WorldWideScience

Sample records for respiratory system input

  1. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  2. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  3. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  4. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  5. Voltage-dependent amplification of synaptic inputs in respiratory motoneurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enríquez Denton, M; Wienecke, Jacob; Zhang, Mengliang

    2012-01-01

    time, the likely amplifying processes at work in respiratory motoneurones. In phrenic motoneurones, which control the most important respiratory muscle, the diaphragm, we found that the mechanism most favoured by investigations in other motoneurones, the activation of persistent inward currents via...

  6. Doping and respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  7. Voltage-dependent amplification of synaptic inputs in respiratory motoneurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez Denton, M; Wienecke, J; Zhang, M; Hultborn, H; Kirkwood, P A

    2012-01-01

    The role of persistent inward currents (PICs) in cat respiratory motoneurones (phrenic inspiratory and thoracic expiratory) was investigated by studying the voltage-dependent amplification of central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs), recorded intracellularly, with action potentials blocked with the local anaesthetic derivative, QX-314. Decerebrate unanaesthetized or barbiturate-anaesthetized preparations were used. In expiratory motoneurones, plateau potentials were observed in the decerebrates, but not under anaesthesia. For phrenic motoneurones, no plateau potentials were observed in either state (except in one motoneurone after the abolition of the respiratory drive by means of a medullary lesion), but all motoneurones showed voltage-dependent amplification of the CRDPs, over a wide range of membrane potentials, too wide to result mainly from PIC activation. The measurements of the amplification were restricted to the phase of excitation, thus excluding the inhibitory phase. Amplification was found to be greatest for the smallest CRDPs in the lowest resistance motoneurones and was reduced or abolished following intracellular injection of the NMDA channel blocker, MK-801. Plateau potentials were readily evoked in non-phrenic cervical motoneurones in the same (decerebrate) preparations. We conclude that the voltage-dependent amplification of synaptic excitation in phrenic motoneurones is mainly the result of NMDA channel modulation rather than the activation of Ca2+ channel mediated PICs, despite phrenic motoneurones being strongly immunohistochemically labelled for CaV1.3 channels. The differential PIC activation in different motoneurones, all of which are CaV1.3 positive, leads us to postulate that the descending modulation of PICs is more selective than has hitherto been believed. PMID:22495582

  8. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  9. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  10. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  11. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  12. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  13. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  14. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

  15. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  16. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  17. Dynamics of human respiratory system mycoflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Biedunkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determing the prevalence of individual species of fungi in the respiratory systems of women and men, analysis of the dynamics of the fungi in individual sections of the respiratory system as concerns their quantity and identification of phenology of the isolated fungi coupled with an attempt at identifying their possible preferences for appearing during specific seasons of thc year. During 10 years of studies (1989- 1998. 29 species of fungi belonging: Candida, Geolrichum, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon and Aspergillus were isolated from the ontocenoses of the respiratory systems of patients at the Independent Public Center for Pulmonology and Oncology in Olsztyn. Candida albicans was a clearly dominating fungus. Individual species appeared individually, in twos or threes in a single patient, they were isolated more frequently in the spring and autumn, less frequently during the winter and summer. The largest number of fungi species were isolated from sputum (29 species, bronchoscopic material (23 species and pharyngeal swabs (15 species. Sacchoromycopsis capsularis and Trichosporon beigelii should be treated as new for the respiratory system. Biodiversity of fungi, their numbers and continous fluctuations in frequency indicate that the respiratory system ontocenose offers the optimum conditions for growth and development of the majority of the majority of yeasts - like fungi.

  18. Respiratory system. Part 2: Gaseous exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair

    This article, which isthe last in the life sciences series and the second of two articles on the respiratory system, describes gaseous exchange in the lungs, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and internal and external respiration. The article concludes with a brief consideration of two conditions that affect gas exchange and transport: carbon monoxide poisoning and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Endocan and the respiratory system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechagia M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Kechagia,1,2 Ioannis Papassotiriou,2 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes. Here, we review the present scientific knowledge on endocan, with emphasis on the evidence that underlines its possible clinical value as a prognostic marker in several malignant, inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the respiratory system. Keywords: endocan, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, respiratory disorders

  20. Mobile gaze input system for pervasive interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    feedback to the user in response to the received command input. The unit provides feedback to the user on how to position the mobile unit in front of his eyes. The gaze tracking unit interacts with one or more controlled devices via wireless or wired communications. Example devices include a lock......, a thermostat, a light or a TV. The connection between the gaze tracking unit may be temporary or longer-lasting. The gaze tracking unit may detect features of the eye that provide information about the identity of the user....

  1. Adaptive projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yu-Jun; Pei Bing-Nan; Wang Xing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs. Based on the adaptive technique, sliding mode control method and pole assignment technique, a novel adaptive projective synchronization scheme is proposed to ensure the drive system and the response system with nonlinearity inputs can be rapidly synchronized up to the given scaling factor. (general)

  2. Data acquisition system from uncorrelated experimental inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bals, I.; Caprini, M.; Goran, B.; Lutescu, S.; Niculescu, D.

    1974-01-01

    The system described in this work was performed as a small acquisition center for neutron physics experiment and was designed as a specialized device. The system was entirely MSI and SSI integrated circuits performed using 33 double sided printed circuit boards. The modular structure with information flow on buses led to wining simplification. The system can be further developed, using appropriate interfaces and programming modules to extend the range of possible experiments

  3. Optically coupled CAMAC analog input output system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Katsuzo; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Minehara, Eisuke; Hanashima, Susumu

    1985-08-01

    In an accelerator system, especially in ion sources, signals are exchanged between devices at different potentials. We have four ion sources in the negative ion injector for the JAERI tandem accelerator. Voltage to frequency conversion technic and optical fiber were used in the previous system. When we intended to extend the injector, we decided to revise the system to improve accuracy and reliability. For the purpose, we developed a new CAMAC module. It is an interface device between CAMAC dataway and optical fiber. The module has frequency synthesizers, frequency counters, optical transmitters and optical receivers in it. Accuracy, reliability and maintenability of the system were greatly improved by the module. (author)

  4. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  5. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  6. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  7. Evaluation of the new respiratory gating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengyu; Tang, Xiaoli; Chan, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The newly released Respiratory Gating for Scanners (RGSC; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) system has limited existing quality assurance (QA) protocols and pertinent publications. Herein, we report our experiences of the RGSC system acceptance and QA. Methods The RGSC system integration was tested with peripheral equipment, spatial reproducibility, and dynamic localization accuracy for regular and irregular breathing patterns, respectively. A QUASAR Respiratory Motion Phantom and a mathematical fitting method were used for data acquisition and analysis. Results The results showed that the RGSC system could accurately measure regular motion periods of 3–10 s. For irregular breathing patterns, differences from the existing Real-time Position Management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) system were observed. For dynamic localization measurements, the RGSC system showed 76% agreement with the programmed test data within ±5% tolerance in terms of fitting period. As s comparison, the RPM system showed 66% agreement within ±5% tolerance, and 65% for the RGSC versus RPM measurements. Conclusions New functions and positioning accuracy improve the RGSC system’s ability to achieve higher dynamic treatment precision. A 4D phantom is helpful for the QA tests. Further investigation is required for the whole RGSC system performance QA. PMID:29722356

  8. Calibration of controlling input models for pavement management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) is currently using the Deighton Total Infrastructure Management System (dTIMS) software for pavement management. This system is based on several input models which are computational backbones to dev...

  9. Optimal Input Strategy for Plug and Play Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal operation of a plant, which goal is to maintain production at minimum cost. The system considered in this work consists of a joined plant and redundant input systems. It is assumed that each input system contributes to a flow of goods into the joined pa...... the performance of the plant. The results are applied to a coal fired power plant where an additional new fuel system, gas, becomes available....

  10. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  11. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  12. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum

    2012-01-01

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory guidance

  13. Data entry system for INIS input using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi

    1990-01-01

    Input preparation for the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1970. Instead of the input data preparation done by worksheets make out with the typewriters, new method with which data can be directly inputted into a diskette using personal computers is introduced. According to the popularization of personal computers and word processors, this system is easily applied to other system, so the outline and the future development on it are described. A shortcoming of this system is that spell-checking and data entry using authority files are hardly performed because of the limitation of hardware resources, and that data code conversion is needed because applied code systems between personal computer and main frame computer are quite different from each other. On the other hand, improving the timelyness of data entry is expected without duplication of keying. (author)

  14. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki [Chicago U., EFI; Liu, Tiehui Ted [Fermilab; Olsen, Jamieson [Fermilab; Iizawa, Tomoya [Waseda U.; Mitani, Takashi [Waseda U.; Korikawa, Tomohiro [Waseda U.; Yorita, Kohei [Waseda U.; Annovi, Alberto [Frascati; Beretta, Matteo [Frascati; Gatta, Maurizio [Frascati; Sotiropoulou, C-L. [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Kordas, Konstantinos [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Kimura, Naoki [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Cremonesi, Matteo [Chicago U., EFI; Yin, Hang [Fermilab; Xu, Zijun [Peking U.

    2015-04-27

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker are clustered and organized into overlapping eta-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking engines. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over full mesh backplanes and optic fibers. The board and system level design concepts and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  15. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Y; The ATLAS collaboration; Olsen, J; Iizawa, T; Mitani, T; Korikawa, T; Yorita, K; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Gatta, M; Sotiropoulou, C; Gkaitatzis, S; Kordas, K; Kimura, N; Cremonesi, M; Yin, H; Xu, Z

    2014-01-01

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker must be clustered and organized into overlapping eta-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking processors. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over a full-mesh backplane. The board and system level performance studies and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  16. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  17. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF LINEAR-DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUIJPER, M; SCHUMACHER, JM

    Systems of linear differential and algebraic equations occur in various ways, for instance, as a result of automated modeling procedures and in problems involving algebraic constraints, such as zero dynamics and exact model matching. Differential/algebraic systems may represent an input-output

  18. Video-based Chinese Input System via Fingertip Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chang Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a system to detect and track fingertips online and recognize Mandarin Phonetic Symbol (MPS for user-friendly Chinese input purposes. Using fingertips and cameras to replace pens and touch panels as input devices could reduce the cost and improve the ease-of-use and comfort of computer-human interface. In the proposed framework, particle filters with enhanced appearance models are applied for robust fingertip tracking. Afterwards, MPS combination recognition is performed on the tracked fingertip trajectories using Hidden Markov Models. In the proposed system, the fingertips of the users could be robustly tracked. Also, the challenges of entering, leaving and virtual strokes caused by video-based fingertip input can be overcome. Experimental results have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed work.

  19. Input design for linear dynamic systems using maxmin criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Hansen, Lars H.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of input design for maximizing the smallest eigenvalue of the information matrix for linear dynamic systems. The optimization of the smallest eigenvalue is of interest in parameter estimation and parameter change detection problems. We describe a simple cutting...

  20. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an introductory survey of the methods that have been developed for identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input±output data. The two basic approaches may be described as (i) the indirect method, where first a discrete-time model is estimated from the sampled data and then ...

  1. Adapted breeds for organic and low input dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Ferris, C; Sairanen, A

    2014-01-01

    Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds....

  2. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  3. Know Your Personal Computer Basic Input-Output System (BIOS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. Know Your Personal Computer Basic Input-Output System (BIOS). Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 48-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Development and operation of K-URT data input system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Jae; Myoung, Noh Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Han, Jae Jun

    2010-05-01

    Activities for TSPA(Total System Performance Assessment) on the permanent disposal of high level radioactive waste includes production of input data, safety assessment using input data, license procedure and others. These activities are performed in 5 steps as follows; (1) Adequate planning, (2) Controlled execution, (3) Complete documentation, (4) Thorough review, (5) Independent oversight. For the confidence building, it is very important to record and manage the materials obtained from research works in transparency. For the documentation of disposal research work from planning stage to data management stage, KAERI developed CYPRUS named CYBER R and D Platform for Radwaste Disposal in Underground System with a QA(Quality Assurance) System. In CYPRUS, QA system makes effects on other functions such as data management, project management and others. This report analyzes the structure of CYPRUS and proposes to accumulate qualified data, to provide a convenient application and to promote access and use of CYPRUS for a future-oriented system

  5. Model reduction of nonlinear systems subject to input disturbances

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima

    2017-07-10

    The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order nonlinear system with similar disturbance-output properties to the original plant. The proposed model reduction strategy preserves the nonlinearity and the input disturbance nature of the model. It guarantees a sufficiently small error between the outputs of the original and the reduced-order systems, and also maintains the properties of input-to-state stability. The matrices of the reduced order system are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The paper concludes with a demonstration of the proposed approach on model reduction of a nonlinear electronic circuit with additive disturbances.

  6. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  7. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  8. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Multiagent Systems With Input Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaipin; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Songlin; Dou, Chunxia; Huaipin Zhang; Dong Yue; Wei Zhao; Songlin Hu; Chunxia Dou; Hu, Songlin; Zhang, Huaipin; Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of distributed optimal consensus control for a continuous-time heterogeneous linear multiagent system subject to time varying input delays. First, by discretization and model transformation, the continuous-time input-delayed system is converted into a discrete-time delay-free system. Two delicate performance index functions are defined for these two systems. It is shown that the performance index functions are equivalent and the optimal consensus control problem of the input-delayed system can be cast into that of the delay-free system. Second, by virtue of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations, an optimal control policy for each agent is designed based on the delay-free system and a novel value iteration algorithm is proposed to learn the solutions to the HJB equations online. The proposed adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is implemented on the basis of a critic-action neural network (NN) structure. Third, it is proved that local consensus errors of the two systems and weight estimation errors of the critic-action NNs are uniformly ultimately bounded while the approximated control policies converge to their target values. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed method.

  9. Quantifying input uncertainty in an assemble-to-order system simulation with correlated input variables of mixed types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akçay, A.E.; Biller, B.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an assemble-to-order production system where the product demands and the time since the last customer arrival are not independent. The simulation of this system requires a multivariate input model that generates random input vectors with correlated discrete and continuous components. In

  10. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  11. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  12. Respiratory system mechanics during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzotti, L; Vassiliou, M; Amygdalou, A; Psarakis, Ch; Rasmussen, T R; Laopodis, V; Behrakis, P

    2002-04-01

    The influence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) on the mechanical properties of the respiratory system (RS) was examined using multiple regression analysis (MRA). Measurements of airway pressure (PaO) and flow (V') were obtained from 32 patients at four distinct stages of the LC procedure: 1) Immediately before the application of pneumoperitoneum (PP) at supine position, 2) 5 min after the induction of PP at Trendelenburg position, 3) 5 min after the patients position at reverse Trendelenburg, and 4) 5 min after the end ofthe surgical procedure with the patient again in supine position. Evaluated parameters were the RS elastance (Ers), resistance (Rrs), impedance (Zrs), the angle theta indicating the balance between the elastic and resistive components of the impedance, as well as the end-expiratory elastic recoil pressure (EEP). Ers and Zrs increased considerably during PP and remained elevated immediately after abolishing PP Rrs, on the contrary, returned to pre-operative levels right after the operation. Change of body position from Trendelenburg (T) to reverseTrendelenburg (rT) mainly induced a significant change in theta, thus indicating an increased dominance of the elastic component of Zrs on changing fromT to rT. There was no evidence of increased End-Expiratory Pressure during PP

  13. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  14. Respiratory system dynamical mechanical properties: modeling in time and frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alysson Roncally; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2011-06-01

    The mechanical properties of the respiratory system are important determinants of its function and can be severely compromised in disease. The assessment of respiratory system mechanical properties is thus essential in the management of some disorders as well as in the evaluation of respiratory system adaptations in response to an acute or chronic process. Most often, lungs and chest wall are treated as a linear dynamic system that can be expressed with differential equations, allowing determination of the system's parameters, which will reflect the mechanical properties. However, different models that encompass nonlinear characteristics and also multicompartments have been used in several approaches and most specifically in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Additionally, the input impedance over a range of frequencies can be assessed with a convenient excitation method allowing the identification of the mechanical characteristics of the central and peripheral airways as well as lung periphery impedance. With the evolution of computational power, the airway pressure and flow can be recorded and stored for hours, and hence continuous monitoring of the respiratory system mechanical properties is already available in some mechanical ventilators. This review aims to describe some of the most frequently used models for the assessment of the respiratory system mechanical properties in both time and frequency domain.

  15. Influence of indoor formaldehyde pollution on respiratory system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some adults surveyed complained of common respiratory system disorders, including coughing (11.8%), nasal irritation (39.2%), Heterosmia (14.51%), and throat irritation (25.27%); 12% of children suffered from asthma. The analysis identified formaldehyde pollution and ventilation frequency as risk factors for respiratory ...

  16. Impact of cement dust pollution on respiratory systems of Lafarge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, the impact of cement dust pollution on respiratory systems of Lafarge cement workers was evaluated. A total of 120 respondents; 60 from the factory workers and 60 (controls) from Ifo, a nearby village 22 km NE of the factory were interviewed in 2014 using a modified respiratory symptom score ...

  17. Controlling uncertain neutral dynamic systems with delay in control input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a novel criterion for the asymptotic stabilization of the zero solutions of a class of neutral systems with delays in control input. By constructing Lyapunov functionals, we have obtained the criterion which is expressed in terms of matrix inequalities. The solutions of the inequalities can be easily solved by efficient convex optimization algorithms. A numerical example is included to illustrate the design procedure of the proposed method

  18. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    loop is preserved. The RB is realized by a virtual actuator and a reference model. Using notions of incremental and input-to-state stability (ISS), it is shown that ISS of the closed-loop reconfigured system can be achieved by the separate design of the virtual actuator. The proposed method does...... not need any knowledge of the nominal controller and only assumes that the nominal closed-loop system is ISS. The method is demonstrated on a dynamic positioning system for an offshore supply vessel, where the virtual actuator is designed using backstepping....

  19. Control of Thermodynamical System with Input-Dependent State Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Krstic, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    We consider control of a cooling system with several consumers that require cooling from a common source. The flow feeding coolant to the consumers can be controlled, but due to significant physical distances between the common source and the consumers, the coolant flow takes a non......-negligible amount of time to travel to the consumers, giving rise to input-dependent state delays. We first present a simple bilinear model of the system, followed by a state feedback control design that is able to stabilize the system at a chosen equilibrium in spite of the delays. We also present a heuristic...

  20. Web service based system for generating input data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralev, Velin; Kraleva, Radoslava

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a three-layer architectural model of a distributed information system based on Web services, which will be used for automatic generation of sets of input data. The information system will be constructed of a client layer, a service layer and of a data layer. The web services as a tool of developing distributed software systems will be presented briefly. A web service and the implementation of its web methods will be described. A way to use the developed web methods in real application will be proposed. Keywords: web services

  1. Real-time system for respiratory-cardiac gating in positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, G.J.; Reutter, B.W.; Ho, M.H.; Huesman, R.H.; Reed, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    A Macintosh-based signal processing system has been developed to support simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating on the ECAT EXACT HR PET scanner. Using the Lab-View real-time software environment, the system reads analog inputs from a pneumatic respiratory bellows and an EGG monitor to compute an appropriate histogram memory location for the PET data. Respiratory state is determined by the bellows signal amplitude; cardiac state is based on the time since the last R-wave. These two states are used in a 2D lookup table to determine a combined respiratory-cardiac state. A 4-bit address encoding the selected histogram is directed from the system to the ECAT scanner, which dynamically switches the destination of tomograph events as respiratory-cardiac state changes. to Test the switching efficiency of the combined Macintosh/ECAT system, a rotating emission phantom was built. Acquisitions with 25 msec states while the phantom was rotating at 240 rpm demonstrate the system could effectively stop motion at this rate, with approximately 5 msec switching time between states

  2. Multiconsensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems with Input Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiconsensus problem of double-integrator dynamic multiagent systems has been investigated. Firstly, the dynamic multiconsensus, the static multiconsensus, and the periodic multiconsensus are considered as three cases of multiconsensus, respectively, in which the final multiconsensus convergence states are established by using matrix analysis. Secondly, as for the multiagent system with input delays, the maximal allowable upper bound of the delays is obtained by employing Hopf bifurcation of delayed networks theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  3. Prediction-Based Control for Nonlinear Systems with Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Estrada-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has two primary objectives. First, it presents a state prediction strategy for a class of nonlinear Lipschitz systems subject to constant time delay in the input signal. As a result of a suitable change of variable, the state predictor asymptotically provides the value of the state τ units of time ahead. Second, it proposes a solution to the stabilization and trajectory tracking problems for the considered class of systems using predicted states. The predictor-controller convergence is proved by considering a complete Lyapunov functional. The proposed predictor-based controller strategy is evaluated using numerical simulations.

  4. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...

  5. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  6. Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, P A; Rekling, J C; Bocchiaro, C M

    1999-01-01

    Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythmogenesis in mammals. These effects were mediated by actions on preBötC rhythmogenic neurons....... The distribution of NK1R+ neurons anatomically defined the preBötC. Type 1 neurons in the preBötC, which have rhythmogenic properties, expressed both NK1Rs and muORs, whereas type 2 neurons expressed only NK1Rs. These findings suggest that the preBötC is a definable anatomic structure with unique physiological...... function and that a subpopulation of neurons expressing both NK1Rs and muORs generate respiratory rhythm and modulate respiratory frequency....

  7. Role of fluorographic examinations in diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'derman, A.M.; Tsurkan, E.P.; Moskovchuk, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    Materials are considered on the role of fluorography in diagnosis of posttuberculous changes and chromic respiratory system diseases during total epidemiologic examination of 7791 adults from urban and rural population. A scheme is developed that characterize diagnosed pathology of respiratory organs with references to medical establishments rendering medical supervision and forms of supervision. It is shown that fluorograhic examination of the population provide an early diagnosis of both tuberculosis, neoplastic diseases and nonspecific pulmonary diseases that have no visible clinical symptomatology

  8. Input-output analysis for installing renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Y.; Nakata, T.

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy facilities have been installed in many regions, because of their possibility to be an alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating global warming. Besides the profitability of renewable energy businesses, indirect economic effects of installing renewable energy facilities should be clarified. This study examines the possibility that the renewable energy facilities give renewed impetus to regional economic progress. The economic effects are analysed with input-output techniques in a rural area in Japan. As a consequence, both positive and negative effects on the rural economy are derived. In addition, we will focus on the changes in sectors such as construction, business services, banking, etc. as a result of economic activities for renewable systems. The business benefits of renewable energy system are discussed. (author)

  9. Activity of respiratory system during laser irradiation of brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. A.; Sergeyeva, L. I.

    1984-06-01

    The performance of one of the principal links of the respiratory system, the respiratory center, was studied as a function of the exposure of the medulla oblongata and the sensomotor zone of the cerebral hemisphere cortex to low level laser irradiation in the red wavelength of the spectrum. Experiments were done on white rats under barbital anesthesia. Under such conditions a substantial effect was observed on the activity of the respiratory center. Laser light may display activating or inhibitory influences, in some cases the bilateral symmetry of the activity of the respiratory center is affected indicating deep changes in the integrative mechanism of the functioning of the right and left sides of the hemispheres. The laser beam effect depends on many factors: specific light properties, duration of the exposure, repetition of exposures, initial functional state of the CNS, etc.

  10. Receding Horizon H∞ Control for Input-Delayed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Woong Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the receding horizon H∞ control (RHHC for input-delayed systems. A new cost function for a finite horizon dynamic game problem is first introduced, which includes two terminal weighting terms parameterized by a positive definite matrix, called a terminal weighing matrix. Secondly, the RHHC is obtained from the solution to the finite dynamic game problem. Thirdly, we propose an LMI condition under which the saddle point value satisfies the nonincreasing monotonicity. Finally, we show the asymptotic stability and H∞ boundedness of the closed-loop system controlled by the proposed RHHC. The proposed RHHC has a guaranteed H∞ performance bound for nonzero external disturbances and the quadratic cost can be improved by adjusting the prediction horizon length for nonzero initial condition and zero disturbance, which is not the case for existing memoryless state-feedback controllers. It is shown through a numerical example that the proposed RHHC is stabilizing and satisfies the infinite horizon H∞ performance bound. Furthermore, the performance in terms of the quadratic cost is shown to be improved by adjusting the prediction horizon length when there exists no external disturbance with nonzero initial condition.

  11. [Aging of the respiratory system: anatomical changes and physiological consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S

    2012-10-01

    The respiratory system undergoes progressive involution with age, resulting in anatomical and functional changes that are exerted on all levels. The rib cage stiffens and respiratory muscles weaken. Distal bronchioles have reduced diameter and tend to be collapsed. Mobilized lung volumes decrease with age while residual volume increases. Gas exchanges are modified with a linear decrease of PaO(2) up to the age of 70 years and a decreased diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia, hypoxia and exercise decrease in the elderly. Knowledge of changes in the respiratory system related to advancing age is a medical issue of great importance in order to distinguish the effects of aging from those of diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others

  13. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and integration schemes for physiological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Exercise subroutine modifications are implemented in an exercise-respiratory system model yielding improvement of system response to exercise forcings. A more physiologically desirable respiratory ventilation rate in addition to an improved regulation of arterial gas tensions and cerebral blood flow is observed. A respiratory frequency expression is proposed which would be appropriate as an interfacing element of the respiratory-pulsatile cardiovascular system. Presentation of a circulatory-respiratory system integration scheme along with its computer program listing is given. The integrated system responds to exercise stimulation for both nonstressed and stressed physiological states. Other integration possibilities are discussed with respect to the respiratory, pulsatile cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and the long-term circulatory systems.

  14. Active control of multi-input hydraulic journal bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jen-Chen; Chen, Chi-Yin; Tu, Jia-Ying

    2016-09-01

    Because of the advantages of high accuracy, high capacity, and low friction, the development of hydrostatic bearing for machine tool receives significant attention in the last decades. The mechanics and mechanical design of hydrostatic journal bearing with capillary restrictors has been discussed in literature. However, pragmatically, the undesired loading effects of cutting force tend to result in resonance and instability of the rotor and damage the shaft during operation. Therefore, multi-input, active flow control using state feedback design is proposed in this paper. To this purpose, the proportional pressure valves are added to the hydraulic system as active control devices, and the linearised models of the bearing and valve are discussed and identified. Simulation and experimental work is conducted to verify the proposed active control and parameter identification techniques. The results show that the unbalance responses of the rotor are reduced by the proposed state feedback controller, which is able to regulate the flow pressure effectively, thus enhancing the stability and accuracy of the hydraulic journal bearing.

  15. Effect of ultraviolet exposure on mitochondrial respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-09-01

    To find the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondria were obtained from rat livers, and the suspension was exposed to an extensive ultraviolet light. The oxygen consumption was measured polarographically with a Clark oxygen electrode. The effect of ultraviolet exposure on the five states of respiratory control (Chance and Williams), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control index in mitochondria was discussed. The ultraviolet light with a dose of 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ erg/cm/sup 2/ caused the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to uncouple. The 2nd phosphorylation site of the respiratory chain was susceptible to ultraviolet exposure. The stimulation of latent ATPase activity in mitochondria following exposure was observed by increasing exposure of ultraviolet light. However, DNP-stimulated ATPase was found to be stable in activity. The uncoupling of the respiratory chain by ultraviolet exposure was not detected if the mitochondrial suspension was preincubated with bovine serum albumin before exposure. The changes in light absorption of the mitochondrial suspension were followed at 520 nm after exposure. A close correlation was found between the ultraviolet exposure and swelling in mitochondria. But, the reversing contraction was observed by adding ATP to the swelled mitochondria. The peroxide compound was formed in mitochondria irradiated with ultraviolet light. The amount of compounds formed was dependent on the radiant energy of ultraviolet light. The possible mechanisms involved in the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light to the mitochondrial respiration system were discussed.

  16. Input-to-State Stabilizing MPC for Neutrally Stable Linear Systems subject to Input Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Tae-Woong; Jadbabaie, Ali; Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    MPC(Model Predictive Control) is representative of control methods which are able to handle physical constraints. Closed-loop stability can therefore be ensured only locally in the presence of constraints of this type. However, if the system is neutrally stable, and if the constraints are imposed

  17. 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethnicity,...

  18. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  19. Cancer epidemiology in respiratory system among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, A.

    1976-11-01

    A summary of some published papers about cancer in respiratory system among uranium miners is presented. A comparative table relating cancer cases among uranium miners is shown. A table relating cases among miners in Checoslovaquia and cumulative exposure levels due to radon daughter products is also given [pt

  20. Detecting regional lung properties using audio transfer functions of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Adler, A; Goubran, R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel instrument has been developed for measuring changes in the distribution of lung fluid the respiratory system. The instrument consists of a speaker that inputs a 0-4kHz White Gaussian Noise (WGN) signal into a patient's mouth and an array of 4 electronic stethoscopes, linked via a fully adjustable harness, used to recover signals on the chest surface. The software system for processing the data utilizes the principles of adaptive filtering in order to obtain a transfer function that represents the input-output relationship for the signal as the volume of fluid in the lungs is varied. A chest phantom model was constructed to simulate the behavior of fluid related diseases within the lungs through the injection of varying volumes of water. Tests from the phantom model were compared to healthy subjects. Results show the instrument can obtain similar transfer functions and sound propagation delays between both human and phantom chests.

  1. Energy inputs and outputs in a chickpea production system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legumes which traditionally cultivated in marginal areas and saline soils. In this study, chickpea production in Kurdistan, Iran and the energy equivalences of input used in production were investigated. The aims of this study were to determine the amount of ...

  2. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N; Rollstin, J.A.; Helton, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  3. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  4. Investigating parameters participating in the infant respiratory control system attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, any participating parameter in a non-linear system represents the dynamics of the whole system. Taken's time delay embedding theory provides the fundamental basis for allowing non-linear analysis to be performed on physiological, time-series data. In practice, only one measurable parameter is required to be measured to convey an accurate representation of the system dynamics. In this paper, the infant respiratory control system is represented using three variables-a digitally sampled respiratory inductive plethysmography waveform, and the derived parameters tidal volume and inter-breath interval time series data. For 14 healthy infants, these data streams were analysed using recurrence plot analysis across one night of sleep. The measured attractor size of these variables followed the same qualitative trends across the nights study. Results suggest that the attractor size measures of the derived IBI and tidal volume are representative surrogates for the raw respiratory waveform. The extent to which the relative attractor sizes of IBI and tidal volume remain constant through changing sleep state could potentially be used to quantify pathology, or maturation of breathing control.

  5. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of ratings—respiratory system. Rating DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND THROAT 6502Septum, nasal, deviation of: Traumatic only...

  6. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  7. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chung; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  8. Study and development of a generalised input-output system for data base management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidi, Noureddine

    1975-01-01

    This thesis reports a study which aimed at designing and developing a software for the management and execution of all input-output actions of data base management systems. This software is also an interface between data base management systems and the various operating systems. After a recall of general characteristics of database management systems, the author presents the previously developed GRISBI system (rational management of information stored in an integrated database), and describes difficulties faced to adapt this system to the new access method (VSAM, virtual sequential access method). This lead to the search for a more general solution, the development of which is presented in the second part of this thesis: environment of the input-output generalised system, architecture, internal specifications. The last part presents flowcharts and statements of the various routines [fr

  9. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Stabilization of (state, input)-disturbed CSTRs through the port-Hamiltonian systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yafei; Fang, Zhou; Gao, Chuanhou

    2017-01-01

    It is a universal phenomenon that the state and input of the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems are both disturbed. This paper proposes a (state, input)-disturbed port-Hamiltonian framework that can be used to model and further designs a stochastic passivity based controller to asymptotically stabilize in probability the (state, input)-disturbed CSTR (sidCSTR) systems. The opposite entropy function and the availability function are selected as the Hamiltonian for the model and con...

  11. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  12. Input Shaping enhanced Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jianwei; Lao, Dazhong; Li, Donghai; Chen, Junhui

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a composite control based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) and Input Shaping is presented for TRMS with two degrees of freedom (DOF). The control tasks consist of accurately tracking desired trajectories and obtaining disturbance rejection in both horizontal and vertical planes. Due to un-measurable states as well as uncertainties stemming from modeling uncertainty and unknown disturbance torques, ADRC is employed, and feed-forward Input Shaping is used to improve the dynamical response. In the proposed approach, because the coupling effects are maintained in controller derivation, there is no requirement to decouple the TRMS into horizontal and vertical subsystems, which is usually performed in the literature. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on the TRMS platform, and the results are compared with those of PID and ADRC in a similar structure. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The operation of the controller allows for an excellent set-point tracking behavior and disturbance rejection with system nonlinearity and complex coupling conditions. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Virtual respiratory system for interactive e-learning of spirometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tomalak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in computer simulation technology offers new possibilities for modern medicine. On one hand – virtual organs can help to create animal or human models for research, on the other hand – e-learning or distant learning through Internet is now possible. The aim of our work was to create a system for interactive learning of spirometry (SILS, enabling students or physicians to observe spirometric measurements (flow-volume modified by setting level and kind of abnormalities within the respiratory system. SILS is based on a virtual respiratory system presented previously in several papers. Its main features are: separation of the lungs and chest; anatomical division of the lungs; division of airway resistance into transmural pressure dependent (Rp and lung volume dependent (Rv parts. The one mathematical formula that represents Rp describes both flow limitation (forced expiration and dependence of Raw on lungs volume (small airflows. The output of system are spirometric parameters (as FEV1, FVC, FEV1%FVC and a flow–volume loop constructed according to results of simulation of forced expiration for the chosen abnormality kind and level. As a result – this system may be used in teaching process in medical schools and postgraduate education. We offer access to a basic version of SILS for students and physicians at: www.spirometry.ibib.waw.pl and www.zpigichp.edu.pl. As we expect feedback from users, it is possible to modify user interface or model features to comply with users' requests.

  14. Multi-input wide dynamic range ADC system for use with nuclear detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, R W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Ala. (USA). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    1976-04-15

    A wide dynamic range, eight input analog-to-digital converter system has been developed for use in nuclear experiments. The system consists of eight dual-range sample and hold modules, an eight input multiplexer, a ten-bit analog-to-digital converter, and the associated control logic.

  15. A Reexamination of the Emergy Input to a System from the Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wind energy absorbed in the global boundary layer (GBL, 900 mb surface) is the basis for calculating the wind emergy input for any system on the Earth’s surface. Estimates of the wind emergy input to a system depend on the amount of wind energy dissipated, which can have a ra...

  16. The Use of Input-Output Control System Analysis for Sustainable Development of Multivariable Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, T. C.; Koliopoulou, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present an input-output solution for simulating the associated behavior and optimized physical needs of an environmental system. The simulations and numerical analysis determined the accurate boundary loads and areas that were required to interact for the proper physical operation of a complicated environmental system. A case study was conducted to simulate the optimum balance of an environmental system based on an artificial intelligent multi-interacting input-output numerical scheme. The numerical results were focused on probable further environmental management techniques, with the objective of minimizing any risks and associated environmental impact to protect the quality of public health and the environment. Our conclusions allowed us to minimize the associated risks, focusing on probable cases in an emergency to protect the surrounded anthropogenic or natural environment. Therefore, the lining magnitude could be determined for any useful associated technical works to support the environmental system under examination, taking into account its particular boundary necessities and constraints.

  17. Model reduction of nonlinear systems subject to input disturbances

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order

  18. Facilitating mathematics learning for students with upper extremity disabilities using touch-input system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; Chan, Tak-Yin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using tablet device as user interface for students with upper extremity disabilities to input mathematics efficiently into computer. A touch-input system using tablet device as user interface was proposed to assist these students to write mathematics. User-switchable and context-specific keyboard layouts were designed to streamline the input process. The system could be integrated with conventional computer systems only with minor software setup. A two-week pre-post test study involving five participants was conducted to evaluate the performance of the system and collect user feedback. The mathematics input efficiency of the participants was found to improve during the experiment sessions. In particular, their performance in entering trigonometric expressions by using the touch-input system was significantly better than that by using conventional mathematics editing software with keyboard and mouse. The participants rated the touch-input system positively and were confident that they could operate at ease with more practice. The proposed touch-input system provides a convenient way for the students with hand impairment to write mathematics and has the potential to facilitate their mathematics learning. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with upper extremity disabilities often face barriers to learning mathematics which is largely based on handwriting. Conventional computer user interfaces are inefficient for them to input mathematics into computer. A touch-input system with context-specific and user-switchable keyboard layouts was designed to improve the efficiency of mathematics input. Experimental results and user feedback suggested that the system has the potential to facilitate mathematics learning for the students.

  19. Input-profile-based software failure probability quantification for safety signal generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2009-01-01

    The approaches for software failure probability estimation are mainly based on the results of testing. Test cases represent the inputs, which are encountered in an actual use. The test inputs for the safety-critical application such as a reactor protection system (RPS) of a nuclear power plant are the inputs which cause the activation of protective action such as a reactor trip. A digital system treats inputs from instrumentation sensors as discrete digital values by using an analog-to-digital converter. Input profile must be determined in consideration of these characteristics for effective software failure probability quantification. Another important characteristic of software testing is that we do not have to repeat the test for the same input value since the software response is deterministic for each specific digital input. With these considerations, we propose an effective software testing method for quantifying the failure probability. As an example application, the input profile of the digital RPS is developed based on the typical plant data. The proposed method in this study is expected to provide a simple but realistic mean to quantify the software failure probability based on input profile and system dynamics.

  20. State space and input-output linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Delchamps, David F

    1988-01-01

    It is difficult for me to forget the mild sense of betrayal I felt some ten years ago when I discovered, with considerable dismay, that my two favorite books on linear system theory - Desoer's Notes for a Second Course on Linear Systems and Brockett's Finite Dimensional Linear Systems - were both out of print. Since that time, of course, linear system theory has undergone a transformation of the sort which always attends the maturation of a theory whose range of applicability is expanding in a fashion governed by technological developments and by the rate at which such advances become a part of engineering practice. The growth of the field has inspired the publication of some excellent books; the encyclopedic treatises by Kailath and Chen, in particular, come immediately to mind. Nonetheless, I was inspired to write this book primarily by my practical needs as a teacher and researcher in the field. For the past five years, I have taught a one semester first year gradu­ ate level linear system theory course i...

  1. Using Multimodal Input for Autonomous Decision Making for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, James H.; Cross, Charles; Rothhaar, Paul; Tran, Loc; Motter, Mark; Qualls, Garry; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous decision making in the presence of uncertainly is a deeply studied problem space particularly in the area of autonomous systems operations for land, air, sea, and space vehicles. Various techniques ranging from single algorithm solutions to complex ensemble classifier systems have been utilized in a research context in solving mission critical flight decisions. Realized systems on actual autonomous hardware, however, is a difficult systems integration problem, constituting a majority of applied robotics development timelines. The ability to reliably and repeatedly classify objects during a vehicles mission execution is vital for the vehicle to mitigate both static and dynamic environmental concerns such that the mission may be completed successfully and have the vehicle operate and return safely. In this paper, the Autonomy Incubator proposes and discusses an ensemble learning and recognition system planned for our autonomous framework, AEON, in selected domains, which fuse decision criteria, using prior experience on both the individual classifier layer and the ensemble layer to mitigate environmental uncertainty during operation.

  2. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  3. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection: A revision of the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) appointed a task group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. The model was originally published in 1966, modified slightly in Publication No. 19, and again in Publication No. 30 (in 1979). The task group concluded that research during the past 20 y suggested certain deficiencies in the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. Research has also provided sufficient information for a revision of the model. The task group's approach has been to review, in depth, morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract; deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract; clearance of deposited materials; and the nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled radioactive substances. This review has led to a redefinition of the regions of the respiratory tract for dosimetric purposes. The redefinition has a morphologic and physiological basis and is consistent with observed deposition and clearance of particles and with resultant pathology. Regions, as revised, are the extrathoracic (E-T) region, comprising the nasal and oral regions, the pharynx, larynx, and upper part of the trachea; the fast-clearing thoracic region (T[f]), comprising the remainder of the trachea and bronchi; and the slow-clearing thoracic region (T[s]), comprising the bronchioles, alveoli, and thoracic lymph nodes. A task group report will include models for calculating radiation doses to these regions of the respiratory tract following inhalation of representative alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. The models may be implemented as a package of computer codes available to a wide range of users

  4. Optimal control of LQR for discrete time-varying systems with input delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue-Zhu; Yang, Zhong-Lian; Yin, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Feng

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we consider the optimal control problem of linear quadratic regulation for discrete time-variant systems with single input and multiple input delays. An innovative and simple method to derive the optimal controller is given. The studied problem is first equivalently converted into a problem subject to a constraint condition. Last, with the established duality, the problem is transformed into a static mathematical optimisation problem without input delays. The optimal control input solution to minimise performance index function is derived by solving this optimisation problem with two methods. A numerical simulation example is carried out and its results show that our two approaches are both feasible and very effective.

  5. A Novel Parametric Model For The Human Respiratory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mihaela IONESCU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present some recent results in an ongoing research project between Ghent University and Chess Medical Technology Company Belgium. The overall aim of the project is to provide a fast method for identification of the human respiratory system in order to allow for an instantaneously diagnosis of the patient by the medical staff. A novel parametric model of the human respiratory system as well as the obtained experimental results is presented in this paper. A prototype apparatus developed by the company, based on the forced oscillation technique is used to record experimental data from 4 patients in this paper. Signal processing is based on spectral analysis and is followed by the parametric identification of a non-linear mechanistic model. The parametric model is equivalent to the structure of a simple electrical RLC-circuit, containing a non-linear capacitor. These parameters have a useful and easy-to-interpret physical meaning for the medical staff members.

  6. H-infinity Control of Linear Systems with Almost Periodic Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the class of linear, infinitedimensional systems with bounded input and output operators. Wederive and QTR H-infinity type result, formulated for thecase where the input signals are almost periodic in a generalizedsense. Control probelms, for which this result is relevant...

  7. Rotation-type input-output relationships for Wigner distribution moments in fractional Fourier transform systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Alieva, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order in the output plane of a (generally anamorphic) two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform system can be expressed in terms of the moments in the input plane. This general input-output relationship is then broken down into a

  8. KAJIAN INPUT ENERGI PADA BUDIDAYA PADI METODE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION Studies on Energy Input in System of Rice Intensification Method of Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwantana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available System of Rice Intensification (SRI is a rice cultivation method that intensively control and manage macro and micro nutrients as well as irrigation. This paper quantifies and compares the energy uses of SRI and conventional rice cultiva- tion systems. The study was conducted at some SRI’s experimental plots in the districts of Sleman, Kulonprogo, and Bantul, the province of Yogyakarta. The calculation of the energy was based on the farmers’ work schedule, the time required for each operation, the number of laborers, machines, tools, fuel, and all materials and inputs used. The result shows that SRI method consumed 35% less energy to conventional rice cultivation. Energy inputs from seed, water, fertilizer and pesticide were significantly reduces. However, there was higher input of human energy due to compost- ing, land preparation and weeding operations. The specific energy of SRI method was 1.96 MJ ha-1 lower than conven- tional method of 4.43 MJ ha-1. In the SRI method, 56.2 % of energy consumed was classified as direct energy and 43.8% was indirect energy. The SRI method used 61.9 % of renewable energy and 38.1 % of non-renewable energy. The working efficiency in composting and weeding operations should be improved in perspective of machine and tools to reduce the use of human energy. ABSTRAK System of Rice Intensification (SRI, merupakan suatu metode budidaya padi secara intensif dengan pengendalian unsur-unsur hara makro dan mikro disertai pengendalian dan pengaturan kebutuhan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan energi dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada budidaya padi SRI. Pe- nelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Kulonprogo, dan Bantul, Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengamatan dilakukan pada plot-plot percobaan budidaya padi SRI dengan melakukan audit seluruh input energi selama proses budidaya dan dikomparasikan dengan input energi pada budidaya padi cara konvensional. Hasil

  9. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model

  10. Development of Input/Output System for the Reactor Transient Analysis System (RETAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jae Seung; Kang, Doo Hyuk; Cho, Yeon Sik; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Cho, Yong Jin

    2009-01-01

    A Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety Reactor Transient Analysis System (KINS-RETAS) aims at providing a realistic prediction of core and RCS response to the potential or actual event scenarios in Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). A thermal hydraulic system code MARS is a pivot code of the RETAS, and used to predict thermal hydraulic (TH) behaviors in the core and associated systems. MARS alone can be applied to many types of transients, but is sometimes coupled with the other codes developed for different objectives. Many tools have been developed to aid users in preparing input and displaying the transient information and output data. Output file and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) that help prepare input decks, as seen in SNAP (Gitnick, 1998), VISA (K.D. Kim, 2007) and display aids include the eFAST (KINS, 2007). The tools listed above are graphical interfaces. The input deck builders allow the user to create a functional diagram of the plant, pictorially on the screen. The functional diagram, when annotated with control volume and junction numbers, is a nodalization diagram. Data required for an input deck is entered for volumes and junctions through a mouse-driven menu and pop-up dialog; after the information is complete, an input deck is generated. Display GUIs show data from MARS calculations, either during or after the transient. The RETAS requires the user to first generate a set of 'input', two dimensional pictures of the plant on which some of the data is displayed either numerically or with a color map. The RETAS can generate XY-plots of the data. Time histories of plant conditions can be seen via the plots or through the RETAS's replay mode. The user input was combined with design input from MARS developers and experts from both the GUI and ergonomics fields. A partial list of capabilities follows. - 3D display for neutronics. - Easier method (less user time and effort) to generate 'input' for the 3D displays. - Detailed view of data at volume or

  11. Development of Input/Output System for the Reactor Transient Analysis System (RETAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jae Seung; Kang, Doo Hyuk; Cho, Yeon Sik [ENESYS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Hoon; Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety Reactor Transient Analysis System (KINS-RETAS) aims at providing a realistic prediction of core and RCS response to the potential or actual event scenarios in Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). A thermal hydraulic system code MARS is a pivot code of the RETAS, and used to predict thermal hydraulic (TH) behaviors in the core and associated systems. MARS alone can be applied to many types of transients, but is sometimes coupled with the other codes developed for different objectives. Many tools have been developed to aid users in preparing input and displaying the transient information and output data. Output file and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) that help prepare input decks, as seen in SNAP (Gitnick, 1998), VISA (K.D. Kim, 2007) and display aids include the eFAST (KINS, 2007). The tools listed above are graphical interfaces. The input deck builders allow the user to create a functional diagram of the plant, pictorially on the screen. The functional diagram, when annotated with control volume and junction numbers, is a nodalization diagram. Data required for an input deck is entered for volumes and junctions through a mouse-driven menu and pop-up dialog; after the information is complete, an input deck is generated. Display GUIs show data from MARS calculations, either during or after the transient. The RETAS requires the user to first generate a set of 'input', two dimensional pictures of the plant on which some of the data is displayed either numerically or with a color map. The RETAS can generate XY-plots of the data. Time histories of plant conditions can be seen via the plots or through the RETAS's replay mode. The user input was combined with design input from MARS developers and experts from both the GUI and ergonomics fields. A partial list of capabilities follows. - 3D display for neutronics. - Easier method (less user time and effort) to generate 'input' for the 3D displays. - Detailed view

  12. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  13. Distribution of return point memory states for systems with stochastic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, A; Brokate, M; Rachinskii, D; Temnov, G

    2011-01-01

    We consider the long term effect of stochastic inputs on the state of an open loop system which exhibits the so-called return point memory. An example of such a system is the Preisach model; more generally, systems with the Preisach type input-state relationship, such as in spin-interaction models, are considered. We focus on the characterisation of the expected memory configuration after the system has been effected by the input for sufficiently long period of time. In the case where the input is given by a discrete time random walk process, or the Wiener process, simple closed form expressions for the probability density of the vector of the main input extrema recorded by the memory state, and scaling laws for the dimension of this vector, are derived. If the input is given by a general continuous Markov process, we show that the distribution of previous memory elements can be obtained from a Markov chain scheme which is derived from the solution of an associated one-dimensional escape type problem. Formulas for transition probabilities defining this Markov chain scheme are presented. Moreover, explicit formulas for the conditional probability densities of previous main extrema are obtained for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck input process. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical experiments.

  14. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  15. Mathematical modelling of a human external respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A closed system of algebraic and common differential equations solved by computer is investigated. It includes equations which describe the activity pattern of the respiratory center, the phrenic nerve, the thrust produced by the diaphragm as a function of the lung volume and discharge frequency of the phrenic nerve, as well as certain relations of the lung stretch receptors and chemoreceptors on various lung and blood characteristics, equations for lung biomechanics, pulmonary blood flow, alveolar gas exchange and capillary blood composition equations to determine various air and blood flow and gas exchange parameters, and various gas mixing and arterial and venous blood composition equations, to determine other blood, air and gas mixing characteristics. Data are presented by means of graphs and tables, and some advantages of this model over others are demonstrated by test results.

  16. Statistical analysis of two-degree of freedom systems to time history inputs with different durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.W.; Li, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A statistical study is conducted to determine the effect of input time history duration on the response of systems supported by the structure. The model used in the study is a one-degree-of-freedom system mass supported by another one degree of freedom structure mass. The input used is generated from a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure with a prescribed power spectrum density such that the input response spectrum matched the Reg. Guide 1.60 response spectrum. The models were analyzed for different combinations of mass ratios and frequency ratios (ratios of the system versus the supporting structure). Time history inputs used vary from 5 to 20 seconds. Only the 20 second time history matched the Reg. Guide 1.60 response spectrum. Time history inputs shorter than 20 seconds were simply truncated at the tail end. The results of the study indicate that it is necessary to increase the response magnitude by about 20% if a 5-second time history is to be used. For a 10-second input, an increase of 10% will suffice. Whereas for a 15-second input, no adjustment is necessary. (orig./HP)

  17. The Respiratory System. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit with instructor's guide provides materials on aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the respiratory system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human respiratory system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to famlliarize the student with some of the…

  18. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  19. Evaluation of the MEMS based portable respiratory training system with a tactile sensor for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sun Young; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Mijoo; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-10-01

    In respiratory-gated radiotherapy, it is important to maintain the regular respiratory cycles of patients. If patients undergo respiration training, their regular breathing pattern is affected. Therefore, we developed a respiratory training system based on a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and evaluated the feasibility of the MEMS in radiotherapy. By comparing the measured signal before and after radiation exposure, we confirmed the effects of radiation. By evaluating the period of the electric signal emitted by a tactile sensor and its constancy, the performance of the tactile sensor was confirmed. Moreover, by comparing the delay between the motion of the MEMS and the electric signal from the tactile sensor, we confirmed the reaction time of the tactile sensor. The results showed that a baseline shift occurred for an accumulated dose of 400 Gy in the sensor, and both the amplitude and period changed. The period of the signal released by the tactile sensor was 5.39 and its standard deviation was 0.06. Considering the errors from the motion phantom, a standard deviation of 0.06 was desirable. The delay time was within 0.5 s and not distinguishable by a patient. We confirmed the performance of the MEMS and concluded that MEMS could be applied to patients for respiratory-gated radiotherapy.

  20. Design and Implementation of Kana-Input Navigation System for Kids based on the Cyber Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsuda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, it has increased the opportunity for young children to experience the personal computer in elementary schools. However, in order to use computer, many domestic barriers have confronted young children (Kids because they cannot read difficult Kanji characters and had not learnt Roman alphabet yet. As a result, they cannot input text strings by JIS Kana keyboard. In this research, we developed Kana-Input NaVigation System for kids (KINVS based on the Cyber Assistant System (CAS. CAS is a Human-Style Software Robot based on the 3D-CG real-time animation and voice synthesis technology. KINVS enables to input Hiragana/Katakana characters by mouse operation only (without keyboard operation and CAS supports them by using speaking, facial expression, body action and sound effects. KINVS displays the 3D-Stage like a classroom. In this room, Blackboard, Interactive parts to input Kana-characters, and CAS are placed. As some results of preliminary experiments, it is definitely unfit for Kids to double-click objects quickly or to move the Scrollbar by mouse dragging. So, mouse input method of KINVS are designed to use only single click and wheeler rotation. To input characters, Kids clicks or rotates the Interactive Parts. KINVS reports all information by voice speaking and Kana subtitles instead of Kanji text. Furthermore, to verify the functional feature of KINVS, we measured how long Kids had taken to input long text by using KINVS.

  1. Secure communication based on multi-input multi-output chaotic system with large message amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.; Boutat, D.; Floquet, T.; Barbot, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of secure communication based on multi-input multi-output (MIMO) chaotic systems. Single input secure communication based on chaos can be easily extended to multiple ones by some combinations technologies, however all the combined inputs possess the same risk to be broken. In order to reduce this risk, a new secure communication scheme based on chaos with MIMO is discussed in this paper. Moreover, since the amplitude of messages in traditional schemes is limited because it would affect the quality of synchronization, the proposed scheme is also improved into an amplitude-independent one.

  2. Information system for diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, G. V.; Korobova, L. A.; Ivashin, A. L.; Matytsina, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    An information system is for the diagnosis of patients with lung diseases. The main problem solved by this system is the definition of the parameters of cough fragments in the monitoring recordings using a voice recorder. The authors give the recognition criteria of recorded cough moments, audio records analysis. The results of the research are systematized. The cough recognition system can be used by the medical specialists to diagnose the condition of the patients and to monitor the process of their treatment.

  3. Input Forces Estimation for Nonlinear Systems by Applying a Square-Root Cubature Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuegang; Zhang, Yuexin; Liang, Dakai

    2017-10-10

    This work presents a novel inverse algorithm to estimate time-varying input forces in nonlinear beam systems. With the system parameters determined, the input forces can be estimated in real-time from dynamic responses, which can be used for structural health monitoring. In the process of input forces estimation, the Runge-Kutta fourth-order algorithm was employed to discretize the state equations; a square-root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF) was employed to suppress white noise; the residual innovation sequences, a priori state estimate, gain matrix, and innovation covariance generated by SRCKF were employed to estimate the magnitude and location of input forces by using a nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator was based on the least squares method. Numerical simulations of a large deflection beam and an experiment of a linear beam constrained by a nonlinear spring were employed. The results demonstrated accuracy of the nonlinear algorithm.

  4. Input Forces Estimation for Nonlinear Systems by Applying a Square-Root Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuegang Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel inverse algorithm to estimate time-varying input forces in nonlinear beam systems. With the system parameters determined, the input forces can be estimated in real-time from dynamic responses, which can be used for structural health monitoring. In the process of input forces estimation, the Runge-Kutta fourth-order algorithm was employed to discretize the state equations; a square-root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF was employed to suppress white noise; the residual innovation sequences, a priori state estimate, gain matrix, and innovation covariance generated by SRCKF were employed to estimate the magnitude and location of input forces by using a nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator was based on the least squares method. Numerical simulations of a large deflection beam and an experiment of a linear beam constrained by a nonlinear spring were employed. The results demonstrated accuracy of the nonlinear algorithm.

  5. On stabilization of linear systems with stochastic disturbances and input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, A.A.; Weiland, S.; Saberi, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is well-known that for linear systems internal asymptotic stability implies external stability in the sense that when the external input is in Lp then also the state will be in Lp. However, for the control of linear systems with saturation where the controlled system is nonlinear this implication

  6. Breath pacing system and method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    To provide a breath pacing system and a corresponding method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject that provide the possibility to adapt the output signal to the respiration characteristics of the subject automatically and effectively a breath pacing system (10) for pacing the respiratory

  7. Development of the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 visual system analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Jeong, J. J.; Hwang, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Long-Term Nuclear R and D program, KAERI has developed the so-called Visual System Analyzer (ViSA) based on best-estimate codes. The MARS and RETRAN codes are used as the best-estimate codes for ViSA. Between these two codes, the RETRAN code is used for realistic analysis of Non-LOCA transients and small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is less than 3 inch diameter. So it is necessary to develop the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 plants (KSNP). In recognition of this, the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 plants has been developed. This report includes the input model requirements and the calculation note for the input data generation (see the Appendix). In order to confirm the validity of the input data, the calculations are performed for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition, inadvertent reactor trip and RCP trip. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the other transient calculations seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the RETRAN input data can be used as a base input deck for the RETRAN transient analyzer for Ulchin 3/4. Moreover, it is found that Core Protection Calculator (CPC) module, which is modified by Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), is well adapted to ViSA

  8. Real Time Part Input Control of a Pull Production System by Finding IF-THEN Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rizauddin; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Abu Qudeiri, Jaber

    This paper considers the part input problem of a production system where two Flexible Transfer Lines (FTLs) consisting of an up-stream production line and a down-stream production line while operating under Just In Time (JIT) production management. The up-stream production line processes the raw material after receiving them from suppliers, and after processing them, delivers the processed product to a down-stream production line via a conveyer. In this paper, we have proposed a novel idea for a part input real time control system, known as Algorithm for Real Time Control of Part Input Systems (ARTCOPS). The algorithm is useful when FTLs are in operation under a production order that is different from the pre-decided production schedule. Simulations of virtual production systems have been carried out to verify that ARTCOPS is useful in real time control, although the production orders are different from the pre-decided production scheduling.

  9. Graphical user interface for input output characterization of single variable and multivariable highly nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrukh Adnan Khan M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Graphical User Interface (GUI software utility for the input/output characterization of single variable and multivariable nonlinear systems by obtaining the sinusoidal input describing function (SIDF of the plant. The software utility is developed on MATLAB R2011a environment. The developed GUI holds no restriction on the nonlinearity type, arrangement and system order; provided that output(s of the system is obtainable either though simulation or experiments. An insight to the GUI and its features are presented in this paper and example problems from both single variable and multivariable cases are demonstrated. The formulation of input/output behavior of the system is discussed and the nucleus of the MATLAB command underlying the user interface has been outlined. Some of the industries that would benefit from this software utility includes but not limited to aerospace, defense technology, robotics and automotive.

  10. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  11. Asymptotic Stabilization of Continuous-Time Linear Systems with Input and State Quantizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the asymptotic stabilization problem of linear systems with input and state quantizations. In order to achieve asymptotic stabilization of such systems, we propose a state-feedback controller comprising two control parts: the main part is used to determine the fundamental characteristics of the system associated with the cost, and the additional part is employed to eliminate the effects of input and state quanizations. In particular, in order to implement the additional part, we introduce a quantizer with a region-decision making process (RDMP for a certain linear switching surface. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  12. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  13. Quantified carbon input for maintaining existing soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1°× 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  14. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsi...

  15. System Identification for Nonlinear FOPDT Model with Input-Dependent Dead-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhen; Yang, Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    An on-line iterative method of system identification for a kind of nonlinear FOPDT system is proposed in the paper. The considered nonlinear FOPDT model is an extension of the standard FOPDT model by means that its dead time depends on the input signal and the other parameters are time dependent....

  16. Effects of shade and input management on economic performance of small-scale Peruvian coffee systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezeer, Rosalien E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374336865; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571979; Boot, René G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069412928; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Verweij, Pita A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843

    2018-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry systems provide a number of ecosystem services that might help sustain the production of multiple crops, improve farmers’ livelihoods and conserve biodiversity. A major drawback of agroforestry coffee systems is the perceived lower economic performance compared to high-input

  17. Analysis of nonlinear systems with time varying inputs and its application to gain scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Lim

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework for analysis of a class of nonlinear systems with time varying inputs is presented. It is shown that the trajectories of the transformed nonlinear systems are uniformly bounded with an ultimate bound under certain conditions shown in this paper. The result obtained is useful for applications, in particular, analysis and design of gain scheduling.

  18. Set Theory Applied to Uniquely Define the Inputs to Territorial Systems in Emergy Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The language of set theory can be utilized to represent the emergy involved in all processes. In this paper we use set theory in an emergy evaluation to ensure an accurate representation of the inputs to territorial systems. We consider a generic territorial system and we describ...

  19. H∞ Loop Shaping Control of Input Saturated Systems with Norm-Bounded Parametric Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lima Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gain-scheduling control design strategy for a class of linear systems with the presence of both input saturation constraints and norm-bounded parametric uncertainty. LMI conditions are derived in order to obtain a gain-scheduled controller that ensures the robust stability and performance of the closed loop system. The main steps to obtain such a controller are given. Differently from other gain-scheduled approaches in the literature, this one focuses on the problem of H∞ loop shaping control design with input saturation nonlinearity and norm-bounded uncertainty to reduce the effect of the disturbance input on the controlled outputs. Here, the design problem has been formulated in the four-block H∞ synthesis framework, in which it is possible to describe the parametric uncertainty and the input saturation nonlinearity as perturbations to normalized coprime factors of the shaped plant. As a result, the shaped plant is represented as a linear parameter-varying (LPV system while the norm-bounded uncertainty and input saturation are incorporated. This procedure yields a linear parameter-varying structure for the controller that ensures the stability of the polytopic LPV shaped plant from the vertex property. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated through application to a physical system: a VTOL “vertical taking-off landing” helicopter.

  20. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo,Gabriel; Aibar,Joaquín; Cavero,José; Zaragoza,Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat) in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harve...

  1. B lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, in tonsils and adenoid structures that make up Waldeyer’s Ring. Upon secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes that drain the upper and lower airways and further B cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  2. A Novel Coupled State/Input/Parameter Identification Method for Linear Structural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications, unknown states, inputs, and parameters exist in the structures. However, most methods require one or two of these variables to be known in order to identify the other(s. Recently, the authors have proposed a method called EGDF for coupled state/input/parameter identification for nonlinear system in state space. However, the EGDF method based solely on acceleration measurements is found to be unstable, which can cause the drift of the identified inputs and displacements. Although some regularization methods can be adopted for solving the problem, they are not suitable for joint input-state identification in real time. In this paper, a strategy of data fusion of displacement and acceleration measurements is used to avoid the low-frequency drift in the identified inputs and structural displacements for linear structural systems. Two numerical examples about a plane truss and a single-stage isolation system are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modified EGDF algorithm.

  3. On a multi-channel transportation loss system with controlled input and controlled service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni Dshalalow

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-channel loss queueing system is investigated. The input stream is a controlled point process. The service in each of m parallel channels depends on the state of the system at certain moments of time when input and service may be controlled. To obtain explicitly the limiting distribution of the main process (Zt (the number of busy channels in equilibrium, an auxiliary three dimensional process with two additional components (one of them is a semi-Markov process is treated as semi-regenerative process. An optimization problem is discussed. Simple expressions for an objective function are derived.

  4. An efficient method for evaluating the effect of input parameters on the integrity of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zuo, Ming J.; Xiao, Ningcong

    2016-01-01

    Safety systems are significant to reduce or prevent risk from potentially dangerous activities in industry. Probability of failure to perform its functions on demand (PFD) for safety system usually exhibits variation due to the epistemic uncertainty associated with various input parameters. This paper uses the complementary cumulative distribution function of the PFD to define the exceedance probability (EP) that the PFD of the system is larger than the designed value. Sensitivity analysis of safety system is further investigated, which focuses on the effect of the variance of an individual input parameter on the EP resulting from epistemic uncertainty associated with the input parameters. An available numerical technique called finite difference method is first employed to evaluate the effect, which requires extensive computational cost and needs to select a step size. To address these difficulties, this paper proposes an efficient simulation method to estimate the effect. The proposed method needs only an evaluation to estimate the effects corresponding to all input parameters. Two examples are used to demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain more accurate results with less computation time compared to reported methods. - Highlights: • We define a sensitivity index to measure effect of a parameter for safety system. • We analyze the physical meaning of the sensitivity index. • We propose an efficient simulation method to assess the sensitivity index. • We derive the formulations of this index for lognormal and beta distributions. • Results identify important parameters on exceedance probability of safety system.

  5. The Absolute Stability Analysis in Fuzzy Control Systems with Parametric Uncertainties and Reference Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Fei; Ma, Li-Shan; Perng, Jau-Woei

    This study analyzes the absolute stability in P and PD type fuzzy logic control systems with both certain and uncertain linear plants. Stability analysis includes the reference input, actuator gain and interval plant parameters. For certain linear plants, the stability (i.e. the stable equilibriums of error) in P and PD types is analyzed with the Popov or linearization methods under various reference inputs and actuator gains. The steady state errors of fuzzy control systems are also addressed in the parameter plane. The parametric robust Popov criterion for parametric absolute stability based on Lur'e systems is also applied to the stability analysis of P type fuzzy control systems with uncertain plants. The PD type fuzzy logic controller in our approach is a single-input fuzzy logic controller and is transformed into the P type for analysis. In our work, the absolute stability analysis of fuzzy control systems is given with respect to a non-zero reference input and an uncertain linear plant with the parametric robust Popov criterion unlike previous works. Moreover, a fuzzy current controlled RC circuit is designed with PSPICE models. Both numerical and PSPICE simulations are provided to verify the analytical results. Furthermore, the oscillation mechanism in fuzzy control systems is specified with various equilibrium points of view in the simulation example. Finally, the comparisons are also given to show the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  6. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  7. Isolating Graphical Failure-Inducing Input for Privacy Protection in Error Reporting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos João

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new privacy-enhancing system that minimizes the disclosure of information in error reports. Error reporting mechanisms are of the utmost importance to correct software bugs but, unfortunately, the transmission of an error report may reveal users’ private information. Some privacy-enhancing systems for error reporting have been presented in the past years, yet they rely on path condition analysis, which we show in this paper to be ineffective when it comes to graphical-based input. Knowing that numerous applications have graphical user interfaces (GUI, it is very important to overcome such limitation. This work describes a new privacy-enhancing error reporting system, based on a new input minimization algorithm called GUIᴍɪɴ that is geared towards GUI, to remove input that is unnecessary to reproduce the observed failure. Before deciding whether to submit the error report, the user is provided with a step-by-step graphical replay of the minimized input, to evaluate whether it still yields sensitive information. We also provide an open source implementation of the proposed system and evaluate it with well-known applications.

  8. Elements of the system for RF power input into linear accelerator-injector for booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurov, E.V.; Mal'tsev, I.G.; Shalashov, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The elements of the original system for RF power input into 30 MeV linear accelerator-injector for the IHEP proton synchrotron booster are considered. A 3 dB coaxial directional coupler (T-bridge) is describedd. The characteristics of the bridge containing elements and the parameters of ballast matched load are given [ru

  9. FRUPAT: A Tool to Quantify Inputs and Outputs of Patagonian Fruit Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Keulen, van H.; Peri, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    A software called FRUPAT was developed for calculating input and output coefficients (Technical Coefficients) of fruit production systems in South Patagonia. FRUPAT combined locations (Río Chubut valley; Sarmiento valley; Los Antiguos valley; Río Chico valley), edaphic environment (good quality soil

  10. Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems by Preliminary Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  11. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  12. 75 FR 21146 - Public Input on Reform of the Housing Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...Consistent with the Obama Administration's commitment to openness and transparency and the President's Open Government Initiative, the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) seek public input on establishing a more stable and sound housing finance system.

  13. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  14. Linear and quadratic models of point process systems: contributions of patterned input to output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R

    2012-08-01

    In the 1880's Volterra characterised a nonlinear system using a functional series connecting continuous input and continuous output. Norbert Wiener, in the 1940's, circumvented problems associated with the application of Volterra series to physical problems by deriving from it a new series of terms that are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Gaussian processes. Subsequently, Brillinger, in the 1970's, introduced a point-process analogue of Volterra's series connecting point-process inputs to the instantaneous rate of point-process output. We derive here a new series from this analogue in which its terms are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Poisson processes. This new series expresses how patterned input in a spike train, represented by third-order cross-cumulants, is converted into the instantaneous rate of an output point-process. Given experimental records of suitable duration, the contribution of arbitrary patterned input to an output process can, in principle, be determined. Solutions for linear and quadratic point-process models with one and two inputs and a single output are investigated. Our theoretical results are applied to isolated muscle spindle data in which the spike trains from the primary and secondary endings from the same muscle spindle are recorded in response to stimulation of one and then two static fusimotor axons in the absence and presence of a random length change imposed on the parent muscle. For a fixed mean rate of input spikes, the analysis of the experimental data makes explicit which patterns of two input spikes contribute to an output spike. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a compact and cost effective multi-input digital signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish-Molla, Sahar; Chin, Kenrick; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A prototype digital signal processing system (DSP) was developed using a microcontroller interfaced with a 12-bit sampling ADC, which offers a considerably inexpensive solution for processing multiple detectors with high throughput. After digitization of the incoming pulses, in order to maximize the output counting rate, a simple algorithm was employed for pulse height analysis. Moreover, an algorithm aiming at the real-time pulse pile-up deconvolution was implemented. The system was tested using a NaI(Tl) detector in comparison with a traditional analogue and commercial digital systems for a variety of count rates. The performance of the prototype system was consistently superior to the analogue and the commercial digital systems up to the input count rate of 61 kcps while was slightly inferior to the commercial digital system but still superior to the analogue system in the higher input rates. Considering overall cost, size and flexibility, this custom made multi-input digital signal processing system (MMI-DSP) was the best reliable choice for the purpose of the 2D microdosimetric data collection, or for any measurement in which simultaneous multi-data collection is required.

  16. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  17. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  18. Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum (LS, central amygdala (CeA, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH, dorsal raphe (DRN and parabrachial nucleus (PBN. Interestingly, we found that the BFCS receives inputs from the olfactory areas and the entorhinal-hippocampal system. These results greatly expand our knowledge about the connectivity of the mouse BFCS and provided important preliminary indications for future exploration of circuit function.

  19. Respiratory and Systemic Effects of LASSBio596 Plus Surfactant in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Dutra Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Exogenous surfactant has been proposed as adjunctive therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but it is inactivated by different factors present in the alveolar space. We hypothesized that co-administration of LASSBio596, a molecule with significant anti-inflammatory properties, and exogenous surfactant could reduce lung inflammation, thus enabling the surfactant to reduce edema and improve lung function, in experimental ARDS. Methods: ARDS was induced by cecal ligation and puncture surgery in BALB/c mice. A sham-operated group was used as control (CTRL. After surgery (6 hours, CTRL and ARDS animals were assigned to receive: (1 sterile saline solution; (2 LASSBio596; (3 exogenous surfactant or (4 LASSBio596 plus exogenous surfactant (n = 22/group. Results: Regardless of exogenous surfactant administration, LASSBio596 improved survival rate and reduced collagen fiber content, total number of cells and neutrophils in PLF and blood, cell apoptosis, protein content in BALF, and urea and creatinine levels. LASSBio596 plus surfactant yielded all of the aforementioned beneficial effects, as well as increased BALF lipid content and reduced surface tension. Conclusion: LASSBio596 exhibited major anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects in experimental sepsis-induced ARDS. Its association with surfactant may provide further advantages, potentially by reducing surface tension.

  20. Root carbon input in organic and inorganic fertilizer-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John

    2012-01-01

    C input to remain scant. This study aimed at determining macro-root C input and topsoil root related respiration in response to nutrient management and soil fertility building measures. Methods We sampled roots and shoots of cereals and catch crops in inorganic and organic fertilizer-based arable...... season of winter wheat by subtracting soil respiration from soil with and without exclusion of roots. Results Catch crop roots accounted for more than 40 % of total plant C. For spring barley in 2008 and spring wheat in 2010, root C was higher in the organic than in the inorganic fertilizer-based systems...... was higher (31–131 %) in inorganic than in organic fertilizer-based systems. Conclusions Our findings show that macro-roots of both cereal crops and catch crops play a relatively larger role in organically managed systems than in mineral fertilizer based systems; and that the use of fixed biomass S/R ratios...

  1. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  2. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  3. Historical basis for analog input setpoints, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the original basis for selection of the analog input setpoints for the MICON Automation System. In most cases the setpoints were based on vendor supplied information and design requirements. However, some setpoints were also established based on engineering judgment. These setpoints are subject to change as more experience with operation of the ventilation system is obtained. Revision 1 incorporates minor changes to ensure the document setpoints accurately reflect limits established in OSD-T-151-00019, Rev B-0

  4. Input data requirements for special processors in the computation system containing the VENTURE neutronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-07-01

    User input data requirements are presented for certain special processors in a nuclear reactor computation system. These processors generally read data in formatted form and generate binary interface data files. Some data processing is done to convert from the user oriented form to the interface file forms. The VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other computation modules in this system use the interface data files which are generated

  5. Input data requirements for special processors in the computation system containing the VENTURE neutronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents user input data requirements for certain special processors in a nuclear reactor computation system. These processors generally read data in formatted form and generate binary interface data files. Some data processing is done to convert from the user-oriented form to the interface file forms. The VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other computation modules in this system use the interface data files which are generated

  6. Discretizing LTI Descriptor (Regular Differential Input Systems with Consistent Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for discretizing efficiently the solution of a Linear descriptor (regular differential input system with consistent initial conditions, and Time-Invariant coefficients (LTI is introduced and fully discussed. Additionally, an upper bound for the error ‖x¯(kT−x¯k‖ that derives from the procedure of discretization is also provided. Practically speaking, we are interested in such kind of systems, since they are inherent in many physical, economical and engineering phenomena.

  7. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  8. Computational Techniques for Model Predictive Control of Large-Scale Systems with Continuous-Valued and Discrete-Valued Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose computational techniques for model predictive control of large-scale systems with both continuous-valued control inputs and discrete-valued control inputs, which are a class of hybrid systems. In the proposed method, we introduce the notion of virtual control inputs, which are obtained by relaxing discrete-valued control inputs to continuous variables. In online computation, first, we find continuous-valued control inputs and virtual control inputs minimizing a cost function. Next, using the obtained virtual control inputs, only discrete-valued control inputs at the current time are computed in each subsystem. In addition, we also discuss the effect of quantization errors. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by a numerical example. The proposed method enables us to reduce and decentralize the computation load.

  9. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  10. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  11. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  12. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouřil, Roman

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a

  13. Residual generation with unknown input observer for linear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherpour, Esmaeel A.; HairiTazdi, Mohammad Reza; Mahjoob, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with residual vector generation for fault detection problems in linear systems via unknown input observer (UIO) when the so-called observer matching condition is not satisfied. Based on the relative degree between unknown input and output, a vector of the auxiliary output is introduced so that the observer matching condition is satisfied with respect to the vector. Auxiliary outputs are related to the derivatives of measured signals. However, differentiation leads to excessive amplification of measurement noise. A dynamically equivalent configuration of linear systems is developed using successive integrations to avoid differentiation. As such, auxiliary outputs are constructed without differentiation. Then, the equivalent dynamic system and its corresponding auxiliary outputs are used to generate the residual vector via an exponentially converging UIO. Fault detection in the generated residual vector is also investigated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via numerical simulation.

  14. Generalized projective chaos synchronization of gyroscope systems subjected to dead-zone nonlinear inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter presents a robust control scheme to generalized projective synchronization between two identical two-degrees-of-freedom heavy symmetric gyroscopes with dead zone nonlinear inputs. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits complex and chaotic motions. By the Lyapunov stability theory with control terms, two suitable sliding surfaces are proposed to ensure the stability of the controlled closed-loop system in sliding mode. Then, two sliding mode controllers (SMC) are designed to guarantee the hitting of the sliding surfaces even when the control inputs contain dead-zone nonlinearity. This method allows us to arbitrarily direct the scaling factor onto a desired value. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well for the proposed controller

  15. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  16. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  17. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  18. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases AGENCY... System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases. The purpose of this...) the Cardiovascular System (38 CFR 4.100-4.104), (3) the Impairment of Auditory Acuity (38 CFR 4.85 and...

  19. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2013 ISA. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatiotemporal coding of inputs for a system of globally coupled phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, John; Ashwin, Peter

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal coding of low amplitude inputs to a simple system of globally coupled phase oscillators with coupling function g(ϕ)=-sin(ϕ+α)+rsin(2ϕ+β) that has robust heteroclinic cycles (slow switching between cluster states). The inputs correspond to detuning of the oscillators. It was recently noted that globally coupled phase oscillators can encode their frequencies in the form of spatiotemporal codes of a sequence of cluster states [P. Ashwin, G. Orosz, J. Wordsworth, and S. Townley, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 6, 728 (2007)]. Concentrating on the case of N=5 oscillators we show in detail how the spatiotemporal coding can be used to resolve all of the information that relates the individual inputs to each other, providing that a long enough time series is considered. We investigate robustness to the addition of noise and find a remarkable stability, especially of the temporal coding, to the addition of noise even for noise of a comparable magnitude to the inputs.

  1. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  2. [Measurement of the passive compliance of the total respiratory system in newborn after respiratory insufficiency for risk assessment of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechowski, Wiesław; Majorek-Olechowska, Bernadetta

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships between postnatal passive respiratory compliance (Crs) and development of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life in preterm and full-term infants after respiratory insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other relevant neonatal factors, like degree of prematurity, birth weigh, ventilatory conditions, sepsis, and respiratory disease severity affected this relationship. The passive respiratory compliance was measured by the single occlusion technique in 73 preterm infants after respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 19 full-term infants after congenital pneumonia and 33 healthy full-term infants. Respiratory function measurements were performed by single occlusion technique, during natural sleep, after acute phase of illness, before discharge from neonatal department. Crs was significantly lower in premature newborns newborns who have suffered from a congenital pneumonia (p = 0.0411), than in healthy full-term newborn infants. Premature infants who have undergone sepsis have significantly decreased Crs in relationship with those who did not have this complication (p = 0.0334). Preterm newborns who have suffered pneumonia during treatment of RDS have significantly frequent respiratory problems during the first 6 month of age (p = 0.043). Full-term infants after congenital pneumonia have more but not significantly frequent respiratory problems than healthy term newborns (p = 0.055) in this period. Decreased neonatal Crs wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders in age of 6 month of life. Prematurity under 36 week of gestational age, low birth weight and suffering from sepsis in premature infants significantly decreased Crs in newborn. Decreased neonatal Crs in premature and full term infants after respiratory insufficiency wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders during first 6 month of life. This study has showed significantly increase of respiratory problems in this

  3. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  4. China’s language input system in the digital age affects children’s reading development

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Li Hai; Xu, Min; Chang, Chun Qi; Siok, Wai Ting

    2012-01-01

    Written Chinese as a logographic system was developed over 3,000 y ago. Historically, Chinese children have learned to read by learning to associate the visuo-graphic properties of Chinese characters with lexical meaning, typically through handwriting. In recent years, however, many Chinese children have learned to use electronic communication devices based on the pinyin input method, which associates phonemes and English letters with characters. When children use pinyin to key in letters, th...

  5. Sliding mode control for uncertain unified chaotic systems with input nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.-Y.; Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Yang, Y.-S.; Chang, J.-F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of unified chaotic systems subject to uncertainties and input nonlinearity. Using the sliding mode control technique, a robust control law is established which stabilizes the uncertain unified chaotic systems even when the nonlinearity in the actuators is present. A novel adaptive switching surface is introduced to simplify the task of assigning the stability of the closed-loop system in the sliding mode motion. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control design

  6. SU-G-JeP3-09: Tumor Location Prediction Using Natural Respiratory Volume for Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT): System Verification Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, S; Suh, T [The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) gives accurate results when a patient’s breathing is stable and regular. Thus, the patient should be fully aware during respiratory pattern training before undergoing the RGRT treatment. In order to bypass the process of respiratory pattern training, we propose a target location prediction system for RGRT that uses only natural respiratory volume, and confirm its application. Methods: In order to verify the proposed target location prediction system, an in-house phantom set was used. This set involves a chest phantom including target, external markers, and motion generator. Natural respiratory volume signals were generated using the random function in MATLAB code. In the chest phantom, the target takes a linear motion based on the respiratory signal. After a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan of the in-house phantom, the motion trajectory was derived as a linear equation. The accuracy of the linear equation was compared with that of the motion algorithm used by the operating motion generator. In addition, we attempted target location prediction using random respiratory volume values. Results: The correspondence rate of the linear equation derived from the 4DCT images with the motion algorithm of the motion generator was 99.41%. In addition, the average error rate of target location prediction was 1.23% for 26 cases. Conclusion: We confirmed the applicability of our proposed target location prediction system for RGRT using natural respiratory volume. If additional clinical studies can be conducted, a more accurate prediction system can be realized without requiring respiratory pattern training.

  7. Development of Non-contact Respiratory Monitoring System for Newborn Using a FG Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurami, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yushi; Natori, Michiya; Ohzeki, Kazuo; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In recent years, development of neonatal care is strongly hoped, with increase of the low-birth-weight baby birth rate. Especially respiration of low-birth-weight baby is incertitude because central nerve and respiratory function is immature. Therefore, a low-birth-weight baby often causes a disease of respiration. In a NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), neonatal respiration is monitored using cardio-respiratory monitor and pulse oximeter at all times. These contact-type sensors can measure respiratory rate and SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen). However, because a contact-type sensor might damage the newborn's skin, it is a real burden to monitor neonatal respiration. Therefore, we developed the respiratory monitoring system for newborn using a FG (Fiber Grating) vision sensor. FG vision sensor is an active stereo vision sensor, it is possible for non-contact 3D measurement. A respiratory waveform is calculated by detecting the vertical motion of the thoracic and abdominal region with respiration. We attempted clinical experiment in the NICU, and confirmed the accuracy of the obtained respiratory waveform was high. Non-contact respiratory monitoring of newborn using a FG vision sensor enabled the minimally invasive procedure.

  8. Adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control for multi-input multi-output chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursamad, Amir; Markazi, Amir H.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control algorithm for controlling unknown or uncertain, multi-input multi-output (MIMO), possibly chaotic, dynamical systems. The control approach encompasses a fuzzy system and a robust controller. The fuzzy system is designed to mimic an ideal sliding-mode controller, and the robust controller compensates the difference between the fuzzy controller and the ideal one. The parameters of the fuzzy system, as well as the uncertainty bound of the robust controller, are tuned adaptively. The adaptive laws are derived in the Lyapunov sense to guarantee the asymptotic stability and tracking of the controlled system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by applying it to some well-known chaotic systems.

  9. Predictor-based stabilization for chained form systems with input time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnif Faïçal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This note addresses the stabilization problem of nonlinear chained-form systems with input time delay. We first employ the so-called σ-process transformation that renders the feedback system under a linear form. We introduce a particular transformation to convert the original system into a delay-free system. Finally, we apply a state feedback control, which guarantees a quasi-exponential stabilization to all the system states, which in turn converge exponentially to zero. Then we employ the so-called -type control to achieve a quasi-exponential stabilization of the subsequent system. A simulation example illustrated on the model of a wheeled mobile robot is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. Copyright © 2014

  11. Fault detection for discrete-time switched systems with sensor stuck faults and servo inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guang-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the fault detection problem of switched systems with servo inputs and sensor stuck faults. The attention is focused on designing a switching law and its associated fault detection filters (FDFs). The proposed switching law uses only the current states of FDFs, which guarantees the residuals are sensitive to the servo inputs with known frequency ranges in faulty cases and robust against them in fault-free case. Thus, the arbitrarily small sensor stuck faults, including outage faults can be detected in finite-frequency domain. The levels of sensitivity and robustness are measured in terms of the finite-frequency H- index and l2-gain. Finally, the switching law and FDFs are obtained by the solution of a convex optimization problem. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear Facility Isotopic Content (NFIC) Waste Management System to provide input for safety envelope definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is aggressively applying environmental remediation and radioactive waste management activities at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure compliance with today's challenging governmental laws and regulatory requirements. This report discusses a computer-based Nuclear Facility Isotopic Content (NFIC) Waste Management System developed to provide input for the safety envelope definition and assessment of site-wide facilities. Information was formulated describing the SRS ''Nuclear Facilities'' and their respective bounding inventories of nuclear materials and radioactive waste using the NFIC Waste Management System

  13. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  14. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  15. Automated respiratory therapy system based on the ARDSNet protocol with systemic perfusion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomprapa Anake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical expert system of automatic artificial ventilation is set up in a star topology with additional closed-loop hemodynamic control. Arterial blood pressure (MAP is controlled by noradrenaline (NA as a controlling variable. The overall patient-in-the-loop expert system can intensively and intelligently perform a long-term treatment based on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSNet protocol. Three main goals are actively carried out, namely the stabilization and regulation of oxygenation, plateau pressure and blood pH value. The developed system shows a distinctive experimental result based on a 31.5-kg pig, in order to fulfil the ventilatory goals and to ensure proper systemic perfusion. Hence, this system has enormous potentials to realize a commercial system for individual patient with ARDS.

  16. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  17. Switched periodic systems in discrete time: stability and input-output norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzern, Paolo; Colaneri, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of stability and the characterisation of input-output norms for discrete-time periodic switched linear systems. Such systems consist of a network of time-periodic linear subsystems sharing the same state vector and an exogenous switching signal that triggers the jumps between the subsystems. The overall system exhibits a complex dynamic behaviour due to the interplay between the time periodicity of the subsystem parameters and the switching signal. Both arbitrary switching signals and signals satisfying a dwell-time constraint are considered. Linear matrix inequality conditions for stability and guaranteed H2 and H∞ performances are provided. The results heavily rely on the merge of the theory of linear periodic systems and recent developments on switched linear time-invariant systems.

  18. Fully probabilistic control for stochastic nonlinear control systems with input dependent noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Randa

    2015-03-01

    Robust controllers for nonlinear stochastic systems with functional uncertainties can be consistently designed using probabilistic control methods. In this paper a generalised probabilistic controller design for the minimisation of the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the actual joint probability density function (pdf) of the closed loop control system, and an ideal joint pdf is presented emphasising how the uncertainty can be systematically incorporated in the absence of reliable systems models. To achieve this objective all probabilistic models of the system are estimated from process data using mixture density networks (MDNs) where all the parameters of the estimated pdfs are taken to be state and control input dependent. Based on this dependency of the density parameters on the input values, explicit formulations to the construction of optimal generalised probabilistic controllers are obtained through the techniques of dynamic programming and adaptive critic methods. Using the proposed generalised probabilistic controller, the conditional joint pdfs can be made to follow the ideal ones. A simulation example is used to demonstrate the implementation of the algorithm and encouraging results are obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Push-Pull and Feedback Mechanisms Can Align Signaling System Outputs with Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven S; Peria, William J; Yu, Richard C; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Brent, Roger

    2016-11-23

    Many cell signaling systems, including the yeast pheromone response system, exhibit "dose-response alignment" (DoRA), in which output of one or more downstream steps closely matches the fraction of occupied receptors. DoRA can improve the fidelity of transmitted dose information. Here, we searched systematically for biochemical network topologies that produced DoRA. Most networks, including many containing feedback and feedforward loops, could not produce DoRA. However, networks including "push-pull" mechanisms, in which the active form of a signaling species stimulates downstream activity and the nominally inactive form reduces downstream activity, enabled perfect DoRA. Networks containing feedbacks enabled DoRA, but only if they also compared feedback to input and adjusted output to match. Our results establish push-pull as a non-feedback mechanism to align output with variable input and maximize information transfer in signaling systems. They also suggest genetic approaches to determine whether particular signaling systems use feedback or push-pull control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep convolutional neural network based antenna selection in multiple-input multiple-output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaxin; Li, Yan; Hu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Antenna selection of wireless communication system has attracted increasing attention due to the challenge of keeping a balance between communication performance and computational complexity in large-scale Multiple-Input MultipleOutput antenna systems. Recently, deep learning based methods have achieved promising performance for large-scale data processing and analysis in many application fields. This paper is the first attempt to introduce the deep learning technique into the field of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output antenna selection in wireless communications. First, the label of attenuation coefficients channel matrix is generated by minimizing the key performance indicator of training antenna systems. Then, a deep convolutional neural network that explicitly exploits the massive latent cues of attenuation coefficients is learned on the training antenna systems. Finally, we use the adopted deep convolutional neural network to classify the channel matrix labels of test antennas and select the optimal antenna subset. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve better performance than the state-of-the-art baselines for data-driven based wireless antenna selection.

  1. Experimental System for Investigation of Visual Sensory Input in Postural Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Pucik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human postural control system represents a biological feedback system responsible for maintenance of upright stance. Vestibular, proprioceptive and visual sensory inputs provide the most important information into the control system, which controls body centre of mass (COM in order to stabilize the human body resembling an inverted pendulum. The COM can be measured indirectly by means of a force plate as the centre of pressure (COP. Clinically used measurement method is referred to as posturography. In this paper, the conventional static posturography is extended by visual stimulation, which provides insight into a role of visual information in balance control. Visual stimuli have been designed to induce body sway in four specific directions – forward, backward, left and right. Stabilograms were measured using proposed single-PC based system and processed to calculate velocity waveforms and posturographic parameters. The parameters extracted from pre-stimulus and on-stimulus periods exhibit statistically significant differences.

  2. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Discrete-Time Switched Nonlinear Systems with Dead Zone Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are proposed for a class of discrete-time switched nonlinear systems with dead zone inputs under arbitrary switching signals. Due to the complicated framework of the discrete-time switched nonlinear systems and the existence of the dead zone, it brings about difficulties for controlling such a class of systems. In addition, the radial basis function neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown terms of each subsystem. Switched update laws are designed while the parameter estimation is invariable until its corresponding subsystem is active. Then, the closed-loop system is stable and all the signals are bounded. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an example is employed.

  3. Reinforcement learning for adaptive optimal control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems with input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an adaptive reinforcement learning-based solution is developed for the infinite-horizon optimal control problem of constrained-input continuous-time nonlinear systems in the presence of nonlinearities with unknown structures. Two different types of neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. That is, an recurrent NN is constructed to identify the unknown dynamical system, and two feedforward NNs are used as the actor and the critic to approximate the optimal control and the optimal cost, respectively. Based on this framework, the action NN and the critic NN are tuned simultaneously, without the requirement for the knowledge of system drift dynamics. Moreover, by using Lyapunov's direct method, the weights of the action NN and the critic NN are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded, while keeping the closed-loop system stable. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach, simulation results are illustrated.

  4. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kida, S [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai City, Miyagi (Japan); Kishi, K; Sato, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  5. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K; Kida, S; Kishi, K; Sato, K; Dobashi, S; Takeda, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  6. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Mechhoud, Sarra; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain

  7. H ∞ synchronization of the coronary artery system with input time-varying delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Meng; Zhao Zhan-Shan; Sun Lian-Kun; Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the H ∞ synchronization of the coronary artery system with input delay and disturbance. We focus on reducing the conservatism of existing synchronization strategies. Base on the triple integral forms of the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional (LKF), we utilize single and double integral forms of Wirtinger-based inequality to guarantee that the synchronization feedback controller has good performance against time-varying delay and external disturbance. The effectiveness of our strategy can be exhibited by simulations under the different time-varying delays and different disturbances. (paper)

  8. GRUKON - A package of applied computer programs system input and operating procedures of functional modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsa, V.V.; Rineiskij, A.A.

    1993-04-01

    This manual describes a software package for the production of multigroup neutron cross-sections from evaluated nuclear data files. It presents the information necessary for the implementation of the program's modules in the framework of the execution of the program, including: operating procedures of the program, the data input, the macrocommand language, the assignment of the system's procedures. This report also presents the methodology used in the coding of the individual modules: the rules, the syntax, the method of procedures. The report also presents an example of the application of the data processing module. (author)

  9. Integral reinforcement learning for continuous-time input-affine nonlinear systems with simultaneous invariant explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on a class of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, named integral RL (I-RL), that solve continuous-time (CT) nonlinear optimal control problems with input-affine system dynamics. First, we extend the concepts of exploration, integral temporal difference, and invariant admissibility to the target CT nonlinear system that is governed by a control policy plus a probing signal called an exploration. Then, we show input-to-state stability (ISS) and invariant admissibility of the closed-loop systems with the policies generated by integral policy iteration (I-PI) or invariantly admissible PI (IA-PI) method. Based on these, three online I-RL algorithms named explorized I-PI and integral Q -learning I, II are proposed, all of which generate the same convergent sequences as I-PI and IA-PI under the required excitation condition on the exploration. All the proposed methods are partially or completely model free, and can simultaneously explore the state space in a stable manner during the online learning processes. ISS, invariant admissibility, and convergence properties of the proposed methods are also investigated, and related with these, we show the design principles of the exploration for safe learning. Neural-network-based implementation methods for the proposed schemes are also presented in this paper. Finally, several numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascina, Filippo; Bellomo, Domenico; Maiwald, Thomas; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Ciminelli, Caterina; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2009-10-15

    Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of complex pathologies like cancer: acquiring information for a system understanding of complex reaction networks is time consuming and expensive. Stimulus response experiments (SRE) have been used to gain a deeper insight into the details of biochemical mechanisms underlying cell life and functioning. Optimisation of the input time-profile, however, still remains a major area of research due to the complexity of the problem and its relevance for the task of information retrieval in systems biology-related experiments. We have addressed the problem of quantifying the information associated to an experiment using the Fisher Information Matrix and we have proposed an optimal experimental design strategy based on evolutionary algorithm to cope with the problem of information gathering in Systems Biology. On the basis of the theoretical results obtained in the field of control systems theory, we have studied the dynamical properties of the signals to be used in cell stimulation. The results of this study have been used to develop a microfluidic device for the automation of the process of cell stimulation for system identification. We have applied the proposed approach to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor pathway and we observed that it minimises the amount of parametric uncertainty associated to the identified model. A statistical framework based on Monte-Carlo estimations of the uncertainty ellipsoid confirmed the superiority of optimally designed experiments over canonical inputs. The proposed approach can be easily extended to multiobjective formulations that can also take advantage of identifiability analysis. Moreover, the availability of fully automated

  11. Finite-time stabilization for a class of nonholonomic feedforward systems subject to inputs saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangzheng; Yuan, Ye; Wu, Yuqiang

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the problem of finite-time stabilization by state feedback for a class of uncertain nonholonomic systems in feedforward-like form subject to inputs saturation. Under the weaker homogeneous condition on systems growth, a saturated finite-time control scheme is developed by exploiting the adding a power integrator method, the homogeneous domination approach and the nested saturation technique. Together with a novel switching control strategy, the designed saturated controller guarantees that the states of closed-loop system are regulated to zero in a finite time without violation of the constraint. As an application of the proposed theoretical results, the problem of saturated finite-time control for vertical wheel on rotating table is solved. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear unknown input sliding mode observer based chaotic system synchronization and message recovery scheme with uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, B.B.; Nath, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present manuscript, observer based synchronization and message recovery scheme is discussed for a system with uncertainties. LMI conditions are analytically derived solution of which gives the observer design matrices. Earlier approaches have used adaptive laws to address the uncertainties, however in present work, decoupling approach is used to make observer robust against uncertainties. The methodology requires upper bounds on nonlinearity and the message signal and estimates for these bounds are generated adaptively. Thus no information about the nature of nonlinearity and associated Lipschitz constant is needed in proposed approach. Message signal is recovered using equivalent output injection which is a low pass filtered equivalent of the discontinuous effort required to maintain the sliding motion. Finally, the efficacy of proposed Nonlinear Unknown Input Sliding Mode Observer (NUISMO) for chaotic communication is verified by conducting simulation studies on two chaotic systems i.e. third order Chua circuit and Rossler system.

  13. Prediction Governors for Input-Affine Nonlinear Systems and Application to Automatic Driving Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Minami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, automatic driving control has attracted attention. To achieve a satisfactory driving control performance, the prediction accuracy of the traveling route is important. If a highly accurate prediction method can be used, an accurate traveling route can be obtained. Despite the considerable efforts that have been invested in improving prediction methods, prediction errors do occur in general. Thus, a method to minimize the influence of prediction errors on automatic driving control systems is required. This need motivated us to focus on the design of a mechanism for shaping prediction signals, which is called a prediction governor. In this study, we first extended our previous study to the input-affine nonlinear system case. Then, we analytically derived a solution to an optimal design problem of prediction governors. Finally, we applied the solution to an automatic driving control system, and demonstrated its usefulness through a numerical example and an experiment using a radio controlled car.

  14. Detection of no-model input-output pairs in closed-loop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Alain Segundo; Alvarado, Christiam Segundo Morales; Garcia, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The detection of no-model input-output (IO) pairs is important because it can speed up the multivariable system identification process, since all the pairs with null transfer functions are previously discarded and it can also improve the identified model quality, thus improving the performance of model based controllers. In the available literature, the methods focus just on the open-loop case, since in this case there is not the effect of the controller forcing the main diagonal in the transfer matrix to one and all the other terms to zero. In this paper, a modification of a previous method able to detect no-model IO pairs in open-loop systems is presented, but adapted to perform this duty in closed-loop systems. Tests are performed by using the traditional methods and the proposed one to show its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fuzzy Adaptive Compensation Control of Uncertain Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Actuator Failures and Input Hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Zhi; Chen, C L Philip; Zhang, Yun

    2017-10-12

    Hysteresis exists ubiquitously in physical actuators. Besides, actuator failures/faults may also occur in practice. Both effects would deteriorate the transient tracking performance, and even trigger instability. In this paper, we consider the problem of compensating for actuator failures and input hysteresis by proposing a fuzzy control scheme for stochastic nonlinear systems. Compared with the existing research on stochastic nonlinear uncertain systems, it is found that how to guarantee a prescribed transient tracking performance when taking into account actuator failures and hysteresis simultaneously also remains to be answered. Our proposed control scheme is designed on the basis of the fuzzy logic system and backstepping techniques for this purpose. It is proven that all the signals remain bounded and the tracking error is ensured to be within a preestablished bound with the failures of hysteretic actuator. Finally, simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  16. Transferring Instantly the State of Higher-Order Linear Descriptor (Regular Differential Systems Using Impulsive Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, and generally speaking in many dynamical differential systems, the problem of transferring the initial state of the system to a desired state in (almost zero-time time is desirable but difficult to achieve. Theoretically, this can be achieved by using a linear combination of Dirac -function and its derivatives. Obviously, such an input is physically unrealizable. However, we can think of it approximately as a combination of small pulses of very high magnitude and infinitely small duration. In this paper, the approximation process of the distributional behaviour of higher-order linear descriptor (regular differential systems is presented. Thus, new analytical formulae based on linear algebra methods and generalized inverses theory are provided. Our approach is quite general and some significant conditions are derived. Finally, a numerical example is presented and discussed.

  17. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 37. Competency Curricula for Respiratory Therapy Assistant and Respiratory Therapy Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    instruction. The training aids, like strategies, extend from the traditional references and handout material in the form of a student syllabus to...on careers; select students ; and identify and select faculty. The System Threa sub-systems, as described, comprise the proposed system for Education...of Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing Treatment . . . . . . . . ... 13 5. Chest Physiotherapy ...... . .. . . . . . 14 6. Respiratory Exercises

  18. The SSVEP-Based BCI Text Input System Using Entropy Encoding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or motor neuron disease (MND is a neurodegenerative disease with various causes. It is characterized by muscle spasticity, rapidly progressive weakness due to muscle atrophy, and difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and breathing. The severe disabled always have a common problem that is about communication except physical malfunctions. The steady-state visually evoked potential based brain computer interfaces (BCI, which apply visual stimulus, are very suitable to play the role of communication interface for patients with neuromuscular impairments. In this study, the entropy encoding algorithm is proposed to encode the letters of multilevel selection interface for BCI text input systems. According to the appearance frequency of each letter, the entropy encoding algorithm is proposed to construct a variable-length tree for the letter arrangement of multilevel selection interface. Then, the Gaussian mixture models are applied to recognize electrical activity of the brain. According to the recognition results, the multilevel selection interface guides the subject to spell and type the words. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline system, which does not consider the appearance frequency of each letter. Hence, the proposed approach is able to ease text input interface for patients with neuromuscular impairments.

  19. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  20. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  1. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    Until now the demand for food has been met by the use of abundant and cheap fossil fuels; however, we need to reconsider our modes of production to avoid a global environmental crisis. Food production systems should increasingly rely on renewable inputs and increase their stability by reducing...... dependency on external inputs. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of a food supply system in the UK. The main questions for this study were how much the system contributes to society by taking advantage of local renewable flows, and how much it depends on input from society....

  2. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  3. Lost life years due to premature mortality caused by diseases of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniecka-Bryła, Irena; Paciej-Gołębiowska, Paulina; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Bryła, Marek

    2018-06-04

    In Poland, as in most other European countries, diseases of the respiratory system are the 4th leading cause of mortality; they are responsible for about 8% of all deaths in the European Union (EU) annually. To assess the socio-economic aspects of mortality, it has become increasingly common to apply potential measures rather than conventionally used ratios. The aim of this study was to analyze years of life lost due to premature deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system in Poland from 1999 to 2013. The study was based on a dataset of 5,606,516 records, obtained from the death certificates of Polish residents who died between 1999 and 2013. The information on deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system, i.e., coded as J00-J99 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10), was analyzed. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) indicator was used in the study. In the years 1999-2013, the Polish population suffered 280,519 deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system (4.69% of all deaths). In the period analyzed, a gradual decrease in the standardized death rate was observed - from 46.31 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1999 to 41.02 in 2013. The dominant causes of death were influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47). Diseases of the respiratory system were the cause of 4,474,548.92 lost life years. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per person (SEYLLp) was 104.72 per 10,000 males and 52.85 per 10,000 females. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per death (SEYLLd) for people who died due to diseases of the respiratory system was 17.54 years of life on average for men and 13.65 years on average for women. The use of the SEYLL indicator provided significant information on premature mortality due to diseases of the respiratory system, indicating the fact that they play a large role in the health status of the Polish

  4. Development of Input Function Measurement System for Small Animal PET Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Guk; Kim, Byung Su; Kim, Jin Su

    2010-01-01

    For quantitative measurement of radioactivity concentration in tissue and a validated tracer kinetic model, the high sensitive detection system has been required for blood sampling. With the accurate measurement of time activity curves (TACs) of labeled compounds in blood (plasma) enable to provide quantitative information on biological parameters of interest in local tissue. Especially, the development of new tracers for PET imaging requires knowledge of the kinetics of the tracer in the body and in arterial blood and plasma. Conventional approaches of obtaining an input function are to sample arterial blood sequentially by manual as a function of time. Several continuous blood sampling systems have been developed and used in nuclear medicine research field to overcome the limited temporal resolution in sampling by the conventional method. In this work, we developed the high sensitive and unique geometric design of GSO detector for small animal blood activity measurement

  5. Distributed Adaptive Containment Control for a Class of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Input Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenliang; Wen, Changyun; Hu, Qinglei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuyu

    2018-06-01

    This paper is devoted to distributed adaptive containment control for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems with input quantization. By employing a matrix factorization and a novel matrix normalization technique, some assumptions involving control gain matrices in existing results are relaxed. By fusing the techniques of sliding mode control and backstepping control, a two-step design method is proposed to construct controllers and, with the aid of neural networks, all system nonlinearities are allowed to be unknown. Moreover, a linear time-varying model and a similarity transformation are introduced to circumvent the obstacle brought by quantization, and the controllers need no information about the quantizer parameters. The proposed scheme is able to ensure the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and steer the containment errors into an arbitrarily small residual set. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  6. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Janaina Jaber Lucato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. INTRODUCTION: Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. METHODS: Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37°C, a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH was calculated for each setting. RESULTS: Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  7. H∞ Excitation Control Design for Stochastic Power Systems with Input Delay Based on Nonlinear Hamiltonian System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents H∞ excitation control design problem for power systems with input time delay and disturbances by using nonlinear Hamiltonian system theory. The impact of time delays introduced by remote signal transmission and processing in wide-area measurement system (WAMS is well considered. Meanwhile, the systems under investigation are disturbed by random fluctuation. First, under prefeedback technique, the power systems are described as a nonlinear Hamiltonian system. Then the H∞ excitation controller of generators connected to distant power systems with time delay and stochasticity is designed. Based on Lyapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee the rationality and validity of the proposed control law. The closed-loop systems under the control law are asymptotically stable in mean square independent of the time delay. And we through a simulation of a two-machine power system prove the effectiveness of the results proposed in this paper.

  8. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  9. Real time recording system of radioisotopes by local area network (LAN) computer system and user input processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Hajime; Yanase, Makoto; Uno, Kiyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-assisted real time recording system was developed for management of radioisotopes. The system composed of two personal computers forming LAN, identification-card (ID-card) reader, and electricity-operating door-lock. One computer is operated by radiation safety staffs and stores the records of radioisotopes. The users of radioisotopes are registered in this computer. Another computer is installed in front of the storage room for radioisotopes. This computer is ready for operation by a registered ID-card and is input data by the user. After the completion of data input, the door to the storage room is unlocked. The present system enables us the following merits: Radiation safety staffs can easily keep up with the present states of radioisotopes in the storage room and save much labor. Radioactivity is always corrected. The upper limit of radioactivities in use per day is automatically checked and users are regulated when they input the amounts to be used. Users can obtain storage records of radioisotopes any time. In addition, the system is applicable to facilities which have more than two storage rooms. (author)

  10. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  11. Morphogenesis of the rhea (Rhea americana respiratory system in different embryonic and foetal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The rhea (Rhea americana is an important wild species that has been highlighted in national and international livestock. This research aims to analyse embryo-foetal development in different phases of the respiratory system of rheas. Twenty-three embryos and foetuses were euthanized, fixed and dissected. Fragments of the respiratory system, including the nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, syrinx, bronchi and lungs, were collected and processed for studies using light and scanning electron microscopy. The nasal cavity presented cubic epithelium in the early stages of development. The larynx exhibited typical respiratory epithelium between 27 and 31 days. The trachea showed early formation of hyaline cartilage after 15 days. Syrinx in the mucous membrane of 18-day foetuses consisted of ciliated epithelium in the bronchial region. The main bronchi had ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the syringeal region. In the lung, the parabronchial stage presented numerous parabronchi between 15 and 21 days. This study allowed the identification of normal events that occur during the development of the rhea respiratory system, an important model that has not previously been described. The information generated here will be useful for the diagnosis of pathologies that affect this organic system, aimed at improving captive production systems.

  12. Adaptive optimal control of unknown constrained-input systems using policy iteration and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an online policy iteration (PI) algorithm to learn the continuous-time optimal control solution for unknown constrained-input systems. The proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure where two neural networks (NNs) are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. The requirement of complete knowledge of the system dynamics is obviated by employing a novel NN identifier in conjunction with the actor and critic NNs. It is shown how the identifier weights estimation error affects the convergence of the critic NN. A novel learning rule is developed to guarantee that the identifier weights converge to small neighborhoods of their ideal values exponentially fast. To provide an easy-to-check persistence of excitation condition, the experience replay technique is used. That is, recorded past experiences are used simultaneously with current data for the adaptation of the identifier weights. Stability of the whole system consisting of the actor, critic, system state, and system identifier is guaranteed while all three networks undergo adaptation. Convergence to a near-optimal control law is also shown. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated with a simulation example.

  13. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  14. Method of fuzzy inference for one class of MISO-structure systems with non-singleton inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuk, V. G.; Panchenko, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    In fuzzy modeling, the inputs of the simulated systems can receive both crisp values and non-Singleton. Computational complexity of fuzzy inference with fuzzy non-Singleton inputs corresponds to an exponential. This paper describes a new method of inference, based on the theorem of decomposition of a multidimensional fuzzy implication and a fuzzy truth value. This method is considered for fuzzy inputs and has a polynomial complexity, which makes it possible to use it for modeling large-dimensional MISO-structure systems.

  15. Research Summary 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model Of The Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethnicity,...

  16. From Head to Toe: Respiratory, Circulatory, and Skeletal Systems. Book 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Arthur, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement curricular programs dealing with the human body, this booklet offers an activity-based, student-oriented approach for middle school teachers and students. Twelve activities focus on principles and skills related to the respiratory, circulatory, and skeletal systems. Each activity consists of student sheets and a teacher's…

  17. Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yong; Shan, Xue; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Tian, Shuguang; Chen, Fangyan; Su, Xueting; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence

  18. Evaluation of Chest Ultrasound Integrated Teaching of Respiratory System Physiology to Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Matteo; Bondì, Michela; Rubini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a widely used diagnostic technique, whose integration in medical education is constantly growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate chest ultrasound usefulness in teaching respiratory system physiology, students' perception of chest ultrasound integration into a traditional lecture in human physiology, and short-term…

  19. Influence of the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system on the energetically optimum breathing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J H; Milic-Emili, J

    1993-01-01

    We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work (WI) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while WI was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both WI and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the WI criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.

  20. Bi-Objective Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Control for Systems with Input Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-reference adaptive control method based on a bi-objective optimal control formulation for systems with input uncertainty. A parallel predictor model is constructed to relate the predictor error to the estimation error of the control effectiveness matrix. In this work, we develop an optimal control modification adaptive control approach that seeks to minimize a bi-objective linear quadratic cost function of both the tracking error norm and predictor error norm simultaneously. The resulting adaptive laws for the parametric uncertainty and control effectiveness uncertainty are dependent on both the tracking error and predictor error, while the adaptive laws for the feedback gain and command feedforward gain are only dependent on the tracking error. The optimal control modification term provides robustness to the adaptive laws naturally from the optimal control framework. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.

  1. Memory State Feedback RMPC for Multiple Time-Delayed Uncertain Linear Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of asymptotic stabilization for a class of discrete-time multiple time-delayed uncertain linear systems with input constraints. Then, based on the predictive control principle of receding horizon optimization, a delayed state dependent quadratic function is considered for incorporating MPC problem formulation. By developing a memory state feedback controller, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration. The MPC problem is formulated to minimize the upper bound of infinite horizon cost that satisfies the sufficient conditions. Then, based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, a delay-dependent sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI can be derived to design a robust MPC algorithm. Finally, the digital simulation results prove availability of the proposed method.

  2. Systemic dermatitis and obstructive respiratory syndrome following occupational sensitization to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raşcu, Agripina; Bucur, Letiţia; Naghi, Eugenia; Drăghici, B

    2003-01-01

    We present a derma-respiratory syndrome in a patient occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE). At the beginning of its industrial use trichloroethylene was considered harmless. But, in time it showed a high noxious capacity. It produces an important and various pathology, which evolves as acute or chronic disease. The case we present shows that trichloroethylene can induce cutaneous pathology that excels contact dermatitis. It also proves that trichloroethylene can produce systemic effects (obstructive respiratory syndrome). The particularity of the case is based on the succession of the events, first the cutaneous and then the respiratory effects. A long period of time was necessary for the installation of the symptoms (for cutaneous and bronchial sensitization to take place). The case presented is the proof that trichloroethylene's great toxicity cannot be doubted and that the clinical forms due to sensitization to trichloroethylene can be dramatic.

  3. WORKBENCH FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS TRIALS BASED ON VIPA 300 CONTROLLER AND ADVANTECH INPUT/OUTPUT CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic is about workbench creation for control systems trials based on VIPA 300 industrial PLC and model of control object which is implemented in MatLab Simulink program on PC. Connection between controller and the PC is provided by the Advantech PCI-1711 input/output card of discrete and analog signals. Object identification,control system synthesis, creation of control device structure and its parametrical identification, as a rule, is done on a PC in a modelling environment, e.g. in MatLab. But often, using this PC modelling, the hardware and software features of algorithms which were obtained during system synthesis are not considered in a specific industrial PLC.It is considered a good idea to use a composite version where obtained algorithms are tested in a real industrial PLC and control object is substituted by a model which is working on a PC in real time scale. In this case software realization of algorithms in a specific PLC are fully taken into account and substitution of real control object by itsmodel considerably reduces the costs for carrying out experiments and allows to study the system behavior when control object parameters and modes of operation vary greatly. The creation of workbench stipulates several stages: configuration and programming of industrial PLC VIPA 313 SC, installation and configuration of Advantech PCI- 1711 input/output card, tuning of Simulink modelling environment for working in real time scale using Real-Time Windows Target Library, testing of workbench by using constant and harmonic signals of different frequencies. Work results of virtual stabilization system are compared with combined version. In virtual stabilization system PID governor and control object are implemented in Simulink. In combined version control object is still implemented in Simulink and PID governor - in VIPA 313 SC controller (using functional block FB58 from Step7 standard library.

  4. Multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication system based on disorder dispersion components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Yue; Zhou, Xin-hui; Yi, Ming-dong; Wei, Wei; Huang, Wei; Li, Xing-ao

    2017-10-01

    A multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication (VLC) system based on disorder dispersion components is presented. Instead of monochromatic sources and large size photodetectors used in the traditional VLC systems, broadband sources with different spectra act as the transmitters and a compact imaging chip sensor accompanied by a disorder dispersion component and a calculating component serve as the receivers in the proposed system. This system has the merits of small size, more channels, simple structure, easy integration, and low cost. Simultaneously, the broadband sources are suitable to act as illumination sources for their white color. A regularized procedure is designed to solve a matrix equation for decoding the signals at the receivers. A proof-of-concept experiment using on-off keying modulation has been done to prove the feasibility of the design. The experimental results show that the signals decoded by the receivers fit well with those generated from the transmitters, but the bit error ratio is increased with the number of the signal channels. The experimental results can be further improved using a high-speed charge-coupled device, decreasing noises, and increasing the distance between the transmitters and the receivers.

  5. Consideration of Optimal Input on Semi-Active Shock Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In press working, unidirectional transmission of mechanical energy is expected in order to maximize the life of the dies. To realize this transmission, the author has developed a shock control system based on the sliding mode control technique. The controller makes a collision-receiving object effectively deform plastically by adjusting the force of the actuator inserted between the colliding objects, while the deformation of the colliding object is held at the necessity minimum. However, the actuator has to generate a large force corresponding to the impulsive force. Therefore, development of such an actuator is a formidable challenge. The author has proposed a semi-active shock control system in which the impulsive force is adjusted by a brake mechanism, although the system exhibits inferior performance. Thus, the author has also designed an actuator using a friction device for semi-active shock control, and proposed an active seatbelt system as an application. The effectiveness has been confirmed by a numerical simulation and model experiment. In this study, the optimal deformation change of the colliding object is theoretically examined in the case that the collision-receiving object has perfect plasticity and the colliding object has perfect elasticity. As a result, the optimal input condition is obtained so that the ratio of the maximum deformation of the collision-receiving object to the maximum deformation of the colliding object becomes the maximum. Additionally, the energy balance is examined.

  6. Quadratic obstructions to small-time local controllability for scalar-input systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchard, Karine; Marbach, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    We consider nonlinear finite-dimensional scalar-input control systems in the vicinity of an equilibrium. When the linearized system is controllable, the nonlinear system is smoothly small-time locally controllable: whatever m > 0 and T > 0, the state can reach a whole neighborhood of the equilibrium at time T with controls arbitrary small in Cm-norm. When the linearized system is not controllable, we prove that: either the state is constrained to live within a smooth strict manifold, up to a cubic residual, or the quadratic order adds a signed drift with respect to it. This drift holds along a Lie bracket of length (2 k + 1), is quantified in terms of an H-k-norm of the control, holds for controls small in W 2 k , ∞-norm and these spaces are optimal. Our proof requires only C3 regularity of the vector field. This work underlines the importance of the norm used in the smallness assumption on the control, even in finite dimension.

  7. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

  8. A new respiratory monitoring and processing system based on Wii remote: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Vedam, S; Gao, S; Balter, P

    2013-07-01

    To create a patient respiratory management system and patient self-practice tool using the Wii remote, a widely available consumer hardware product. The Wii remote (Wiimote) (Nintendo, Redmond, WA) contains an infrared (IR) camera that can track up to four spots whose coordinates are reported to a host computer via Bluetooth. The Wiimote is capable of tracking a fiducial box currently used by a commercial monitoring system [Real-time Position Management(TM) (RPM) system, Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA], if the correct IR source is used. The authors validated the Wiimote tracking by comparing the amplitude and frequency of signals among those reported by Wiimote with known movements from an inhouse servo-driven respiratory simulator, as well as with those measured using the RPM. The simulator comparison was done using standard sinusoid signals with amplitude of 2.0 cm as well as recorded patient respiratory traces. The RPM comparisons were done by simultaneously recording the RPM reflective box position with the Wiimote and the RPM. Timing was compared between these two systems by using the digital beam-on signal from the CT scanner, for the 4DCT to synchronize these acquisitions. The data acquisition rate from the Wiimote was 100.0 ± 0.4 Hz with a version 2.1 Bluetooth adaptor. The standard deviation of the height of the motion extrema was 0.06 and 1.1 mm when comparing those measured by the Wiimote and the servomotor encoder for standard sinusoid signal and prerecorded patient respiratory signal, respectively. The standard deviation of the amplitude of motion extrema between the Wiimote and RPM was 0.9 mm and the timing difference was 253 ms. The performance of Wiimote shows promise for respiratory monitoring for its faster sampling rate as well as the potential optical and GPU abilities. If used with care it can deliver reasonable spatial and temporal accuracy.

  9. Reactor protection system software test-case selection based on input-profile considering concurrent events and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquzzaman, M.; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Jaehyun; Jung, Wondea

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the input-profile-based testing for safety critical software has been proposed for determining the number of test cases and quantifying the failure probability of the software. Input-profile of a reactor protection system (RPS) software is the input which causes activation of the system for emergency shutdown of a reactor. This paper presents a method to determine the input-profile of a RPS software which considers concurrent events/transients. A deviation of a process parameter value begins through an event and increases owing to the concurrent multi-events depending on the correlation of process parameters and severity of incidents. A case of reactor trip caused by feedwater loss and main steam line break is simulated and analyzed to determine the RPS software input-profile and estimate the number of test cases. The different sizes of the main steam line breaks (e.g., small, medium, large break) with total loss of feedwater supply are considered in constructing the input-profile. The uncertainties of the simulation related to the input-profile-based software testing are also included. Our study is expected to provide an option to determine test cases and quantification of RPS software failure probability. (author)

  10. A Direct Algorithm for Pole Placement by State-derivative Feedback for Single-input Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. S. Abdelaziz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the direct solution of the pole placement problem for single-input linear systems using state-derivative feedback. This pole placement problem is always solvable for any controllable systems if all eigenvalues of the original system are nonzero. Then any arbitrary closed-loop poles can be placed in order to achieve the desired system performance. The solving procedure results in a formula similar to the Ackermann formula. Its derivation is based on the transformation of a linear single-input system into Frobenius canonical form by a special coordinate transformation, then solving the pole placement problem by state derivative feedback. Finally the solution is extended also for single-input time-varying control systems. The simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. The feasibility of the auto tuning respiratory compensation system with ultrasonic image tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Nieh, Shu-Kan; Tien, Der-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of using the analytical technique of ultrasound images in combination with an auto tumor localization system. During respiration, the activity of breathing in and out causes organs displacement at the lower lobe of the lung, and the maximum displacement range happens in the Superior-Inferior (SI) direction. Therefore, in this study all the tumor positioning is in SI direction under respiratory compensation, in which the compensations are carried out to the organs at the lower lobe and adjacent to the lower lobe of lung.In this research, due to the processes of ultrasound imaging generation, image analysis and signal transmission, when the captured respiratory signals are sent to auto tumor localization system, there was a signal time delay. The total delay time of the entire signal transmission process was 0.254 ± 0.023 seconds (with the lowest standard deviation) after implementing a series of analyses. To compensate for this signal delay time (0.254 ± 0.023 sec), a phase lead compensator (PLC) was designed and built into the auto tumor localization system. By analyzing the impact of the delay time and the respiratory waveforms under different frequencies on the phase lead compensator, an overall system delay time can be configured. Results showed as the respiratory frequency increased, variable value ``a'' and the subsequent gain ``k'' in the controller becomes larger. Moreover, value ``a'' and ``k'' increased as the system delay time increased when the respiratory frequency was fixed. The relationship of value ``a'' and ``k'' to the respiratory frequency can be obtained by using the curve fitting method to compensate for the respiratory motion for tumor localization. Through the comparison of the uncompensated signal and the compensated signal performed by the auto tumor localization system on the simulated respiratory signal, the feasibility of using ultrasound image analysis technology combined with the

  12. SU-D-17A-07: Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Ultrasonography Respiratory Monitoring System for 4DCT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, P; Cheng, S; Chao, C; Jain, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion artifacts are commonly seen in the abdominal and thoracic CT images. A Real-time Position Management (RPM) system is integrated with CT simulator using abdominal surface as a surrogate for tracking the patient respiratory motion. The respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is then reconstructed by GE advantage software. However, there are still artifacts due to inaccurate respiratory motion detecting and sorting methods. We developed an Ultrasonography Respiration Monitoring (URM) system which can directly monitor diaphragm motion to detect respiratory cycles. We also developed a new 4DCT sorting and motion estimation method to reduce the respiratory motion artifacts. The new 4DCT system was compared with RPM and the GE 4DCT system. Methods: Imaging from a GE CT scanner was simultaneously correlated with both the RPM and URM to detect respiratory motion. A radiation detector, Blackcat GM-10, recorded the X-ray on/off and synchronized with URM. The diaphragm images were acquired with Ultrasonix RP system. The respiratory wave was derived from diaphragm images and synchronized with CT scanner. A more precise peaks and valleys detection tool was developed and compared with RPM. The motion is estimated for the slices which are not in the predefined respiratory phases by using block matching and optical flow method. The CT slices were then sorted into different phases and reconstructed, compared with the images reconstructed from GE Advantage software using respiratory wave produced from RPM system. Results: The 4DCT images were reconstructed for eight patients. The discontinuity at the diaphragm level due to an inaccurate identification of phases by the RPM was significantly improved by URM system. Conclusion: Our URM 4DCT system was evaluated and compared with RPM and GE 4DCT system. The new system is user friendly and able to reduce motion artifacts. It also has the potential to monitor organ motion during

  13. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA Respiratory Monitoring System Using a Flow Microsensor and an Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellal Idir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive system for respiratory monitoring using a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS flow sensor and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit accelerometer. The designed system is intended to be wearable and used in a hospital or at home to assist people with respiratory disorders. To ensure the accuracy of our system, we proposed a calibration method based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network to compensate the temperature drift of the silicon flow sensor. The sigmoid activation functions used in the ANN model were computed with the CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer algorithm. This algorithm was also used to estimate the tilt angle in body position. The design was implemented on reconfigurable platform FPGA.

  14. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The ORIGNATE processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. ORIGNATE is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel depletion and decay cases. ORIGNATE generates an input file that may be used to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  15. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The CSASIN processor for the criticality sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. CSASIN (formerly known as OFFSCALE) is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) available in SCALE-4. It is designed to assist a SCALE-4 user in preparing an input file for execution of criticality safety problems. Output from CSASIN generates an input file that may be used to execute the CSAS control module in SCALE-4. CSASIN features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up a CSAS input file and perform data checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  16. Active fault tolerance control of a wind turbine system using an unknown input observer with an actuator fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanzhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault tolerant control scheme based on an unknown input observer for a wind turbine system subject to an actuator fault and disturbance. Firstly, an unknown input observer for state estimation and fault detection using a linear parameter varying model is developed. By solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and linear matrix equalities (LMEs, the gains of the unknown input observer are obtained. The convergence of the unknown input observer is also analysed with Lyapunov theory. Secondly, using fault estimation, an active fault tolerant controller is applied to a wind turbine system. Finally, a simulation of a wind turbine benchmark with an actuator fault is tested for the proposed method. The simulation results indicate that the proposed FTC scheme is efficient.

  17. On the respiratory mechanics measured by forced oscillation technique in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Almeida Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of death and morbidity in systemic sclerosis (SSc. The forced oscillation technique (FOT offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that SSc may introduce changes in the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and that FOT may help the diagnosis of these abnormalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in controls (n = 30 and patients with abnormalities classified using spirometry (n = 52 and pulmonary volumes (n = 29. Resistive data were interpreted with the zero-intercept resistance (Ri and the slope of the resistance (S as a function of frequency. Reactance changes were evaluated by the mean reactance between 4 and 32 Hz (Xm and the dynamic compliance (Crs,dyn. The mechanical load was evaluated using the absolute value of the impedance in 4 Hz (Z4Hz. A compartmental model was used to obtain central (R and peripheral (Rp resistances, and alveolar compliance (C. The clinical usefulness was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL was also evaluated. For the groups classified using spirometry, SSc resulted in increased values in Ri, R, Rp and Z4Hz (p0.90. In groups classified by pulmonary volume, SSc resulted in reductions in S, Xm, C and Crs,dyn (p0.80. It was also observed that EFL is not common in patients with SSc. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that the respiratory resistance and reactance are changed in SSc. This analysis provides a useful description that is of particular significance for understanding respiratory pathophysiology and to ease the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in these patients.

  18. Performance analysis of commercial multiple-input-multiple-output access point in distributed antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuting; Aighobahi, Anthony E; Gomes, Nathan J; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-03-23

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the throughput of IEEE 802.11n 2x2 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) signals in a radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna system (DAS) with different fiber lengths and power imbalance. Both a MIMO-supported access point (AP) and a spatial-diversity-supported AP were separately employed in the experiments. Throughput measurements were carried out with wireless users at different locations in a typical office environment. For the different fiber length effect, the results indicate that MIMO signals can maintain high throughput when the fiber length difference between the two remote antenna units (RAUs) is under 100 m and falls quickly when the length difference is greater. For the spatial diversity signals, high throughput can be maintained even when the difference is 150 m. On the other hand, the separation of the MIMO antennas allows additional freedom in placing the antennas in strategic locations for overall improved system performance, although it may also lead to received power imbalance problems. The results show that the throughput performance drops in specific positions when the received power imbalance is above around 13 dB. Hence, there is a trade-off between the extent of the wireless coverage for moderate bit-rates and the area over which peak bit-rates can be achieved.

  19. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Wan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS, an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  20. Comparison of soft-input-soft-output detection methods for dual-polarized quadrature duobinary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Huang, Benxiong; Xu, Zhengguang; Li, Bin; Zhao, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Three soft-input-soft-output (SISO) detection methods for dual-polarized quadrature duobinary (DP-QDB), including maximum-logarithmic-maximum-a-posteriori-probability-algorithm (Max-log-MAP)-based detection, soft-output-Viterbi-algorithm (SOVA)-based detection, and a proposed SISO detection, which can all be combined with SISO decoding, are presented. The three detection methods are investigated at 128 Gb/s in five-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing uncoded and low-density-parity-check (LDPC) coded DP-QDB systems by simulations. Max-log-MAP-based detection needs the returning-to-initial-states (RTIS) process despite having the best performance. When the LDPC code with a code rate of 0.83 is used, the detecting-and-decoding scheme with the SISO detection does not need RTIS and has better bit error rate (BER) performance than the scheme with SOVA-based detection. The former can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) requirement (at BER=10-5) by 2.56 dB relative to the latter. The application of the SISO iterative detection in LDPC-coded DP-QDB systems makes a good trade-off between requirements on transmission efficiency, OSNR requirement, and transmission distance, compared with the other two SISO methods.

  1. Modelling Implicit Communication in Multi-Agent Systems with Hybrid Input/Output Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Capiluppi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. To this end we decided to specialize some variables of the HIOAs whose values are functions both of time and space. We call them world variables. Basically they are treated similarly to the other variables of HIOAs, but they have the function of representing the interaction of each automaton with the surrounding environment, hence they can be output, input or internal variables. Since these special variables have the role of simulating implicit communication, their dynamics are specified both in time and space, because they model the perturbations induced by the agent to the environment, and the perturbations of the environment as perceived by the agent. Parallel composition of world variables is slightly different from parallel composition of the other variables, since their signals are summed. The theory is illustrated through a simple example of agents systems.

  2. TVF-NMCRC-A powerful program for writing and executing simulation inputs for the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, S.; Khomchenko, S.; Shifrin, M.; Haviv, Y.; Schwartz, J.R.; Orion, I.

    2007-01-01

    We at the Negev Monte Carlo Research Center (NMCRC) have developed a powerful new interface for writing and executing FLUKA input files-TVF-NMCRC. With the TVF tool a FLUKA user has the ability to easily write an input file without requiring any previous experience. The TVF-NMCRC tool is a LINUX program that has been verified for the most common LINUX-based operating systems, and is suitable for the latest version of FLUKA (FLUKA 2006.3)

  3. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  4. Analysis and Improvement of Control Algorithm for Operation Mode Transition due to Input Channel Trouble in Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon

    2016-01-01

    The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system

  5. Analysis and Improvement of Control Algorithm for Operation Mode Transition due to Input Channel Trouble in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system.

  6. Tracking Control Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs and Unknown Deadzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of trajectory tracking for a broad class of uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs each one subject to an unknown symmetric deadzone. On the basis of a model of the deadzone as a combination of a linear term and a disturbance-like term, a continuous-time recurrent neural network is directly employed in order to identify the uncertain dynamics. By using a Lyapunov analysis, the exponential convergence of the identification error to a bounded zone is demonstrated. Subsequently, by a proper control law, the state of the neural network is compelled to follow a bounded reference trajectory. This control law is designed in such a way that the singularity problem is conveniently avoided and the exponential convergence to a bounded zone of the difference between the state of the neural identifier and the reference trajectory can be proven. Thus, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone and the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. One of the main advantages of the proposed strategy is that the controller can work satisfactorily without any specific knowledge of an upper bound for the unmodeled dynamics and/or the disturbance term.

  7. Characteristics of evacuated tubular solar thermal collector as input energy for cooling system at Universitas Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, M. Idrus; Nasruddin, Aisyah, Nyayu; Sholahudin

    2017-03-01

    This paper discussed the use of solar thermal collector as an input energy for cooling system. The experimental investigation was undertaken to characterize solar collectors that have been integrated with an absorption chiller. About 62 modules of solar collectors connected in series and parallel are placed on the roof top of MRC building. Thermistors were used to measure the fluid temperature at inlet, inside and outlet of each collector, inside the water tank and ambient temperature. Water flow that circulated from the storage was measured by flow meter, while solar radiation was measured by a pyranometer that was mounted parallel to the collector. Experimental data for a data set was collected in March 2016, during the day time hours of 08:00 - 17:00. This data set was used to calculate solar collector efficiency. The results showed that in the maximum solar radiation, the outlet temperature that can be reached is about 78°C, the utilized energy is about 70 kW and solar collector has an efficiency of 64%. While in the minimum solar radiation, the outlet temperature that can be reached is about 53°C, the utilized energy is about 28 kW and solar collector has an efficiency of 43%.

  8. Effect of variable heat input on the heat transfer characteristics in an Organic Rankine Cycle system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboaltabooq Mahdi Hatf Kadhum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the heat transfer characteristics of an ORC evaporator applied on a diesel engine using measured data from experimental work such as flue gas mass flow rate and flue gas temperature. A mathematical model was developed with regard to the preheater, boiler and the superheater zones of a counter flow evaporator. Each of these zones has been subdivided into a number of cells. The hot source of the ORC cycle was modeled. The study involves the variable heat input's dependence on the ORC system's heat transfer characteristics, with especial emphasis on the evaporator. The results show that the refrigerant's heat transfer coefficient has a higher value for a 100% load from the diesel engine, and decreases with the load decrease. Also, on the exhaust gas side, the heat transfer coefficient decreases with the decrease of the load. The refrigerant's heat transfer coefficient increased normally with the evaporator's tube length in the preheater zone, and then increases rapidly in the boiler zone, followed by a decrease in the superheater zone. The exhaust gases’ heat transfer coefficient increased with the evaporator’ tube length in all zones. The results were compared with result by other authors and were found to be in agreement.

  9. Joint estimation of the fractional differentiation orders and the unknown input for linear fractional non-commensurate system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2015-11-05

    This paper deals with the joint estimation of the unknown input and the fractional differentiation orders of a linear fractional order system. A two-stage algorithm combining the modulating functions with a first-order Newton method is applied to solve this estimation problem. First, the modulating functions approach is used to estimate the unknown input for a given fractional differentiation orders. Then, the method is combined with a first-order Newton technique to identify the fractional orders jointly with the input. To show the efficiency of the proposed method, numerical examples illustrating the estimation of the neural activity, considered as input of a fractional model of the neurovascular coupling, along with the fractional differentiation orders are presented in both noise-free and noisy cases.

  10. Development of a home screening system for pediatric respiratory sleep studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing

    2006-12-01

    To develop a simple and portable home screening monitor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. In such a system, identifying the respiratory events and occurrences of motional artifacts are two essential elements that can affect the accuracy of the study. Moreover, such a system needs to be easy to set up and user friendly. The proposed system includes the following: electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter, microcontroller-based computation device, and a tri-axial accelerometer. Three physiologic parameters derived with this device were used to identify central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. The criteria used were based on documented evidence and compared against corresponding standard polysomnographic scorings. In addition, a module was constructed in conjunction with a RS232 chip to transmit the recorded data to a personal computer. The accelerometer was used as a motion artifact detector. Detectable signals were acquired from the accelerometer when artifacts were induced on the photoplethysmography by motions in three regulated test activities lasting at least 30 seconds each. In classifying respiratory events, the combined use of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and pulse transit time to produce a complex classification (logic OR) showed promise. For OE, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.828 and 0.859, respectively. For CE, these values were 0.868 and 0.762, respectively. The proposed system potentially fulfils the criterion as a home screening tool and can form an indispensable addition to the SDB investigation in the pediatric population.

  11. A versatile hydraulically operated respiratory servo system for ventilation and lung function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Slama, H

    1983-09-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a microcomputer-controlled respiratory servo system that incorporates the characteristics of a mechanical ventilator and also allows the performance of a multitude of test procedures required for assessment of pulmonary function in paralyzed animals. The device consists of a hydraulically operated cylinder-piston assembly and solenoid valves that direct inspiratory and expiratory gas flow and also enable switching to different test gas sources. The system operates as a volume-flow-preset ventilator but may be switched to other operational cycling modes. Gas flow rates may be constant or variable. The system operates as an assister-controller and, combined with a gas analyzer, can function as a "demand" ventilator allowing for set-point control of end-tidal PCO2 and PO2. Complex breathing maneuvers for a variety of single- and multiple-breath lung function tests are automatically performed. Because of the flexibility in selection and timing of respiratory parameters, the system is particularly suitable for respiratory gas studies.

  12. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  13. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  14. Input and output constraints-based stabilisation of switched nonlinear systems with unstable subsystems and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of stabilisation of switched nonlinear systems with output and input constraints. We propose a recursive approach to solve this issue. None of the subsystems are assumed to be stablisable while the switched system is stabilised by dual design of controllers for subsystems and a switching law. When only dealing with bounded input, we provide nested switching controllers using an extended backstepping procedure. If both input and output constraints are taken into consideration, a Barrier Lyapunov Function is employed during operation to construct multiple Lyapunov functions for switched nonlinear system in the backstepping procedure. As a practical example, the control design of an equilibrium manifold expansion model of aero-engine is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran: 1- Comparison of Inputs Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural intensification has serious environmental consequences such as depletion of non-renewable resources, emission of greenhouse gases, threatening of biodiversity and pollution of both surface and underground water resources. The life cycle assessment (LCA provides a standard method for assessing environmental impacts from various economic activities, including agriculture, and covers a wide range of impact categories across the entire production chain. Over the past few decades, food production in Iran has been increased drastically due to heavier use of chemical inputs. Since the use of LCA method is overlooked for assesseing the effects of agricultural intensification in Iran and few researches are conducted at local level (such as province, cities, the purpose of this research is evaluation of wheat production systems throughout the country based on the level of intensification using LCA method. Materials and Methods Fourteen provinces covering 80 percent of total cultivated area of wheat production in the country were subjected to a cradle to gate LCA study using the standard method. The selected provinces were classified as low, medium and high input based on the level of intensification and all inputs and emissions were estimated within the system boundaries during inventory stage. Required data for yield, and level of applied inputs for 14 provinces were collected from the official databases of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. The various environmental impacts including, abiotic resource depletion, land use, global warming potential, acidification and eutrophication potential, human, aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential of wheat production systems over the country was studied based on emission coefficients and characterization factors provided by standard literatures. The integrated effects of emission of each impact category were calculated per functional units (hectare cultivated area as well as ton

  17. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. System for the experimental data acquisition, processing and output on the base of the double-input CAMAC modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, A.E.; Ariskin, N.I.; Samojlov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    A system for experimental data acquisition, processing and output developed on the base of the double-input CAMAC module is described. Use of the double-input on-line memory unit at the capacity of up to 64k bite for experimental data storage and an external input controller permitted to obtain the time of the data input and output cycle in the storage equal to 1.6 μs. Rates of experimental data acquisition and output do not depend on the computer response or CAMAC cycle duration. They are determined only by the potentialities of the functional moduls. Combination of operations on data acquisi tion, processing and output is possible. Library of subroutines assuring processing in an on-line system with the SM-4, SM-3, ''Electronika-60'' computers is developed for the system. Subroutiines of this library can be fetched from the code written in the FORTRAN and MLCROASSEMBER and they assure: input/output to/from the computer buffer storage, synchronization of ipput/output operations redout from the buffer storage to the computer storage, recording data from the storage to the huffer storage

  19. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2016-08-05

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain and the objective is to characterize brain regions using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. For this reason, we propose an adaptive estimator and prove the asymptotic convergence of the state, the unknown input and the unknown parameters. The proof is based on a Lyapunov approach combined with a priori identifiability assumptions. The performance of the proposed observer is illustrated through some simulation results.

  20. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  1. Phosphorus cycling in natural and low input soil/plant systems: the role of soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Oberson, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Availability of phosphorus (as orthophosphate, Pi) limits biological production in many terrestrial ecosystems. During the first phase of soil development, weathering of minerals and leaching of Pi are the processes controlling Pi concentrations in the soil solution, while in mature soils, Pi is made available by desorption of mineral Pi and mineralization of organic compounds. In agricultural soils additional Pi is supplied by fertilization, either with mineral P and/or organic inputs (animal manure or plant residues). Soil microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) mediate several processes, which are central to the availability of Pi to plants. They play a role in the initial release of Pi from the mineral phase, and through extracellular phosphatase enzymes, they decompose and mineralize organic compounds, releasing Pi. On the other hand, microbial immobilization and internal turnover of Pi can decrease the soil available Pi pool, competing in this way with plants. Using radio- and stable isotopic approaches, we show evidence from different soil/plant systems which points to the central role of the microbial activity. In the presented case studies, P contained in the soil microbial biomass is a larger pool than available Pi. In a soil chronosequence after deglaciation, stable isotopes of oxygen associated to phosphate showed that even in the youngest soils microbial activity highly impacted the isotopic signature of available Pi. These results suggested that microorganisms were rapidly taking up and cycling Pi, using it to sustain their community. Microbial P turnover time was faster in the young (about 20 days) than in older soils (about 120 days), reflecting a different functioning of the microbial community. Microbial community crashes, caused by drying/rewetting and freezing/thawing cycles, were most likely responsible for microbial P release to the available P pool. In grassland fertilization experiments with mineral NK and NPK amendments, microbial P turnover

  2. How input fluctuations reshape the dynamics of a biological switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Kessler, David A.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2012-12-01

    An important task in quantitative biology is to understand the role of stochasticity in biochemical regulation. Here, as an extension of our recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.148101 107, 148101 (2011)], we study how input fluctuations affect the stochastic dynamics of a simple biological switch. In our model, the on transition rate of the switch is directly regulated by a noisy input signal, which is described as a non-negative mean-reverting diffusion process. This continuous process can be a good approximation of the discrete birth-death process and is much more analytically tractable. Within this setup, we apply the Feynman-Kac theorem to investigate the statistical features of the output switching dynamics. Consistent with our previous findings, the input noise is found to effectively suppress the input-dependent transitions. We show analytically that this effect becomes significant when the input signal fluctuates greatly in amplitude and reverts slowly to its mean.

  3. Consideration of the accuracy by variation of respiration in real-time position management respiratory gating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jun Young; Kang, Tae Young; Beak, Geum Mun; Kwon, Gyeong Tae

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) has been carried out using RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System (version 1.7.5, varian, USA) in Asan Medical Center. This study was to analyze and evaluate the accuracy of Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) according to variation of respiration. Making variation of respiration using Motion Phantom:QUASAR Programmable Respiratory Motion Phantom (Moudus Medical Device Inc. CANADA) able to adjust respiration pattern randomly was varying period, amplitude and baseline by analyze 50 patient's respiration of lung and liver cancer. One of the variations of respiration is baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. The other variation of respiration is baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm. Experiments were performed in the same way that is used RPM Respiratory Gating System (phase gating, usually 30-70% gating) in Asan Medical Center. It was all exposed radiation under one of the conditions of baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. Under the other condition of baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm equally radiation was exposed. The variations of baseline shifts didn't accurately reflect on phase gating in RPM Respiratory Gating System. This inexactitude makes serious uncertainty in Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. So, Must be stabilized breathing of patient before conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. also must be monitored breathing of patient in the middle of treatment. If you observe considerable changes of breathing when conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. Stopping treatment immediately and then must be need to recheck treatment site using fluoroscopy. If patient's respiration rechecked using fluoroscopy restabilize, it is possible to restart Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy

  4. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaramuzzo RT

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa T Scaramuzzo,1,2 Massimiliano Ciantelli,1 Ilaria Baldoli,3 Lisa Bellanti,3 Marzia Gentile,1 Francesca Cecchi,3 Emilio Sigali,1 Selene Tognarelli,3 Paolo Ghirri,1–4 Stefano Mazzoleni,3 Arianna Menciassi,3 Armando Cuttano,1 Antonio Boldrini,1–4 Cecilia Laschi,3 Paolo Dario3 1Centro di Formazione e Simulazione Neonatale "NINA," UO Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy; 2Istituto di Scienze della Vita, 3The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; 4Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1 a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2 the prototyping phase; and (3 the on-field system validation. Keywords: simulation, lung, newborn, continuous medical education, respiratory system

  5. Respiratory motion prediction by using the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, Manish; Nystroem, Haakan; Aarup, Lasse Rye; Noettrup, Trine Jakobi; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2005-01-01

    The quality of radiation therapy delivered for treating cancer patients is related to set-up errors and organ motion. Due to the margins needed to ensure adequate target coverage, many breast cancer patients have been shown to develop late side effects such as pneumonitis and cardiac damage. Breathing-adapted radiation therapy offers the potential for precise radiation dose delivery to a moving target and thereby reduces the side effects substantially. However, the basic requirement for breathing-adapted radiation therapy is to track and predict the target as precisely as possible. Recent studies have addressed the problem of organ motion prediction by using different methods including artificial neural network and model based approaches. In this study, we propose to use a hybrid intelligent system called ANFIS (the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) for predicting respiratory motion in breast cancer patients. In ANFIS, we combine both the learning capabilities of a neural network and reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic in order to give enhanced prediction capabilities, as compared to using a single methodology alone. After training ANFIS and checking for prediction accuracy on 11 breast cancer patients, it was found that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) can be reduced to sub-millimetre accuracy over a period of 20 s provided the patient is assisted with coaching. The average RMSE for the un-coached patients was 35% of the respiratory amplitude and for the coached patients 6% of the respiratory amplitude

  6. Respiratory motion prediction by using the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, Manish [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Nystroem, Haakan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aarup, Lasse Rye [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noettrup, Trine Jakobi [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Olsen, Dag Rune [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Department of Medical Physics and Technology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2005-10-07

    The quality of radiation therapy delivered for treating cancer patients is related to set-up errors and organ motion. Due to the margins needed to ensure adequate target coverage, many breast cancer patients have been shown to develop late side effects such as pneumonitis and cardiac damage. Breathing-adapted radiation therapy offers the potential for precise radiation dose delivery to a moving target and thereby reduces the side effects substantially. However, the basic requirement for breathing-adapted radiation therapy is to track and predict the target as precisely as possible. Recent studies have addressed the problem of organ motion prediction by using different methods including artificial neural network and model based approaches. In this study, we propose to use a hybrid intelligent system called ANFIS (the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) for predicting respiratory motion in breast cancer patients. In ANFIS, we combine both the learning capabilities of a neural network and reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic in order to give enhanced prediction capabilities, as compared to using a single methodology alone. After training ANFIS and checking for prediction accuracy on 11 breast cancer patients, it was found that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) can be reduced to sub-millimetre accuracy over a period of 20 s provided the patient is assisted with coaching. The average RMSE for the un-coached patients was 35% of the respiratory amplitude and for the coached patients 6% of the respiratory amplitude.

  7. Evaluation of respiratory parameters in minimally processed lettuce grown under organic or conventional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased preference for minimally processed vegetables has been attributed to the health benefits associated with fresh produce and the demand for ready-to-eat salads. In this paper, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was evaluated for the effects of different cropping systems on the respiratory properties. Lettuce was packaged in low density polyethylene bags and stored in a refrigerator at 4 ºC. The concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen inside the package was monitored during the storage at zero, three, six, eight, ten and twelve days by gas chromatography. Dry matter variation was measured gravimetrically up to day fourteen of storage. Values of respiratory rate for conventional lettuce increased from day 1 to 3 and remained low, while respiratory rate of the organic lettuce increased three-fold up to day 8, stabilizing at a high level. Variation in dry matter during storage also resulted from differences between the two cultivation systems. The highest content of dry matter was achieved by organic lettuce.

  8. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA) project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Baldoli, Ilaria; Bellanti, Lisa; Gentile, Marzia; Cecchi, Francesca; Sigali, Emilio; Tognarelli, Selene; Ghirri, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuttano, Armando; Boldrini, Antonio; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1) a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2) the prototyping phase; and (3) the on-field system validation. PMID:23966804

  9. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation.

  10. Harmonic-suppressed quadrature-input frequency divider for OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haipeng; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2011-01-01

    A fully balanced harmonic-suppressed quadrature-input frequency divider is proposed. The frequency divider improves the quadrature phase accuracy at the output by using both input I/Q signals. Compared with conventional dividers, the circuit achieves an output I/Q phase sequence that is independent of the input I/Q phase sequence. Moreover, the third harmonic is effectively suppressed by employing a double degeneration technique. The design is fabricated in TSMC 0.13-μm CMOS and operated at 1.2 V. While locked at 8.5 GHz, the proposed divider measures a maximum third harmonic rejection of 45 dB and a phase noise of −124 dBc/Hz at a 10 MHz offset. The circuit achieves a locking range of 15% while consuming a total current of 4.5 mA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, Michal; Smith, Laurence G.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We...... compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high-and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables...

  12. Effectiveness of the Respiratory Gating System for Stereotectic Radiosurgery of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heung Kwon; Kwon, Kyung Tae; Park, Cheol Su; Yang, Oh Nam; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Jeong Man [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    For stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of a tumor in the region whose movement due to respiration is significant, like Lung lower lobe, the gated therapy, which delivers radiation dose to the selected respiratory phases when tumor motion is small, was performed using the Respiratory gating system and its clinical effectiveness was evaluated. For two SRS patients with a tumor in Lung lower lobe, a marker block (infrared reflector) was attached on the abdomen. While patient' respiratory cycle was monitored with Real-time Position Management (RPM, Varian, USA), 4D CT was performed (10 phases per a cycle). Phases in which tumor motion did not change rapidly were decided as treatment phases. The treatment volume was contoured on the CT images for selected treatment phases using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. In order to verify setup reproducibility and positional variation, 4D CT was repeated. Gross tumor volume (GTV) showed maximum movement in superior-inferior direction. For patient no 1, motion of GTV was reduced to 2.6 mm in treatment phases (30-60%), while that was 9.4 mm in full phases (0-90%) and for patient no 2, it was reduced to 2.3 mm in treatment phases (30-70%), while it was 11.7 mm in full phases (0-90%). When comparing two sets of CT images, setup errors in all the directions were within 3 mm. Since tumor motion was reduced less than 5 mm, the Respiratory gating system for SRS of Lung lower lobe is useful.

  13. A Study of Japanese Consumption Tax System : Mainly on Multiple Tax Rates and Input Tax Credit Methods

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important discussions on Japanese tax system reform includes how consumption tax (Value-added tax) system ought to be. Facing issues like depopulation, aging society and large budget deficit, consumption tax can be an effective source of revenue to secure social security. This article mainly focuses on multiple tax rates and input tax credit methods of Japanese consumption tax system. Because of regressive nature of consumption tax, tax rate reduction, exemption on foodstuffs ...

  14. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  15. School absence and treatment in school children with respiratory symptoms in the Netherlands: Data from the Child Health Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186

  16. Central representation of sensory inputs from the cardio-renal system in Aplysia depilans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, K S; Salánki, J; Véró, M; Kovacević, N; Konjevic, D

    1980-01-01

    Studying the central representation of sensory inputs originating from the heart in Aplysia depilans, it was found that: 1. Neurons responding to heart stimulation can be found in the abdominal, pedal and pleural ganglia alike. 2. The representation of heart input signals was more abundant in the left hemisphere of the abdominal ganglion and in the left pedal and pleural ganglia. 3. The giant neurons of Aplysia depilans can be compared to the homologous cells of Aplysia californica. Two motoneurons (RBHE, LDHI) and one interneuron (L10) proved to be identical in the two subspecies. 4. Sensory inputs originating from the heart may modify the pattern of both heart regulatory motoneurons and interneurons. 5. Nine giant and 19 small neurons of the abdominal ganglion, 3--3 neurons of the right and left pleural ganglion, 6 neurons of the left pedal ganglion responded to heart stimulation. 6. The bursting patterns of cells R15 and L4 were modified to tonic discharge in response to heart stimulation. 7. The representation of sensory inputs originating from the heart is scattered throughout the CNS of Aplysia depilans and heart regulation is based on a feedback mechanism similar to that found in other gastropod species.

  17. ELIMINATING CONSERVATISM IN THE PIPING SYSTEM ANALYSIS PROCESS THROUGH APPLICATION OF A SUITE OF LOCALLY APPROPRIATE SEISMIC INPUT MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Anthony L.; Spears, Robert E.; Russell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Seismic analysis is of great importance in the evaluation of nuclear systems due to the heavy influence such loading has on their designs. Current Department of Energy seismic analysis techniques for a nuclear safety-related piping system typically involve application of a single conservative seismic input applied to the entire system (1). A significant portion of this conservatism comes from the need to address the overlapping uncertainties in the seismic input and in the building response that transmits that input motion to the piping system. The approach presented in this paper addresses these two sources of uncertainty through the application of a suite of 32 input motions whose collective performance addresses the total uncertainty while each individual motion represents a single variation of it. It represents an extension of the soil-structure interaction analysis methodology of SEI/ASCE 43-05 (2) from the structure to individual piping components. Because this approach is computationally intensive, automation and other measures have been developed to make such an analysis efficient. These measures are detailed in this paper

  18. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable farm in United Kingdom with high crop diversity and a related box scheme food supply system was assessed by emergy evaluation, an environmental accounting method based on the direct and indirect use of solar equivalent joules. The main...

  19. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  20. A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy...

  1. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.

  2. H-Infinity robust controller design for the synchronization of master-slave chaotic systems with disturbance input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the robust control problems for the synchronization of master-slave chaotic systems with disturbance input. By constructing a series of Lyapunov functions, novel H-Infinity robust synchronization controllers are designed, whose control regulation possess the characteristic of simpleness and explicitness. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  3. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  4. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  5. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tr...

  6. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  7. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity......S phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp) and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala) mutants of DegS. In a number...

  8. Weak average persistence and extinction of a predator-prey system in a polluted environment with impulsive toxicant input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaofeng; Jin Zhen; Xue Yakui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated a predator-prey system in a polluted environment with impulsive toxicant input at fixed moments. We have obtained two thresholds on the impulsive period by assuming the toxicant amount input is fixed to the environment at each pulse moment. If the impulsive period is greater than the big threshold, then both populations are weak average persistent. If the period lies between of the two thresholds, then the prey population will be weak average persistent while the predator population extinct. If the period is less than the small threshold, both populations tend to extinction. Finally, our theoretical results are confirmed by own numerical simulations

  9. Effects of Long-Term Dust Exposure on Human Respiratory System Health in Minqin County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyu; Li, Sheng; Wang, Shigong; Shang, Kezheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term sand dust exposure on human respiratory health. Dust events break out frequently in Minqin County, northwest China, whereas Pingliang City, northwest China, is rarely influenced by dust events. Therefore, Minqin and Pingliang were selected as sand dust exposure region and control area, respectively. The incidence of respiratory system diseases and symptoms was determined through a structured respiratory health questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-A) and personal interviews. The subjects comprised 728 farmers (Minqin, 424; Pingliang, 304) aged 40 years or older, who had nondocumented occupational history to industrial dust exposure. Prevalences (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) of chronic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and chronic cough increased 9.6% (3.141, 1.776-5.555), 7.5% (2.468, 1.421-4.286), and 10.2% (1.787, 1.246-2.563) in Minqin comparison with Pingliang, respectively, and the differences were significant (p <.01).

  10. Color structured light system of chest wall motion measurement for respiratory volume evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijun; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jue; Que, Chengli; Wang, Guangfa; Fang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    We present a structured light system to dynamically measure human chest wall motion for respiratory volume estimation. Based on a projection of an encoded color pattern and a few active markers attached to the trunk, respiratory volumes are obtained by evaluating the 3-D topographic changes of the chest wall in an anatomically consistent measuring region during respiration. Three measuring setups are established: a single-sided illuminating-recording setup for standing posture, an inclined single-sided setup for supine posture, and a double-sided setup for standing posture. Results are compared with the pneumotachography and show good agreement in volume estimations [correlation coefficient: R>0.99 (Pvolume during the isovolume maneuver (standard deviationpulmonary functional differences between the diseased and the contralateral sides of the thorax, and subsequent improvement of this imbalance after drainage. These results demonstrate the proposed optical method is capable of not only whole respiratory volume evaluation with high accuracy, but also regional pulmonary function assessment in different chest wall behaviors, with the advantage of whole-field measurement.

  11. The effect of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners: a diachronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichletidis, L; Tsiotsios, I; Chloros, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Ziomas, I; Michailidis, K; Kottakis, I; Konstantinidis, T H; Palladas, P

    2004-01-01

    It is not known whether working in surface lignite mines can cause x-ray lesions or disorders of respiratory function. The aim of the study was to investigate the diachronic impact of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners at mines in Eordea, Greece. Cases of 199 workers (Group A) residing permanently in the Eordea valley and 151 (Group B) living outside the Eordea valley were studied during Phase I and then re-examined after three years (Phase II). These cases were compared to those of 71 office workers living in Eordea valley (Group C) and to 96 living in Grevena, a region without pollution (Group D). The study included the completion of the MRC questionnaire for the detection of respiratory diseases, pulmonary function tests, measurement of diffusion capacity, otorhinolaryngologic examination, rhinomanonetry as well as chest and paranasal cavity X-rays. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 26.8%, 24.8%, 17.9% and 10.6% respectively of the subjects of groups A, B, C and D according to the answers of the questionnaire (pmines under conditions of excessive pollution by airborne contaminants have a high prevalence of atrophic rhinitis and, in addition to other standard examinations, should undergo rhinomanometry testing and X-ray imaging of the paranasal cavities.

  12. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  13. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Chuansheng [IALR; Nowak, Jerzy [VPISU; Seiler, John [VPISU

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps

  14. Improved Stabilization Conditions for Nonlinear Systems with Input and State Delays via T-S Fuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Che

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of nonlinear systems with input and state delays. The considered nonlinear systems are represented by Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy model. A new state feedback control approach is introduced for T-S fuzzy systems with input delay and state delays. A new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is employed to derive less conservative stability conditions by incorporating a recently developed Wirtinger-based integral inequality. Based on the Lyapunov stability criterion, a series of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are obtained by using the slack variables and integral inequality, which guarantees the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. Several numerical examples are given to show the advantages of the proposed results.

  15. Production of configuration tables for the Input Mezzanine and Data Formatter components in the ATLAS Fast Tracker Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Poudroux, Jean-Michael

    2014-01-01

    The project revolve around developing configuration tables for two components in the Fast Tracker (FTK) trigger system used in the ATLAS trigger system. These components are Input Mezzanine cards and the Data Formatter. The tables give easy access to different ID's which identify which module the data is originating from and also which tower and what detector-region the data is being processed in.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FIRMWARE FOR INPUT AND EXTRACTION OF USER’S VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific task for improving the signal-to-noise ratio for user’s voice signal in computer systems and networks during the process of user’s voice authentication is considered. The object of study is the process of input and extraction of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of the voice signal on the background of external interference signals are investigated. Ways for quality improving of the user’s voice signal in systems of voice authentication are investigated experimentally. Firmware means for experimental unit of input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are considered. As modern computer means, including mobile, have two-channel audio card, two microphones are used in the voice signal input. The distance between sonic-wave sensors is 20 mm and it provides forming one direction pattern lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. According to the results of experimental studies, the usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array and space-time processing of the recorded signals with implementation of constant and adaptive weighting factors has made it possible to reduce considerably the influence of interference signals. The results of firmware experimental studies for input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are shown. The proposed solutions will give the possibility to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker discrimination.

  17. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Feng Wang; Ming-Ming Dong; Liang Gu; Jagat-Jyoti Rath; Ye-Chen Qin; Bin Bai

    2017-01-01

    Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steer...

  18. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) application guidance. Guidelines for evaluating MEPAS input parameters for Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; McDonald, J.P.; Sato, C.; Streile, G.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health and Office of Environmental Management and Environmental Restoration. MEPAS is a set of computer codes developed to provide decision makers with risk information integrated for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed-waste sites based on their potential hazard to public health. It is applicable to a wide range of environmental management and regulatory conditions, including inactive sites covered under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and active air and water releases covered under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. MEPAS integrates contaminant release, transport, and exposure models into a single system. An interactive user interface assists the investigator in defining problems, assembling data and entering input, and developing reports. PNL has compiled two documents that explain the methodology behind the MEPAS model and instruct the user in how to input, retrieve, and evaluate data. This report contains detailed guidelines for defining the input data required to conduct an analysis with MEPAS. Entries for each variable have a short definition, units, and text explaining what a variable is and how it can be quantified. As appropriate, ranges and typical values are given. This report also contains listings of the input screens (worksheets) that are used in the MEPAS user interface for these variables

  19. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  20. Singularity-Free Neural Control for the Exponential Trajectory Tracking in Multiple-Input Uncertain Systems with Unknown Deadzone Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory tracking for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems in which the number of possible states is equal to the number of inputs and each input is preceded by an unknown symmetric deadzone is considered. The unknown dynamics is identified by means of a continuous time recurrent neural network in which the control singularity is conveniently avoided by guaranteeing the invertibility of the coupling matrix. Given this neural network-based mathematical model of the uncertain system, a singularity-free feedback linearization control law is developed in order to compel the system state to follow a reference trajectory. By means of Lyapunov-like analysis, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone can be proven. Likewise, the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed.

  1. Adaptive fuzzy control of a class of nonaffine nonlinear system with input saturation based on passivity theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Ali; Jalali, Aliakbar; Ghasemi Naraghi, Mahdi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, based on the passivity theorem, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed for a class of unknown nonaffine nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree and saturation input nonlinearity to track the desired trajectory. The system equations are in normal form and its unforced dynamic may be unstable. As relative degree one is a structural obstacle in system passivation approach, in this paper, backstepping method is used to circumvent this obstacle and passivate the system step by step. Because of the existence of uncertainty and disturbance in the system, exact passivation and reference tracking cannot be tackled, so the approximate passivation or passivation with respect to a set is obtained to hold the tracking error in a neighborhood around zero. Furthermore, in order to overcome the non-smoothness of the saturation input nonlinearity, a parametric smooth nonlinear function with arbitrary approximation error is used to approximate the input saturation. Finally, the simulation results for the theoretical and practical examples are given to validate the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global output feedback control for a class of high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with input delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Wenting; Zhai, Junyong; Fei, Shumin

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of output feedback stabilization for a class of high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-varying input delay. First, a scaling gain is introduced into the system under a set of coordinate transformations. Then, the authors construct an observer and controller to make the nominal system globally asymptotically stable. Based on homogeneous domination approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, it is shown that the closed-loop system can be rendered globally asymptotically stable by the scaling gain. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. L{sup 1} group consensus of multi-agent systems with switching topologies and stochastic inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Yilun, E-mail: shylmath@hotmail.com [Institute for Cyber Security, University of Texas at San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how interacting subsystems of an overall system lead to cluster/group consensus is a key issue in the investigation of multi-agent systems. In this Letter, we study the L{sup 1} group consensus problem of discrete-time multi-agent systems with external stochastic inputs. Based on ergodicity theory and matrix analysis, L{sup 1} group consensus criteria are obtained for multi-agent systems with switching topologies. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the theoretical results.

  4. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  5. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants have been associated with respiratory tract inflammation, disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers, systemic inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain and systemic circulation of particulate matter. Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to significant amounts of ozone, particulate matter and associated lipopolysaccharides. MC dogs exhibit brain inflammation and an acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by air pollutants. MC children, adolescents and adults have a significant upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in olfactory bulb and frontal cortex, as well as neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of beta -amyloid peptide (Abeta 42), including diffuse amyloid plaques in frontal cortex. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain inflammation and the accumulation of Abeta 42, which precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings of nasal barrier disruption, systemic inflammation, and the upregulation of COX2 and IL-1beta expression and Abeta 42 accumulation in brain suggests that sustained exposures to significant concentrations of air pollutants such as particulate matter could be a risk factor for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  7. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  8. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  9. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  10. Potential toxicity and safety evaluation of nanomaterials for the respiratory system and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachogianni T

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomais Vlachogianni,1 Konstantinos Fiotakis,1 Spyridon Loridas,1 Stamatis Perdicaris,2 Athanasios Valavanidis1 1Department of Chemistry, Free Radicals Research Group, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs are a diverse group of materials finding increasing use in manufacturing, computing, food, pharmaceuticals, and biomedicine due to their very small size and exceptional properties. Health and safety concerns for ENMs have forced regulatory agencies to consider preventive measures and regulations for workers’ health and safety protection. Respiratory system toxicity from inhalable ENMs is the most important concern to health specialists. In this review, we focus on similarities and differences between conventional microparticles (diameters in mm and µm, which have been previously studied, and nanoparticles (sizes between 1 and 100 nm in terms of size, composition, and mechanisms of action in biological systems. In past decades, respirable particulate matter (PM, asbestos fibers, crystalline silicate, and various amorphous dusts have been studied, and epidemiological evidence has shown how dangerous they are to human health, especially from exposure in working environments. Scientific evidence has shown that there is a close connection between respirable PM and pulmonary oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. There is a close connection between oxidative stress in the cell and the elicitation of an inflammatory response via pro-inflammatory gene transcription. Inflammatory processes increase the risk for lung cancer. Studies in vitro and in vivo in the last decade have shown that engineered nanoparticles (ENPs at various doses can cause ROS generation, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in the cell. It is assumed that ENPs have the

  11. Lessons learned using HAMMLAB experimenter systems: Input for HAMMLAB 2000 functional requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia L.

    1998-02-01

    To design a usable HAMMLAB 2000, lessons learned from use of the existing HAMMLAB must be documented. User suggestions are important and must be taken into account. Different roles in HAMMLAB experimental sessions are identified, and major functions of each role were specified. A series of questionnaires were developed and administered to different users of HAMMLAB, each tailored to the individual job description. The results of those questionnaires are included in this report. Previous HAMMLAB modification recommendations were also reviewed, to provide input to this document. A trial experimental session was also conducted, to give an overview of the tasks in HAMMLAB. (author)

  12. A particle filter for ammonia coverage ratio and input simultaneous estimations in Diesel-engine SCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kangfeng; Ji, Fenzhu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Kai; Yang, Shichun

    2018-01-01

    As NOx emissions legislation for Diesel-engines is becoming more stringent than ever before, an aftertreatment system has been widely used in many countries. Specifically, to reduce the NOx emissions, a selective catalytic reduction(SCR) system has become one of the most promising techniques for Diesel-engine vehicle applications. In the SCR system, input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio are regarded as essential states in the control-oriental model. Currently, an ammonia sensor placed before the SCR Can is a good strategy for the input ammonia concentration value. However, physical sensor would increase the SCR system cost and the ammonia coverage ratio information cannot be directly measured by physical sensor. Aiming to tackle this problem, an observer based on particle filter(PF) is investigated to estimate the input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio. Simulation results through the experimentally-validated full vehicle simulator cX-Emission show that the performance of observer based on PF is outstanding, and the estimation error is very small.

  13. A computer-aided audit system for respiratory therapy consult evaluations: description of a method and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2013-05-01

    Use of respiratory therapist (RT)-guided protocols enhances allocation of respiratory care. In the context that optimal protocol use requires a system for auditing respiratory care plans to assure adherence to protocols and expertise of the RTs generating the care plan, a live audit system has been in longstanding use in our Respiratory Therapy Consult Service. Growth in the number of RT positions and the need to audit more frequently has prompted development of a new, computer-aided audit system. The number and results of audits using the old and new systems were compared (for the periods May 30, 2009 through May 30, 2011 and January 1, 2012 through May 30, 2012, respectively). In contrast to the original, live system requiring a patient visit by the auditor, the new system involves completion of a respiratory therapy care plan using patient information in the electronic medical record, both by the RT generating the care plan and the auditor. Completing audits in the new system also uses an electronic respiratory therapy management system. The degrees of concordance between the audited RT's care plans and the "gold standard" care plans using the old and new audit systems were similar. Use of the new system was associated with an almost doubling of the rate of audits (ie, 11 per month vs 6.1 per month). The new, computer-aided audit system increased capacity to audit more RTs performing RT-guided consults while preserving accuracy as an audit tool. Ensuring that RTs adhere to the audit process remains the challenge for the new system, and is the rate-limiting step.

  14. Synaptic inputs compete during rapid formation of the calyx of Held: a new model system for neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Paul S; Hoffpauir, Brian K; Hoyson, Mitchell C; Jackson, Dakota R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Marrs, Glenn S; Dehoff, Marlin; Wu, Jonathan; Ellisman, Mark H; Spirou, George A

    2013-08-07

    Hallmark features of neural circuit development include early exuberant innervation followed by competition and pruning to mature innervation topography. Several neural systems, including the neuromuscular junction and climbing fiber innervation of Purkinje cells, are models to study neural development in part because they establish a recognizable endpoint of monoinnervation of their targets and because the presynaptic terminals are large and easily monitored. We demonstrate here that calyx of Held (CH) innervation of its target, which forms a key element of auditory brainstem binaural circuitry, exhibits all of these characteristics. To investigate CH development, we made the first application of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to neural development with fine temporal resolution and thereby accomplished the first time series for 3D ultrastructural analysis of neural circuit formation. This approach revealed a growth spurt of added apposed surface area (ASA)>200 μm2/d centered on a single age at postnatal day 3 in mice and an initial rapid phase of growth and competition that resolved to monoinnervation in two-thirds of cells within 3 d. This rapid growth occurred in parallel with an increase in action potential threshold, which may mediate selection of the strongest input as the winning competitor. ASAs of competing inputs were segregated on the cell body surface. These data suggest mechanisms to select "winning" inputs by regional reinforcement of postsynaptic membrane to mediate size and strength of competing synaptic inputs.

  15. Sewage input reduces the consumption of Rhizophora mangle propagules by crabs in a subtropical mangrove system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Frederike Ricarda; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Moens, Tom; da Cunha Lana, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive and play a major role in global carbon cycling. Their carbon accumulation can be influenced through the consumption of nutrient-poor leaves and propagules by herbivore crabs. Anthropogenic nutrient input from sewage contamination is widespread in these often naturally nutrient-limited ecosystems. We hypothesised that sewage-mediated nutrient input to mangrove stands of Paranaguá Bay (southern Brazil), would alter the nutrient sources available for crabs, e.g. through microphytobenthos increase, and that this would reflect in their feeding behaviour. We predicted that propagules of Rhizophora mangle in contaminated stands would experience lower grazing pressure from their two main local consumers (Ucides cordatus and Goniopsis cruentata). We compared herbivory rates on R. mangle propagules in sewage contaminated and uncontaminated mangrove stands. We found that herbivory rates were significantly lower in contaminated than uncontaminated forests, but this pattern could not be clearly attributed to increased nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methodology for converting CT medical images to MCNP input using the Scan2MCNP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boia, L.S.; Silva, A.X.; Cardoso, S.C.; Castro, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology for the application software Scan2MCNP, which converts medical images DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) for MCNP input file. The Scan2MCNP handles, processes and executes the medical images generated by CT equipment, allowing the user to perform the selection and parameterization of the study area in question (tissues and organs). The details of these worked in medical imaging software, therefore, will be converted to equity to the process of language analysis of MCNP radiation transport, through the generation of a code input file. With this file, it is possible to simulate any situation/problem of the type and level of radiation to the proposed treatment chosen by the medical staff responsible for the patient. Within a computational process oriented, the Scan2MCNP can contribute along with other software that has been used recently in the area of medical physics, to improve the levels of quality and precision of radiotherapy treatments. In this work, medical images DICOM of the Anthropomorphic Rando Phantom were used in the process of analysis and development of computer software Scan2MCNP. However, it emphasized that the software is successful in certain situations, depending upon a number of auxiliary procedures and software that can help in the solution of certain problems in the natural radiation treatment or express agility by the team of medical physics. (author)

  17. Resolution of First- and Second-Order Linear Differential Equations with Periodic Inputs by a Computer Algebra System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Legua

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In signal processing, a pulse means a rapid change in the amplitude of a signal from a baseline value to a higher or lower value, followed by a rapid return to the baseline value. A square wave function may be viewed as a pulse that repeats its occurrence periodically but the return to the baseline value takes some time to happen. When these periodic functions act as inputs in dynamic systems, the standard tool commonly used to solve the associated initial value problem (IVP is Laplace transform and its inverse. We show how a computer algebra system may also provide the solution of these IVP straight forwardly by adequately introducing the periodic input.

  18. Adaptive Iterative Soft-Input Soft-Output Parallel Decision-Feedback Detectors for Asynchronous Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimum and many suboptimum iterative soft-input soft-output (SISO multiuser detectors require a priori information about the multiuser system, such as the users' transmitted signature waveforms, relative delays, as well as the channel impulse response. In this paper, we employ adaptive algorithms in the SISO multiuser detector in order to avoid the need for this a priori information. First, we derive the optimum SISO parallel decision-feedback detector for asynchronous coded DS-CDMA systems. Then, we propose two adaptive versions of this SISO detector, which are based on the normalized least mean square (NLMS and recursive least squares (RLS algorithms. Our SISO adaptive detectors effectively exploit the a priori information of coded symbols, whose soft inputs are obtained from a bank of single-user decoders. Furthermore, we consider how to select practical finite feedforward and feedback filter lengths to obtain a good tradeoff between the performance and computational complexity of the receiver.

  19. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  20. Adaptive NN tracking control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with nonaffine dead-zone input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, an adaptive tracking control design is studied for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with dead-zone input. The considered systems are of the nonaffine pure-feedback form and the dead-zone input appears nonlinearly in the systems. The contributions of the paper are that: 1) it is for the first time to investigate the control problem for this class of discrete-time systems with dead-zone; 2) there are major difficulties for stabilizing such systems and in order to overcome the difficulties, the systems are transformed into an n-step-ahead predictor but nonaffine function is still existent; and 3) an adaptive compensative term is constructed to compensate for the parameters of the dead-zone. The neural networks are used to approximate the unknown functions in the transformed systems. Based on the Lyapunov theory, it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of zero. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the control approach in the paper.

  1. Modeling and sliding mode predictive control of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system with uncertainties and input constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Yuan, Jingqi; Zhang, Xiang; Kong, Lei; Wang, Jingcheng

    2018-05-01

    The coordinated control system (CCS) serves as an important role in load regulation, efficiency optimization and pollutant reduction for coal-fired power plants. The CCS faces with tough challenges, such as the wide-range load variation, various uncertainties and constraints. This paper aims to improve the load tacking ability and robustness for boiler-turbine units under wide-range operation. To capture the key dynamics of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system, a nonlinear control-oriented model is developed based on mechanism analysis and model reduction techniques, which is validated with the history operation data of a real 1000 MW unit. To simultaneously address the issues of uncertainties and input constraints, a discrete-time sliding mode predictive controller (SMPC) is designed with the dual-mode control law. Moreover, the input-to-state stability and robustness of the closed-loop system are proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, which achieves good tracking performance, disturbance rejection ability and compatibility to input constraints. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional Impairment of Mononuclear Phagocyte System by the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bohmwald

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ, and dendritic cells (DCs. MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV. The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma. Monocytes, MΦ, and DCs significantly contribute to acute inflammation during hRSV-induced bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbation. Furthermore, these cells seem to be an important component for the association between hRSV and reactive airway disease. After hRSV infection, the first cells encountered by the virus are respiratory epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs, DCs, and monocytes in the airways. Because AMs constitute the predominant cell population at the alveolar space in healthy subjects, these cells work as major innate sentinels for the recognition of pathogens. Although adaptive immunity is crucial for viral clearance, AMs are required for the early immune response against hRSV, promoting viral clearance and controlling immunopathology. Furthermore, exposure to hRSV may affect the phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of monocytes and MΦs against other infectious agents. Finally, different studies have addressed the roles of different DC subsets during infection by hRSV. In this review article, we discuss the role of the lung MPS during hRSV infection and their involvement in the development of bronchiolitis.

  3. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care - an international series: Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    Australia has a complex health system with policy and funding responsibilities divided across federal and state/territory boundaries and service provision split between public and private providers. General practice is largely funded through the federal government. Other primary health care services are provided by state/territory public entities and private allied health practitioners. Indigenous health services are specifically funded by the federal government through a series of Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations. NATIONAL POLICY AND MODELS: The dominant primary health care model is federally-funded private "small business" general practices. Medicare reimbursement items have incrementally changed over the last decade to include increasing support for chronic disease care with both generic and disease specific items as incentives. Asthma has received a large amount of national policy attention. Other respiratory diseases have not had similar policy emphasis. Australia has a high prevalence of asthma. Respiratory-related encounters in general practice, including acute and chronic respiratory illness and influenza immunisations, account for 20.6% of general practice activity. Lung cancer is a rare disease in general practice. Tuberculosis is uncommon and most often found in people born outside of Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders have higher rates of asthma, smoking and tuberculosis. Access to care is positively influenced by substantial public funding underpinning both the private and public sectors through Medicare. Access to general practice care is negatively influenced by workforce shortages, the ongoing demands of acute care, and the incremental way in which system redesign is occurring in general practice. Most general practice operates from privately-owned rooms. The Australian Government requires general practice facilities to be accredited against certain standards in order for the practice to receive income from a number of

  4. Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Ashley, Richard M; Viklander, Maria

    2015-09-15

    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy

  6. Evaluation of irradiation position in respiratory-gated radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Masaya; Ueda, Takashi; Kitoh, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Goka, Tomonori; Ogino, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory-gated (RG) radiotherapy is useful for minimizing the irradiated volume of normal tissues resulting from the shifting of internal structures caused by respiratory movement. The present study was conducted to evaluate the treatment field in RG radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration. A phantom system consisting of a 3-cm ball-shaped dummy tumor and film placed in a cork lung phantom was used (THK Co., Ltd.). RG radiotherapy was employed in the expiratory phase. The phantom movement distance was set to 2 cm, and the gating signals from a respiratory-gating system (AZ-733V, Anzai Medical) were varied. The settings used for irradiation were an X-ray energy of 6 MV (PRIMUS, Toshiba Medical Systems), treatment field of 5 cm x 7 cm, and X-ray dose of 100 MU. Images were acquired using an electric portal-imaging device (EPID, OPTIVUE 500), and the X-ray dose distribution was measured by the film method. In images acquired using the EPID, the tumor margins became less clear when the gating signals were increased, and the ITVs were determined to be 3.6 cm, 3.7 cm, 4.2 cm, and 5.1 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gate, respectively. With regard to the X-ray dose distribution measured by the film method, the dose profile in the cephalocaudal direction was shifted toward the expiratory phase, and the degree of shift became greater when the gating signals were increased. In addition, the optimal treatment fields in the cephalocaudal direction were determined to be 5.2 cm, 5.2 cm, 5.6 cm, and 7.0 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gating, respectively. Although RG radiotherapy is useful for improving the accuracy of radiotherapy, the characteristics of the RG radiotherapy technique and the radiotherapy system must be clearly understood when this method is to be employed in clinical practice. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is now assuming a central role in radiotherapy, and properly identifying internal margins is an

  7. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care--an international series: Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed Osman

    2009-03-01

    Pakistan has a population exceeding 160 million. Communicable diseases remain the most important health problem in Pakistan, with non-communicable diseases and injuries comprising a quarter of all deaths. The government provides a multi-tiered healthcare system, from the Basic Health Unit at the village level, ranging up to the tertiary care teaching hospitals in the larger cities. These facilities are accessible to all, and are usually free or highly subsidised. Patients have the choice to see a private or government GP, a specialist, or an alternative medicine healer. The current National Health Policy focusses mainly on prevention of communicable diseases, as well as improving primary and secondary health care services. Only 6% of 13 to 14 year olds are medically diagnosed as having asthma, and more than half report symptoms of rhinitis. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis in patients over 65 is 14% and 6% in rural females and males, respectively, and 9% (with no sex difference) in urban areas. The higher rates of chronic bronchitis observed in females in rural areas may be attributed to high levels of indoor air pollution due to cooking over smoking fires. It is estimated that 36% of adult males, and 9% of females, smoke, and the cigarette consumption per person per year in Pakistan is among the highest in South Asia. Pakistan is ranked 7th among the 22 highest tuberculosis disease burden countries in the world. In 2006 the number of all TB cases was 76,668 compared to 97,245 in 2004. It is estimated that 70-80,000 people are infected with HIV, but only 3,000 AIDS cases have been reported so far. The incidence of acute respiratory infections in children varies, and is a common cause of morbidity. In adults, it is estimated that pneumonia may affect as many as 2.8 million Pakistanis. Patients usually can access their local GPs or alternative medical practitioners with relative ease. In villages in remote areas, access to government-run health care facilities

  8. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  9. Plant Friendly Input Design for Parameter Estimation in an Inertial System with Respect to D-Efficiency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Jakowluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System identification, in practice, is carried out by perturbing processes or plants under operation. That is why in many industrial applications a plant-friendly input signal would be preferred for system identification. The goal of the study is to design the optimal input signal which is then employed in the identification experiment and to examine the relationships between the index of friendliness of this input signal and the accuracy of parameter estimation when the measured output signal is significantly affected by noise. In this case, the objective function was formulated through maximisation of the Fisher information matrix determinant (D-optimality expressed in conventional Bolza form. As setting such conditions of the identification experiment we can only talk about the D-suboptimality, we quantify the plant trajectories using the D-efficiency measure. An additional constraint, imposed on D-efficiency of the solution, should allow one to attain the most adequate information content  from the plant which operating point is perturbed in the least invasive (most friendly way. A simple numerical example, which clearly demonstrates the idea presented in the paper, is included and discussed.

  10. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  11. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  12. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanohorns in different human cells of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Franziska; Lange, Martina; Hoppmann, Pia; Heutelbeck, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes. In all cell lines, cell viability was reduced after 24 h of exposure up to 60% and metabolic activity as evidenced by mitochondrial activity was lowered to 9% at a concentration of 1 g/L. The three respiratory cell lines differed in their sensitivity. The most robust cells were the bronchial epithelial cells. Further, particle size fractions induced different adverse effect strength, whereby no correlation between particle size fraction and toxicity was found. These findings demonstrate the need for further information regarding the behavior and effect strength of nanomaterial. To avoid the production of new harmful materials, a more comprehensive integration of results from toxicity studies in the development processes of engineered nanomaterials is recommended not only from an occupational viewpoint but also from an environmental perspective.

  13. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood, fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks, incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM. PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP, those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease.

  14. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year′s experience of a multi-disciplinary group′s activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Scala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients′ clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma. It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  15. SPECIFIC DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF THERAPY WITH DORNASE ALFA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Simanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to specific disorders of the respiratory system in cystic fibrosis. 64 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF aged 2 months to 32 years and residing in the Udmurtian Republic were studied. Epidemiological and genetic specifics of this disease in the mentioned region of the RF were examined. Clinical, X-ray, functional and microbiological studies of the CF patients’ respiratory system were conducted. It was found that genotype delF508 and chronic infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus cause severe structural changes to the bronchopulmonary system more often. The obtained data suggest the advisability of identifying the groups of CF patients at the highest risk of severe respiratory system disorders in order to optimise therapeutic efforts. The article provides indicators of clinical efficacy of a dornase alfa therapy in CF children.Key words: cystic fibrosis, genotype, delF508 mutation, respiratory organs, pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, staphylococcal infection, respiratory function, mucolytic function, dornase alfa. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:44-48

  16. Estimate of the real-time respiratory simulation system in cyberknife image-guided radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Kee; Chung, Weon Kuu; Lee, Suk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the target accuracy according to the movement with respiration of an actual patient in a quantitative way by developing a real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS), including a patient customized 3D moving phantom. The real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS) consists of two robots in order to implement both the movement of body surfaces and the movement of internal organs caused by respiration. The quantitative evaluation for the 3D movement of the RRSS was performed using a real-time laser displacement sensor for each axis. The average difference in the static movement of the RRSS was about 0.01 ∼ 0.06 mm. Also, in the evaluation of the dynamic movement by producing a formalized sine wave with the phase of four seconds per cycle, the difference between the measured and the calculated values for each cycle length in the robot that was in charge of body surfaces and the robot that was in charge of the movement of internal tumors showed 0.10 ∼ 0.55 seconds, and the correlation coefficients between the calculated and the measured values were 0.998 ∼ 0.999. The differences between the maximum and the minimum amplitudes were 0.01 ∼ 0.06 mm, and the reproducibility was within ±0.5 mm. In the case of the application and non-application of respiration, the target errors were -0.05 ∼ 1.05 mm and -0.13 ∼ 0.74 mm, respectively, and the entire target errors were 1.30 mm and 0.79 mm, respectively. Based on the accuracy in the RRSS system, various respiration patterns of patients can be reproduced in real-time. Also, this system can be used as an optimal tool for applying patient customized accuracy management in image-guided radiosurgery.

  17. Estimate of the real-time respiratory simulation system in cyberknife image-guided radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Chul Kee [Konyang Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kyonggi University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Konyang Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the target accuracy according to the movement with respiration of an actual patient in a quantitative way by developing a real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS), including a patient customized 3D moving phantom. The real-time respiratory simulation system (RRSS) consists of two robots in order to implement both the movement of body surfaces and the movement of internal organs caused by respiration. The quantitative evaluation for the 3D movement of the RRSS was performed using a real-time laser displacement sensor for each axis. The average difference in the static movement of the RRSS was about 0.01 {approx} 0.06 mm. Also, in the evaluation of the dynamic movement by producing a formalized sine wave with the phase of four seconds per cycle, the difference between the measured and the calculated values for each cycle length in the robot that was in charge of body surfaces and the robot that was in charge of the movement of internal tumors showed 0.10 {approx} 0.55 seconds, and the correlation coefficients between the calculated and the measured values were 0.998 {approx} 0.999. The differences between the maximum and the minimum amplitudes were 0.01 {approx} 0.06 mm, and the reproducibility was within {+-}0.5 mm. In the case of the application and non-application of respiration, the target errors were -0.05 {approx} 1.05 mm and -0.13 {approx} 0.74 mm, respectively, and the entire target errors were 1.30 mm and 0.79 mm, respectively. Based on the accuracy in the RRSS system, various respiration patterns of patients can be reproduced in real-time. Also, this system can be used as an optimal tool for applying patient customized accuracy management in image-guided radiosurgery.

  18. H∞ Control of Coronary Artery Input Time-Delay System via the Free-Matrix-Based Integral Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-sha Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of H∞ control for the coronary artery input time-delay system with external disturbance is of concern. To further reduce conservation, we utilize the free-matrix-based integral inequality, Wirtinger-based integral inequality, and reciprocal convex combination approach to construct Lyapunov-Krasovskii function (LKF. Then a sufficient condition for controller design which can guarantee robust synchronization the coronary artery system is represented in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, a numerical example is exploited to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Experimental verification of a two-dimensional respiratory motion compensation system with ultrasound tracking technique in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lai-Lei; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Liao, Ai-Ho; Kuo, Chia-Chun; Yu, Hsiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Liang; Tien, Der-Chi; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong

    2018-05-01

    This study proposed respiratory motion compensation system (RMCS) combined with an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) to compensate for respiration-induced tumor motion during radiotherapy, and to address the problem of inaccurate radiation dose delivery caused by respiratory movement. This study used an ultrasound imaging system to monitor respiratory movements combined with the proposed UITA and RMCS for tracking and compensation of the respiratory motion. Respiratory motion compensation was performed using prerecorded human respiratory motion signals and also sinusoidal signals. A linear accelerator was used to deliver radiation doses to GAFchromic EBT3 dosimetry film, and the conformity index (CI), root-mean-square error, compensation rate (CR), and planning target volume (PTV) were used to evaluate the tracking and compensation performance of the proposed system. Human respiratory pattern signals were captured using the UITA and compensated by the RMCS, which yielded CR values of 34-78%. In addition, the maximum coronal area of the PTV ranged from 85.53 mm 2 to 351.11 mm 2 (uncompensated), which reduced to from 17.72 mm 2 to 66.17 mm 2 after compensation, with an area reduction ratio of up to 90%. In real-time monitoring of the respiration compensation state, the CI values for 85% and 90% isodose areas increased to 0.7 and 0.68, respectively. The proposed UITA and RMCS can reduce the movement of the tracked target relative to the LINAC in radiation therapy, thereby reducing the required size of the PTV margin and increasing the effect of the radiation dose received by the treatment target. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Analysis of Input/Output Paradigms for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    timing and concurrency aspects of real - time systems . This paper illustrates how to build a mathematical model of the schedulability of a real-time...various design alternatives. The primary characteristic that distinguishes real-time system from non- real - time systems is the importance of time. The

  1. Technological change in energy systems. Learning curves, logistic curves and input-output coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)

  2. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  3. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  4. Reinforcement-Learning-Based Robust Controller Design for Continuous-Time Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-07-01

    The design of stabilizing controller for uncertain nonlinear systems with control constraints is a challenging problem. The constrained-input coupled with the inability to identify accurately the uncertainties motivates the design of stabilizing controller based on reinforcement-learning (RL) methods. In this paper, a novel RL-based robust adaptive control algorithm is developed for a class of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input constraints. The robust control problem is converted to the constrained optimal control problem with appropriately selecting value functions for the nominal system. Distinct from typical action-critic dual networks employed in RL, only one critic neural network (NN) is constructed to derive the approximate optimal control. Meanwhile, unlike initial stabilizing control often indispensable in RL, there is no special requirement imposed on the initial control. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop optimal control system and the estimated weights of the critic NN are proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, the derived approximate optimal control is verified to guarantee the uncertain nonlinear system to be stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the present approach.

  5. Economic and CO2 mitigation impacts of promoting biomass heating systems: An input-output study for Vorarlberg, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Koller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical investigation about the economic and CO 2 mitigation impacts of bioenergy promotion in the Austrian federal province of Vorarlberg. We study domestic value-added, employment, and fiscal effects by means of a static input-output analysis. The bioenergy systems analysed comprise biomass district heating, pellet heating, and automated wood chip heating systems, as well as logwood stoves and boilers, ceramic stoves, and buffer storage systems. The results indicate that gross economic effects are significant, regarding both investment and operation of the systems, and that the negative economic effects caused by the displacement of conventional decentralised heating systems might be in the order of 20-40%. Finally, CO 2 mitigation effects are substantial, contributing already in 2004 around 35% of the 2010 CO 2 mitigation target of the Land Vorarlberg for all renewable energy sources

  6. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsaei H.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan.

  7. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, H.; Vakily, A.; Shafiei, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan. PMID:28451580

  8. Comparison of visual biofeedback system with a guiding waveform and abdomen-chest motion self-control system for respiratory motion management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yujiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Kanai, Takayuki; Ito, Kengo; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of 4D computed tomography imaging and cause artifacts. Visual biofeedback systems associated with a patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches) (representing simpler visual coaching techniques without a guiding waveform) are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching in reducing respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. We collected data from 11 healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared with free-breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86 and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18 and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with the wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to the other techniques. Our results showed that visual biofeedback combined with a wave model could potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques were able to reduce respiratory irregularities

  9. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  10. About influence of input rate random part of nonstationary queue system on statistical estimates of its macroscopic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korelin, Ivan A.; Porshnev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    A model of the non-stationary queuing system (NQS) is described. The input of this model receives a flow of requests with input rate λ = λdet (t) + λrnd (t), where λdet (t) is a deterministic function depending on time; λrnd (t) is a random function. The parameters of functions λdet (t), λrnd (t) were identified on the basis of statistical information on visitor flows collected from various Russian football stadiums. The statistical modeling of NQS is carried out and the average statistical dependences are obtained: the length of the queue of requests waiting for service, the average wait time for the service, the number of visitors entered to the stadium on the time. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by the following parameters: the number of visitors who entered at the time of the match; time required to service all incoming visitors; the maximum value; the argument value when the studied dependence reaches its maximum value. The dependences of these parameters on the energy ratio of the deterministic and random component of the input rate are investigated.

  11. A parametric study of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) Input Values for the Predicted Health Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2, MACCS2, has been the most widely used through the world among the off-site consequence analysis codes. MACCS2 code is used to estimate the radionuclide concentrations, radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from the hypothetical nuclear accidents. Most of the MACCS model parameter values are defined by the user and those input parameters can make a significant impact on the output. A limited parametric study was performed to identify the relative importance of the values of each input parameters in determining the predicted early and latent health effects in MACCS2. These results would not be applicable to every case of the nuclear accidents, because only the limited calculation was performed with Kori-specific data. The endpoints of the assessment were early- and latent cancer-risk in the exposed population, therefore it might produce the different results with the parametric studies for other endpoints, such as contamination level, absorbed dose, and economic cost. Accident consequence assessment is important for decision making to minimize the health effect from radiation exposure, accordingly the sufficient parametric studies are required for the various endpoints and input parameters in further research

  12. Dialog system for automatic data input/output and processing with two BESM-6 computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Y.N.; Gorlov, Y.P.; Makarychev, S.V.; Monakov, A.A.; Shcherbakov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a system for conducting experiments with fully automatic processing of data from multichannel recorders in the dialog mode. The system acquires data at a rate of 2.5 . 10 3 readings/sec, processes in real time, and outputs digital and graphical material in a multitasking environment

  13. Load ratio determines the ammonia recovery and energy input of an electrochemical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Kuntke, Philipp; Heijne, Ter Annemiek; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Complete removal and recovery of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) from wastewaters in (bio)electrochemical systems has proven to be a challenge. The system performance depends on several factors, such as current density, TAN loading rate and pH. The interdependence among these factors is not well

  14. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – Public Interface Demonstration and Input Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GRIN-Global (GG) Information Management System, under development for the past three years, provides the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Ser...

  15. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – A Preview and Opportunity for Public User Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GRIN-Global Information Management System, under development for the past two years, will provide the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Servi...

  16. Experiment for ambulatory inhalation rehabilitation of occupational dust-radiation injuries of the respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Nikolova, M.E.; Todorov, A.; Kuteva, E.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was carried out for ambulatory inhalation rehabilitation on a group of 172 subjects with pronounced injuries of the respiratory system. Parallely with them was a rehabilitated group of 8 pensioners. Because of the specific nature of the production etiopathogenetic complex including inhalation introduced radioactive and stable aerosols and their uninterrupted action during rehabilitation, the experiment conducted is of special importance for the perspective elaboration and implementation of health measures in a numerous contingent of workers in industrial important branches without discontinuing work. A positive effect was obtained in 54,2% of the treated non-smokers. No improvement was found of the objective ventilation indices of respiration in smokers and pensioners. As far as physical and anamnestic indices are concerned, such as rales, cough, dyspnea, pains in the chest etc., there was impovement in all treated subjects. Finally, some conclusions are drawn about the future trends of inhalation prophylaxis in the respective branches of production

  17. A study on the relationship between trace elements and respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaolin; Wu Lanlan; Yuan Ling; Huang Liyun; Jia Zhanxiang; Chen Yang

    1995-01-01

    19 elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, Cu, Zn, etc.) in hair of 65 patients with chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and corpulmonale and 65 healthy persons were determined with instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was shown that the contents of Ca and Mg are lower while the contents of Fe, As and Co higher for the patients. For the patients with chronic bronchitis in attack period the contents of Ca and Mg are lower and the content of Fe higher than those in relaxed period. A highly positive relation between Ca and Mg contents was also found. In addition, inorganic elements in 'Kechuandeping' capsule, a prepared traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic bronchitis, were determined, and the contents of Ca, Mg, Sr, etc. were found higher than the corresponding average values for 120 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, indicating a possible shortage of Ca, Mg, etc. for the patients with respiratory-system diseased

  18. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  19. Design of an Input-Parallel Output-Parallel LLC Resonant DC-DC Converter System for DC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Y. L.; Chen, T. R.; Chang, H. M.; Wei, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    Compared with the centralized power system, the distributed modularized power system is composed of several power modules with lower power capacity to provide a totally enough power capacity for the load demand. Therefore, the current stress of the power components in each module can then be reduced, and the flexibility of system setup is also enhanced. However, the parallel-connected power modules in the conventional system are usually controlled to equally share the power flow which would result in lower efficiency in low loading condition. In this study, a modular power conversion system for DC micro grid is developed with 48 V dc low voltage input and 380 V dc high voltage output. However, in the developed system control strategy, the numbers of power modules enabled to share the power flow is decided according to the output power at lower load demand. Finally, three 350 W power modules are constructed and parallel-connected to setup a modular power conversion system. From the experimental results, compared with the conventional system, the efficiency of the developed power system in the light loading condition is greatly improved. The modularized design of the power system can also decrease the power loss ratio to the system capacity.

  20. Robust Model Predictive Control of Networked Control Systems under Input Constraints and Packet Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of robust model predictive control (RMPC for a class of linear time-varying systems with constraints and data losses. We take the polytopic uncertainties into account to describe the uncertain systems. First, we design a robust state observer by using the linear matrix inequality (LMI constraints so that the original system state can be tracked. Second, the MPC gain is calculated by minimizing the upper bound of infinite horizon robust performance objective in terms of linear matrix inequality conditions. The method of robust MPC and state observer design is illustrated by a numerical example.

  1. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  2. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  3. RRB's SVES Input File - Post Entitlement State Verification and Exchange System (PSSVES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Several PSSVES request files are transmitted to SSA each year for processing in the State Verification and Exchange System (SVES). This is a first step in obtaining...

  4. Adaptive near-optimal neuro controller for continuous-time nonaffine nonlinear systems with constrained input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Kasra; Abdollahi, Farzaneh; Talebi, Heidar Ali

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an identifier-critic structure is introduced to find an online near-optimal controller for continuous-time nonaffine nonlinear systems having saturated control signal. By employing two Neural Networks (NNs), the solution of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with the cost function is derived without requiring a priori knowledge about system dynamics. Weights of the identifier and critic NNs are tuned online and simultaneously such that unknown terms are approximated accurately and the control signal is kept between the saturation bounds. The convergence of NNs' weights, identification error, and system states is guaranteed using Lyapunov's direct method. Finally, simulation results are performed on two nonlinear systems to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do different cow types respond differently to a reduction on concentrate supplementation in an Alpine low-input dairy system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Steinwidder, Andreas; Pfister, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    by farmers as being better suited for low-input production systems. Both genotypes were assigned to one of two concentrate supplementation levels, receiving 618 kg (Con) or 279 kg (Low) of concentrates per lactation. During two years data were collected for 21 lactations from 13 BS cows and 29 lactations...... from 20 HFL cows. No significant interactions between cow type and dietary treatment were found for most traits investigated. However, there was a tendency (Pcow type×diet=0.096) for energy-corrected-milk (ECM) yield to be reduced at the Low compared with the Con concentrate level in BS but not in HFL...

  6. Delay-Dependent Stability Analysis of Uncertain Fuzzy Systems with State and Input Delays under Imperfect Premise Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stability and stabilization problem for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying state and input delays. A new augmented Lyapunov function with an additional triple-integral term and different membership functions of the fuzzy models and fuzzy controllers are introduced to derive the stability criterion, which is less conservative than the existing results. Moreover, a new flexibility design method is also provided. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  7. Evaluation of the educational value of YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Algrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-11-13

    A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three assessors for videos covering the clinical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. For each video, the following information was collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority, and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos. A total of 1920 videos were screened. Only relevant videos covering the examination of adults in the English language were identified (n=56). Of these, 20 were found to be relevant to cardiovascular examinations and 36 to respiratory examinations. Further analysis revealed that 9 provided useful information on cardiovascular examinations and 7 on respiratory examinations: scoring mean 14.9 (SD 0.33) and mean 15.0 (SD 0.00), respectively. The other videos, 11 covering cardiovascular and 29 on respiratory examinations, were not useful educationally, scoring mean 11.1 (SD 1.08) and mean 11.2 (SD 1.29), respectively. The differences between these two categories were significant (P.86. A small number of videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were identified as educationally useful; these videos can be used by medical students for independent learning and by clinical teachers as learning resources. The scoring system utilized by this study is simple, easy to apply, and could be used by other researchers on similar topics.

  8. A Unified Approach to Adaptive Neural Control for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Nonlinear Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Gao, Ying; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an effective adaptive control approach is constructed to stabilize a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which contain unknown functions, unknown dead-zone input, and unknown control direction. Different from linear dead zone, the dead zone, in this paper, is a kind of nonlinear dead zone. To overcome the noncausal problem, which leads to the control scheme infeasible, the systems can be transformed into a m -step-ahead predictor. Due to nonlinear dead-zone appearance, the transformed predictor still contains the nonaffine function. In addition, it is assumed that the gain function of dead-zone input and the control direction are unknown. These conditions bring about the difficulties and the complicacy in the controller design. Thus, the implicit function theorem is applied to deal with nonaffine dead-zone appearance, the problem caused by the unknown control direction can be resolved through applying the discrete Nussbaum gain, and the neural networks are used to approximate the unknown function. Based on the Lyapunov theory, all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are proved to be semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the tracking error is proved to be regulated to a small neighborhood around zero. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a simulation example.

  9. Trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder reflect changing nitrogen inputs to Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K; Miller, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) in juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were used to examine changes in nitrogen inputs to several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. Fish were collected over two three-year periods with a ten-year interval between sampling periods (2002-2004 and 2012-2014). During that interval numerous changes to nutrient management practices were initiated in the watersheds of these estuarine systems including the upgrade of several major wastewater treatment facilities that discharge to Narragansett Bay, which significantly reduced nitrogen inputs. Following these reductions, the δ 15 N values of flounder in several of the systems decreased as expected; however, isotope ratios in fish from upper Narragansett Bay significantly increased. We believe that low δ 15 N values measured in 2002-2004 were related to concentration-dependent fractionation at this location. Increased δ 15 N values measured between 2012 and 2014 may indicate reduced fractionation or that changes in wastewater treatment processes altered the nitrogen isotopic ratios of the effluents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles

  11. Sensitivity of the regional ocean acidification and carbonate system in Puget Sound to ocean and freshwater inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianucci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While ocean acidification was first investigated as a global phenomenon, coastal acidification has received significant attention in recent years, as its impacts have been felt by different socio-economic sectors (e.g., high mortality of shellfish larvae in aquaculture farms. As a region that connects land and ocean, the Salish Sea (consisting of Puget Sound and the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Georgia receives inputs from many different sources (rivers, wastewater treatment plants, industrial waste treatment facilities, etc., making these coastal waters vulnerable to acidification. Moreover, the lowering of pH in the Northeast Pacific Ocean also affects the Salish Sea, as more acidic waters get transported into the bottom waters of the straits and estuaries. Here, we use a numerical ocean model of the Salish Sea to improve our understanding of the carbonate system in Puget Sound; in particular, we studied the sensitivity of carbonate variables (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, saturation state of aragonite to ocean and freshwater inputs. The model is an updated version of our FVCOM-ICM framework, with new carbonate-system and sediment modules. Sensitivity experiments altering concentrations at the open boundaries and freshwater sources indicate that not only ocean conditions entering the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but also the dilution of carbonate variables by freshwater sources, are key drivers of the carbonate system in Puget Sound.

  12. Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B'Krong, Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Nhung, Nguyen Ngoc; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Thwaites, Guy; Van Tan, Le; van Doorn, H Rogier; Thanh, Tran Tan

    2018-04-12

    Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. Data and specimens from prospective observational clinical studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were used. Species and serotypes were determined using type-specific RT-PCR and viral protein 1 or 4 (VP1, VP4) sequencing. Samples from patients with CNS infection (51 children - 10 CSF and 41 respiratory/rectal swabs) and 28 adults (28 CSF) and respiratory infection (124 children - 124 respiratory swabs) were analysed. Twenty-six different serotypes of the four Enterovirus species (A-D) were identified, including EV-A71 and EV-D68. Enterovirus B was associated with viral meningitis in children and adults. Hand, foot and mouth disease associated Enteroviruses A (EV-A71 and Coxsackievirus [CV] A10) were detected in children with encephalitis. Diverse serotypes of all four Enterovirus species were found in respiratory samples, including 2 polio-vaccine viruses, but also 8 CV-A24 and 8 EV-D68. With the exception of EV-D68, the relevance of these viruses in respiratory infection remains unknown. We describe the diverse spectrum of enteroviruses from patients with CNS and respiratory infections in Viet Nam between 1997 and 2010. These data confirm the global circulation of Enterovirus genera and their associations and are important for clinical diagnostics, patient management, and outbreak response.

  13. New Combined Scoring System for Predicting Respiratory Failure in Iraqi Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Noah Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute post-infective autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy, it is the commonest peripheral neuropathy causing respiratory failure. The aim of the study is to use the New Combined Scoring System in anticipating respiratory failure in order to perform elective measures without waiting for emergency situations to occur.
    Patients and methods: Fifty patients with GBS were studied. Eight clinical parameters (including progression of patients to maximum weakness, respiratory rate/minute, breath holding
    count (the number of digits the patient can count in holding his breath, presence of facial muscle weakness (unilateral or bilateral, presence of weakness of the bulbar muscle, weakness of the neck flexor muscle, and limbs weakness were assessed for each patient and a certain score was given to
    each parameter, a designed combined score being constructed by taking into consideration all the above mentioned clinical parameters. Results and discussion: Fifteen patients (30% that were enrolled in our study developed respiratory failure. There was a highly significant statistical association between the development of respiratory failure and the lower grades of (bulbar muscle weakness score, breath holding count scores, neck muscle weakness score, lower limbs and upper limbs weakness score , respiratory rate score and the total sum score above 16 out of 30 (p-value=0.000 . No significant statistical difference was found regarding the progression to maximum weakness (p-value=0.675 and facial muscle weakness (p-value=0.482.
    Conclusion: The patients who obtained a combined score (above 16’30 are at great risk of having respiratory failure.

  14. Stabilization of Networked Control Systems with Variable Delays and Saturating Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmodi Kaleybar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, improved conditions for the synthesis of static state-feedback controller are derived to stabilize networked control systems (NCSs subject to actuator saturation. Both of the data packet latency and dropout which deteriorate the performance of the closed-loop system are considered in the NCS model via variable delays. Two different techniques are employed to incorporate actuator saturation in the system description. Utilizing Lyapunov-Krasovskii Theorem, delay-dependent conditions are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs to determine the static feedback gain. Moreover, an optimization problem is formulated in order to find the less conservative estimate for the region of attraction corresponding to different maximum allowable delays. Numerical examples are introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed schemes.

  15. Active fault tolerant control of piecewise affine systems with reference tracking and input constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, M.; Cocquempot, V.; Schiøler, H.

    2014-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (AFTC) method is proposed for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. Only actuator faults are considered. The AFTC framework contains a supervisory scheme, which selects a suitable controller in a set of controllers such that the stability and an acceptable...... performance of the faulty system are held. The design of the supervisory scheme is not considered here. The set of controllers is composed of a normal controller for the fault-free case, an active fault detection and isolation controller for isolation and identification of the faults, and a set of passive...... fault tolerant controllers (PFTCs) modules designed to be robust against a set of actuator faults. In this research, the piecewise nonlinear model is approximated by a PWA system. The PFTCs are state feedback laws. Each one is robust against a fixed set of actuator faults and is able to track...

  16. System for evaluation of the true average input-pulse rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenlaub, D.P.; Garrett, P.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a digital radiation monitoring system making use of current digital circuit and microprocessor for rapidly processing the pulse data coming from remote radiation controllers. This system analyses the pulse rates in order to determine if a new datum is statistically the same as that previously received. Hence it determines the best possible average time for itself. So long as the true average pulse rate stays constant, the time required to establish an average can increase until the statistical error is under the desired level, i.e. 1%. When the digital processing of the pulse data indicates a change in the true average pulse rate, the time required to establish an average can be reduced so as to improve the response time of the system at the statistical error. This concept includes a fixed compromise between the statistical error and the response time [fr

  17. Development of a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory motion monitoring system using the kinect device: Accuracy comparison with the conventional stereovision navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myungsoo; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Namkug

    2018-07-01

    To develop and validate a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory monitoring system based on a Kinect device with a custom-made simple marker. A 3D respiratory monitoring system comprising the simple marker and the Microsoft Kinect v2 device was developed. The marker was designed for simple and robust detection, and the tracking algorithm was developed using the depth, RGB, and infra-red images acquired from the Kinect sensor. A Kalman filter was used to suppress movement noises. The major movements of the marker attached to the four different locations of body surface were determined from the initially collected tracking points of the marker while breathing. The signal level of respiratory motion with the tracking point was estimated along the major direction vector. The accuracy of the results was evaluated through a comparison with those of the conventional stereovision navigation system (NDI Polaris Spectra). Sixteen normal volunteers were enrolled to evaluate the accuracy of this system. The correlation coefficients between the respiratory motion signal from the Kinect device and conventional navigation system ranged from 0.970 to 0.999 and from 0.837 to 0.995 at the abdominal and thoracic surfaces, respectively. The respiratory motion signal from this system was obtained at 27-30 frames/s. This system with the Kinect v2 device and simple marker could be used for cost-effective, robust and accurate 3D respiratory motion monitoring. In addition, this system is as reliable for respiratory motion signal generation and as practically useful as the conventional stereovision navigation system and is less sensitive to patient posture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A chest radiograph scoring system in patients with severe acute respiratory infection: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Emma; Haven, Kathryn; Reed, Peter; Bissielo, Ange; Harvey, Dave; McArthur, Colin; Bringans, Cameron; Freundlich, Simone; Ingram, R. Joan H.; Perry, David; Wilson, Francessa; Milne, David; Modahl, Lucy; Huang, Q. Sue; Gross, Diane; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Grant, Cameron C.

    2015-01-01

    The term severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) encompasses a heterogeneous group of respiratory illnesses. Grading the severity of SARI is currently reliant on indirect disease severity measures such as respiratory and heart rate, and the need for oxygen or intensive care. With the lungs being the primary organ system involved in SARI, chest radiographs (CXRs) are potentially useful for describing disease severity. Our objective was to develop and validate a SARI CXR severity scoring system. We completed validation within an active SARI surveillance project, with SARI defined using the World Health Organization case definition of an acute respiratory infection with a history of fever, or measured fever of ≥ 38 °C; and cough; and with onset within the last 10 days; and requiring hospital admission. We randomly selected 250 SARI cases. Admission CXR findings were categorized as: 1 = normal; 2 = patchy atelectasis and/or hyperinflation and/or bronchial wall thickening; 3 = focal consolidation; 4 = multifocal consolidation; and 5 = diffuse alveolar changes. Initially, four radiologists scored CXRs independently. Subsequently, a pediatrician, physician, two residents, two medical students, and a research nurse independently scored CXR reports. Inter-observer reliability was determined using a weighted Kappa (κ) for comparisons between radiologists; radiologists and clinicians; and clinicians. Agreement was defined as moderate (κ > 0.4–0.6), good (κ > 0.6–0.8) and very good (κ > 0.8–1.0). Agreement between the two pediatric radiologists was very good (κ = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.65–1.00) and between the two adult radiologists was good (κ = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.57–0. 93). Agreement of the clinicians with the radiologists was moderate-to-good (pediatrician:κ = 0.65; pediatric resident:κ = 0.69; physician:κ = 0.68; resident:κ = 0.67; research nurse:κ = 0.49, medical students: κ = 0.53 and κ = 0.56). Agreement between clinicians was good-to-very good

  19. Health system changes under pay-for-performance: the effects of Rwanda's national programme on facility inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Diana K L; Sherry, Tisamarie B; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) programmes have been introduced in numerous developing countries with the goal of increasing the provision and quality of health services through financial incentives. Despite the popularity of P4P, there is limited evidence on how providers achieve performance gains and how P4P affects health system quality by changing structural inputs. We explore these two questions in the context of Rwanda's 2006 national P4P programme by examining the programme's impact on structural quality measures drawn from international and national guidelines. Given the programme's previously documented success at increasing institutional delivery rates, we focus on a set of delivery-specific and more general structural inputs. Using the programme's quasi-randomized roll-out, we apply multivariate regression analysis to short-run facility data from the 2007 Service Provision Assessment. We find positive programme effects on the presence of maternity-related staff, the presence of covered waiting areas and a management indicator and a negative programme effect on delivery statistics monitoring. We find no effects on a set of other delivery-specific physical resources, delivery-specific human resources, delivery-specific operations, general physical resources and general human resources. Using mediation analysis, we find that the positive input differences explain a small and insignificant fraction of P4P's impact on institutional delivery rates. The results suggest that P4P increases provider availability and facility operations but is only weakly linked with short-run structural health system improvements overall. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  1. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menolascina, F.; Bellomo, D.; Maiwald, T.; Bevilacqua, V.; Ciminelli, C.; Paradiso, A.; Tommasi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the

  2. Semidefinite Relaxation-Based Optimization of Multiple-Input Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Dieter; Sarris, Costas D.

    2017-11-01

    An optimization procedure for multi-transmitter (MISO) wireless power transfer (WPT) systems based on tight semidefinite relaxation (SDR) is presented. This method ensures physical realizability of MISO WPT systems designed via convex optimization -- a robust, semi-analytical and intuitive route to optimizing such systems. To that end, the nonconvex constraints requiring that power is fed into rather than drawn from the system via all transmitter ports are incorporated in a convex semidefinite relaxation, which is efficiently and reliably solvable by dedicated algorithms. A test of the solution then confirms that this modified problem is equivalent (tight relaxation) to the original (nonconvex) one and that the true global optimum has been found. This is a clear advantage over global optimization methods (e.g. genetic algorithms), where convergence to the true global optimum cannot be ensured or tested. Discussions of numerical results yielded by both the closed-form expressions and the refined technique illustrate the importance and practicability of the new method. It, is shown that this technique offers a rigorous optimization framework for a broad range of current and emerging WPT applications.

  3. An alternative methodology for optimizing the data input for cadastral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme H. B. de Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most of the city governments that have started the process of implementing a GIS use two types of database: one for the cadaster system and another for GIS. Therefore, a lot of time is spent, on both systems databases updating. So that, the cadaster system database is usually priorized, once tax collection is necessary for the city expenditure. Manipulating this data for different purposes, within only one database, it’s extremely effective, because the data may be updated easilier, besides not presenting duplicity. This paper presents a set of applications developed, having as the main objective the integration of the cadaster database, implanted for property tax and other taxes calculus, with a relational database, which may be used for analysis in strategical planning. The importance of such work is in the fact of the possibility for availability of systematized information with more efficiency and at a lower cost. Besides that, the methodology developed will provide better conditions for periodic cadaster updating. This is effective through of the use of an optical reading device of the cadaster information reports. Such procedure will naturally reduce cost, enabling the operation. The cadaster information being updated in short periods of time, increases the reliability of the system, providing more confidence for information availability, besides amplify the opportunity of offering services through the internet.

  4. Nitrates directive requires limited inputs of manure and mineral fertilizer in dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Aarts, H.F.M.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Velthof, G.L.; Reijs, J.W.; Fraters, B.

    2009-01-01

    Properly managed manures have a high fertilizer value and are thus a valuable source of nutrients in forage production systems. An efficient utilization of these nutrients, however, is limited by the crops demand for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Moreover, environmental goals implied by the EU

  5. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved performance of active safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2018-01-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used to investigate the extent to which the fully active suspension (FAS) can be applied to improve the vehicle electronic stability control (ESC) performance and reduce the braking distance. First, the optimisation approach is applied to the scenario of vehicle stabilisation during the sine-with-dwell manoeuvre. The results are used to provide insights into different FAS control mechanisms for vehicle performance improvements related to responsiveness and yaw rate error reduction indices. The FAS control performance is compared to performances of the standard ESC system, optimal active brake system and combined FAS and ESC configuration. Second, the optimisation approach is employed to the task of FAS-based braking distance reduction for straight-line vehicle motion. Here, the scenarios of uniform and longitudinally or laterally non-uniform tyre-road friction coefficient are considered. The influences of limited anti-lock braking system (ABS) actuator bandwidth and limit-cycle ABS behaviour are also analysed. The optimisation results indicate that the FAS can provide competitive stabilisation performance and improved agility when compared to the ESC system, and that it can reduce the braking distance by up to 5% for distinctively non-uniform friction conditions.

  6. Eliciting User Input for Requirements on Personalization: The Case of a Dutch ERP System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Huijs, C.; van der Geest, Thea

    2008-01-01

    For small and medium-sized companies, the fit between their business processes and their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a critical success factor. The functions and features for essential tasks must be geared to the demands and skills of the individual users. This article reports on

  7. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, Ciprian; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  8. Pneumoperitoneum deteriorates intratidal respiratory system mechanics: an observational study in lung-healthy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Biesemann, Andreas; Spaeth, Johannes; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery leads to atelectasis and impairment of oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is supposed to counteract atelectasis. We hypothesized that the derecruiting effects of pneumoperitoneum would deteriorate the intratidal compliance profile in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. In 30 adult patients scheduled for surgery with pneumoperitoneum, respiratory variables were measured during mechanical ventilation. We calculated the dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (C RS ) and the intratidal volume-dependent C RS curve using the gliding-SLICE method. The C RS curve was then classified in terms of indicating intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (increasing profile) and overdistension (decreasing profile). During the surgical interventions, the PEEP level was maintained nearly constant at 7 cm H 2 O. Data are expressed as mean [confidence interval]. Baseline C RS was 60 [54-67] mL cm H 2 O -1 . Application of pneumoperitoneum decreased C RS to 40 [37-43] mL cm H 2 O -1 which partially recovered to 54 [50-59] mL cm H 2 O -1 (P < 0.001) after removal but remained below the value measured before pneumoperitoneum (P < 0.001). Baseline compliance profiles indicated intratidal recruitment/derecruitment in 48 % patients. After induction of pneumoperitoneum, intratidal recruitment/derecruitment was indicated in 93 % patients (P < 0.01), and after removal intratidal recruitment/derecruitment was indicated in 59 % patients. Compliance profiles showing overdistension were not observed. Analyses of the intratidal compliance profiles reveal that pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery causes intratidal recruitment/derecruitment which partly persists after its removal. The analysis of the intratidal volume-dependent C RS profiles could be used to guide intraoperative PEEP adjustments during elevated intraabdominal pressure.

  9. Copernicus stratospheric ozone service, 2009–2012: validation, system intercomparison and roles of input data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lefever

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates and discusses the quality of the stratospheric ozone analyses delivered in near real time by the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project during the 3-year period between September 2009 and September 2012. Ozone analyses produced by four different chemical data assimilation (CDA systems are examined and compared: the Integrated Forecast System coupled to the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (IFS-MOZART; the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE; the Synoptic Analysis of Chemical Constituents by Advanced Data Assimilation (SACADA; and the Data Assimilation Model based on Transport Model version 3 (TM3DAM. The assimilated satellite ozone retrievals differed for each system; SACADA and TM3DAM assimilated only total ozone observations, BASCOE assimilated profiles for ozone and some related species, while IFS-MOZART assimilated both types of ozone observations. All analyses deliver total column values that agree well with ground-based observations (biases The northern spring 2011 period is studied in more detail to evaluate the ability of the analyses to represent the exceptional ozone depletion event, which happened above the Arctic in March 2011. Offline sensitivity tests are performed during this month and indicate that the differences between the forward models or the assimilation algorithms are much less important than the characteristics of the assimilated data sets. They also show that IFS-MOZART is able to deliver realistic analyses of ozone both in the troposphere and in the stratosphere, but this requires the assimilation of observations from nadir-looking instruments as well as the assimilation of profiles, which are well resolved vertically and extend into the lowermost stratosphere.

  10. Microbial inputs in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) production systems, southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Muleta, Diriba

    2007-01-01

    Arabica coffee is the key cash crop and top mainstay of the Ethiopian economy and requires sustainable production methods. Southwestern natural forests, the site of this study, are believed to be the centre of origin and diversity for Coffea arabica and still harbour wild Arabica coffee that may serve as an important gene pool for future breeding. Cost reductions, sustainability and quality improvement are now the major priorities in coffee production systems and require organic growing of co...

  11. An adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter for nonlinear discrete-time system in presence of unknown inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengli; Zhang, Yongbo; Wang, Zhihua; Fu, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    Considering the performances of conventional Kalman filter may seriously degrade when it suffers stochastic faults and unknown input, which is very common in engineering problems, a new type of adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter (AThSEKF) is proposed to solve state and fault estimation in nonlinear discrete-time system under these conditions. The three-stage UV transformation and adaptive forgetting factor are introduced for derivation, and by comparing with the adaptive augmented state extended Kalman filter, it is proven to be uniformly asymptotically stable. Furthermore, the adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter is applied to a two-dimensional radar tracking scenario to illustrate the effect, and the performance is compared with that of conventional three stage extended Kalman filter (ThSEKF) and the adaptive two-stage extended Kalman filter (ATEKF). The results show that the adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter is more effective than these two filters when facing the nonlinear discrete-time systems with information of unknown inputs not perfectly known. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  14. A Novel Approach to Develop the Lower Order Model of Multi-Input Multi-Output System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmy, P.; Dharmalingam, S.; Jayakumar, J.

    2017-10-01

    A mathematical model is a virtual entity that uses mathematical language to describe the behavior of a system. Mathematical models are used particularly in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines like physics, biology, and electrical engineering as well as in the social sciences like economics, sociology and political science. Physicists, Engineers, Computer scientists, and Economists use mathematical models most extensively. With the advent of high performance processors and advanced mathematical computations, it is possible to develop high performing simulators for complicated Multi Input Multi Ouptut (MIMO) systems like Quadruple tank systems, Aircrafts, Boilers etc. This paper presents the development of the mathematical model of a 500 MW utility boiler which is a highly complex system. A synergistic combination of operational experience, system identification and lower order modeling philosophy has been effectively used to develop a simplified but accurate model of a circulation system of a utility boiler which is a MIMO system. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the physics of the process and with the results obtained through design procedure. The model obtained can be directly used for control system studies and to realize hardware simulators for boiler testing and operator training.

  15. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  16. Response localization of the pharmacological agents histamine and salbutamol along the respiratory system by forced oscillations in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F; Polko, A H; Visser, B F

    1989-01-01

    The bronchodilating effect of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 25 asthmatic subjects after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine caused an increase of respiratory resistance (Rrs) at lower frequencies and a frequency dependence of Rrs. Respiratory reactance (Xrs) decreased at all frequencies after histamine challenge. These changes can be explained by peripheral airway obstruction. Impedance measurements performed 5 min after inhalation of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol showed a decrease of Rrs values at lower frequencies, a disappearance of the frequency dependence of Rrs, and a significant increase of Xrs values. No significant differences in absolute changes of Rrs and Xrs are observed between the salbutamol regimens. These changes after inhalation of salbutamol can be explained by supposing a predominant action on the peripheral airways.

  17. Aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Riyo; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsukita, Yoko; Nihei, Mayumi; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niu, Kaijun; Ebihara, Takae; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-05-22

    Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle. For swallowing muscles, it is not clear whether they produce cytokines. The main objective of this study was to determine whether aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory (the diaphragm), skeletal (the tibialis anterior, TA), and swallowing (the tongue) systems, and their possible mechanisms. We employed a mouse aspiration pneumonia model and computed tomography (CT) scans of aged pneumonia patients. To induce aspiration pneumonia, mice were inoculated with low dose pepsin and lipopolysaccharide solution intra-nasally 5 days a week. The diaphragm, TA, and tongue were isolated, and total RNA, proteins, and frozen sections were stored. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, muscle E3 ubiquitin ligases, and autophagy related genes. Western blot analysis determined the activation of the muscle proteolysis pathway. Frozen sections determined the presence of muscle atrophy. CT scans were used to evaluate the muscle atrophy in aged aspiration pneumonia patients. The aspiration challenge enhanced the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the diaphragm, TA, and tongue. Among muscle proteolysis pathways, the aspiration challenge activated caspase-3 in all the three muscles examined, whereas calpains were activated in the diaphragm and the TA but not in the tongue. Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was detected in all the three muscles examined. The aspiration challenge

  18. Production of hot electrons in mirror systems associated with ECR heating with longitudinal input of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Timofeev, A.V.; Kharitonov, K.Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all experiments on ECR plasma heating are accompanied by the formation of hot electrons (i.e., electrons with energy substantially greater than the average of the bulk population). In mirror systems these electrons may determine the basic energy content (β) of the plasma. In this paper, results are presented from experimental measurements of the hot electron population resulting from ECR heating of the plasma in OGRA-4. A theoretical model is developed which describes the hot electron dynamics and the propagation of electromagnetic oscillations in the plasma self-consistently. The results obtained with this model are in agreement with experimental data

  19. A biophysical model of the mitochondrial respiratory system and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Beard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F1F0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K+/H+ antiporter and passive H+ and K+ permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  20. A Biophysical Model of the Mitochondrial Respiratory System and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F(1F(0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K/H antiporter and passive H and K permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  1. Quality assurance for respiratory-gated stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung using real-time position management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Maruyama, Masato; Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated comprehensive quality assurance (QA) for respiratory-gated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the lungs using a real-time position management system (RPM). By using the phantom study, we evaluated dose liberality and reproducibility, and dose distributions for low monitor unite (MU), and also checked the absorbed dose at isocenter and dose profiles for the respiratory-gated exposure using RPM. Furthermore, we evaluated isocenter dose and dose distributions for respiratory-gated SBRT plans in the lungs using RPM. The maximum errors for the dose liberality were 4% for 2 MU, 1% for 4-10 MU, and 0.5% for 15 MU and 20 MU. The dose reproducibility was 2% for 1 MU and within 0.1% for 5 MU or greater. The accuracy for dose distributions was within 2% for 2 MU or greater. The dose error along a central axis for respiratory cycles of 2, 4, and 6 sec was within 1%. As for geometric accuracy, 90% and 50% isodose areas for the respiratory-gated exposure became almost 1 mm and 2 mm larger than without gating, respectively. For clinical lung-SBRT plans, the point dose at isocenter agreed within 2.1% with treatment planning system (TPS). And the pass rates of all plans for TPS were more than 96% in the gamma analysis (3 mm/3%). The geometrical accuracy and the dose accuracy of TPS calculation algorithm are more important for the dose evaluation at penumbra region for respiratory-gated SBRT in lung using RPM. (author)

  2. Parallel combination of FC and UC for vehicular power systems using a multi-input converter-based power interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vural, B.; Erdinc, O.; Uzunoglu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells (FC) are widely recognized as one of the most promising technologies to meet future power requirements of vehicular applications. However, a FC system combined with an energy storage system (ESS) can perform better for vehicle propulsion as considering several points. As the additional ESS can fulfill the transient power demand fluctuations, the FC system can be downsized to fit the base power demand without facing peak loads. Besides, braking energy can be recovered by the ESS. Interfacing of traction drive requirements with characteristics and modes of operation of on-board generation units and ESSs calls for suitable power electronic converter configuration. In this paper, a FC/UC hybrid vehicular power system using a multi-input converter-based power interface is proposed. The applied power interface topology ensures the active power sharing and DC link voltage stabilization for the hybrid vehicular system. The mathematical and electrical models of the hybrid vehicular system are developed in detail and simulated using MATLAB (registered) , Simulink (registered) and SimPowerSystems (registered) environments.

  3. Parallel combination of FC and UC for vehicular power systems using a multi-input converter-based power interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vural, B.; Erdinc, O.; Uzunoglu, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul 34349 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Fuel cells (FC) are widely recognized as one of the most promising technologies to meet future power requirements of vehicular applications. However, a FC system combined with an energy storage system (ESS) can perform better for vehicle propulsion as considering several points. As the additional ESS can fulfill the transient power demand fluctuations, the FC system can be downsized to fit the base power demand without facing peak loads. Besides, braking energy can be recovered by the ESS. Interfacing of traction drive requirements with characteristics and modes of operation of on-board generation units and ESSs calls for suitable power electronic converter configuration. In this paper, a FC/UC hybrid vehicular power system using a multi-input converter-based power interface is proposed. The applied power interface topology ensures the active power sharing and DC link voltage stabilization for the hybrid vehicular system. The mathematical and electrical models of the hybrid vehicular system are developed in detail and simulated using MATLAB registered, Simulink registered and SimPowerSystems registered environments. (author)

  4. A Reconfiguration Scheme for Accommodating Actuator Failures in Multi-Input, Multi-Output Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwakosit, W.; Hess, R. A.; Bacon, Bart (Technical Monitor); Burken, John (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output reconfigurable flight control system design utilizing a robust controller and an adaptive filter is presented. The robust control design consists of a reduced-order, linear dynamic inversion controller with an outer-loop compensation matrix derived from Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). A principle feature of the scheme is placement of the adaptive filter in series with the QFT compensator thus exploiting the inherent robustness of the nominal flight control system in the presence of plant uncertainties. An example of the scheme is presented in a pilot-in-the-loop computer simulation using a simplified model of the lateral-directional dynamics of the NASA F18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) that included nonlinear anti-wind up logic and actuator limitations. Prediction of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies in the presence of these nonlinearities is included in the example.

  5. Adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control of nonlinear systems with input saturation and time-varying output constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, L.; Khaki Sedigh, A.; Aliyari Shooredeli, M.; Moarefianpour, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with asymmetric time-varying output constraints in the presence of input saturation. To approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and overcome the problem of explosion of complexity, a Fuzzy logic system is combined with the dynamic surface control in the backstepping design technique. To ensure the output constraints satisfaction, an asymmetric time-varying Barrier Lyapunov Function (BLF) is used. Moreover, by applying the minimal learning parameter technique, the number of the online parameters update for each subsystem is reduced to 2. Hence, the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness (SGUUB) of all the closed-loop signals with appropriate tracking error convergence is guaranteed. The effectiveness of the proposed control is demonstrated by two simulation examples.

  6. MPC for LPV Systems Based on Parameter-Dependent Lyapunov Function with Perturbation on Control Input Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornchai Bumroongsri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear parameter varying (LPV systems is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. The first step is derived by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov function and the second step is derived by using the perturbation on control input strategy. In order to achieve good control performance, the bounds on the rate of variation of the parameters are taken into account in the controller synthesis. An overall algorithm is proved to guarantee robust stability. The controller design is illustrated with two case studies of continuous stirred-tank reactors. Comparisons with other MPC algorithms for LPV systems have been undertaken. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better control performance.

  7. An RF input coupler system for the CEBAF energy upgrade cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.R. Delayen; L.R. Doolittle; T. Hiatt; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; L. Phillips; J. Preble; W.J. Schneider; G. Wu

    1999-01-01

    Long term plans for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab call for achieving 12 GeV in the middle of the next decade and 24 GeV after 2010. Thus an upgraded cryomodule to more than double the present voltage is under development. A new waveguide coupler system has been designed and prototypes are currently being developed. This coupler, unlike the original, has a nominal Q ext of 2.1 x 10 7 , reduced sensitivity of Q ext to mechanical deformation, reduced field asymmetry within the beam envelope, freedom from window arcing with a single window at 300 K, and is capable of transmitting 6kW CW both traveling wave and in full reflection

  8. Self-organization through random input by biological and machine systems - the pre-cognition sub-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1981-04-01

    We give an axiomatic prescription for self-organization in the brain and in intelligent machines through random input of data. This self-organization leads to the formation of pre-cognition long term memory (LTM) subsystem. By using the notions of p-equivalent and its negation instead of true and false in the predicate calculus and pre-cognition LTM, a method is proposed for pattern recognition which can also be utilized for studying relations between the genetic code and the observed properties of respective species. (author)

  9. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from respiratory system infections in shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Reisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of pathogenic agents in humans, that engages different body parts including respiratory system and causes to spend lots of costs and extending patient’s treatment period. This study which is performed to separate and investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from upper respiratory system infections in Shahrekord.   Materials and methods: This study was done by sectional-descriptive method On 200 suspicious persons to the upper respiratory system infections who were referred to the Imam Ali clinic in Shahrekord in 2012. After isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from cultured nose discharges, antibiotic resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR by using defined primer pairs .   Results : Among 200 investigated samples in 60 cases (30% Staphylococcus aureus infection (by culturing and PCR method was determined. Isolates showed the lowest amount of antibiotic resistance to vancomycin (0.5% and the highest amount of resistance to the penicillin G and cefotaxime (100%. mecA gene (encoding methicillin resistance with frequency of 85.18% and aacA-D gene (encoding resistance to aminoglycosides with frequency of 28.33% showed the highest and lowest frequency of antibiotic resistance genes coding in Staphylococcus aureus isolates respectively .   Discussion and conclusion : Notable prevalence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in community acquired respiratory infections, recommend continuous control necessity to impede the spreading of these bacteria and their infections.  

  10. Effect of a Health Care System Respiratory Fluoroquinolone Restriction Program To Alter Utilization and Impact Rates of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Katherine M; Hobbs, Athena L V; Jaso, Theresa C; Bissett, Jack D; Cruz, Christopher M; Douglass, Elizabeth T; Garey, Kevin W

    2017-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes in the United States despite their association with adverse consequences, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We sought to evaluate the impact of a health care system antimicrobial stewardship-initiated respiratory fluoroquinolone restriction program on utilization, appropriateness of quinolone-based therapy based on institutional guidelines, and CDI rates. After implementation, respiratory fluoroquinolone utilization decreased from a monthly mean and standard deviation (SD) of 41.0 (SD = 4.4) days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days (PD) preintervention to 21.5 (SD = 6.4) DOT/1,000 PD and 4.8 (SD = 3.6) DOT/1,000 PD posteducation and postrestriction, respectively. Using segmented regression analysis, both education (14.5 DOT/1,000 PD per month decrease; P = 0.023) and restriction (24.5 DOT/1,000 PD per month decrease; P cost of moxifloxacin, the formulary respiratory fluoroquinolone, was observed postrestriction compared to preintervention within the health care system ($123,882 versus $12,273; P = 0.002). Implementation of a stewardship-initiated respiratory fluoroquinolone restriction program can increase appropriate use while reducing overall utilization, acquisition cost, and CDI rates within a health care system. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Multiple Input Energy Harvesting Systems for Autonomous IoT End-Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J. Estrada-López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet-of-Things (IoT paradigm is under constant development and is being enabled by the latest research work from both industrial and academic communities. Among the many contributions in such diverse areas as sensor manufacturing, network protocols, and wireless communications, energy harvesting techniques stand out as a key enabling technology for the realization of batteryless IoT end-node systems. In this paper, we give an overview of the recent developments in circuit design for ultra-low power management units (PMUs, focusing mainly in the architectures and techniques required for energy harvesting from multiple heterogeneous sources. The paper starts by discussing a general structure for IoT end-nodes and the main characteristics of PMUs for energy harvesting. Then, an overview is given of different published works for multisource power harvesting, observing their main advantages and disadvantages and comparing their performance. Finally, some open areas of research in multisource harvesting are observed and relevant conclusions are given.

  12. Using species-specific enriched stable isotopes to study the effect of fresh mercury inputs in soil-earthworm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C Rodríguez; Jiménez-Moreno, M; Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Nevado, J J Berzas

    2018-01-01

    The fate of mercury (Hg) in the soil-earthworm system is still far from being fully understood, especially regarding recurrent and challenging questions about the importance of the reactivity of exogenous Hg species. Thus, to predict the potential effect of Hg inputs in terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to evaluate separately the reactivity of the endogenous and exogenous Hg species and, for this purpose, the use of enriched stable isotope tracers is a promising tool. In the present work, earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were exposed to historically Hg contaminated soils from the Almadén mining district, Spain. The soils were either non-spiked, which contain only endogenous or native Hg naturally occurring in the soil, or spiked with isotopically enriched inorganic Hg ( 199 IHg), representing exogenous or spiked Hg apart from the native one. The differential reactivity of endogenous and exogenous Hg in the soil conditioned the processes of methylation, mobilization, and assimilation of inorganic Hg by earthworms. Both endogenous and exogenous Hg species also behave distinctly regarding their bioaccumulation in earthworms, as suggested by the bioaccumulation factors, being the endogenous methylmercury (MeHg) the species more readily bioaccumulated by earthworms and in a higher extent. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the potential of enriched stable isotopes to study the effects of fresh Hg inputs in soil-earthworm systems. The findings of this work can be taken as a case study on the dynamics of Hg species in complex terrestrial systems and open a new door for future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of a volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance in ALI/ARDS by pooling breathing cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Möller, Knut; Guttmann, Josef

    2012-01-01

    New methods were developed to calculate the volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance (C rs ) in mechanically ventilated patients. Due to noise in respiratory signals and different characteristics of the methods, their results can considerably differ. The aim of the study was to establish a practical procedure to validate the estimation of intratidal dynamic C rs . A total of 28 patients from intensive care units of eight German university hospitals with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were studied retrospectively. Dynamic volume-dependent C rs was determined during ongoing mechanical ventilation with the SLICE method, dynostatic algorithm and adaptive slice method. Conventional two-point compliance C 2P was calculated for comparison. A number of consecutive breathing cycles were pooled to reduce noise in the respiratory signals. C rs -volume curves produced with different methods converged when the number of pooling cycles increased (n ≥ 7). The mean volume-dependent C rs of 20 breaths was highly correlated with mean C 2P (C 2P,mean = 0.945 × C rs,mean − 0.053, r 2 = 0.968, p < 0.0001). The Bland–Altman analysis indicated that C 2P,mean was lower than C rs,mean (−2.4 ± 6.4 ml cm −1 H 2 O, mean bias ± 2 SD), but not significant according to the paired t-test (p > 0.05). Methods for analyzing dynamic respiratory mechanics are sensitive to noise and will converge to a unique solution when the number of pooled cycles increases. Under steady-state conditions, assessment of the volume-dependent C rs in ALI/ARDS patients can be validated by pooling respiratory data of consecutive breaths regardless of which method is applied. Confidence in dynamic C rs determination may be increased with the proposed pooling. (note)

  14. Human nasal turbinates as a viable source of respiratory epithelial cells using co-culture system versus dispase-dissociation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruddin, Nur Adelina Ahmad; Saim, Aminuddin B; Chua, Kien Hui; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2007-12-01

    To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application. Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells. Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques. Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  15. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  16. Transmissibility of the monkeypox virus clades via respiratory transmission: investigation using the prairie dog-monkeypox virus challenge system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is endemic within Africa where it sporadically is reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. In 2003, an outbreak of human MPXV occurred in the US after the importation of infected African rodents. Since the eradication of smallpox (caused by an orthopoxvirus (OPXV related to MPXV and cessation of routine smallpox vaccination (with the live OPXV vaccinia, there is an increasing population of people susceptible to OPXV diseases. Previous studies have shown that the prairie dog MPXV model is a functional animal model for the study of systemic human OPXV illness. Studies with this model have demonstrated that infected animals are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple routes of exposure causing subsequent infection, but were not able to prove that infected animals could transmit the virus exclusively via the respiratory route. Herein we used the model system to evaluate the hypothesis that the Congo Basin clade of MPXV is more easily transmitted, via respiratory route, than the West African clade. Using a small number of test animals, we show that transmission of viruses from each of the MPXV clade was minimal via respiratory transmission. However, transmissibility of the Congo Basin clade was slightly greater than West African MXPV clade (16.7% and 0% respectively. Based on these findings, respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model.

  17. BreathSens: A Continuous On-Bed Respiratory Monitoring System With Torso Localization Using an Unobtrusive Pressure Sensing Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason J; Huang, Ming-Chun; Xu, Wenyao; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Stevens, Luke; Alshurafa, Nabil; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-09-01

    The ability to continuously monitor respiration rates of patients in homecare or in clinics is an important goal. Past research showed that monitoring patient breathing can lower the associated mortality rates for long-term bedridden patients. Nowadays, in-bed sensors consisting of pressure sensitive arrays are unobtrusive and are suitable for deployment in a wide range of settings. Such systems aim to extract respiratory signals from time-series pressure sequences. However, variance of movements, such as unpredictable extremities activities, affect the quality of the extracted respiratory signals. BreathSens, a high-density pressure sensing system made of e-Textile, profiles the underbody pressure distribution and localizes torso area based on the high-resolution pressure images. With a robust bodyparts localization algorithm, respiratory signals extracted from the localized torso area are insensitive to arbitrary extremities movements. In a study of 12 subjects, BreathSens demonstrated its respiratory monitoring capability with variations of sleep postures, locations, and commonly tilted clinical bed conditions.

  18. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  19. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  20. Anatomy of Respiratory Rhythmic Systems in Brain Stem and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jüch, P.J.W.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of two respiratory rhythmic loci in the dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum were studied by retrograde and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. The injection areas were determined with extracellular activity recording using HRP filled glass micropipettes,

  1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  2. [Hygienic assessment of a recirculatory combined air-conditioning extract-and-input system in office building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, A G; Abramov, E G

    2006-01-01

    The high concentrations of lead were reveled in the air and dust of some premises and on the filters of a combined air-conditioning extract-and-input system in the high-rise office buildings located in the ecologically lead favorable environment. The dust content of lead in some premises on the first floors dust was as high as 200 mg/kg, which was more than 6 times higher than that in the soil at the highway near the office buildings. The use of new technologies and devices for cleaning and optimizing the air in the premises requires analytical studies to assess the quality of the environment, by taking into account the optimal conditions of their operation.

  3. Development the interface system of master-slave manipulator and external input device on the graphic simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The master-slave manipulator is the generally used as remote handling device in the hot cell, in which the high level radioactive materials such as spent fuels are handled. To analyze the motion of remote handling device and to simulate the remote handling operation task in the hot cell, the 3D graphic simulator which has been installed the master-slave manipulator is established. Also the interface program of external input device with 6 DOF(degree of Freedom) is developed and connected to graphic simulator with LLTI(Low Level Tele-operation Interface) which provides a uniquely optimized, high speed, bidirectional communication interface to one or more of system and processes

  4. Real-time discrete suboptimal control for systems with input and state delays: Experimental tests on a dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerrero, Liliam; Santos-Sánchez, Omar-Jacobo; Cervantes-Escorcia, Nicolás; Romero, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a suboptimal control strategy with finite horizon for affine nonlinear discrete systems with both state and input delays. The Dynamic Programming Approach is used to obtain the suboptimal control sequence, but in order to avoid the computation of the Bellman functional, a numerical approximation of this function is proposed in every step. The feasibility of our proposal is demonstrated via an experimental test on a dehydration process and the obtained results show a good performance and behavior of this process. Then in order to demonstrate the benefits of using this kind of control strategy, the results are compared with a non optimal control strategy, particularly with respect to results produced by an industrial Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Honeywell controller, which is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CPFD simulations of an industrial-sized dual fluidized bed steam gasification system of biomass with 8 MW fuel input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Stephan; Kirnbauer, Friedrich; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated an 8 MWth steam gasification system with the CPFD code Barracuda. • The prediction of the hydrodynamics depends strongly upon the chosen drag law. • The EMMS drag law predicted best the bed material recirculation and pressure drops. • The model of the DFB plant is able to predict the operation accurately. - Abstract: Dual fluidized bed (DFB) systems for biomass gasification consist of two connected fluidized beds with a circulating bed material in between. Inside such reactor systems, rough conditions occur due to the high temperatures and the movement of the bed material. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are a useful tool for investigating fluid dynamics inside such a reactor system. In this study, an industrial-sized DFB system was simulated with the commercial code CPFD Barracuda. The DFB system is part of the combined heat and power (CHP) plant at Güssing, situated in Austria, and has a total fuel input of 8 MW_t_h. The model was set up according to geometry and operating data which allows a realistic description of the hot system in the simulation environment. Furthermore, a conversion model for the biomass particles was implemented which covers the drying and devolatilization processes. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered. Since drag models have an important influence on fluidization behavior, four drag models were tested. It was found that the EMMS drag model fits best, with an error of below 20%, whereas the other drag models produced much larger errors. Based on this drag law, further simulations were conducted. The simulation model correctly predicts the different fluidization regimes and pressure drops in the reactor system. It is also able to predict the compositions of the product and flue gas, as well as the temperatures inside the reactor, with reasonable accuracy. Due to the results obtained, Barracuda seems suitable for further investigations regarding the fluid mechanics of such

  6. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondwani Kawaza

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care.We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups.87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62 compared with 44.0% (11/25 for controls. 65.5% (19/29 of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13 of controls. 64.6% (31/48 of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17 of controls. 61.5% (16/26 of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived.Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  7. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaza, Kondwani; Machen, Heather E; Brown, Jocelyn; Mwanza, Zondiwe; Iniguez, Suzanne; Gest, Al; Smith, E O'Brian; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls) were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62) compared with 44.0% (11/25) for controls. 65.5% (19/29) of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13) of controls. 64.6% (31/48) of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17) of controls. 61.5% (16/26) of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  8. Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbo Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring.

  9. Respiratory behavior of turning stage mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under closed system at different temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiration rate and respiratory quotient of mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. ‘Himsona’ fruits harvested at the turning stage were determined under closed system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 °C (ambient temperatures. The rate of respiration was higher at the start of the experiment and gradually declined as the storage period prolonged, before becoming almost constant. The steady-state respiration rate for CO2 evolution were observed to be 14.35, 15.04,19.95, 21.7 and 20.3 ml/kg-h at 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. The RQ values for tomato varied from 0.55 to 1.10 with time under the experimental conditions. The respiration rate at steady state based on carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption in closed condition decreased by about 46 % and 73 %, respectively relative to initial respiration rate values at normal air atmosphere. The results suggest that the respiration rate of tomato increased with temperature and decrease with storage time.

  10. Respiratory system loop gain in normal men and women measured with proportional-assist ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Andrew; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B; Edwards, Jill K; Schory, Karen; White, David P

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that increased chemical control instability (CCI) in men could partially explain the male predominance in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). CCI was assessed by sequentially increasing respiratory control system loop gain (LG) with proportional-assist ventilation (PAV) in 10 men (age 24-48 yr) and 9 women (age 22-36 yr) until periodic breathing or awakening occurred. Women were studied in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The amount by which PAV amplified LG was quantified from the tidal volume amplification factor [(VtAF) assisted tidal volume/unassisted tidal volume]. LG was calculated as the inverse of the VtAF occurring at the assist level immediately preceding the emergence of periodic breathing (when LG x VtAF = 1). Only 1 of 10 men and 2 of 9 women developed periodic breathing with PAV. The rest were resistant to periodic breathing despite moderately high levels of PAV amplification. We conclude that LG is low in the majority of normal men and women and that higher volume amplification factors are needed to determine whether gender differences exist in this low range.

  11. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  12. Clinical Accuracy of the Respiratory Tumor Tracking System of the CyberKnife: Assessment by Analysis of Log Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeman, Mischa; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Nuyttens, Joost; Poell, Johan; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinical accuracy of the respiratory motion tracking system of the CyberKnife treatment device. Methods and Materials: Data in log files of 44 lung cancer patients treated with tumor tracking were analyzed. Errors in the correlation model, which relates the internal target motion with the external breathing motion, were quantified. The correlation model error was compared with the geometric error obtained when no respiratory tracking was used. Errors in the prediction method were calculated by subtracting the predicted position from the actual measured position after 192.5 ms (the time lag to prediction in our current system). The prediction error was also measured for a time lag of 115 ms and a new prediction method. Results: The mean correlation model errors were less than 0.3 mm. Standard deviations describing intrafraction variations around the whole-fraction mean error were 0.2 to 1.9 mm for cranio-caudal, 0.1 to 1.9 mm for left-right, and 0.2 to 2.5 mm for anterior-posterior directions. Without the use of respiratory tracking, these variations would have been 0.2 to 8.1 mm, 0.2 to 5.5 mm, and 0.2 to 4.4 mm. The overall mean prediction error was small (0.0 ± 0.0 mm) for all directions. The intrafraction standard deviation ranged from 0.0 to 2.9 mm for a time delay of 192.5 ms but was halved by using the new prediction method. Conclusions: Analyses of the log files of real clinical cases have shown that the geometric error caused by respiratory motion is substantially reduced by the application of respiratory motion tracking.

  13. Extraction and Analysis of Respiratory Motion Using Wearable Inertial Sensor System during Trunk Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Gaidhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory activity is an essential vital sign of life that can indicate changes in typical breathing patterns and irregular body functions such as asthma and panic attacks. Many times, there is a need to monitor breathing activity while performing day-to-day functions such as standing, bending, trunk stretching or during yoga exercises. A single IMU (inertial measurement unit can be used in measuring respiratory motion; however, breathing motion data may be influenced by a body trunk movement that occurs while recording respiratory activity. This research employs a pair of wireless, wearable IMU sensors custom-made by the Department of Electrical Engineering at San Diego State University. After appropriate sensor placement for data collection, this research applies principles of robotics, using the Denavit-Hartenberg convention, to extract relative angular motion between the two sensors. One of the obtained relative joint angles in the “Sagittal” plane predominantly yields respiratory activity. An improvised version of the proposed method and wearable, wireless sensors can be suitable to extract respiratory information while performing sports or exercises, as they do not restrict body motion or the choice of location to gather data.

  14. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Myśliwiec, Z; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of artichoke extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (including reaction kinetics) was studied. The effect of the extract on the activity of isolated cytochrome oxidase was also studied. Extract in the range of 0.68-2.72 microg/ml demonstrated potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity. Concentrations > or =5.4 microg/ml entirely inhibited MRC activity. The succinate oxidase system (MRC complexes II-IV) was the most potently inhibited, its activity at an extract concentration of 1.36 microg/ml being reduced by 63.3% compared with the control (p artichoke extracts may rely in part on the effects of their active compounds on the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain system.

  15. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  16. Reductions in the variations of respiration signals for respiratory-gated radiotherapy when using the video-coaching respiration guiding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Yea, Ji Woon; Oh, Se An

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT by using a video-coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by using a realtime position management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA), and the patients were trained using the video-coaching respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and the standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and the displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 48.8% in the inhale peak and 24.2% in the exhale peak compared with the values for the free breathing of patient 6. The standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was found to be decreased when using the respiratory guiding system. The respiratory regularity was significantly improved when using the video-coaching respiration guiding system. Therefore, the system is useful for improving the accuracy and the efficiency of RGRT.

  17. Power Flow Control of a Dual-Input Interleaved Buck/Boost Converter with Galvanic Isolation for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    DC microgrids or nanogrids have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Therefore, as a critical component, dc-dc converters with multiple inputs are required. In this paper, a dual-input interleaved buck/boost converter is proposed and its corresponding power flow control methods...

  18. Evaluation of the Educational Value of YouTube Videos About Physical Examination of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azer, Samy A; AlGrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. Objective This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. Methods During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three ass...

  19. Low-Flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Using the Hemolung Respiratory Dialysis System® to Facilitate Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanti, Bindu; Rajagopal, Keshava; Patel, Kirti P; Aravind, Sangeeta; Nunez-Centanu, Emmanuel; Hussain, Rahat; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Banjac, Igor S; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D; Loyalka, Pranav

    2017-06-01

    Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) permits reductions in alveolar ventilation requirements that the lungs would otherwise have to provide. This concept was applied to a case of hypercapnia refractory to high-level invasive mechanical ventilator support. We present a case of an 18-year-old man who developed post-pneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection of a mediastinal germ cell tumor involving the left lung hilum. Hypercapnia and hypoxemia persisted despite ventilator support even at traumatic levels. ECCO 2 R using a miniaturized system was instituted and provided effective carbon dioxide elimination. This facilitated establishment of lung-protective ventilator settings and lung function recovery. Extracorporeal lung support increasingly is being applied to treat ARDS. However, conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) generally involves using large cannulae capable of carrying high flow rates. A subset of patients with ARDS has mixed hypercapnia and hypoxemia despite high-level ventilator support. In the absence of profound hypoxemia, ECCO 2 R may be used to reduce ventilator support requirements to lung-protective levels, while avoiding risks associated with conventional ECMO.

  20. FEMSYN - a code system to solve multigroup diffusion theory equations using a variety of solution techniques. Part 1 : Description of code system - input and sample problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, V.

    1985-01-01

    A modular computer code system called FEMSYN has been developed to solve the multigroup diffusion theory equations. The various methods that are incorporated in FEMSYN are (i) finite difference method (FDM) (ii) finite element method (FEM) and (iii) single channel flux synthesis method (SCFS). These methods are described in detail in parts II, III and IV of the present report. In this report, a comparison of the accuracy and the speed of different methods of solution for some benchmark problems are reported. The input preparation and listing of sample input and output are included in the Appendices. The code FEMSYN has been used to solve a wide variety of reactor core problems. It can be used for both LWR and PHWR applications. (author)

  1. Determination of respiratory system compliance during pressure support ventilation by small variations of pressure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Tobias; Schädler, Dirk; Rostalski, Philipp; Zick, Günther; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert

    2017-09-22

    In mechanically ventilated patients, measurement of respiratory system compliance (C rs ) is of high clinical interest. Spontaneous breathing activity during pressure support ventilation (PSV) can impede the correct assessment of C rs and also alter the true C rs by inducing lung recruitment. We describe a method for determination of C rs during PSV and assess its accuracy in a study on 20 mechanically ventilated patients. To assess C rs during pressure support ventilation (C rs,PSV ), we performed repeated changes in pressure support level by ± 2 cmH 2 O. C rs,PSV was calculated from the volume change induced by these changes in pressure support level, taking into account the inspiration time and the expiratory time constant. As reference methods, we used C rs , measured during volume controlled ventilation (C rs,VCV ). In a post-hoc analysis, we assessed C rs during the last 20% of the volume-controlled inflation (C rs,VCV20 ). Values were compared by linear regression and Bland-Altman methods comparison. Comparing C rs,PSV to the reference value C rs,VCV , we found a coefficient of determination (r 2 ) of 0.90, but a relatively high bias of - 7 ml/cm H 2 O (95% limits of agreement - 16.7 to + 2.7 ml/cmH 2 O). Comparison with C rs,VCV20 resulted in a negligible bias (- 1.3 ml/cmH 2 O, 95% limits of agreement - 13.9 to + 11.3) and r 2 of 0.81. We conclude that the novel method provides an estimate of end-inspiratory C rs during PSV. Despite its limited accuracy, it might be useful for non-invasive monitoring of C rs in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation.

  2. Regulatory peptides in the upper respiratory system and oral cavity of man. An immunocytochemical and radioimmunological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser-Kronberger, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study a dense network of peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the upper respiratory system and the oral cavity of man was investigated. The occurrence, distribution and concentrations of regulatory peptide immunoreactivities in human nasal mucosa, soft palate, ventricular fold, vocal cord, epiglottis, subglottis, glandula submandibularis and glandula parotis were investigated using highly efficient immunocytochemical and radio-immunological methods. In the tissues investigated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and other derivatives from the VIP-precursor (peptide histidine methionine = PHM), prepro VIP (111-122)), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its C-flanking peptide (CPON), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neurokinin A, bombesin-flanking peptide and somatostatin were detected. The regulatory peptides demonstrated also included the recently isolated peptides helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). Single endocrine-like cells were for the first time demonstrated within the respiratory epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa and soft palate and in groups within ducts. Ultrastructural immunelectronmicroscopy was performed using an ABC-pre-embedding method. In addition, semithin Epon resin sections were immunostained. The concentrations of VIP, NPY, CGRP, substance P and neurokinin A were measured using radioimmunological methods. The peptide immunoreactivities demonstrated in a dense network of neuronal structures and endocrine cells give indication for the presence of a complex regulatory system with potent physiological mechanisms in the upper respiratory system and allocated tissues of man

  3. Bone histological correlates for air sacs and their implications for understanding the origin of the dinosaurian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Markus; Bertozzo, Filippo; Sander, P Martin

    2018-01-01

    Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively. The bone histology of this 'pneumosteal tissue' is markedly different from those regions where muscles attached presenting classical Sharpey's fibres. The pneumatized bones of several non-dinosaurian taxa do not exhibit the characteristics of this 'pneumosteum'. Our new histology-based approach thus can be instrumental in reconstructing the origin of air sacs among dinosaurs and hence for our understanding of this remarkable evolutionary novelty of the respiratory system. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. MODERN MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN. RECOURSES OF SYSTEM ANTI INFLAMMATORY TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of etiology and pathogenesis of acute respiratory infections in children are observed in this article. Modern approach to management of its treatment in pediatric patients, including often ailing children, is described. Authors give characteristics to main directions of treatment of obstructive syndrome. An experience of anti-inflammatory therapy with fenspiride (eurespal in children of different age is summa ized in this article.Key words: often ailing children, acute respiratory infections, bronchoobstructive syndrome, anti-inflammatory treatment, fenspiride.

  5. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  6. Respiratory failure following anti-lung serum: study on mechanisms associated with surfactant system damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, B.; Hallman, M.; Bergmann, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Within 2 minutes intravenous anti-lung serum (ALS) into guinea pig induces a respiratory failure that is fatal within 30 min. The relationship between surfactant, alveolar-capillary permeability and respiratory failure was studied. Within two minutes ALS induced a leak in the alveolar-capillary barrier. Within 30 minutes 28.3% (controls, given normal rabbit serum: 0.7%) of iv 131 I-albumin, and 0.5% (controls 0.02%) of iv surfactant phospholipid tracer were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, 57% (controls 32%) of the endotracheally administered surfactant phospholipid became associated with lung tissue and only less than 0.5% left the lung. The distribution of proteins and phospholipids between the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages and the ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavages were dissimilar: 84% (controls 20%) of intravenously injected, lavageable 131 I-albumin and 23% (controls 18%) of total lavageable phospholipid were recovered in the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages. ALS also decreased lavageable surfactant phospholipid by 41%. After ALS the minimum surface tension increased. The supernatant of the lavage increased the minimum surface tension of normal surfactant. In addition, the sediment fraction of the lavage had slow surface adsorption, and a marked reduction in 35,000 and 10,000 MW peptides. Exogenous surfactant ameliorated the ALS-induced respiratory failure. We propose that inhibition, altered intrapulmonary distribution, and dissociation of protein and phospholipid components of surfactant are important in early pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure

  7. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  8. Designing the input vector to ANN-based models for short-term load forecast in electricity distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.J.; Martins, A.G.; Pires, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present trend to electricity market restructuring increases the need for reliable short-term load forecast (STLF) algorithms, in order to assist electric utilities in activities such as planning, operating and controlling electric energy systems. Methodologies such as artificial neural networks (ANN) have been widely used in the next hour load forecast horizon with satisfactory results. However, this type of approach has had some shortcomings. Usually, the input vector (IV) is defined in a arbitrary way, mainly based on experience, on engineering judgment criteria and on concern about the ANN dimension, always taking into consideration the apparent correlations within the available endogenous and exogenous data. In this paper, a proposal is made of an approach to define the IV composition, with the main focus on reducing the influence of trial-and-error and common sense judgments, which usually are not based on sufficient evidence of comparative advantages over previous alternatives. The proposal includes the assessment of the strictly necessary instances of the endogenous variable, both from the point of view of the contiguous values prior to the forecast to be made, and of the past values representing the trend of consumption at homologous time intervals of the past. It also assesses the influence of exogenous variables, again limiting their presence at the IV to the indispensable minimum. A comparison is made with two alternative IV structures previously proposed in the literature, also applied to the distribution sector. The paper is supported by a real case study at the distribution sector. (author)

  9. Hybrid digital-analog video transmission in wireless multicast and multiple-input multiple-output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Xiaocheng; Fan, Nianfei; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless video multicast has become one of the key technologies in wireless applications. But the main challenge of conventional wireless video multicast, i.e., the cliff effect, remains unsolved. To overcome the cliff effect, a hybrid digital-analog (HDA) video transmission framework based on SoftCast, which transmits the digital bitstream with the quantization residuals, is proposed. With an effective power allocation algorithm and appropriate parameter settings, the residual gains can be maximized; meanwhile, the digital bitstream can assure transmission of a basic video to the multicast receiver group. In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, since nonuniform noise interference on different antennas can be regarded as the cliff effect problem, ParCast, which is a variation of SoftCast, is also applied to video transmission to solve it. The HDA scheme with corresponding power allocation algorithms is also applied to improve video performance. Simulations show that the proposed HDA scheme can overcome the cliff effect completely with the transmission of residuals. What is more, it outperforms the compared WSVC scheme by more than 2 dB when transmitting under the same bandwidth, and it can further improve performance by nearly 8 dB in MIMO when compared with the ParCast scheme.

  10. A Development of a System Enables Character Input and PC Operation via Voice for a Physically Disabled Person with a Speech Impediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Toshimasa; Egashira, Hiroyuki; Takata, Mayumi; Okazaki, Yasuhisa; Watanabe, Kenzi; Kondo, Hiroki

    We have designed and implemented a PC operation support system for a physically disabled person with a speech impediment via voice. Voice operation is an effective method for a physically disabled person with involuntary movement of the limbs and the head. We have applied a commercial speech recognition engine to develop our system for practical purposes. Adoption of a commercial engine reduces development cost and will contribute to make our system useful to another speech impediment people. We have customized commercial speech recognition engine so that it can recognize the utterance of a person with a speech impediment. We have restricted the words that the recognition engine recognizes and separated a target words from similar words in pronunciation to avoid misrecognition. Huge number of words registered in commercial speech recognition engines cause frequent misrecognition for speech impediments' utterance, because their utterance is not clear and unstable. We have solved this problem by narrowing the choice of input down in a small number and also by registering their ambiguous pronunciations in addition to the original ones. To realize all character inputs and all PC operation with a small number of words, we have designed multiple input modes with categorized dictionaries and have introduced two-step input in each mode except numeral input to enable correct operation with small number of words. The system we have developed is in practical level. The first author of this paper is physically disabled with a speech impediment. He has been able not only character input into PC but also to operate Windows system smoothly by using this system. He uses this system in his daily life. This paper is written by him with this system. At present, the speech recognition is customized to him. It is, however, possible to customize for other users by changing words and registering new pronunciation according to each user's utterance.

  11. Development of respiratory motion reduction device system (RMRDs) for radiotherapy in moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk; Yang, Dae-Sik; Choil, Myung-Sun; Kim, Chui-Yong

    2004-01-01

    The internal target volume (ITV) for tumors in the abdomen or thorax includes sufficient margin for breathing-related movement of tumor volumes during treatment. Depending on the location of the tumor, the magnitude of the ITV margin extends from 1 to 3 cm, which increases substantially the volume of the irradiated normal tissue, hence resulting in an increase in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). We developed a simple and handy method which can reduce ITV margins in patients with moving tumors: the respiratory motion reduction device system (RMRDs). The patient's clinical database was structured for moving tumor patients and patient set-up error measurement and immobilization device effects were investigated. The system is composed of the respiration presser device (RPD) utilized in the prone position and the abdominal strip device (ASD) utilized in the supine position, and the analysis program, which enables analysis of patient set-up reproducibility. It was tested for analyzing the diaphragm movement from patients with RMRDs, the magnitude of the ITV margin was determined and the dose-volume histogram (DVH) was computed using treatment planning software. The dose to normal tissue in patients with and without RMRDs was analyzed by comparing the fraction of the normal liver receiving 50% of the isocenter dose. Average diaphragm movement due to respiration was 16±1.9 mm in the case of the supine position, and 12±1.9 mm in the case of the prone position. When utilizing the RMRDs, which was personally developed in our hospital, the value was reduced to 5±1.4 mm, and in the case in which the belt immobilization device was utilized, the value was reduced to 3±0.9 mm. In the case where the strip device was utilized, the value was proven to reduce to 4±0.3 mm. As a result of analyzing the volume of normal liver where 50% of the prescription dose is irradiated in DVH according to the radiation treatment planning, the use of the RMRD can create a reduction

  12. Combined effects of leaks, respiratory system properties and upper airway patency on the performance of home ventilators: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaixian; Rabec, Claudio; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Hardy, Sébastien; Aouf, Sami; Escourrou, Pierre; Roisman, Gabriel

    2017-11-21

    Combined effects of leaks, mechanical property of respiratory system and upper airway (UA) patency on patient-ventilator synchrony (PVA) and the level of clinically "tolerable" leaks are not well established in home ventilators. We comparatively assessed on a bench model, the highest leak level tolerated without inducing significant asynchrony ("critical leak") in three home ventilators (Astral 150, Trilogy 100 and Vivo 60; noted as A150, T100 and V60 respectively) subjected to three simulated diseased respiratory conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity hypoventilation (OHS) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD), with both open and closed UA. Also, total leak values in the device reports were compared to the bench-measured values. With open UA, all ventilators were able to avoid asynchrony up to a 30 L/min leak and even to 55 L/min in some cases. UA closure and respiratory diseases especially OHS influenced PVA. With closed UA, the critical leak of A150 and T100 remained higher than 55 L/min in COPD and OHS, while for V60 decreased to 41 and 33 L/min respectively. In NMD with closed UA, only T100 reached a high critical leak of 69 L/min. Besides, inspiratory trigger sensitivity change was often necessary to avoid PVA. Home ventilators were able to avoid PVA in high-level leak conditions. However, asynchrony appeared in cases of abnormal mechanical properties of respiratory system or closed UA. In case of closed UA, the EPAP should be adjusted prior to the inspiratory trigger. Not applicable.

  13. Robust fault detection and isolation technique for single-input/single-output closed-loop control systems that exhibit actuator and sensor faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Alavi, S. M. Mahdi; Hayes, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated quantitative feedback design and frequency-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach is presented for single-input/single-output systems. A novel design methodology, based on shaping the system frequency response, is proposed to generate an appropriate residual signal...

  14. Assessment of dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacà, Raffaele L; Zannin, Emanuela; Ventura, Maria L; Sancini, Giulio; Pedotti, Antonio; Tagliabue, Paolo; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    1) To investigate the possibility of estimating respiratory system impedance (Zrs, forced oscillation technique) by using high-amplitude pressure oscillations delivered during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; 2) to characterize the relationship between Zrs and continuous distending pressure during an increasing/decreasing continuous distending pressure trial; 3) to evaluate how the optimal continuous distending pressure identified by Zrs relates to the point of maximal curvature of the deflation limb of the quasi-static pressure-volume curve. Prospective laboratory animal investigation. Experimental medicine laboratory. Eight New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were ventilated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Zrs was measured while continuous distending pressure was increased and decreased between 2 and 26 cm H2O in 1-minute steps of 4 cm H2O. At each step, a low-amplitude (6 cm H2O) sinusoidal signal was alternated with a high-amplitude (18 cm H2O) asymmetric high-frequency oscillatory ventilation square pressure waveform. Pressure-volume curves were determined at the end of the continuous distending pressure trial. All measurements were repeated after bronchoalveolar lavage. Zrs was estimated from flow and pressure measured at the inlet of the tracheal tube and expressed as resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). Linear correlation between the values, measured by applying the small-amplitude sinusoidal signal and the ventilator waveform, was good for Xrs (r = 0.95 ± 0.04) but not for Rrs (r = 0.60 ± 0.34). Following lavage, the Xrs-continuous distending pressure curves presented a maximum on the deflation limb, identifying an optimal continuous distending pressure that was, on average, 1.1 ± 1.7 cm H2O below the point of maximal curvature of the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curves. Xrs can be accurately measured during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation without interrupting ventilation and/or connecting additional devices. An optimal

  15. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P increased mean mealtime, frequency, and mean inter

  16. Effects of bedding systems selected by manual muscle testing on sleep and sleep-related respiratory disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Liu, Hau-Min

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying manual muscle testing (MMT) for bedding selection and examined the bedding effect on sleep. Four lay testers with limited training in MMT performed muscle tests for the selection of the bedding systems from five different mattresses and eight different pillows for 14 participants with mild sleep-related respiratory disturbances. For each participant individually, two bedding systems-one inducing stronger muscle forces and the other inducing weaker forces-were selected. The tester-participant pairs showed 85% and 100% agreement, respectively, for the selection of mattresses and pillows that induced the strongest muscle forces. The firmness of the mattress and the height of the pillow were significantly correlated with the body weight and body mass index of the participants for the selected strong bedding system but not for the weak bedding system. Finally, differences were observed between the strong and the weak bedding systems with regard to sleep-related respiratory disturbances and the percentage of slow-wave sleep. It was concluded that MMT can be performed by inexperienced testers for the selection of bedding systems.

  17. Keeping in Touch With the Visual System: Spatial Alignment and Multisensory Integration of Visual-Somatosensory Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Rose Mahoney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Correlated sensory inputs coursing along the individual sensory processing hierarchies arrive at multisensory convergence zones in cortex where inputs are processed in an integrative manner. The exact hierarchical level of multisensory convergence zones and the timing of their inputs are still under debate, although increasingly, evidence points to multisensory integration at very early sensory processing levels. The objective of the current study was to determine, both psychophysically and electrophysiologically, whether differential visual-somatosensory integration patterns exist for stimuli presented to the same versus opposite hemifields. Using high-density electrical mapping and complementary psychophysical data, we examined multisensory integrative processing for combinations of visual and somatosensory inputs presented to both left and right spatial locations. We assessed how early during sensory processing visual-somatosensory (VS interactions were seen in the event-related potential and whether spatial alignment of the visual and somatosensory elements resulted in differential integration effects. Reaction times to all VS pairings were significantly faster than those to the unisensory conditions, regardless of spatial alignment, pointing to engagement of integrative multisensory processing in all conditions. In support, electrophysiological results revealed significant differences between multisensory simultaneous VS and summed V+S responses, regardless of the spatial alignment of the constituent inputs. Nonetheless, multisensory effects were earlier in the aligned conditions, and were found to be particularly robust in the case of right-sided inputs (beginning at just 55ms. In contrast to previous work on audio-visual and audio-somatosensory inputs, the current work suggests a degree of spatial specificity to the earliest detectable multisensory integrative effects in response to visual-somatosensory pairings.

  18. Use of an expert system for the data acquisition input of a computer software for materials flux of an irradiated fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrier, N.; Castelli, P.

    1993-01-01

    An irradiated fuel reprocessing plant products purified plutonium and all sorts of wastes. PROBILUS program has been developed to calculate the transfer flux of materials. The data acquisition input being long, an expert system MARCMOD has been realized. PROBILUS was conceived like a standards collection. We wanted to automate the tedious tasks, to decrease the output result delays, and to improve the result quality. That is the reason why an expert system MARCMOD with a graphic interface has been carried out. With this tool the user may describe graphically his process, check the coherence of acquired informations, generate automatically the whole input data of PROBILUS, and change by interaction some predefined data

  19. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  20. A Two-Dimensional Human Minilung System (Model for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Magro-Lopez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of serious pediatric respiratory diseases that lacks effective vaccine or specific therapeutics. Although our understanding about HRSV biology has dramatically increased during the last decades, the need for adequate models of HRSV infection is compelling. We have generated a two-dimensional minilung from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. The differentiation protocol yielded at least six types of lung and airway cells, although it is biased toward the generation of distal cells. We show evidence of HRSV replication in lung cells, and the induction of innate and proinflammatory responses, thus supporting its use as a model for the study of HRSV–host interactions.

  1. The Molybdenum Isotope System as a Tracer of Slab Input in Subduction Zones: An Example From Martinique, Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschnig, Richard M.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wang, Xiangli; Asael, Dan; Chauvel, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Molybdenum isotopes are fractionated by Earth-surface processes and may provide a tracer for the recycling of crustal material into the mantle. Here, we examined the Mo isotope composition of arc lavas from Martinique in the Lesser Antilles arc, along with Cretaceous and Cenozoic Deep Sea Drilling Project sediments representing potential sedimentary inputs into the subduction zone. Mo stable isotope composition (defined as δ98Mo in ‰ deviation from the NIST 3134 standard) in lavas older than ˜7 million years (Ma) exhibits a narrow range similar to and slightly higher than MORB, whereas those younger than ˜7 Ma show a much greater range and extend to unusually low δ98Mo values. Sediments from DSDP Leg 78A, Site 543 have uniformly low δ98Mo values whereas Leg 14, Site 144 contains both sediments with isotopically light Mo and Mo-enriched black shales with isotopically heavy Mo. When coupled with published radiogenic isotope data, Mo isotope systematics of the lavas can be explained through binary mixing between a MORB-like end-member and different sedimentary compositions identified in the DSDP cores. The lavas older than ˜7 Ma were influenced by incorporation of isotopically heavy black shales into the mantle wedge. The younger lavas are the product of mixing isotopically light sedimentary material into the mantle wedge. The change in Mo isotope composition of the lavas at ˜7 Ma is interpreted to reflect the removal of the Cretaceous black shale component due to the arrival of younger ocean crust where the age-equivalent Cretaceous sediments were deposited in shallower oxic waters. Isotopic fractionation of Mo during its removal from the slab is not required to explain the observed systematics in this system.

  2. Proposing Wavelet-Based Low-Pass Filter and Input Filter to Improve Transient Response of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.

  3. Interfield dysbalances in research input and output benchmarking: Visualisation by density equalizing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical, social and economic reasons can lead to major differences in the allocation of health system resources and research funding. These differences might endanger the progress in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of socio-economic important diseases. The present study aimed to assess different benchmarking approaches that might be used to analyse these disproportions. Research in two categories was analysed for various output parameters and compared to input parameters. Germany was used as a high income model country. For the areas of cardiovascular and respiratory medicine density equalizing mapping procedures visualized major geographical differences in both input and output markers. Results An imbalance in the state financial input was present with 36 cardiovascular versus 8 respiratory medicine state-financed full clinical university departments at the C4/W3 salary level. The imbalance in financial input is paralleled by an imbalance in overall quantitative output figures: The 36 cardiology chairs published 2708 articles in comparison to 453 articles published by the 8 respiratory medicine chairs in the period between 2002 and 2006. This is a ratio of 75.2 articles per cardiology chair and 56.63 articles per respiratory medicine chair. A similar trend is also present in the qualitative measures. Here, the 2708 cardiology publications were cited 48337 times (7290 times for respiratory medicine which is an average citation of 17.85 per publication vs. 16.09 for respiratory medicine. The average number of citations per cardiology chair was 1342.69 in contrast to 911.25 citations per respiratory medicine chair. Further comparison of the contribution of the 16 different German states revealed major geographical differences concerning numbers of chairs, published items, total number of citations and average citations. Conclusion Despite similar significances of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for the global

  4. SU-F-J-129: Verification of Geometric and Dosimetric Accuracy of Respiratory Management Systems Using Homemade Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksel, E; Kucucuk, H; Senkesen, O [Acibadem Kozyatgi Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Tezcanli, E [Acibadem University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Different placements of Infrared Cameras (IRC) in CT and treatment rooms can cause gating window level (GWL) variations leading to differences between GWL used for planning and treatments. Although, Varian Clinac DHX-OBI sytem and CT are equipped with the same kind of IRC, Truebeam STx (TB) has a different type of IRC known as banana type. In this study; geometric and dosimetric accuracy of respiratory management system (RPM) for different machines were investigated with a special homemade phantom. Methods: Special phantom was placed on the respiratory simulator machine and a CT data set was obtained at the end of the expirium phase (EOE). Conformal and IMRT plans were generated on the EOE CT image series for both DHX-OBI and TB LINACs while a VMAT plan was generated only for TB.The acquired respiratory graphs in the CT were directly sent to DHX-OBI system, and they were converted with software before sending to TB. EBT3 films were placed inside the phantom and were irradiated using RPM system with two machines for different plans. Planar dose distributions were compared with gamma analysis (GA) method (3mm, %3) to evaluate planned-measured dose differences. In addition, radio-opac marker was placed in the center of the phantom to evaluate the geometric accuracy of treatment field with gated flouroscopy (GF). Results: There were no shifts detected between planning and treeatment GWL for both DHX-OBI and TB. Difference on the GF image between digital graticule and radio-opac marker was <1mm for TB and 1mm for DHX-OBI. Although, GA agreement was 97% for conformal and IMRT techniques in TB, it was 96% for VMAT technique. While GA agreement was 98% for conformal technique in DHX-OBI, IMRT was 95%.ConclusionThis study showed that RPM can be used accurately in spite of different IRC placements or different types of ICR used.

  5. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  6. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  7. Computational Models and Emergent Properties of Respiratory Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce G.; Rybak, Ilya A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of the neural control system for breathing in mammals provide a theoretical and computational framework bringing together experimental data obtained from different animal preparations under various experimental conditions. Many of these models were developed in parallel and iteratively with experimental studies and provided predictions guiding new experiments. This data-driven modeling approach has advanced our understanding of respiratory network architecture and neural mechanisms underlying generation of the respiratory rhythm and pattern, including their functional reorganization under different physiological conditions. Models reviewed here vary in neurobiological details and computational complexity and span multiple spatiotemporal scales of respiratory control mechanisms. Recent models describe interacting populations of respiratory neurons spatially distributed within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes and rostral ventrolateral medulla that contain core circuits of the respiratory central pattern generator (CPG). Network interactions within these circuits along with intrinsic rhythmogenic properties of neurons form a hierarchy of multiple rhythm generation mechanisms. The functional expression of these mechanisms is controlled by input drives from other brainstem components, including the retrotrapezoid nucleus and pons, which regulate the dynamic behavior of the core circuitry. The emerging view is that the brainstem respiratory network has rhythmogenic capabilities at multiple levels of circuit organization. This allows flexible, state-dependent expression of different neural pattern-generation mechanisms under various physiological conditions, enabling a wide repertoire of respiratory behaviors. Some models consider control of the respiratory CPG by pulmonary feedback and network reconfiguration during defensive behaviors such as cough. Future directions in modeling of the respiratory CPG are considered. PMID:23687564

  8. Joint input shaping and feedforward for point-to-point motion : automated tuning for an industrial nanopositioning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeren, F.A.J.; Bruijnen, D.J.H.; Dijk, van N.J.M.; Oomen, T.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Feedforward control can effectively compensate for the servo error induced by the reference signal if it is tuned appropriately. This paper aims to introduce a new joint input shaping and feedforward parametrization in iterative feedforward control. Such a parametrization has the potential to

  9. Assessing sustainability of low-external-input farm management systems with the nutrient monitoring approach: a case study in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.; Onduru, D.; Wijk, van M.S.; Vlaming, J.; Gachini, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the search for Integrated Nutrient Management practices in response to the widely observed soil fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa, the potential of low-external-input and organic farming remains to be systematically examined. The nutrient monitoring concept was used to assess the impact of

  10. A fluid system with coupled input and output, and its application to bottlenecks in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.; Roijers, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a fluid queue with coupled input and output. Flows arrive according to a Poisson process, and when n flows are present, each of them transmits traffic into the queue at a rate c/(n+1), where the remaining c/(n+1) is used to serve the queue. We assume exponentially distributed flow

  11. A fluid system with coupled input and output, and its application to bottlenecks in ad hoc networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Roijers, F.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies a fluid queue with coupled input and output. Flows arrive according to a Poisson process, and when n flows are present, each of them transmits traffic into the queue at a rate c/(n+1), where the remaining c/(n+1) is used to serve the queue. We

  12. The Impact of Input and Output Prices on The Household Economic Behavior of Rice-Livestock Integrated Farming System (Rlifs) and Non Rlifs Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindawati, L.; Kusnadi, N.; Kuntjoro, S. U.; Swastika, D. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated farming system is a system that emphasized linkages and synergism of farming units waste utilization. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of input and output prices on both Rice Livestock Integrated Farming System (RLIFS) and non RLIFS farmers. The study used econometric model in the form of a simultaneous equations system consisted of 36 equations (18 behavior and 18 identity equations). The impact of changes in some variables was obtained through simulation of input and output prices on simultaneous equations. The results showed that the price increasing of the seed, SP-36, urea, medication/vitamins, manure, bran, straw had negative impact on production of the rice, cow, manure, bran, straw and household income. The decrease in the rice and cow production, production input usage, allocation of family labor, rice and cow business income was greater in RLIFS than non RLIFS farmers. The impact of rising rice and cow cattle prices in the two groups of farmers was not too much different because (1) farming waste wasn’t used effectively (2) manure and straw had small proportion of production costs. The increase of input and output price didn’t have impact on production costs and household expenditures on RLIFS.

  13. Input and service provision supply methods in mixed crop-livestock production systems in South-Ethiopia: Improvement options from a dairy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, T.; Lee, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Dale and Shebedino districts of southern Ethiopia during the period October 2014 to January 2015. It investigates dairy-related input and service provision in mixed crop-livestock production systems. Data were collected from 120 dairy producers, six focus group

  14. Effects of Asian sand dust particles on the respiratory and immune system.

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Akiko; Matsuda, Yugo; Murayama, Rumiko; Tsuji, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koike, Eiko; Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that Asian sand dust (ASD) particles can affect respiratory health; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ASD on airway epithelial cells and immune cells, and their contributing factors to the effects. Human airway epithelial cells were exposed to ASD collected on 1-3 May (ASD1) and on 12-14 May (ASD2) 2011 in Japan and heat-treated ASD1 for excluding heat-sensitive substances (H-ASD) at a concentration of 0, 3, 30 or 90 µg ...

  15. Variable Ventilation Improved Respiratory System Mechanics and Ameliorated Pulmonary Damage in a Rat Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluri-Martins, André; Moraes, Lillian; Santos, Raquel S; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2017-01-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major complication after lung transplantation. Variable ventilation (VV) has been shown to improve respiratory function and reduce pulmonary histological damage compared to protective volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in different models of lung injury induced by endotoxin, surfactant depletion by saline lavage, and hydrochloric acid. However, no study has compared the biological impact of VV vs. VCV in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, which has a complex pathophysiology different from that of other experimental models. Thirty-six animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) ischemia-reperfusion (IR), in which the left pulmonary hilum was completely occluded and released after 30 min; and (2) Sham, in which animals underwent the same surgical manipulation but without hilar clamping. Immediately after surgery, the left (IR-injured) and right (contralateral) lungs from 6 animals per group were removed, and served as non-ventilated group (NV) for molecular biology analysis. IR and Sham groups were further randomized to one of two ventilation strategies: VCV ( n = 6/group) [tidal volume (V T ) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 2 cmH 2 O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) = 0.4]; or VV, which was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated V T values ( n = 1200; mean V T = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. After 5 min of ventilation and at the end of a 2-h period (Final), respiratory system mechanics and arterial blood gases were measured. At Final, lungs were removed for histological and molecular biology analyses. Respiratory system elastance and alveolar collapse were lower in VCV than VV (mean ± SD, VCV 3.6 ± 1.3 cmH 2 0/ml and 2.0 ± 0.8 cmH 2 0/ml, p = 0.005; median [interquartile range], VCV 20.4% [7.9-33.1] and VV 5.4% [3.1-8.8], p = 0.04, respectively). In left lungs of IR animals, VCV increased the expression of interleukin-6 and

  16. Variable Ventilation Improved Respiratory System Mechanics and Ameliorated Pulmonary Damage in a Rat Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. M. Rocco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major complication after lung transplantation. Variable ventilation (VV has been shown to improve respiratory function and reduce pulmonary histological damage compared to protective volume-controlled ventilation (VCV in different models of lung injury induced by endotoxin, surfactant depletion by saline lavage, and hydrochloric acid. However, no study has compared the biological impact of VV vs. VCV in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, which has a complex pathophysiology different from that of other experimental models. Thirty-six animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1 ischemia-reperfusion (IR, in which the left pulmonary hilum was completely occluded and released after 30 min; and (2 Sham, in which animals underwent the same surgical manipulation but without hilar clamping. Immediately after surgery, the left (IR-injured and right (contralateral lungs from 6 animals per group were removed, and served as non-ventilated group (NV for molecular biology analysis. IR and Sham groups were further randomized to one of two ventilation strategies: VCV (n = 6/group [tidal volume (VT = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 2 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 = 0.4]; or VV, which was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (n = 1200; mean VT = 6 mL/kg, with a 30% coefficient of variation. After 5 min of ventilation and at the end of a 2-h period (Final, respiratory system mechanics and arterial blood gases were measured. At Final, lungs were removed for histological and molecular biology analyses. Respiratory system elastance and alveolar collapse were lower in VCV than VV (mean ± SD, VCV 3.6 ± 1.3 cmH20/ml and 2.0 ± 0.8 cmH20/ml, p = 0.005; median [interquartile range], VCV 20.4% [7.9–33.1] and VV 5.4% [3.1–8.8], p = 0.04, respectively. In left lungs of IR animals, VCV increased the expression of interleukin-6 and intercellular

  17. Trigeminal, Visceral and Vestibular Inputs May Improve Cognitive Functions by Acting through the Locus Coeruleus and the Ascending Reticular Activating System: A New Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Cicco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sensory signals sustain the background discharge of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS which includes the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC neurons and controls the level of attention and alertness. Moreover, LC neurons influence brain metabolic activity, gene expression and brain inflammatory processes. As a consequence of the sensory control of ARAS/LC, stimulation of a sensory channel may potential influence neuronal activity and trophic state all over the brain, supporting cognitive functions and exerting a neuroprotective action. On the other hand, an imbalance of the same input on the two sides may lead to an asymmetric hemispheric excitability, leading to an impairment in cognitive functions. Among the inputs that may drive LC neurons and ARAS, those arising from the trigeminal region, from visceral organs and, possibly, from the vestibular system seem to be particularly relevant in regulating their activity. The trigeminal, visceral and vestibular control of ARAS/LC activity may explain why these input signals: (1 affect sensorimotor and cognitive functions which are not directly related to their specific informational content; and (2 are effective in relieving the symptoms of some brain pathologies, thus prompting peripheral activation of these input systems as a complementary approach for the treatment of cognitive impairments and neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Orexin receptor activation generates gamma band input to cholinergic and serotonergic arousal system neurons and drives an intrinsic Ca2+-dependent resonance in LDT and PPT cholinergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eIshibashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30-60 Hz - a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculopontine (PPT tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4 - 14 Hz and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep and intracortical

  19. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  20. Diagnosis and epidemiology of respiratory system diseases due to plant dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicki, J.W.; Indulski, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Of the respiratory tract diseases - byssinosis - i.e. the disease diagnosed in textile industry workers has aroused interest and controversies for many years. In Western Europe Countries the USA, Egypt and Pakistan this disease was diagnosed in more than half of the workers employed at cotton processing. Epidemiological data imply that in Eastern and Middle Europe few authors diagnose byssinosis in the population exposed to vegetable dusts. In the Soviet Union, the greatest cotton producer in the world, processing the greatest amounts of this raw material in the textile industry, medical examinations carried out in different centres did not show byssinosis symptoms in textile workers, that would apply to Schilling's criteria. Vegetable dusts inherent in agricultural and food industry largely promote the occurrence of nonspecific respiratory tract diseases. They are diagnosed as chronic bronchitis, which at dusted workstations are the mean cause of sickness absenteeism. The preventive activities aimed at the reduction of hazardous effects of dust upon organism would consist mostly in application of technical measures, i.e. technological processes hermetization and ventilation and only in scarce cases - in the use of good antidust personal protective measures.