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integrative omics approach is crucial to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-temperature response in non-model species. Based on future scenarios of heat increase, Pinus radiata plants were exposed to a temperature of 40°C for a period of 5 days, including recovered plants (30 days after last exposure to 40°C in the analysis. The analysis of the metabolome using complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS allowed the reliable quantification of 2,287 metabolites. The analysis of identified metabolites and highlighter metabolic pathways across heat time exposure reveal the dynamism of the metabolome in relation to high-temperature response in P. radiata, identifying the existence of a turning point (on day 3 at which P. radiata plants changed from an initial stress response program (shorter-term response to an acclimation one (longer-term response. Furthermore, the integration of metabolome and physiological measurements, which cover from the photosynthetic state to hormonal profile, suggests a complex metabolic pathway interaction network related to heat-stress response. Cytokinins (CKs, fatty acid metabolism and flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis were revealed as the most important pathways involved in heat-stress response in P. radiata, with zeatin riboside (ZR and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA as the key hormones coordinating these multiple and complex interactions. On the other hand, the integrative approach allowed elucidation of crucial metabolic mechanisms involved in heat response in P. radiata, as well as the identification of thermotolerance metabolic biomarkers (L-phenylalanine, hexadecanoic acid, and dihydromyricetin, crucial metabolites which can reschedule the metabolic strategy to adapt to high temperature.

  3. On-line measurements of response time of temperature and pressure sensors in PWRs

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A review of modern techniques for in-situ response time testing of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), and pressure, level and flow transmitters is presented. These techniques have been developed and validated for use in pressurized and boiling water reactors. The significance of the modern techniques is that they permit testing of installed sensors at process operating conditions and thereby provide the actual in-service response times of the sensors. (author)

  4. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  5. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Lo, Miranda; Cordwell, Stuart J; Bulach, Dieter M; Adler, Ben

    2009-12-08

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS). We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature shift in L. interrogans. The results thus provide an insight into the mechanisms used by L

  6. Resistance temperature sensor aging degradation identification using LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Goncalves, Iraci Martine Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Most critical process temperatures in nuclear power plants are measured using RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) and thermocouples. In a PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs, and the temperature of the water that exits the reactor core is measured using thermocouples. These thermocouples are mainly used for temperature monitoring purposes and are therefore not generally subject to very stringent requirements for accuracy and response-time performance. In contrast, primary coolant RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs and thermocouples has been characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant. This is defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature is impressed on its surface. This step change is typically achieved by suddenly immersing the sensor in a rotating tank of water, called Plunge Test. In nuclear reactors, however, plunge testing is inconvenient because the sensor must be removed from the reactor coolant piping and taken to a laboratory for testing. Nuclear reactor service conditions of 150 bar and 300°C are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, all laboratory tests are performed at much milder conditions, and the results are extrapolated to service conditions. This leads to significant errors in the measurement of sensor response times and an insitu test method called LCSR - Loop Current Step Response test was developed in the mid-1970s to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the sensing element is heated by an electric current; the current causes Joule heating in the sensor and results in a temperature transient inside the sensor. The temperature transient in the element is recorded, and from this transient, the

  7. [Likeness between respiratory responses on CO2 in conditions of natural breathing and voluntary-controlled mechanical ventilation].

    Pogodin, M A; Granstrem, M P; Dimitrienko, A I

    2007-04-01

    We did Read CO2 rebreathing tests in 8 adult males. Both at natural breathing, and at self-controlled mechanical ventilation, volunteers increased ventilation proportionally to growth end-tidal PCO2. Inside individual distinctions of responses to CO2 during controlled mechanical ventilation are result of the voluntary motor control.

  8. NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)

    Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

  9. Response of Soft Continuous Structures and Topological Defects to a Temperature Gradient.

    Kurita, Rei; Mitsui, Shun; Tanaka, Hajime

    2017-09-08

    Thermophoresis, which is mass transport induced by a temperature gradient, has recently attracted considerable attention as a new way to transport materials. So far the study has been focused on the transport of discrete structures such as colloidal particles, proteins, and polymers in solutions. However, the response of soft continuous structures such as membranes and gels to a temperature gradient has been largely unexplored. Here we study the behavior of a lamellar phase made of stacked surfactant bilayer membranes under a temperature gradient. We find the migration of membranes towards a low-temperature region, causing the increase in the degree of membrane undulation fluctuations towards that direction. This is contrary to our intuition that the fluctuations are weaker at a lower temperature. We show that this can be explained by temperature-gradient-induced migration of membranes under the topological constraint coming from the connectivity of each membrane. We also reveal that the pattern of an edge dislocation array formed in a wedge-shaped cell can be controlled by a temperature gradient. These findings suggest that application of a temperature gradient provides a novel way to control the organization of soft continuous structures such as membranes, gels, and foams, in a manner essentially different from the other types of fields, and to manipulate topological defects.

  10. The effect of temperature on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Skirvin, David J; Fenlon, John S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental variables, such as temperature, are important in determining the efficiency of biological control in ornamental crops. This paper examines the effect of temperature on the functional response of adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis to eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The functional response was determined using a new functional response assay technique with plant stems as an arena, rather than leaf discs. The use of plant stems allows the influence that plant structure has on predation to be incorporated into the assay. Control assays were also used (without predators) to estimate natural losses of prey. The data were analysed using a binomial model, with the use of Abbot's formula to correct for the losses in the controls. A combined equation to describe the effect of temperature and prey density on the predation rate of Phytoseiulus persimilis was derived. The results showed that more prey are eaten as the temperature increases from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C, but the number of prey eaten then declines at 30 degrees C, although not to the levels seen at 20 degrees C. The implication of these results for biological control in ornamental crops, where the temperature can often exceed 30 degrees C, is discussed.

  11. Preparation and Investigation of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide Membranes in Temperature Responsive Drug Delivery

    Elham Khodaverdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPhysiological changes in the body may be utilized as potential triggers for controlled drug delivery. Based on these mechanisms, stimulus–responsive drug delivery has been developed.Materials and MethodsIn this study, a kind of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide membrane was prepared by radical copolymerization. Changes in swelling ratios and diameters of the membrane were investigated in terms of temperature. On-off regulation of drug permeation through the membrane was then studied at temperatures below and above the phase transition temperature of the membrane. Two drugs, vitamin B12 and acetaminophen were chosen as models of high and low molecular weights here, respectively. ResultsIt was indicated that at temperatures below the phase transition temperature of the membrane, copolymer was in a swollen state. Above the phase transition temperature, water was partially expelled from the functional groups of the copolymer. Permeation of high molecular weight drug models such as vitamin B12 was shown to be much more distinct at temperatures below the phase transition temperature when the copolymer was in a swollen state. At higher temperatures when the copolymer was shrunken, drug permeation through the membrane was substantially decreased. However for acetaminophen, such a big change in drug permeation around the phase transition temperature of the membrane was not observed. ConclusionAccording to the pore mechanism of drug transport through hydrogels, permeability of solutes decreased with increasing molecular size. As a result, the relative permeability, around the phase transition temperature of the copolymer, was higher for solutes of high molecular weight.

  12. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The

  13. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation

    Brugmans, M. J.; Kemper, J.; Gijsbers, G. H.; van der Meulen, F. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an

  14. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses during Aquatic Exercise in Water at Different Temperatures in Older Adults

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Matten, Sonia; Sieverdes, John C.; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during upper-body aquatic exercises in older adults with different pool temperatures. Method: Eleven older men (aged 65 years and older) underwent 2 identical aquatic exercise sessions that consisted of 3 upper-body exercises using progressive intensities (30, 35, and 40…

  15. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature

    Van Dooremalen, C.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids

  16. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    van Dooremalen, J.A.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids

  17. Headwater stream temperature: interpreting response after logging, with and without riparian buffers, Washington, USA

    Jack E. Janisch; Steven M. Wondzell; William J. Ehinger

    2012-01-01

    We examined stream temperature response to forest harvest in small forested headwater catchments in western Washington, USA over a seven year period (2002-2008). These streams have very low discharge in late summer and many become spatially intermittent. We used a before-after, control-impact (BACl) study design to contrast the effect of clearcut logging with two...

  18. Dielectric response of capacitor structures based on PZT annealed at different temperatures

    Kamenshchikov, Mikhail V., E-mail: Mikhailkamenshchikov@yandex.ru [Tver State University, 170002, Tver (Russian Federation); Solnyshkin, Alexander V. [Tver State University, 170002, Tver (Russian Federation); Pronin, Igor P. [Ioffe Institute, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Correlation of the microstructure of PZT films and dielectric response was found. • Difference of dielectric responses under low and high bias is caused by domains. • Internal fields is discussed on the basis of the space charges. • Dependences of PZT films characteristics on synthesis temperature are extremal. - Abstract: Dielectric response of thin-film capacitor structures of Pt/PZT/Pt deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering method and annealed at temperatures of 540–570 °C was investigated. It was found that dielectric properties of these structures depend on the synthesis temperature. Stability of a polarized state is considered on the basis of the analysis of hysteresis loops and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics. The contribution of the domain mechanism in the dielectric response of the capacitor structure comprising a ferroelectric is discussed. Extreme dependences of electrophysical characteristics of PZT films on their synthesis temperature were observed. Correlation of dielectric properties with microstructure of these films is found out.

  19. Effects of gastrointestinal parasites on parasite burden, rectal temperature, and antibody titer responses to vaccination and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge.

    Schutz, J S; Carroll, J A; Gasbarre, L C; Shelton, T A; Nordstrom, S T; Hutcheson, J P; Van Campen, H; Engle, T E

    2012-06-01

    Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 ± 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P parasite burden and decreased rectal temperature increase after an IBRV challenge. Deworming strategy had no effect on antibody response to vaccination or IBRV challenge.

  20. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    Ortiz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33 degree C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with [ 35 S]sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33 degree C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33 degree C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell

  1. Responses of invertebrates to temperature and water stress: A polar perspective.

    Everatt, Matthew J; Convey, Pete; Bale, Jeffrey S; Worland, M Roger; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-12-01

    As small bodied poikilothermic ectotherms, invertebrates, more so than any other animal group, are susceptible to extremes of temperature and low water availability. In few places is this more apparent than in the Arctic and Antarctic, where low temperatures predominate and water is unusable during winter and unavailable for parts of summer. Polar terrestrial invertebrates express a suite of physiological, biochemical and genomic features in response to these stressors. However, the situation is not as simple as responding to each stressor in isolation, as they are often faced in combination. We consider how polar terrestrial invertebrates manage this scenario in light of their physiology and ecology. Climate change is also leading to warmer summers in parts of the polar regions, concomitantly increasing the potential for drought. The interaction between high temperature and low water availability, and the invertebrates' response to them, are therefore also explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Historical Responsibility for Climate Change - from countries emissions to contribution to temperature increase

    Krapp, Mario; Gütschow, Johannes; Rocha, Marcia; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    The notion of historical responsibility is central to the equity debate and the measure of responsibility as a countries' share of historical global emissions remains one of the essential parameters in so-called equity proposals, which attempt to distribute effort among countries in an equitable manner. The focus of this contribution is on the historical contribution of countries, but it takes it one step further: its general objective lies on estimating countries' contribution directly to the change in climate. The historical responsibility is not based on cumulative emissions but instead measured in terms of the countries' estimated contribution to the increase in global-mean surface-air temperature. This is achieved by (1) compiling a historical emissions dataset for the period from 1850 until 2012 for each individual Kyoto-greenhouse gas and each UNFCCC Party using a consistent methodology and (2) applying those historical emissions to a revised version of the so-called Policy-maker Model put forward by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Federative Republic of Brazil, which is a simple, yet powerful tool that allows historical GHG emissions of individual countries to be directly related to their effect on global temperature changes. We estimate that the cumulative GHG emissions until 2012 from the USA, the European Union and China contribute to a total temperature increase of about 0.50°C in 2100, which is equivalent to about 50% of the temperature increase from total global GHG emissions by that year (of about 1.0°C). Respectively, the USA, the European Union, and China are responsible for 20.2%, 17.3%, and 12.1% of global temperature increase in 2100. Russian historical emissions are responsible for 0.06°C temperature increase by 2100, ranking as the fourth largest contributor to temperature increase with 6.2% of the total contribution. India ranks fifth: Indian emissions to date would contribute to roughly 0.05°C of global mean temperature

  3. The innate immune response to lower respiratory tract E. Coli infection and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 axis in neonatal mice.

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Ndeh, Roland; Collaco, Joseph M; Poupore, Amy K; Dikeman, Dustin; Zhong, Qiong; Singer, Benjamin D; D'Alessio, Franco; Scott, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2 -/- C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E. coli or PBS by direct pharyngeal aspiration. Flow cytometry was used to measure immune cell dynamics and identify cytokine-producing cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure cytokine/chemokine expression. Innate immune cell recruitment in response to E. coli-induced LRTI was delayed in the neonatal lung compared to juvenile lung. Lung clearance of bacteria was also significantly delayed in the neonate. Ccr2 -/- neonates, which lack an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, had higher mortality after E. coli challenged than Ccr2 +/+ neonates. A greater percentage of CD8 + T cells and monocytes from WT neonates challenged with E. coli produced TNF compared to controls. The pulmonary immune response to E. coli-induced LRTI differed significantly between neonatal and juvenile mice. Neonates were more susceptible to increasing doses of E. coli and exhibited greater mortality than juveniles. In the absence of an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, susceptibility to LRTI-induced mortality was further increased in neonatal mice. Taken together these findings underscore the importance of age-related differences in the innate immune response to LRTI during early stages of postnatal life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  5. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  6. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species.

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E; Hasper, Thomas B; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species with those of exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) at different temperatures (20-40°C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species to exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)

  8. Studies on the application of temperature-responsive ion exchange polymers with whey proteins.

    Maharjan, Pankaj; Campi, Eva M; De Silva, Kirthi; Woonton, Brad W; Jackson, W Roy; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-03-18

    Several new types of temperature-responsive ion exchange resins of different polymer composition have been prepared by grafting the products from the co-polymerisation of N-phenylacrylamide, N-iso-propylacrylamide and acrylic acid derivatives onto cross-linked agarose. Analysis of the binding isotherms for these different resins obtained under batch adsorption conditions indicated that the resin based on N-iso-propylacrylamide containing 5% (w/w) N-phenylacrylamide and 5% (w/w) acrylic acid resulted in the highest adsorption capacity, Bmax, for the whey protein, bovine lactoferrin, e.g. 14 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 4 °C and 62 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 40 °C, respectively. Under dynamic loading conditions at 40 °C, 94% of the loaded bovine lactoferrin on a normalised mg protein per mL resin basis was adsorbed by this new temperature-responsive ion-exchanger, and 76% was eluted by a single cycle temperature shift to 4 °C without varying the composition of the 10mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, or the flow rate. The binding characteristics of these different ion exchange resins with bovine lactoferrin were also compared to results obtained using other resins based on N-isopropylacrylamide but contained N-tert-butylacrylamide rather than N-phenylacrylamide, where the corresponding dynamic capture and release properties for bovine lactoferrin required different temperature conditions of 20 °C and 50 °C, respectively for optimal desorption/adsorption. The cationic protein, bovine lactoperoxidase, was also adsorbed and desorbed with these temperature-responsive resins under similar conditions of changing temperature, whereas the anionic protein, bovine β-lactoglobulin, was not adsorbed under this regime of temperature conditions but instead eluted in the flow-through. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plastic responses to elevated temperature in low and high elevation populations of three grassland species.

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate.

  10. Temperature-Responsive Luminescent Solar Concentrators: Tuning Energy Transfer in a Liquid Crystalline Matrix.

    Sol, Jeroen A H P; Dehm, Volker; Hecht, Reinhard; Würthner, Frank; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Debije, Michael G

    2018-01-22

    Temperature-responsive luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have been fabricated in which the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor pair in a liquid crystalline solvent can be tuned. At room temperatures, the perylene bisimide (PBI) acceptor is aggregated and FRET is inactive; while after heating to a temperature above the isotropic phase of the liquid crystal solvent, the acceptor PBI completely dissolves and FRET is activated. This unusual temperature control over FRET was used to design a color-tunable LSC. The device has been shown to be highly stable towards consecutive heating and cooling cycles, making it an appealing device for harvesting otherwise unused solar energy. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Preparation and characterization of temperature-responsive magnetic composite particles for multi-modal cancer therapy.

    Yao, Aihua; Chen, Qi; Ai, Fanrong; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai

    2011-10-01

    The temperature-responsive magnetic composite particles were synthesized by emulsion-free polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylamide (Am) in the presence of oleic acid-modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. The magnetic properties and heat generation ability of the composite particles were characterized. Furthermore, temperature and alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggered drug release behaviors of vitamin B(12)-loaded composite particles were also examined. It was found that composite particles enabled drug release to be controlled through temperature changes in the neighborhood of lower critical solution temperature. Continuous application of AMF resulted in an accelerated release of the loaded drug. On the other hand, intermittent AMF application to the composite particles resulted in an "on-off", stepwise release pattern. Longer release duration and larger overall release could be achieved by intermittent application of AMF as compared to continuous magnetic field. Such composite particles may be used for magnetic drug targeting followed by simultaneous hyperthermia and drug release.

  12. Proteomic signatures implicate cAMP in light and temperature responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, are increasingly recognized as important signaling molecules in a number of physiological responses in higher plants. Here we used proteomics to identify cAMP-dependent protein signatures in Arabidopsis thaliana and identify a number of differentially expressed proteins with a role in light- and temperature-dependent responses, notably photosystem II subunit P-1, plasma membrane associated cation-binding protein and chaperonin 60 β. Based on these proteomics results we conclude that, much like in cyanobacteria, algae and fungi, cAMP may have a role in light signaling and the regulation of photosynthesis as well as responses to temperature and we speculate that ACs could act as light and/or temperature sensors in higher plants. Biological significance: This current study is significant since it presents the first proteomic response to cAMP, a novel and key second messenger in plants. It will be relevant to researchers in plant physiology and in particular those with an interest in second messengers and their role in biotic and abiotic stress responses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Temperature response surfaces for mortality risk of tree species with future drought

    Adams, Henry D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Minor, Rebecca L.; Gardea, Alfonso A.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; McDowell, Nate G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2017-11-01

    Widespread, high levels of tree mortality, termed forest die-off, associated with drought and rising temperatures, are disrupting forests worldwide. Drought will likely become more frequent with climate change, but even without more frequent drought, higher temperatures can exacerbate tree water stress. The temperature sensitivity of drought-induced mortality of tree species has been evaluated experimentally for only single-step changes in temperature (ambient compared to ambient + increase) rather than as a response surface (multiple levels of temperature increase), which constrains our ability to relate changes in the driver with the biological response. Here we show that time-to-mortality during drought for seedlings of two western United States tree species, Pinus edulis (Engelm.) and Pinus ponderosa (Douglas ex C. Lawson), declined in continuous proportion with increasing temperature spanning a 7.7 °C increase. Although P. edulis outlived P. ponderosa at all temperatures, both species had similar relative declines in time-to-mortality as temperature increased (5.2% per °C for P. edulis; 5.8% per °C for P. ponderosa). When combined with the non-linear frequency distribution of drought duration—many more short droughts than long droughts—these findings point to a progressive increase in mortality events with global change due to warming alone and independent of additional changes in future drought frequency distributions. As such, dire future forest recruitment patterns are projected assuming the calculated 7-9 seedling mortality events per species by 2100 under business-as-usual warming occur, congruent with additional vulnerability predicted for adult trees from stressors like pathogens and pests. Our progressive projection for increased mortality events was driven primarily by the non-linear shape of the drought duration frequency distribution, a common climate feature of drought-affected regions. These results illustrate profound benefits for

  14. Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route.

    Hielpos, Maria Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Falivene, Juliana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Comerci, Diego J; Baldi, Pablo C

    2017-01-01

    Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 10 6  CFU of B. abortus , the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i.) was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortus is caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS). We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps) A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro , may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB -infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune modulation

  15. Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route

    Maria Soledad Hielpos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 106 CFU of B. abortus, the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i. was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortusis caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS. We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro, may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB-infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune

  16. Temperature and pH Responsive Microfibers for Controllable and Variable Ibuprofen Delivery

    Toan Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun microfibers (MFs composed of pH and temperature responsive polymers can be used for controllable and variable delivery of ibuprofen. First, electrospinning technique was employed to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid (pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs containing ibuprofen. It was found that drug release rates from PCL MFs cannot be significantly varied by either temperature (22–40°C or pH values (1.7–7.4. In contrast, the ibuprofen (IP diffusion rates from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs were very sensitive to changes in both temperature and pH. The IP release from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs was highly linear and controllable when the temperature was above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of pNIPAM-co-MAA (33°C and the pH was lower than the pKa of carboxylic acids (pH 2. At room temperature, however, the release rate was dramatically increased by nearly ten times compared to that at higher temperature and lower pH. Such a unique and controllable drug delivery system could be naturally envisioned to find many practical applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences such as programmable transdermal drug delivery.

  17. Low temperature transient response and electroluminescence characteristics of OLEDs based on Alq3

    Yuan, Chao; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yiyang; Liu, Shuangjie; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq3 are fabricated. In order to make clear the transport mechanism of carriers in organic light-emitting devices at low temperature, detailed electroluminescence transient response and the current-voltage-luminescence (I-V-L) characteristics under different temperatures in those OLEDs are investigated. It founds that the acceleration of brightness increases with increasing temperature is maximum when the temperature is 200 K and it is mainly affected by the electron transport layer (Alq3). The MoO3 injection layer and the electroluminescent layer have great influence on the delay time when the temperature is 200 K. Once the temperature is greater than 250 K, the delay time is mainly affected by the MoO3 injection layer. On the contrary, the fall time is mainly affected by the electroluminescent material. The Vf is the average growth rate of fall time when the temperature increases 1 K which represents the accumulation rate of carriers. The difference between Vf caused by the MoO3 injection layer is 0.52 us/K and caused by the electroluminescent material Ir(ppy)3 is 0.73 us/K.

  18. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  19. Influence of the irradiation temperature on the free-radical response of alanine

    Wieser, A.; Siegele, R.; Regulla, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    GSF operates the only IAEA high-level dosimetry reference laboratory and, as a joint project with the IAEA, the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS). Dosimetry is based on long-lived free radicals in organic alanine induced by ionizing radiation and readout by ESR spectroscopy. The thermal time response of the radical concentration in alanine is fairly constant after irradiation provided that the alanine samples are stored at temperatures below 50 0 C. By contrast, a positive temperature coefficient had earlier been found at GSF for the production rate of alanine radicals, for irradiation temperatures between 0 and 50 0 C. This effect has to be considered for reference dosimetry in radiation processing. Radiation processing is also of interest at irradiation temperatures below 0 0 C. The present study describes experiments on the influence of irradiation temperatures between +50 and -100 0 C. Comparison is made between the present and earlier results, in the overlapping temperature range. An empirical function is proposed for the temperature coefficient based on the experimental data. (author)

  20. Lungs and Respiratory System

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  1. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  2. Uniform shrub growth response to June temperature across the North Slope of Alaska

    Ackerman, Daniel E.; Griffin, Daniel; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Popham, Kelly; Jones, Erin; Finlay, Jacques C.

    2018-04-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs in arctic tundra alters many aspects of high-latitude ecosystems, including carbon cycling and wildlife habitat. Dendroecology, the study of annual growth increments in woody plants, has shown promise in revealing how climate and environmental conditions interact with shrub growth to affect these key ecosystem properties. However, a predictive understanding of how shrub growth response to climate varies across the heterogeneous landscape remains elusive. Here we use individual-based mixed effects modeling to analyze 19 624 annual growth ring measurements in the stems of Salix pulchra (Cham.), a rapidly expanding deciduous shrub. Stem samples were collected at six sites throughout the North Slope of Alaska. Sites spanned four landscapes that varied in time since glaciation and hence in soil properties, such as nutrient availability, that we expected would modulate shrub growth response to climate. Ring growth was remarkably coherent among sites and responded positively to mean June temperature. The strength of this climate response varied slightly among glacial landscapes, but in contrast to expectations, this variability was not systematically correlated with landscape age. Additionally, shrubs at all sites exhibited diminishing marginal growth gains in response to increasing temperatures, indicative of alternative growth limiting mechanisms in particularly warm years, such as temperature-induced moisture limitation. Our results reveal a regionally-coherent and robust shrub growth response to early season growing temperature, with local soil properties contributing only a minor influence on shrub growth. Our conclusions strengthen predictions of changes to wildlife habitat and improve the representation of tundra vegetation dynamics in earth systems models in response to future arctic warming.

  3. Acute Responses to Diuretic Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Results from the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Cohort Study.

    Blaisdell, Carol J; Troendle, James; Zajicek, Anne

    2018-06-01

    To determine if daily respiratory status improved more in extremely low gestational age (GA) premature infants after diuretic exposure compared with those not exposed in modern neonatal intensive care units. The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) was a multicenter observational cohort study of 835 extremely premature infants, GAs of 23 0/7 -28 6/7 weeks, enrolled in the first week of life from 13 US tertiary neonatal intensive care units. We analyzed the PROP study daily medication and respiratory support records of infants ≤34 weeks postmenstrual age. We determined whether there was a temporal association between the administration of diuretics and an acute change in respiratory status in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, using an ordered categorical ranking of respiratory status. Infants in the diuretic exposed group of PROP were of lower mean GA and lower mean birth weight (P respiratory status before receiving diuretics) that the exposed infants were on a higher level of respiratory support was significantly greater (OR, >1) for each day after the initial day of diuretic exposure. Our analysis did not support the ability of diuretics to substantially improve the extremely premature infant's respiratory status. Further study of both safety and efficacy of diuretics in this setting are warranted. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01435187. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Polymeric composite membranes for temperature and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride

    Sahar Mohamaddoust Aliabadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays hydrogels are one of the upcoming classes of polymer-based controlled-release drug delivery systems. Temperature and pH-responsive delivery systems have drawn much attention because some diseases reveal themselves by a change in temperature and/or pH. The objective of this work is to prepare and characterize composite membrane using responsive nanoparticles into a polymer matrix. Materials and Methods: These nanoparticles were made of the copolymer poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methaçrylic acid by an aqueous dispersion polymerization process and are responsible for dual sensitivity to temperature and pH. Morphology study with SEM, swelling behavior with Dynamic Light Scattering Technique, in vitro drug release behavior with side-by-side Diffusion Cells were also investigated in this paper. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was used as a model solute. Results:The study on the release of doxorubicin hydrochloride showed that the release rate was higher at pH 5 than pH 7.4, increased with the increase of temperature. Nevertheless, ionic strength only poses a minor direct effect at higher pH. Conclusion:Such system may be potentially used as a tumor-targeting doxorubicin hydrochloride delivery in the body.

  5. Floor Response Spectra of a Base Isolated Auxiliary Building in Different Temperature Environments

    Park, Junhee; Choun, Youngsun; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to investigate the aging effect of degradation factors and to evaluate the seismic response of base isolated NPPs with age-related degradation. In this study, the seismic responses for NPPs using high damping rubber bearing with age-related degradation in different temperature were investigated by performing a nonlinear time history analysis. The floor response spectrums (FRS) were presented with time in different temperature environments. The degradation of HRB is found to be particularly sensitive to the ambient temperature. The increase of HRB stiffness leads to the increase of FRS it was observed that the seismic demand for equipment located in the AUX was changed. Therefore it is required that the seismic evaluation for the isolation system (e. g. isolators, equipment located in isolated structure) is performed considering the temperature environments. From the seismic fragility analysis, the seismic capacity of cabinet was affected by the degradation of HRB. Therefore the isolators in the isolated buildings should be carefully designed and manufactured considering the degradation during the life time

  6. Preparation and properties of fast temperature-responsive soy protein/PNIPAAm IPN hydrogels

    Liu Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpenetrating polymer network of fast temperature-responsive hydrogels based on soy protein and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide were successfully prepared using the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solutions as the reaction medium. The structure and properties of the hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The swelling and deswelling kinetics were also investigated in detail. The results have shown that the proposed hydrogels had high porous structure, good miscibility and thermal stability, and fast temperature responsivity. The presence of NaHCO3 had little effect on the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT of the hydrogels, and the VPTTs were at about 32°C. Compared with the traditional hydrogels, the proposed hydrogels had much faster swelling and deswelling rate. The swelling mechanism of the hydrogels was the non-Fickian diffusion. This fast temperature-responsive hydrogels may have potential applications in the field of biomedical materials.

  7. Mortality from non‐malignant respiratory diseases among people with silicosis in Hong Kong: exposure–response analyses for exposure to silica dust

    Tse, L A; Yu, I T S; Leung, C C; Tam, W; Wong, T W

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the exposure–response relationships between various indices of exposure to silica dust and the mortality from non‐malignant respiratory diseases (NMRDs) or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) among a cohort of workers with silicosis in Hong Kong. Methods The concentrations of respirable silica dust were assigned to each industry and job task according to historical industrial hygiene measurements documented previously in Hong Kong. Exposure indices included cumulative dust exposure (CDE) and mean dust concentration (MDC). Penalised smoothing spline models were used as a preliminary step to detect outliers and guide further analyses. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate the dust effects on the risk of mortality from NMRDs or COPDs after truncating the highest exposures. Results 371 of the 853 (43.49%) deaths occurring among 2789 workers with silicosis during 1981–99 were from NMRDs, and 101 (27.22%) NMRDs were COPDs. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models showed that CDE (p = 0.009) and MDC (pcaisson workers and among those ever employed in other occupations with high exposure to silica dust. No exposure–response relationship was observed for surface construction workers with low exposures. A clear upward trend for both NMRDs and COPDs mortality was found with increasing severity of radiological silicosis. Conclusion This study documented an exposure–response relationship between exposure to silica dust and the risk of death from NMRDs or COPDs among workers with silicosis, except for surface construction workers with low exposures. The risk of mortality from NMRDs increased significantly with the progression of International Labor Organization categories, independent of dust effects. PMID:16973737

  8. Mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases among people with silicosis in Hong Kong: exposure-response analyses for exposure to silica dust.

    Tse, L A; Yu, I T S; Leung, C C; Tam, W; Wong, T W

    2007-02-01

    To examine the exposure-response relationships between various indices of exposure to silica dust and the mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases (NMRDs) or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) among a cohort of workers with silicosis in Hong Kong. The concentrations of respirable silica dust were assigned to each industry and job task according to historical industrial hygiene measurements documented previously in Hong Kong. Exposure indices included cumulative dust exposure (CDE) and mean dust concentration (MDC). Penalised smoothing spline models were used as a preliminary step to detect outliers and guide further analyses. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate the dust effects on the risk of mortality from NMRDs or COPDs after truncating the highest exposures. 371 of the 853 (43.49%) deaths occurring among 2789 workers with silicosis during 1981-99 were from NMRDs, and 101 (27.22%) NMRDs were COPDs. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models showed that CDE (p = 0.009) and MDC (pcaisson workers and among those ever employed in other occupations with high exposure to silica dust. No exposure-response relationship was observed for surface construction workers with low exposures. A clear upward trend for both NMRDs and COPDs mortality was found with increasing severity of radiological silicosis. This study documented an exposure-response relationship between exposure to silica dust and the risk of death from NMRDs or COPDs among workers with silicosis, except for surface construction workers with low exposures. The risk of mortality from NMRDs increased significantly with the progression of International Labor Organization categories, independent of dust effects.

  9. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  10. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Jingyan Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR-type resistance (R protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5, which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1 to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1, RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4 and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1. Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses.

  11. The response of rice (Oryza sativa L. to elevated night temperature with application of Pyraclostobin

    T.Y. Wahjanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice productivity is having a problem related with climate change phenomenon, mainly the global warming. The rising of temperature in some country threat the rice production. The increasing of temperature is a major limiting factor that affects yield through the growth and development of rice plant. This study was aimed to examine the response of rice (Oryza sativa L. to elevated night temperature with the application of Pyraclostobin. A glasshouse experiment that was conducted from March to August 2015 at Brawijaya University Research Station of Jatikerto – Malang, used nested plot design with three replications and two treatments. The first treatments were the night temperature level (normal temperature, increased 2oC, and increased 4oC. The second treatments were the concentration of Pyraclostrobin (0 ppm, 400 ppm and 800 ppm. Results of the study showed that the increase of temperature at night for about 2oC and 4oC, as well as application of Pyraclostrobin, affected growth and yield of rice. Application of Pyraclostrobin by concentrations of 400 ppm and 800 ppm effectively reduced yield loss by increasing night temperature of 2oC, which resulted in 20.20% and 24.93%, respectively, in comparison with the control; while the increase of night temperature by 4oC have resulted 26.86% and 33.33% in comparison with the control. Pyraclostrobin was effective in maintaining percentage of the filled spikelets by the increase of temperature at night for about 2oC and 4oC.

  12. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  13. Regional aerosol emissions and temperature response: Local and remote climate impacts of regional aerosol forcing

    Lewinschal, Anna; Ekman, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of anthropogenic aerosols vary substantially over the globe and the short atmospheric residence time of aerosols leads to a highly uneven radiative forcing distribution, both spatially and temporally. Regional aerosol radiative forcing can, nevertheless, exert a large influence on the temperature field away from the forcing region through changes in heat transport or the atmospheric or ocean circulation. Moreover, the global temperature response distribution to aerosol forcing may vary depending on the geographical location of the forcing. In other words, the climate sensitivity in one region can vary depending on the location of the forcing. The surface temperature distribution response to changes in sulphate aerosol forcing caused by sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission perturbations in four different regions is investigated using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). The four regions, Europe, North America, East and South Asia, are all regions with historically high aerosol emissions and are relevant from both an air-quality and climate policy perspective. All emission perturbations are defined relative to the year 2000 emissions provided for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The global mean temperature change per unit SO2 emission change is similar for all four regions for similar magnitudes of emissions changes. However, the global temperature change per unit SO2 emission in simulations where regional SO2 emission were removed is substantially higher than that obtained in simulations where regional SO2 emissions were increased. Thus, the climate sensitivity to regional SO2 emissions perturbations depends on the magnitude of the emission perturbation in NorESM. On regional scale, on the other hand, the emission perturbations in different geographical locations lead to different regional temperature responses, both locally and in remote regions. The results from the model simulations are used to construct regional temperature potential

  14. Global land carbon sink response to temperature and precipitation varies with ENSO phase

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Michalak, Anna M.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Berry, Joseph A.; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Fisher, Joshua B.; Cook, Robert B.; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; Lei, Huimin; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Peng, Shushi; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its consequent impacts on land carbon sink interannual variability have been used as a basis for investigating carbon cycle responses to climate variability more broadly, and to inform the sensitivity of the tropical carbon budget to climate change. Past studies have presented opposing views about whether temperature or precipitation is the primary factor driving the response of the land carbon sink to ENSO. Here, we show that the dominant driver varies with ENSO phase. Whereas tropical temperature explains sink dynamics following El Niño conditions (rTG,P=0.59, p<0.01), the post La Niña sink is driven largely by tropical precipitation (rPG,T=-0.46, p=0.04). This finding points to an ENSO-phase-dependent interplay between water availability and temperature in controlling the carbon uptake response to climate variations in tropical ecosystems. We further find that none of a suite of ten contemporary terrestrial biosphere models captures these ENSO-phase-dependent responses, highlighting a key uncertainty in modeling climate impacts on the future of the global land carbon sink.

  15. Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy.

    Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann

    2016-08-02

    The stress reaction induced by surgery and associated pain may be detrimental for patient recovery and should be minimized. The neuropeptide chromogranin A (CGA) has shown promise as a sensitive biomarker for stress in humans. Little is known about CGA and its derived peptides, catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS), in dogs undergoing surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare concentrations of CGA epitopes CST and VS, cortisol, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scales (VAS) for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy privately owned female dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were included. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain behavior VAS, and stress behavior VAS were recorded and saliva and blood samples were collected before surgery, 3 h after extubation, and once at recall 7-15 days after surgery. Dogs were premedicated with morphine and received carprofen as analgesia for 7 days during the postoperative period. At 3 h after extubation, CMPS-SF and pain behavior VAS scores had increased (p stress behavior VAS scores, temperature, respiratory rate (p stress and pain changed in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. To further evaluate CST and VS usefulness as pain biomarkers, studies on dogs in acute painful situations are warranted.

  16. Single histidine button in cardiac troponin I sustains heart performance in response to severe hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in vivo.

    Palpant, Nathan J; D'Alecy, Louis G; Metzger, Joseph M

    2009-05-01

    Intracellular acidosis is a profound negative regulator of myocardial performance. We hypothesized that titrating myofilament calcium sensitivity by a single histidine substituted cardiac troponin I (A164H) would protect the whole animal physiological response to acidosis in vivo. To experimentally induce severe hypercapnic acidosis, mice were exposed to a 40% CO(2) challenge. By echocardiography, it was found that systolic function and ventricular geometry were maintained in cTnI A164H transgenic (Tg) mice. By contrast, non-Tg (Ntg) littermates experienced rapid and marked cardiac decompensation during this same challenge. For detailed hemodymanic assessment, Millar pressure-conductance catheterization was performed while animals were treated with a beta-blocker, esmolol, during a severe hypercapnic acidosis challenge. Survival and load-independent measures of contractility were significantly greater in Tg vs. Ntg mice. This assay showed that Ntg mice had 100% mortality within 5 min of acidosis. By contrast, systolic and diastolic function were protected in Tg mice during acidosis, and they had 100% survival. This study shows that, independent of any beta-adrenergic compensation, myofilament-based molecular manipulation of inotropy by histidine-modified troponin I maintains cardiac inotropic and lusitropic performance and markedly improves survival during severe acidosis in vivo.

  17. Structural Factors of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreak as a Public Health Crisis in Korea and Future Response Strategies

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV outbreak has originated from a failure in the national quarantine system in the Republic of Korea as most basic role of protecting the safety and lives of its citizens. Furthermore, a number of the Korean healthcare system’s weaknesses seem to have been completely exposed. The MERS-CoV outbreak can be considered a typical public health crisis in that the public was not only greatly terrorized by the actual fear of the disease, but also experienced a great impact to their daily lives, all in a short period of time. Preparedness for and an appropriate response to a public health crisis require comprehensive systematic public healthcare measures to address risks comprehensively with an all-hazards approach. Consequently, discussion regarding establishment of post-MERS-CoV improvement measures must focus on the total reform of the national quarantine system and strengthening of the public health infrastructure. In addition, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention must implement specific strategies of action including taking on the role of “control tower” in a public health emergency, training of Field Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, establishment of collaborative governance between central and local governments for infection prevention and control, strengthening the roles and capabilities of community-based public hospitals, and development of nationwide crisis communication methods.

  18. Meta-analysis of the effect of overexpression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding family genes on temperature stress tolerance and related responses

    C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors that play a critical role in plant response to temperature stress. Over-expression of CBF/DREB genes has been demonstrated to enhance temperature stress tolerance. A series of physiological and biochemical modificat...

  19. Analytical solution of transient temperature in continuous wave end-pumped laser slab: Reduction of temperature distribution and time of thermal response

    Shibib Khalid S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of transient 3-D heat equation based on integral transform method is derived. The result are compared with numerical solution, and good agreements are obtained. Minimization of response time and temperature distribution through a laser slab are tested. It is found that the increasing in the lateral convection heat transfer coefficient can significantly reduce the response time and the temperature distribution while no effect on response time is observed when changing pumping profile from Gaussian to top hat beam in spite of the latter reduce the temperature distribution, also it is found that dividing the pumping power between two slab ends might reduce the temperature distribution and it has no effect on thermal response time.

  20. Evaluation of an intranasal virosomal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus in mice: effect of TLR2 and NOD2 ligands on induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses.

    Muhammad Shafique

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: RSV infection remains a serious threat to newborns and the elderly. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent RSV infection. A mucosal RSV vaccine would be attractive as it could induce mucosal as well as systemic antibodies, capable of protecting both the upper and lower respiratory tract. Previously, we reported on a virosomal RSV vaccine for intramuscular injection with intrinsic adjuvant properties mediated by an incorporated lipophilic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 ligand. However, it has not been investigated whether this virosomal RSV vaccine candidate would be suitable for use in mucosal immunization strategies and if additional incorporation of other innate receptor ligands, like NOD2-ligand, could further enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To explore if intranasal (IN immunization with a virosomal RSV vaccine, supplemented with TLR2 and/or NOD2-ligands, is an effective strategy to induce RSV-specific immunity. METHODS: We produced RSV-virosomes carrying TLR2 (Pam3CSK4 and/or NOD2 (L18-MDP ligands. We tested the immunopotentiating properties of these virosomes in vitro, using TLR2- and/or NOD2-ligand-responsive murine and human cell lines, and in vivo by assessing induction of protective antibody and cellular responses upon IN immunization of BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Incorporation of Pam3CSK4 and/or L18-MDP potentiates the capacity of virosomes to activate (antigen-presenting cells in vitro, as demonstrated by NF-κB induction. In vivo, incorporation of Pam3CSK4 in virosomes boosted serum IgG antibody responses and mucosal antibody responses after IN immunization. While L18-MDP alone was ineffective, incorporation of L18-MDP in Pam3CSK4-carrying virosomes further boosted mucosal antibody responses. Finally, IN immunization with adjuvanted virosomes, particularly Pam3CSK4/L18-MDP-adjuvanted-virosomes, protected mice against infection with RSV, without priming for enhanced

  1. Integrated responses of Na+/HCO3- cotransporters and V-type H+-ATPases in the fish gill and kidney during respiratory acidosis.

    Perry, S F; Furimsky, M; Bayaa, M; Georgalis, T; Shahsavarani, A; Nickerson, J G; Moon, T W

    2003-12-30

    Using degenerate primers, followed by 3' and 5' RACE and "long" PCR, a continuous 4050-bp cDNA was obtained and sequenced from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill. The cDNA included an open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 1088 amino acids. A BLAST search of the GenBank protein database demonstrated that the trout gene shared high sequence similarity with several vertebrate Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporters (NBCs) and in particular, NBC1. Protein alignment revealed that the trout NBC is >80% identical to vertebrate NBC1s and phylogenetic analysis provided additional evidence that the trout NBC is indeed a homolog of NBC1. Using the same degenerate primers, a partial cDNA (404 bp) for NBC was obtained from eel (Anguilla rostrata) kidney. Analysis of the tissue distribution of trout NBC, as determined by Northern blot analysis and real-time PCR, indicated high transcript levels in several absorptive/secretory epithelia including gill, kidney and intestine and significant levels in liver. NBC mRNA was undetectable in eel gill by real-time PCR. In trout, the levels of gill NBC1 mRNA were increased markedly during respiratory acidosis induced by exposure to hypercarbia; this response was accompanied by a transient increase in branchial V-type H(+)-ATPase mRNA levels. Assuming that the branchial NBC1 is localised to basolateral membranes of gill cells and operates in the influx mode (HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) entry into the cell), it would appear that in trout, the expression of branchial NBC1 is transcriptionally regulated to match the requirements of gill pHi regulation rather than to match trans-epithelial HCO(3)(-) efflux requirements for systemic acid-base balance. By analogy with mammalian systems, NBC1 in the kidney probably plays a role in the tubular reabsorption of both Na(+) and HCO(3)(-). During periods of respiratory acidosis, levels of renal NBC1 mRNA increased (after a transient reduction) in both trout and eel, presumably to increase HCO(3

  2. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    Lewin, Keith F.; McMahon, Andrew M.; Ely, Kim S.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Rogers, Alistair

    2017-09-01

    Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by ˜ 1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be ˜ 2-3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW) chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming approaches is desired.

  3. Response of surface air temperature to small-scale land clearing across latitudes

    Zhang, Mi; Wang, Wei; Lee, Xuhui; Yu, Guirui; Wang, Huimin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Yiping; Li, Yide; Ohta, Takeshi; Hirano, Takashi; Kim, Joon; Yoshifuji, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    Climate models simulating continental scale deforestation suggest a warming effect of land clearing on the surface air temperature in the tropical zone and a cooling effect in the boreal zone due to different control of biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Ongoing land-use/cover changes mostly occur at local scales (hectares), and it is not clear whether the local-scale deforestation will generate temperature patterns consistent with the climate model results. Here we paired 40 and 12 flux sites with nearby weather stations in North and South America and in Eastern Asia, respectively, and quantified the temperature difference between these paired sites. Our goal was to investigate the response of the surface air temperature to local-scale (hectares) land clearing across latitudes using the surface weather stations as proxies for localized land clearing. The results show that north of 10°N, the annual mean temperature difference (open land minus forest) decreases with increasing latitude, but the temperature difference shrinks with latitude at a faster rate in the Americas [−0.079 (±0.010) °C per degree] than in Asia [−0.046 (±0.011) °C per degree]. Regression of the combined data suggests a transitional latitude of about 35.5°N that demarks deforestation warming to the south and cooling to the north. The warming in latitudes south of 35°N is associated with increase in the daily maximum temperature, with little change in the daily minimum temperature while the reverse is true in the boreal latitudes. (paper)

  4. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    K. F. Lewin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by  ∼  1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be  ∼  2–3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming

  5. Instrumentation enabling study of plant physiological response to elevated night temperature

    Tarpley Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global climate warming can affect functioning of crops and plants in the natural environment. In order to study the effects of global warming, a method for applying a controlled heating treatment to plant canopies in the open field or in the greenhouse is needed that can accept either square wave application of elevated temperature or a complex prescribed diurnal or seasonal temperature regime. The current options are limited in their accuracy, precision, reliability, mobility or cost and scalability. Results The described system uses overhead infrared heaters that are relatively inexpensive and are accurate and precise in rapidly controlling the temperature. Remote computer-based data acquisition and control via the internet provides the ability to use complex temperature regimes and real-time monitoring. Due to its easy mobility, the heating system can randomly be allotted in the open field or in the greenhouse within the experimental setup. The apparatus has been successfully applied to study the response of rice to high night temperatures. Air temperatures were maintained within the set points ± 0.5°C. The incorporation of the combination of air-situated thermocouples, autotuned proportional integrative derivative temperature controllers and phase angled fired silicon controlled rectifier power controllers provides very fast proportional heating action (i.e. 9 ms time base, which avoids prolonged or intense heating of the plant material. Conclusion The described infrared heating system meets the utilitarian requirements of a heating system for plant physiology studies in that the elevated temperature can be accurately, precisely, and reliably controlled with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors.

  6. Low temperature transient response and electroluminescence characteristics of OLEDs based on Alq{sub 3}

    Yuan, Chao [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Devices, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guan, Min, E-mail: guanmin@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Devices, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yiyang; Liu, Shuangjie [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Yiping [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Devices, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The dependency relation between transmission rate and electron transport layer is revealed. • The critical temperature points for the influence of luminescent materials and injection barriers on delay time are found. • The influence of light-emitting material and injection layer on carrier accumulation is quantified. - Abstract: In this work, the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq{sub 3} are fabricated. In order to make clear the transport mechanism of carriers in organic light-emitting devices at low temperature, detailed electroluminescence transient response and the current-voltage–luminescence (I–V–L) characteristics under different temperatures in those OLEDs are investigated. It founds that the acceleration of brightness increases with increasing temperature is maximum when the temperature is 200 K and it is mainly affected by the electron transport layer (Alq{sub 3}). The MoO{sub 3} injection layer and the electroluminescent layer have great influence on the delay time when the temperature is 200 K. Once the temperature is greater than 250 K, the delay time is mainly affected by the MoO{sub 3} injection layer. On the contrary, the fall time is mainly affected by the electroluminescent material. The V{sub f} is the average growth rate of fall time when the temperature increases 1 K which represents the accumulation rate of carriers. The difference between V{sub f} caused by the MoO{sub 3} injection layer is 0.52 us/K and caused by the electroluminescent material Ir(ppy){sub 3} is 0.73 us/K.

  7. Thermoluminescence dose response of quartz as a function of irradiation temperature

    Kitis, G.; Kaldoudi, E.; Charalambous, S.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) response of pure Norwegian quartz as a function of irradiation temperature (T irr ) and dose has been investigated. The TL response of the (150-230 o C) and (230-350 o C) glow curve intervals shows a strong dependence on T irr between 77 and 373 K in the dose range from 54 to 8.4 x 10 4 Gy. Both glow curve intervals also show temperature dependent dose response properties. The 150-230 o C interval is supralinear from the lowest dose (54 Gy). Its maximum supralinearity factor appears at T irr = 293 K. The 230-350 o C interval shows sublinear behaviour below T irr = + 193 K, while at T irr ≥ 273 K it shows the well known dose response curves. Its maximum supralinearity factor appears at T irr = 323 K. The linear response is extended up to 460 Gy at T irr = 273 K and falls to 80 Gy at T irr = 373 K. (author)

  8. Decoupling of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in response to extreme temperature events

    Mooshammer, Maria; Hofhansl, Florian; Frank, Alexander H.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hämmerle, Ieda; Leitner, Sonja; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarete; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of the initially stimulated C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates, which was not accompanied by significant changes in community composition. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. Moreover, the stress response of extracellular enzyme activities, but not that of intracellular microbial processes (for example, respiration or N mineralization), was dependent on the nutrient content of the resource through its effect on microbial physiology and community composition. Our laboratory study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses that can serve as a basis for field studies and, in particular, illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate extremes research. PMID:28508070

  9. Classifying Multi-Model Wheat Yield Impact Response Surfaces Showing Sensitivity to Temperature and Precipitation Change

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; hide

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in temperature (minus 2 to plus 9 degrees Centigrade) and precipitation (minus 50 to plus 50 percent). Model results were analysed by plotting them as impact response surfaces (IRSs), classifying the IRS patterns of individual model simulations, describing these classes and analysing factors that may explain the major differences in model responses. The model ensemble was used to simulate yields of winter and spring wheat at four sites in Finland, Germany and Spain. Results were plotted as IRSs that show changes in yields relative to the baseline with respect to temperature and precipitation. IRSs of 30-year means and selected extreme years were classified using two approaches describing their pattern. The expert diagnostic approach (EDA) combines two aspects of IRS patterns: location of the maximum yield (nine classes) and strength of the yield response with respect to climate (four classes), resulting in a total of 36 combined classes defined using criteria pre-specified by experts. The statistical diagnostic approach (SDA) groups IRSs by comparing their pattern and magnitude, without attempting to interpret these features. It applies a hierarchical clustering method, grouping response patterns using a distance metric that combines the spatial correlation and Euclidian distance between IRS pairs. The two approaches were used to investigate whether different patterns of yield response could be related to different properties of the crop models, specifically their genealogy, calibration and process description. Although no single model property across a large model ensemble was found to explain the integrated yield response to temperature and precipitation perturbations, the

  10. Temperature and humidity effects on the response of radiochromic dye films

    Chappas, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiochromic dye films developed by Chalkley and McLaughlin are quickly becoming one of the principal methods for secondary dosimetry. Their useful dose and dose rate ranges, long-term color stability, small and flexible size, and ease of reading make them ideal for spatial dose distribution measurements in the complex targets often encountered in research and industry. At room temperature, however, their response is slow, often requiring several hours after irradiation for full color development. This work examines the effect of humidity on the film's time response and describes two methods for accelerating the film's color development. By keeping the film in a controlled humidity environment or through a simple heating technique, the film can be read in minutes instead of hours after irradiation. The results are shown to be identical to those of films stored for 24 hours at room temperature. (author)

  11. Preisach modeling of temperature-dependent ferroelectric response of piezoceramics at sub-switching regime

    Ochoa, Diego Alejandro; García, Jose Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Preisach model is a classical method for describing nonlinear behavior in hysteretic systems. According to this model, a hysteretic system contains a collection of simple bistable units which are characterized by an internal field and a coercive field. This set of bistable units exhibits a statistical distribution that depends on these fields as parameters. Thus, nonlinear response depends on the specific distribution function associated with the material. This model is satisfactorily used in this work to describe the temperature-dependent ferroelectric response in PZT- and KNN-based piezoceramics. A distribution function expanded in Maclaurin series considering only the first terms in the internal field and the coercive field is proposed. Changes in coefficient relations of a single distribution function allow us to explain the complex temperature dependence of hard piezoceramic behavior. A similar analysis based on the same form of the distribution function shows that the KNL-NTS properties soften around its orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition.

  12. Utilizing the response patterns of a temperature modulated chemoresistive gas sensor for gas diagnosis

    Amini, Amir [Jannatabad College, Sama Organization, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafarinia, Vahid, E-mail: amir.amini.elec@gmail.com, E-mail: ghafarinia@ee.kntu.ac.ir [Electrical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The observed features in the temporal response patterns of a temperature-modulated chemoresistive gas sensor were used for gas diagnosis. The patterns were recorded for clean air and air contaminated with different levels of some volatile organic compounds while a staircase heating voltage waveform had been applied to the microheater of a tin oxide gas sensor that modulated its operating temperature. Combining the steady-state and transient parameters of the recorded responses in the 50-400 deg. C range resulted in discriminatory feature vectors which were utilized for contaminant classification. The information content of these feature vectors was proved sufficient for discrimination of methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and acetone contaminations in a wide concentration range.

  13. Utilizing the response patterns of a temperature modulated chemoresistive gas sensor for gas diagnosis

    Amini, Amir; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The observed features in the temporal response patterns of a temperature-modulated chemoresistive gas sensor were used for gas diagnosis. The patterns were recorded for clean air and air contaminated with different levels of some volatile organic compounds while a staircase heating voltage waveform had been applied to the microheater of a tin oxide gas sensor that modulated its operating temperature. Combining the steady-state and transient parameters of the recorded responses in the 50-400 deg. C range resulted in discriminatory feature vectors which were utilized for contaminant classification. The information content of these feature vectors was proved sufficient for discrimination of methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and acetone contaminations in a wide concentration range.

  14. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Miranda Lo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS. We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature

  15. Transcriptional activation of LON Gene by a new form of mitochondrial stress: A role for the nuclear respiratory factor 2 in StAR overload response (SOR).

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Isaac, Sara; Eden, Amir; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas; Orly, Joseph

    2015-06-15

    High output of steroid hormone synthesis in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and the gonads requires the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) that facilitates cholesterol mobilization to the mitochondrial inner membrane where the CYP11A1/P450scc enzyme complex converts the sterol to the first steroid. Earlier studies have shown that StAR is active while pausing on the cytosolic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane while subsequent import of the protein into the matrix terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity. Consequently, during repeated activity cycles, high level of post-active StAR accumulates in the mitochondrial matrix. To prevent functional damage due to such protein overload effect, StAR is degraded by a sequence of three to four ATP-dependent proteases of the mitochondria protein quality control system, including LON and the m-AAA membranous proteases AFG3L2 and SPG7/paraplegin. Furthermore, StAR expression in both peri-ovulatory ovarian cells, or under ectopic expression in cell line models, results in up to 3-fold enrichment of the mitochondrial proteases and their transcripts. We named this novel form of mitochondrial stress as StAR overload response (SOR). To better understand the SOR mechanism at the transcriptional level we analyzed first the unexplored properties of the proximal promoter of the LON gene. Our findings suggest that the human nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), also known as GA binding protein (GABP), is responsible for 88% of the proximal promoter activity, including the observed increase of transcription in the presence of StAR. Further studies are expected to reveal if common transcriptional determinants coordinate the SOR induced transcription of all the genes encoding the SOR proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol

    Hodges, Gary J.; Kellogg, Dean L.; Johnson, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography....

  17. Response of cast austenitic stainless steel to low temperature plasma carburizing.

    Sun, Yong

    2008-01-01

    The response of a cast 316 type austenitic stainless steel to the novel low temperature plasma carburizing process has been investigated in this work. The cast steel has a dendritic structure with a mix of austenite, ferrite and carbide phases. The results show that such a complex structure responds well to the carburizing process, and the inter-dendrite regions containing ferrite and carbides can be transformed to expanded austenite to form a continuous and uniform layer supersat...

  18. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    Roberta Machado Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth chambers at three temperatures (day/night: 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf lifespan (LL and senescence rate (SR, whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM, root mass (RM, shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  19. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Reddy, N. Narayana, E-mail: nagireddynarayana@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Healthcare, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia@CRIB, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ravindra, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Reddy, N. Madhava [Department of Environmental Science, Gates Institute of Technology, NH-7, Gooty, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rajinikanth, V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Raju, K. Mohana [Synthetic Polymer Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel.

  20. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Reddy, N. Narayana; Ravindra, S.; Reddy, N. Madhava; Rajinikanth, V.; Raju, K. Mohana; Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel

  1. Diverging temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains.

    Collins, Nicholas C; Parent, Boris

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO 2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation. In wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, we followed the temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration and leaf elongation, and confirmed that their responses diverged. We measured the amount of carbon assimilated per "unit of plant development" in each scenario and compared it to the biomass that accumulated in growing leaves and grains. Our results suggested that, up to a temperature optimum, the rate of any developmental process increased with temperature more rapidly than that of CO 2 assimilation and that this discrepancy, summarised by the CO 2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development, could explain the observed reductions in biomass accumulation in plant organs under high temperatures. The model described the effects of night and day temperature equally well, and offers a simple framework for describing the effects of temperature on plant growth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  3. Response of a Zn2TiO4 Gas Sensor to Propanol at Room Temperature

    Ibrahim Gaidan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three different compositions of ZnO and TiO2 powders were cold compressed and then heated at 1250 °C for five hours. The samples were ground to powder form. The powders were mixed with 5 wt % of polyvinyl butyral (PVB as binder and 1.5 wt % carbon black and ethylene-glyco-lmono-butyl-ether as a solvent to form screen-printed pastes. The prepared pastes were screen printed on the top of alumina substrates containing arrays of three copper electrodes. The three fabricated sensors were tested to detect propanol at room temperature at two different concentration ranges. The first concentration range was from 500 to 3000 ppm while the second concentration range was from 2500 to 5000 ppm, with testing taking place in steps of 500 ppm. The response of the sensors was found to increase monotonically in response to the increment in the propanol concentration. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the prepared samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The sensors displayed good sensitivity to propanol vapors at room temperature. Operation under room-temperature conditions make these sensors novel, as other metal oxide sensors operate only at high temperature.

  4. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Cheevadhanarak Supapon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation.

  5. Temperature response functions (G-functions) for single pile heat exchangers

    Loveridge, Fleur; Powrie, William

    2013-01-01

    Foundation piles used as heat exchangers as part of a ground energy system have the potential to reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from new buildings. However, current design approaches for pile heat exchangers are based on methods developed for boreholes which have a different geometry, with a much larger aspect (length to diameter) ratio. Current methods also neglect the transient behaviour of the pile concrete, instead assuming a steady state resistance for design purposes. As piles have a much larger volume of concrete than boreholes, this neglects the significant potential for heat storage within the pile. To overcome these shortcomings this paper presents new pile temperature response functions (G-functions) which are designed to reflect typical geometries of pile heat exchangers and include the transient response of the pile concrete. Owing to the larger number of pile sizes and pipe configurations which are possible with pile heat exchangers it is not feasible to developed a single unified G-function and instead upper and lower bound solutions are provided for different aspects ratios. - Highlights: • We present new temperature response functions for pile heat exchangers. • The functions include transient heat transfer within the pile concrete. • Application of the functions reduces the resulting calculated temperature ranges. • Greater energy efficiency is possible by accounting for heat storage in the pile

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  7. GH responsiveness before and after a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program associated with an incremental respiratory muscle endurance training in obese adolescents.

    Rigamonti, A E; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Tringali, G; Fessehatsion, R; Cella, S G; Sartorio, A

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the obesity-related hyposomatropism is usually reversible after a consistent weight loss induced by diet and/or bariatric surgery. Recently, a single bout of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) by means of a specific commercially available device (Spiro Tiger®) has been reported to induce a marked GH response in obese adults, its GH-releasing effect being significantly lower in obese adolescents. The GH response disappeared in both obese adults and adolescents when RMET was repeated at 2-h intervals in-between. The aim of the present study was to evaluate GH responses to repeated bouts of RMET administered before and after a 3-week in-hospital multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (entailing energy-restricted diet, 90 min/daily aerobic physical activity, psychological counseling, and nutritional education) combined with a progressively increasing RMET (15 daily sessions, 5 sessions per week) in 7 obese male adolescents [age: 12-17 years; body mass index (BMI): 38.5±3.1 kg/m2; percent fat mass (FM): 37.0±2.0%]. Blood samplings for GH determinations were collected during the 1st and 15th sessions, which were composed of 2 consecutive bouts of RMET (of identical intensity and duration) at 2-h interval in-between. At the beginning of the study, baseline GH levels significantly increased after the first bout of RMET in all subjects (pweight (from 115.3±9.2 kg to 111.5±8.7 kg, pweight reduction intervention does not seem useful to positively influence the reduced GH responsiveness to 2 repeated RMET bouts in obese adolescents. More intensive and/or long-term RMET protocols, associated with energy-restricted diets, determining more consistent changes in body composition, are likely needed to restore the impaired GH-IGF-1 function of obese adolescents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Optimization of Reactor Temperature and Catalyst Weight for Plastic Cracking to Fuels Using Response Surface Methodology

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with effect of reactor temperature and catalyst weight on performance of plastic waste cracking to fuels over modified catalyst waste as well as their optimization. From optimization study, the most operating parameters affected the performance of the catalytic cracking process is reactor temperature followed by catalyst weight. Increasing the reactor temperature improves significantly the cracking performance due to the increasing catalyst activity. The optimal operating conditions of reactor temperature about 550 oC and catalyst weight about 1.25 gram were produced with respect to maximum liquid fuel product yield of 29.67 %. The liquid fuel product consists of gasoline range hydrocarbons (C4-C13 with favorable heating value (44,768 kJ/kg. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 10th July 2010, Revised: 18th September 2010, Accepted: 19th September 2010[How to Cite: I. Istadi, S. Suherman, L. Buchori. (2010. Optimization of Reactor Temperature and Catalyst Weight for Plastic Cracking to Fuels Using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 103-111. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.797.103-111][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.797.103-111 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/797

  9. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  10. Density mediates grasshopper performance in response to temperature manipulation and spider predation in tallgrass prairie.

    Laws, A N; Joern, A

    2017-04-01

    Species interactions are often context-dependent, where outcomes require an understanding of influences among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. However, it remains unclear how abiotic factors such as temperature combine with important biotic factors such as density-dependent food limitation and predation to influence species interactions. Using a native grassland - grasshopper - wolf spider model food chain in tallgrass prairie, we conducted a manipulative field experiment to examine how predator-prey interactions respond to manipulations of temperature, grasshopper density, and food chain length. We find that grasshopper performance responses to temperature and predator treatments were density dependent. At high densities, grasshopper survival decreased with increased temperature when no spiders were present. When spiders were present, grasshopper survival was reduced, and this effect was strongest in the cooled treatment. In contrast, grasshopper survival did not vary significantly with spider presence or among temperature treatments at low grasshopper densities. Our results indicate that context-dependent species interactions are common and highlight the importance of understanding how and when key biotic and abiotic factors combine to influence species interactions.

  11. Effects of temperature and humidity during irradiation on the response of radiachromic film dosimeters

    Ningnoi, T.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of temperature and humidity during γ irradiation on the response of two types of film dosimeters (Far West radiochromic and GafChromic films) were studied in the dose range of 0.3-3 kGy. Both films show a significant effect of temperature and humidity and a simple correction function is proposed. This correction is usually between 5 and 10% for the range studied. For the GafChromic film, a colour change at temperatures above 50 o C was observed and, consequently, this system cannot be used at these temperatures. At lower temperatures down to -70 o C the sensitivity of both films is reduced and a simple correction is possible. In this study and for the dose ranges used, only a slight dependence on humidity was observed for both films from 0 to 60% r.h. Whereas the GafChromic film at humidities up to 90% r.h. shows only a moderate effect, the Far West film shows a considerable inconsistency for the dose range studied. A simple correction function may be applied for humidity effects, except for the Far West film above 60% r.h. where the effect of humidity is also dose dependent. (author)

  12. Comparative analysis of the transcriptional responses to low and high temperatures in three rice planthopper species.

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Xue, Jian; Zhuo, Ji-Chong; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2017-05-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. We found that metabolism-, exoskeleton- and chemosensory-related genes were modulated. In high temperature (37 °C), heat shock protein (HSP) genes were the most co-regulated; other genes related with fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and transportation were also differentially expressed. In low temperature (5 °C), the differences in gene expression of the genes for fatty acid synthesis, transport proteins and cytochrome P450 might explain why SBPH can overwinter in high latitudes, while BPH and WBPH cannot. In addition, other genes related with moulting, and membrane lipid composition might also play roles in resistance to low and high temperatures. Our study illustrates the common responses and different tolerance mechanisms of three rice planthoppers in coping with temperature change, and provides a potential strategy for pest management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of Air Temperature on London Ambulance Call-Out Incidents and Response Times

    Marliyyah A. Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambulance services are in operation around the world and yet, until recently, ambulance data has only been used for operational purposes rather than for assessing public health. Ambulance call-out data offers new and valuable (near real-time information that can be used to assess the impact of environmental conditions, such as temperature, upon human health. A detailed analysis of London ambulance data at a selection of dates between 2003 and 2015 is presented and compared to London temperature data. In London, the speed of ambulance response begins to suffer when the mean daily air temperature drops below 2 °C or rises above 20 °C. This is explained largely by the increased number of calls past these threshold temperatures. The baseline relationships established in this work will inform the prediction of likely changes in ambulance demand (and illness types that may be caused by seasonal temperature changes and the increased frequency and intensity of extreme/severe weather events, exacerbated by climate change, in the future.

  14. Redefining reproductive dormancy in Drosophila as a general stress response to cold temperatures.

    Lirakis, Manolis; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2018-04-09

    Organisms regularly encounter unfavorable conditions and the genetic adaptations facilitating survival have been of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. Winter is one particularly stressful condition for insects, during which they encounter low temperatures and scarcity of food. Despite dormancy being a well-studied adaptation to facilitate overwintering, there is still considerable controversy about the distribution of dormancy among natural populations and between species in Drosophila. The current definition of dormancy as developmental arrest of oogenesis at the previtellogenic stage (stage 7) distinguishes dormancy from general stress related block of oogenesis at early vitellogenic stages (stages 8 - 9). In an attempt to resolve this, we scrutinized reproductive dormancy in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We show that dormancy shows the same hallmarks of arrest of oogenesis at stage 9, as described for other stressors and propose a new classification for dormancy. Applying this modified classification, we show that both species express dormancy in cosmopolitan and African populations, further supporting that dormancy uses an ancestral pathway induced by environmental stress. While we found significant differences between individuals and the two Drosophila species in their sensitivity to cold temperature stress, we also noted that extreme temperature stress (8 °C) resulted in very strong dormancy incidence, which strongly reduced the differences seen at less extreme temperatures. We conclude that dormancy in Drosophila should not be considered a special trait, but is better understood as a generic stress response occurring at low temperatures. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Haemodynamic responses to temperature changes of human skeletal muscle studied by laser-Doppler flowmetry

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Tchernin, David; Richiardi, Jonas; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël

    2012-01-01

    Using a small, but very instructive experiment, it is demonstrated that laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at large interoptode spacing represents a unique tool for new investigations of thermoregulatory processes modulating the blood flow of small muscle masses in humans. It is shown on five healthy subjects that steady-state values of blood flow (perfusion) in the thenar eminence muscle group depend in a complex manner on both the local intramuscular temperature and local skin temperature, while the values of blood flow parameters measured during physiological transients, such as the post-ischaemic hyperhaemic response, depend only on the intramuscular temperature. In addition, it is shown that the so-called biological zero (i.e. remaining LDF signal during arterial occlusion) is influenced not only as expected by the intramuscular temperature, but also by the skin temperature. The proposed results reveal that the skeletal muscle has unique thermoregulatory characteristics compared, for example, to human skin. These and other observations represent new findings and we hope that they will serve as a stimulus for the creation of new experimental protocols leading to better understanding of blood flow regulation. (paper)

  16. Response surface and neural network based predictive models of cutting temperature in hard turning

    Mozammel Mia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to develop the predictive models of average tool-workpiece interface temperature in hard turning of AISI 1060 steels by coated carbide insert. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN were employed to predict the temperature in respect of cutting speed, feed rate and material hardness. The number and orientation of the experimental trials, conducted in both dry and high pressure coolant (HPC environments, were planned using full factorial design. The temperature was measured by using the tool-work thermocouple. In RSM model, two quadratic equations of temperature were derived from experimental data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE were performed to suffice the adequacy of the models. In ANN model, 80% data were used to train and 20% data were employed for testing. Like RSM, herein, the error analysis was also conducted. The accuracy of the RSM and ANN model was found to be ⩾99%. The ANN models exhibit an error of ∼5% MAE for testing data. The regression coefficient was found to be greater than 99.9% for both dry and HPC. Both these models are acceptable, although the ANN model demonstrated a higher accuracy. These models, if employed, are expected to provide a better control of cutting temperature in turning of hardened steel.

  17. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  18. Analysis of reciprocal-transfer experiments to estimate the length of phases having different responses to temperature

    Yin, X.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: The responsiveness of plant ontogeny to temperature may change with plant age. These changes may best be identified by experiments in which individual plants are transferred in a time series from low temperature (LT) to high temperature (HT), and vice versa. Any change in the

  19. Transcriptomic response of maize primary roots to low temperatures at seedling emergence.

    Di Fenza, Mauro; Hogg, Bridget; Grant, Jim; Barth, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Maize ( Zea mays ) is a C 4 tropical cereal and its adaptation to temperate climates can be problematic due to low soil temperatures at early stages of establishment. In the current study we have firstly investigated the physiological response of twelve maize varieties, from a chilling condition adapted gene pool, to sub-optimal growth temperature during seedling emergence. To identify transcriptomic markers of cold tolerance in already adapted maize genotypes, temperature conditions were set below the optimal growth range in both control and low temperature groups. The conditions were as follows; control (18 °C for 16 h and 12 °C for 8 h) and low temperature (12 °C for 16 h and 6 °C for 8 h). Four genotypes were identified from the condition adapted gene pool with significant contrasting chilling tolerance. Picker and PR39B29 were the more cold-tolerant lines and Fergus and Codisco were the less cold-tolerant lines. These four varieties were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes under chilling conditions. Exposure to low temperature during establishment in the maize varieties Picker, PR39B29, Fergus and Codisco, was reflected at the transcriptomic level in the varieties Picker and PR39B29. No significant changes in expression were observed in Fergus and Codisco following chilling stress. A total number of 64 genes were differentially expressed in the two chilling tolerant varieties. These two varieties exhibited contrasting transcriptomic profiles, in which only four genes overlapped. We observed that maize varieties possessing an enhanced root growth ratio under low temperature were more tolerant, which could be an early and inexpensive measure for germplasm screening under controlled conditions. We have identified novel cold inducible genes in an already adapted maize breeding gene pool. This illustrates that further varietal selection for enhanced chilling tolerance is possible in an already preselected gene pool.

  20. Transcriptomic response of maize primary roots to low temperatures at seedling emergence

    Mauro Di Fenza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Maize (Zea mays is a C4 tropical cereal and its adaptation to temperate climates can be problematic due to low soil temperatures at early stages of establishment. Methods In the current study we have firstly investigated the physiological response of twelve maize varieties, from a chilling condition adapted gene pool, to sub-optimal growth temperature during seedling emergence. To identify transcriptomic markers of cold tolerance in already adapted maize genotypes, temperature conditions were set below the optimal growth range in both control and low temperature groups. The conditions were as follows; control (18 °C for 16 h and 12 °C for 8 h and low temperature (12 °C for 16 h and 6 °C for 8 h. Four genotypes were identified from the condition adapted gene pool with significant contrasting chilling tolerance. Results Picker and PR39B29 were the more cold-tolerant lines and Fergus and Codisco were the less cold-tolerant lines. These four varieties were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes under chilling conditions. Exposure to low temperature during establishment in the maize varieties Picker, PR39B29, Fergus and Codisco, was reflected at the transcriptomic level in the varieties Picker and PR39B29. No significant changes in expression were observed in Fergus and Codisco following chilling stress. A total number of 64 genes were differentially expressed in the two chilling tolerant varieties. These two varieties exhibited contrasting transcriptomic profiles, in which only four genes overlapped. Discussion We observed that maize varieties possessing an enhanced root growth ratio under low temperature were more tolerant, which could be an early and inexpensive measure for germplasm screening under controlled conditions. We have identified novel cold inducible genes in an already adapted maize breeding gene pool. This illustrates that further varietal selection for enhanced chilling

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia virus of mice, and influenza A virus differently affect respiratory allergy in mice

    Barends, M.; de Rond, L. G. H.; Dormans, J.; van Oosten, M.; Boelen, A.; Neijens, H. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kimman, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections in early childhood may interact with the immune system and modify allergen sensitization and/or allergic manifestations. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during allergic provocation aggravates the allergic T helper (Th) 2 immune response,

  2. Temperature response surfaces for mortality risk of tree species with future drought

    Adams, Henry D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Minor, Rebecca L.; Gardea, Alfonso A.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; McDowell, Nate G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2017-11-01

    Widespread, high levels of tree mortality, termed forest die-off, associated with drought and rising temperatures, are disrupting forests worldwide. Drought will likely become more frequent with climate change, but even without more frequent drought, higher temperatures can exacerbate tree water stress. The temperature sensitivity of drought-induced mortality of tree species has been evaluated experimentally for only single-step changes in temperature (ambient compared to ambient + increase) rather than as a response surface (multiple levels of temperature increase), which constrains our ability to relate changes in the driver with the biological response. Here we show that time-to-mortality during drought for seedlings of two western United States tree species, Pinus edulis (Engelm.) and Pinus ponderosa (Douglas ex C. Lawson), declined in continuous proportion with increasing temperature spanning a 7.7 °C increase. Although P. edulis outlived P. ponderosa at all temperatures, both species had similar relative declines in time-to-mortality as temperature increased (5.2% per °C for P. edulis; 5.8% per °C for P. ponderosa). When combined with the non-linear frequency distribution of drought duration—many more short droughts than long droughts—these findings point to a progressive increase in mortality events with global change due to warming alone and independent of additional changes in future drought frequency distributions. As such, dire future forest recruitment patterns are projected assuming the calculated 7-9 seedling mortality events per species by 2100 under business-as-usual warming occurs, congruent with additional vulnerability predicted for adult trees from stressors like pathogens and pests. Our progressive projection for increased mortality events was driven primarily by the non-linear shape of the drought duration frequency distribution, a common climate feature of drought-affected regions. These

  3. Modelling forest growth and carbon storage in response to increasing CO2 and temperature

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    1999-11-01

    The response of plant growth to increasing climate change remains one of the unresolved issues in understanding the future of the terrestrial biosphere. It was investigated here by using the comprehensive forest growth model CenW 1.0.5 which integrates routines for the fluxes of carbon and water, interception of radiation and the cycling of nutrients. It was run with water and/or nutrient limitations on a background of naturally observed climate at Canberra, Australia. It was parameterised for Pinus radiata, the commercially most important plantation species in Australia. The simulations showed that under water-limited conditions, forest growth was highly sensitive to doubling CO2,with growth increases of over 50% on average and even greater increases in dry years. In contrast, when water supply was adequate, but nutrients were limiting, growth increases were smaller, with an initial increase of about 15% during the first year after CO2 was doubled. This growth increase diminished further over subsequent years so that after 20years, there was virtually no remaining effect. This diminishing response was due to developing nutrient limitations caused by extra carbon input which immobilised nutrients in the soil. When both water and nutrients were adequate, growth was increased by about 15 20% with no decrease over time. Increasing ambient temperature had a positive effect on growth under nutrient limited conditions by stimulating nitrogen mineralisation rates, but had very little effect when nutrients were non-limiting. Responses were qualitatively similar when conditions were changed gradually. In response to increasing CO2 by 2µmol mol1year1 over 50years, growth was increased by only 1% under nutrient-limited condition but by 16% under water-limited conditions. When temperature and CO2 were both changed to emulate conditions between 1950 and 2030, growth was enhanced between 5 and 15% over the 80-year period due to the effect of CO2 on photosynthesis and water

  4. Temperature responsive porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer therapy - spatiotemporal triggering through infrared and radiofrequency electromagnetic heating.

    Tamarov, Konstantin; Xu, Wujun; Osminkina, Liubov; Zinovyev, Sergey; Soininen, Pasi; Kudryavtsev, Andrey; Gongalsky, Maxim; Gaydarova, Azha; Närvänen, Ale; Timoshenko, Victor; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka

    2016-11-10

    One critical functionality of the carrier system utilized in targeted drug delivery is its ability to trigger the release of the therapeutic cargo once the carrier has reached its target. External triggering is an alluring approach as it can be applied in a precise spatiotemporal manner. In the present study, we achieved external triggering through the porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (NPs) by providing a pulse of infrared or radiofrequency radiation. The NPs were grafted with a temperature responsive polymer whose critical temperature was tailored to be slightly above 37°C. The polymer coating improved the biocompatibility of the NPs significantly in comparison with their uncoated counterparts. Radiation induced a rapid temperature rise, which resulted in the collapse of the polymer chains facilitating the cargo release. Both infrared and radiofrequency radiation were able to efficiently trigger the release of the encapsulated drug in vitro and induce significant cell death in comparison to the control groups. Radiofrequency radiation was found to be more efficient in vitro, and the treatment efficacy was verified in vivo in a lung carcinoma (3LL) mice model. After a single intratumoral administration of the carrier system combined with radiofrequency radiation, there was clear suppression of the growth of the carcinoma and a prolongation of the survival time of the animals. The temperature responsive (TR) polymer grafted on the surface of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) changes its conformation in response to the heating induced by infrared or radiofrequency radiation. The conformation change allows the loaded doxorubicin to escape from the pores, achieving controlled drug release from TR PSi NPs, which displayed efficacy against malignant cells both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abscisic acid regulates seed germination of Vellozia species in response to temperature.

    Vieira, B C; Bicalho, E M; Munné-Bosch, S; Garcia, Q S

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) and light and temperature on seed germination is still not well understood. We aimed to investigate the role of the ABA and GA on seed germination of Vellozia caruncularis, V. intermedia and V. alutacea in response to light/dark conditions on different temperature. Seeds were incubated in GA (GA 3 or GA 4 ) or ABA and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors (paclobutrazol - PAC, and fluridone - FLU) solutions at two contrasting temperatures (25 and 40 °C). Furthermore, endogenous concentrations of active GAs and those of ABA were measured in seeds of V. intermedia and V. alutacea during imbibition/germination. Exogenous ABA inhibited the germination of Vellozia species under all conditions tested. GA, FLU and FLU + GA 3 stimulated germination in the dark at 25 °C (GA 4 being more effective than GA 3 ). PAC reduced seed germination in V. caruncularis and V. alutacea, but did not affect germination of V. intermedia at 40 °C either under light or dark conditions. During imbibition in the dark, levels of active GAs decreased in the seeds of V. intermedia, but were not altered in those of V. alutacea. Incubation at 40 °C decreased ABA levels during imbibition in both V. caruncularis and V. alutacea. We conclude that the seeds of Vellozia species studied here require light or high temperature to germinate and ABA has a major role in the regulation of Vellozia seed germination in response to light and temperature. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. The Effect of Noseband Tightening on Horses' Behavior, Eye Temperature, and Cardiac Responses.

    Kate Fenner

    Full Text Available Restrictive nosebands are common in equestrian sport. This is concerning, as recent evidence suggests that very tight nosebands can cause a physiological stress response, and may compromise welfare. The objective of the current study was to investigate relationships that noseband tightness has with oral behavior and with physiological changes that indicate a stress response, such as increases in eye temperature (measured with infrared thermography and heart rate and decreases in heart rate variability (HRV. Horses (n = 12 wearing a double bridle and crank noseband, as is common in dressage at elite levels, were randomly assigned to four treatments: unfastened noseband (UN, conventional area under noseband (CAUN with two fingers of space available under the noseband, half conventional area under noseband (HCAUN with one finger of space under the noseband, and no area under the noseband (NAUN. During the tightest treatment (NAUN, horse heart rate increased (P = 0.003, HRV decreased (P < 0.001, and eye temperature increased (P = 0.011 compared with baseline readings, indicating a physiological stress response. The behavioral results suggest some effects from bits alone but the chief findings are the physiological readings that reflect responses to the nosebands at their tightest. Chewing decreased during the HCAUN (P < 0.001 and NAUN (P < 0.001 treatments. Yawning rates were negligible in all treatments. Similarly, licking was eliminated by the NAUN treatment. Following the removal of the noseband and double bridle during the recovery session, yawning (P = 0.015, swallowing (P = 0.003, and licking (P < 0.001 significantly increased compared with baseline, indicating a post-inhibitory rebound response. This suggests a rise in motivation to perform these behaviors and implies that their inhibition may place horses in a state of deprivation. It is evident that a very tight noseband can cause physiological stress responses and inhibit the expression of

  7. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  8. Arabidopsis ZED1-related kinases mediate the temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth homeostasis.

    Wang, Zhicai; Cui, Dayong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Cheng; Xin, Wei; Li, Yuan; Liu, Na; Ren, Dongtao; Tang, Dingzhong; Hu, Yuxin

    2017-07-01

    Activation of the immune response in plants antagonizes growth and development in the absence of pathogens, and such an autoimmune phenotype is often suppressed by the elevation of ambient temperature. However, molecular regulation of the ambient temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth is largely elusive. A genetic screen identified an Arabidopsis mutant, zed1-D, by its high temperature-dependent growth retardation. A combination of molecular, cytological and genetic approaches was used to investigate the molecular basis behind the temperature-sensitive growth and immune response in zed1-D. A dominant mutation in HOPZ-ETI-DEFICIENT 1 (ZED1) is responsible for a high temperature-dependent autoimmunity and growth retardation in zed1-D. The autoimmune phenotype in zed1-D is dependent on the HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1 (ZAR1). ZED1 and some ZED1-related kinases (ZRKs) are induced by elevated temperature and function cooperatively to suppress the immune response by modulating the transcription of SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1) in the absence of pathogens. Our data reveal a previously unidentified role of ZRKs in the ambient temperature-sensitive immune response in the absence of pathogens, and thus reveals a possible molecular mechanism underlying the temperature-mediated intersection of immune response and growth in plants. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  10. Global temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data sets

    M. Fujiwara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global temperature responses to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 are investigated using nine currently available reanalysis data sets (JRA-55, MERRA, ERA-Interim, NCEP-CFSR, JRA-25, ERA-40, NCEP-1, NCEP-2, and 20CR. Multiple linear regression is applied to the zonal and monthly mean time series of temperature for two periods, 1979–2009 (for eight reanalysis data sets and 1958–2001 (for four reanalysis data sets, by considering explanatory factors of seasonal harmonics, linear trends, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, solar cycle, and El Niño Southern Oscillation. The residuals are used to define the volcanic signals for the three eruptions separately, and common and different responses among the older and newer reanalysis data sets are highlighted for each eruption. In response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption, most reanalysis data sets show strong warming signals (up to 2–3 K for 1-year average in the tropical lower stratosphere and weak cooling signals (down to −1 K in the subtropical upper troposphere. For the El Chichón eruption, warming signals in the tropical lower stratosphere are somewhat smaller than those for the Mount Pinatubo eruption. The response to the Mount Agung eruption is asymmetric about the equator with strong warming in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude upper troposphere to lower stratosphere. Comparison of the results from several different reanalysis data sets confirms the atmospheric temperature response to these major eruptions qualitatively, but also shows quantitative differences even among the most recent reanalysis data sets. The consistencies and differences among different reanalysis data sets provide a measure of the confidence and uncertainty in our current understanding of the volcanic response. The results of this intercomparison study may be useful for validation of climate model responses to volcanic forcing and for assessing proposed

  11. Curcumin modulates the inflammatory response and inhibits subsequent fibrosis in a mouse model of viral-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Avasarala, Sreedevi; Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Guangliang; Wang, Ruixue; London, Steven D; London, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has been demonstrated as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in a broad spectrum of diseases. Using our well-established model of reovirus 1/L-induced acute viral pneumonia, which displays many of the characteristics of the human ALI/ARDS, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin. Female CBA/J mice were treated with curcumin (50 mg/kg) 5 days prior to intranasal inoculation with 10(7)pfu reovirus 1/L and daily, thereafter. Mice were evaluated for key features associated with ALI/ARDS. Administration of curcumin significantly modulated inflammation and fibrosis, as revealed by histological and biochemical analysis. The expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, and MCP-1, key chemokines/cytokines implicated in the development of ALI/ARDS, from both the inflammatory infiltrate and whole lung tissue were modulated by curcumin potentially through a reduction in the phosphorylated form of NFκB p65. While the expression of TGFß1 was not modulated by curcumin, TGFß Receptor II, which is required for TGFß signaling, was significantly reduced. In addition, curcumin also significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Tenascin-C, key markers of myofibroblast activation. This data strongly supports a role for curcumin in modulating the pathogenesis of viral-induced ALI/ARDS in a pre-clinical model potentially manifested through the alteration of inflammation and myofibroblast differentiation.

  12. How to correct the ambient temperature influence on the thermal response test results

    Borinaga-Treviño, Roque; Norambuena-Contreras, Jose; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Due to global warming and to the increasing energy demand, it is necessary to improve energy efficiency on buildings. In this context, Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHP) have proved to be the most efficient heating and cooling system. The main parameters to define a ground heat exchanger are obtained via an in situ test called Thermal Response Test (TRT). However, ambient air influence on this test is remarkable due to the exposition of the testing machine, and even the ground undisturbed temperature varies with the ambient temperature oscillations. Therefore, despite the fact that the influence of ambient conditions on the TRT results is an important topic in order to define a ground heat exchanger, there is yet a limited literature on new theoretical methods to correct the ambient temperature influence on the predicted ground thermal conductivity measured via TRT. This paper presents a new methodology to analyse and mitigate the influence of the ambient conditions on the TRT results, with the main advantage that it is not necessary to know its physical origin previously. The method is focused on reducing the mean fluid temperature oscillations caused by the ambient temperature, by analysing the influence of the chosen time interval to fit the data to the infinite line source theory formulae that finally predicts the ground thermal conductivity. With these purpose, results of two different TRTs were analysed, each of them with a different equipment and ambient exposition. Results using the proposed method showed that thermal conductivity oscillations were reduced in both tests. For the first test, the uncertainty associated to the chosen time interval for the estimation was diminished by 33%, reducing significantly its predicted value and thus avoiding the future installation possible under-designing. However, because of the equipment insulation improvements and the smoother ambient temperature variations, the method obtained similar results for the predicted

  13. Tracking the harmonic response of magnetically-soft sensors for wireless temperature, stress, and corrosive monitoring

    Ong, Keat G.; Grimes, Craig A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the application of magnetically-soft ribbon-like sensors for measurement of temperature and stress, as well as corrosive monitoring, based upon changes in the amplitudes of the higher-order harmonics generated by the sensors in response to a magnetic interrogation signal. The sensors operate independently of mass loading, and so can be placed or rigidly embedded inside nonmetallic, opaque structures such as concrete or plastic. The passive harmonic-based sensor is remotely monitored through a single coplanar interrogation and detection coil. Effects due to the relative location of the sensor are eliminated by tracking harmonic amplitude ratios, thereby, enabling wide area monitoring. The wireless, passive, mass loading independent nature of the described sensor platform makes it ideally suited for long-term structural monitoring applications, such as measurement of temperature and stress inside concrete structures. A theoretical model is presented to explain the origin and behavior of the higher-order harmonics in response to temperature and stress. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  15. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

    Shillito Bruce

    2009-05-01

    . Conclusion Our results indicate that mussels and worms are not responding in the same way to temperature variations. While the results obtained for the mussel B. thermophilus seem to indicate a metabolic depression (strong decrease in the level of mRNA expression of numerous genes when temperature increased, the annelid P. pandorae mainly displayed a strong regulation of the mRNA encoding subunits and linkers of respiratory pigments and some proteins involved in membrane structure. In both cases, these regulations seem to be partly due to a possible cellular oxidative stress induced by the simulated thermal environment (10°C to 20°C. This work will serve as a starting point for studying the transcriptomic response of hydrothermal mussels and annelids in future experiments in response to thermal stress at various conditions of duration and temperature challenge.

  16. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Temperature - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Introduction to the temperature module, when to list temperature as a candidate cause, ways to measure temperature, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for temperature, temperature module references and literature reviews.

  17. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Temperature - Figure 1. Major Heat Flux Processes in Streams

    Introduction to the temperature module, when to list temperature as a candidate cause, ways to measure temperature, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for temperature, temperature module references and literature reviews.

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Temperature - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Introduction to the temperature module, when to list temperature as a candidate cause, ways to measure temperature, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for temperature, temperature module references and literature reviews.

  19. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  20. Application of polymeric macroporous supports for temperature-responsive chromatography of pharmaceuticals.

    Lamprou, Alexandros; Gavriilidou, Agni-Faviola-Mika; Storti, Giuseppe; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-08-14

    A macroporous particulate support prepared previously by reactive gelation under shear and functionalized with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, brushes of variable length is applied for temperature-responsive chromatography, whereby temperature modulates hydrophobic interactions. Several different analytes, including small pharmaceuticals, peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies are employed. Contrary to the most commonly observed behavior in conventional chromatography, increasing retention is observed at elevated temperatures. Peak broadening is quantified using the peak standard deviation, which depends on both the polymer chain conformation and analyte adsorptivity. The favorable effect of grafted polymer thickness on retention becomes progressively less pronounced for thicker grafted PNIPAM layers. The effect of eluent composition on solute-sorbent interactions was investigated by introducing NaCl, methanol, dioxane and by varying the pH. Salt or organic solvent addition affects apart from the analytes solution properties, the hydrophobicity of the stationary phase itself. Frontal analyses performed at different temperatures to determine dynamic binding capacities, indicate small mass transfer resistances imposed by this novel packing material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal analysis and temperature dependent dielectric responses of Co doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Alamgir; Khan, Wasi; Ahammed, Nashiruddin; Naqvi, A. H.; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of pure and 5 mol % cobalt doped TiO 2 synthesized through acid modified sol-gel method were characterized to understand their thermal, structural, morphological, and temperature dependent dielectric properties. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for thermal studies and indicates the weight loss in two steps due to the removal of residual organics. X-ray diffraction study was employed to confirm the formation of single anatase phase with tetragonal symmetry for both pure and 5 mol % Co doped TiO 2 NPs. The average crystallite size of both samples was calculated from the Scherrer’s formula and was found in the range from 9-11 nm. TEM micrographs of these NPs reflect their shape and distribution. The dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (tanδ) and ac conductivity (σ ac ) were also studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies. Electrical responses of the synthesized NPs have been analyzed carefully in the framework of relevant models. It is also noticed that the dielectric constant (ε′) of the samples found to decrease with increasing frequency but increases with increasing temperature up to a particular value and then sharply decreases. Temperature variation of dielectric constant exhibits step like escalation and shows relaxation behavior. Study of dielectric properties shows dominant dependence on the grain size as well as Co ion incorporation in TiO 2

  2. Temperature control of molecular circuit switch responsible for virulent phenotype expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Samoilov, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The behavior and fate of biological organisms are to a large extent dictated by their environment, which can be often viewed as a collection of features and constraints governed by physics laws. Since biological systems comprise networks of molecular interactions, one such key physical property is temperature, whose variations directly affect the rates of biochemical reactions involved. For instance, temperature is known to control many gene regulatory circuits responsible for pathogenicity in bacteria. One such example is type 1 fimbriae (T1F) -- the foremost virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which accounts for 80-90% of all community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). The expression of T1F is randomly `phase variable', i.e. individual cells switch between virulent/fimbriate and avirulent/afimbriate phenotypes, with rates regulated by temperature. Our computational investigation of this process, which is based on FimB/FimE recombinase-mediated inversion of fimS DNA element, offers new insights into its discrete-stochastic kinetics. In particular, it elucidates the logic of T1F control optimization to the host temperature and contributes further understanding toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches to UPEC-caused UTIs.

  3. Accuracy of different temperature reading techniques and associated stress response in hospitalized dogs.

    Gomart, Samantha B; Allerton, Fergus J W; Gommeren, Kris

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and associated induced stress response of axillary, auricular, and rectal thermometry in hospitalized dogs. Prospective observational study from October 2011 to February 2012. University veterinary teaching hospital. Two hundred fifty hospitalized dogs. All hospitalized dogs were considered eligible unless their condition precluded measurement at one of the designated sites. A veterinary auricular infrared device for auricular temperature (OT) and an electronic predictive thermometer for rectal temperature (RT) and axillary temperature (AT) were used for temperature measurements. All recordings were obtained by the same investigator in a randomized fashion. Heart rate was noted before and immediately after each measurement. Stress behaviors (eg, vocalization, lip licking, shaking, panting, defensive behavior) were also recorded and graded from 0 (lowest) to 4 (highest). Signalment, analgesic therapy, and length of hospitalization were recorded. RT measurements were associated with greatest increase in heart rate (P 0.05). AT and to a lesser extent OT are reliable, less stressful alternatives to estimate RT in dogs. Further studies are needed to evaluate these techniques in hyperthermic dogs, and to evaluate the use of AT and OT as monitoring tools in intensive care patients. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  4. Changes in forearm muscle temperature alter renal vascular responses to isometric handgrip.

    Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of heating and cooling the forearm muscles on renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip (IHG). It was hypothesized that heating and cooling the forearm would augment and attenuate, respectively, renal vascular responses to IHG. Renal vascular responses to IHG were studied during forearm heating at 39 degrees C (n = 15, 26 +/- 1 yr) and cooling at 26 degrees C (n = 12, 26 +/- 1 yr). For a control trial, subjects performed the experimental protocol while the forearm was normothermic (approximately 34 degrees C). Muscle temperature (measured by intramuscular probe) was controlled by changing the temperature of water cycling through a water-perfused sleeve. The experimental protocol was as follows: 3 min at baseline, 1 min of ischemia, ischemic IHG to fatigue, and 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. At rest, renal artery blood velocity (RBV; Doppler ultrasound) and renal vascular conductance (RVC = RBV/mean arterial blood pressure) were not different between normothermia and the two thermal conditions. During ischemic IHG, there were greater decreases in RBV and RVC in the heating trial. However, RBV and RVC were similar during postexercise muscle ischemia during heating and normothermia. RVC decreased less during cooling than in normothermia while the subjects performed the ischemic IHG protocol. During postexercise muscle ischemia, RVC was greater during cooling than in normothermia. These results indicate that heating augments mechanoreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction whereas cooling blunts metaboreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction.

  5. Non-equilibrium responses of PFPE lubricants with various atomistic/molecular architecture at elevated temperature

    Chung, Pil Seung; Song, Wonyup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2017-05-01

    During the operation of hard disk drive (HDD), the perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant experiences elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the HDD. Therefore, the viscoelastic responses of PFPE could provide a finger print analysis in designing optimal molecular architecture of lubricants to control the tribological phenomena. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of PFPEs including storage (elastic) and loss (viscous) moduli (G' and G″) by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We analyzed the rheological responses by using Cox-Merz rule, and investigated the molecular structural and thermal effects on the solid-like and liquid-like behaviors of PFPEs. The temperature dependence of the endgroup agglomeration phenomena was examined, where the functional endgroups are decoupled as the temperature increases. By analyzing the relaxation processes, the molecular rheological studies will provide the optimal lubricant selection criteria to enhance the HDD performance and reliability for the heat-assisted magnetic recording applications.

  6. Attached and planktonic Listeria monocytogenes global proteomic responses and associated influence of strain genetics and temperature.

    Mata, Marcia M; da Silva, Wladimir P; Wilson, Richard; Lowe, Edwin; Bowman, John P

    2015-02-06

    Contamination of industrial and domestic food usage environments by the attachement of bacterial food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has public health and economic implications. Comprehensive proteomics experiments using label-free liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry were used to compare the proteomes of two different L. monocytogenes strains (Siliken_1/2c and F2365_4b), which show very different capacities to attach to surfaces. Growth temperature and strain type were highly influential on the proteomes in both attached and planktonic cells. On the basis of the proteomic data, it is highly unlikely that specific surface proteins play a direct role in adherence to inanimate surfaces. Instead, strain-dependent responses related to cell envelope polymer biosynthesis and stress response regulation likely contribute to a different ability to attach and also to survive external stressors. Collectively, the divergent proteome-level responses observed define strain- and growth-temperature-dependent differences relevant to attachment efficacy, highlight relevant proteins involved in stress protection in attached cells, and suggest that strain differences and growth conditions are important in relation to environmental persistence.

  7. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  8. Non-equilibrium responses of PFPE lubricants with various atomistic/molecular architecture at elevated temperature

    Pil Seung Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of hard disk drive (HDD, the perfluoropolyether (PFPE lubricant experiences elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the HDD. Therefore, the viscoelastic responses of PFPE could provide a finger print analysis in designing optimal molecular architecture of lubricants to control the tribological phenomena. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of PFPEs including storage (elastic and loss (viscous moduli (G′ and G″ by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We analyzed the rheological responses by using Cox-Merz rule, and investigated the molecular structural and thermal effects on the solid-like and liquid-like behaviors of PFPEs. The temperature dependence of the endgroup agglomeration phenomena was examined, where the functional endgroups are decoupled as the temperature increases. By analyzing the relaxation processes, the molecular rheological studies will provide the optimal lubricant selection criteria to enhance the HDD performance and reliability for the heat-assisted magnetic recording applications.

  9. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature and anion responsive self-assembly of ionic liquid block copolymers coating gold nanoparticles

    Li, Junbo; Zhao, Jianlong; Wu, Wenlan; Liang, Ju; Guo, Jinwu; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, double hydrophilic ionic liquid block copolymers (ILBCs), poly poly[1-methyl-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine)]- block-(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PMMPImB- b-PNIPAAm) was first synthesized by reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and then attached on the surface of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) via a strong gold-sulfur bonding for preparing hybrid nanoparticles (PMMPImB- b-PNIPAAm-@-Au NPs). The hybrid NPs had a three layers micelle-like structure, including a gold core, thermo-responsive inner shell and anion responsive outer corona. The self-assembling behavior of thermal- and anion-response from shell and corona were respectively investigated by change of temperature and addition of (CF3SO2)2N-. The results showed the hybrid NPs retained a stable dispersion beyond the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) because of the space or electrostatic protecting by outer PMMPImB. However, with increasing concentration of (CF3SO2)2N-, the micellization of self-assembling PMMPImB- b-PNIPAAm-@-Au NPs was induced to form micellar structure containing the core with hydrophobic PMMPImB-(CF3SO2)2N- surrounded by composite shell of Au NPs-PNIPAAm via the anionresponsive properties of ILBCs. These results indicated that the block copolymers protected plasmonic nanoparticles remain self-assembling properties of block copolymers when phase transition from outer corona polymer.

  11. Role of growth temperature on the frequency response characteristics of pentacene-based organic devices

    Shao, Yayun; Zhang, Yang; He, Wenqiang; Wu, Sujuan; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J-M; Liu, Chuan; Minari, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The ac frequency response characteristics (FRC) of organic thin film transistors and metal-insulator semiconductor diodes were highly improved by controlling the morphology and electrical characteristics of semiconducting pentacene films. The devices with films grown at 50 °C show much higher cutoff frequency and better frequency stability of flat-band voltage, as compared to those with films grown at other temperatures below or above. The improvement mainly originates from the maximum field effect carrier mobility of 0.78 cm 2 V −1 s −1 and a small metal/organic contact resistance (R c ) obtained in the optimum thin film transistors. Our results indicate growth temperature precisely tunes the film microstructure and metal/semiconductor interface, which together determine the FRC of pentacene-based organic devices. (paper)

  12. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  13. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  14. Direct effects of endogenous pyrogen on medullary temperature-responsive neurons in rabbits.

    Sakata, Y; Morimoto, A; Takase, Y; Murakami, N

    1981-01-01

    The effect of endogenous pyrogen (E.P.) injected directly into the tissue near the recording site were examined on the activities of the medullary temperature-responsive (TR) neurons in rabbits anesthetized with urethane. Endogenous pyrogen prepared from rabbit's whole blood was administered by a fine glass cannula (100-200 micrometer in diameter) in a fluid volume of 1 to 4 microliter. The cannula was fixed to the manipulator in parallel with a microelectrode and their tips were less than 0.05 mm apart. In rabbits with the intact preoptic/anterior hypothalamic (PO/AH) region, 4 warm-responsive neurons out of 7 were inhibited and 6 cold-responsive neuron out of 7 were excited by the direct administration of the E.P. In rabbits with lesions of the PO/AH, 5 warm-responsive neurons out of 9 were inhibited and 6 cold-responsive neurons out of 8 were facilitated by E.P. Antipyretics administered locally after the E.P. antagonized the pyretic effect, causing a return of the discharge of TR neuron to the control rate within 2.4 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- S.D.) min. The medullary TR neuron itself has the ability to respond to the E.P. and contributes to the development of fever.

  15. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  16. The Diversity of Cloud Responses to Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperatures

    Silvers, L. G.; Paynter, D.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of the global temperature response to forcing. Previous work has shown strong connections between cloud feedbacks and climate change, and between these feedbacks and changing patterns of surface temperature. We show that strong variability of the climate feedback parameter is present in three GFDL atmospheric general circulation models (AM2.1, AM3, AM4) over the twentieth century. This variability is highly correlated with the global mean cloud radiative effect (CRE) and low-cloud cover (LCC) anomalies. The decadal variability is characterized by a period of high climate sensitivity (1925-1955) and a period of low climate sensitivity (1975-2005). Observed trends of surface temperature also show distinct differences over these two periods. Although it is the SST that drives the atmospheric response, the estimated inversion strength (EIS) is necessary to reproduce the changing LCC field. During both periods, trends of EIS are shown to closely mirror trends of LCC over much of the globe, not only in the typical stratocumulus regions. Trends of the shortwave CRE (SWCRE), LCC, and the EIS are analyzed in particular geographic regions. All of these regions show a consistent relationship between LCC, SWCRE, and EIS, as well as significant differences between the two time periods. This study uses a 15 member ensemble of amip-piForcing simulations from 1870 -2005. These experiments are driven by observed SST patterns and hold greenhouse gases and other atmospheric forcing agents fixed at constant pre-industrial levels. This allows for a clean analysis of how clouds respond to changing patterns of SST and the resulting influence on the climate feedback parameter. The cloudy response of the atmosphere to changing SST patterns is critical in driving the variability of the climate feedback parameter during periods of both high and low climate sensitivity.

  17. Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum.

    Granath, Gustaf; Wiedermann, Magdalena M; Strengbom, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Sphagnum, the main genus which forms boreal peat, is strongly affected by N and S deposition and raised temperature, but the physiological mechanisms behind the responses are largely unknown. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)), maximum efficiency of photosystem II [variable fluorescence (F (v))/maximum fluorescence yield (F (m))] and concentrations of N, C, chlorophyll and carotenoids as responses to N and S addition and increased temperature in Sphagnum balticum (a widespread species in the northern peatlands) in a 12-year factorial experiment. NP(max) did not differ between control (0.2 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and high N (3.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)), but was higher in the mid N treatment (1.5 g N m(-2) year(-1)). N, C, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration increased in shoot apices after N addition. F (v)/F (m) did not differ between N treatments. Increased temperature (+3.6 degrees C) had a small negative effect on N concentration, but had no significant effect on NP(max) or F (v)/F (m). Addition of 2 g S m(-2) year(-1) showed a weak negative effect on NP(max) and F (v)/F (m). Our results suggest a unimodal response of NP(max) to N addition and tissue N concentration in S. balticum, with an optimum N concentration for photosynthetic rate of ~13 mg N g(-1). In conclusion, high S deposition may reduce photosynthetic capacity in Sphagnum, but the negative effects may be relaxed under high N availability. We suggest that previously reported negative effects on Sphagnum productivity under high N deposition are not related to negative effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, but differences in optimum N concentration among Sphagnum species may affect their competitive ability under different N deposition regimes.

  18. Respiratory and inflammatory responses to short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with and without moderate physical activity.

    Kubesch, Nadine Janet; de Nazelle, Audrey; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Carrasco-Turigas, Gloria; Bouso, Laura; Guerra, Stefano; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been associated with adverse respiratory and systemic outcomes. Physical activity (PA) in polluted air may increase pollutant uptake and thereby health effects. The authors aimed to determine the short-term health effects of TRAP in healthy participants and any possible modifying effect of PA. Crossover real-world exposure study comparing in 28 healthy participants pulmonary and inflammatory responses to four different exposure scenarios: 2 h exposure in a high and low TRAP environment, each at rest and in combination with intermittent moderate PA, consisting of four 15 min rest and cycling intervals. Data were analysed using mixed effect models for repeated measures. Intermittent PA compared to rest, irrespective of the TRAP exposure status, increased statistically significant (p≤0.05) pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (34 mL), forced vital capacity (29 mL), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) (91 mL)), lung inflammation (fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, FeNO, (0.89 ppb)), and systemic inflammation markers interleukin-6 (52.3%), leucocytes (9.7%) and neutrophils count (18.8%). Interquartile increases in coarse particulate matter were statistically significantly associated with increased FeNO (0.80 ppb) and neutrophil count (5.7%), while PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 and 10 µm in diameter, respectively) increased leucocytes (5.1% and 4.0%, respectively). We found no consistent evidence for an interaction between TRAP and PA for any of the outcomes of interest. In a healthy population, intermittent moderate PA has beneficial effects on pulmonary function even when performed in a highly polluted environment. This study also suggests that particulate air pollution is inducing pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Temperature response of methane production in liquid manures and co-digestates

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olsen, Anna Berg; Petersen, Søren O.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of livestock production makes correct estimation of methanogenesis in liquidmanure increasingly important for inventories of CH4 emissions. Such inventories currently rely on fixed methane conversion factors as knowledge gaps remain with respect to detailed temperature responses...... gradient incubator and CH4 production was measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace gas after a 17-h incubation period. Methane production potentials at 5–37 °C were described by the Arrhenius equation (modelling efficiencies, 79.2–98.1%), and the four materials showed a consistent activation...

  20. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  1. High-temperature response functions and the non-Abelian Kubo formula

    Jackiw, R.; Nair, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the relationship between time-ordered and retarded response functions in a plasma. We obtain an expression, including the proper iε prescription, for the induced current due to hard thermal loops in a non-Abelian theory, thus giving the non-Abelian generalization of the Kubo formula. The result is closely related to the eikonal for a Chern-Simons theory and is relevant for a guage-invariant description of Landau damping in the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature