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Sample records for respiratory stress test

  1. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  2. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  3. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  4. What Is Stress Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... would during exercise. You can then have the stress test. The medicine may make you flushed and anxious, but the effects go away as soon as the test is over. The medicine also may give you a headache. While you're exercising or getting medicine to ...

  5. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  6. Nonexercise cardiac stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T.

    1989-01-01

    Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references

  7. The influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert; Bovberg, Dana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the available evidence for the hypothesis that reduced resistance caused by psychological stress may influence the development of clinical disease in those exposed to an infectious agent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 prospective studies...... examining the association between psychological stress and subsequent upper respiratory infection (URI). RESULTS: The results revealed a significant overall main effect of psychological stress on the risk of developing URI (effect size correlation coefficient, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.......15-0.27). Further analyses showed that effect sizes for the association did not vary according to type of stress, how URI was assessed, or whether the studies had controlled for preexposure. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analytical findings confirmed the hypothesis that psychological stress is associated with increased...

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/respiratorysyncytialvirusrsvtest.html Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Test To use the sharing ... is an RSV test? RSV , which stands for respiratory syncytial virus, is an infection that affects the ...

  9. Training in multiple breath washout testing for respiratory physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Katherine; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M; O'Neill, Philip; Rowan, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Bradley, Judy M

    2018-03-01

    The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists. The respiratory Multidisciplinary Team in the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust (BHSCT) identified a need for MBW testing to be available to facilitate clinical research and assessment. A 2day training programme consisting of prereading preparation, self-directed learning, theory presentations, practical demonstrations and hands-on practice was developed and delivered. All participants underwent a certification process. We have demonstrated the successful training and certification of clinical and research physiotherapists and encourage other respiratory physiotherapists to consider MBW test training. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory gas collection system. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Industrial- type mask wear is thought to impair exercise performance through increased respiratory dead space, flow ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  12. Emotions and stress increase respiratory resistance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, T; Steptoe, A; DeWilde, S; Costa, M

    2000-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that various emotions and types of stress can precipitate asthmatic symptoms, but there is little experimental evidence to substantiate this claim. We studied the impact of different emotional states and stress on respiratory resistance in asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals. Participants (24 asthmatic and 24 nonasthmatic patients) viewed short film sequences selected to induce anxiety, anger, depression, elation, happiness, contentment, or a neutral affective state and completed two stressful tasks, mental arithmetic to induce active coping efforts and viewing of medical slides to induce passive coping efforts. Oscillatory resistance, heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, skin conductance level, respiration rate and volume, and self-reported affective state were measured throughout the session. Uniform increases in oscillatory resistance were found in all emotional states compared with the neutral state and during mental arithmetic in both groups. Asthmatic patients showed stronger reactions to the medical slides than healthy control subjects, with significant increases in oscillatory resistance, blood pressure, skin conductance level, and minute volume, as well as higher levels of self-reported depression, arousal, and shortness of breath. Changes in oscillatory resistance were inconsistently correlated with other physiological indices. Various emotional states and stress increase oscillatory resistance largely independently of concurrent increases in autonomic or ventilatory activity. The particular sensitivity of asthmatics to passive coping demand requires additional research.

  13. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  14. Association between Occupational Stress and Respiratory Symptoms among Lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Y., Nur Aqilah; J., Juliana

    2012-01-01

    There was considerable evidence that a subject’s psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied. PMID:23121752

  15. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  16. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Lorenz, P.

    2012-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  17. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, A. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria); Lorenz, P. [ed.; Becker, O. [eds.; Weber, U. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  18. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  19. Scintigraphic ventriculography and stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goris, M.L.; Hung, J.; Debusk, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Scintigraphic stress ventriculography yields information which is complex and defies description by the difference in ejection fraction between rest and maximum exercise only. The complexity results in part from the ''derived'' nature of the ejection fraction measurement, which is physiologically secondary to stroke volume and end-diastolic volume. Furthermore, the nature of the stress test in which the pulse (stress) is not independent from the response forces an analysis which considers ''when'' as much as ''what'' happens. Automation in data processing, however, has made oversimplification unnecessary and allows a more exhaustive but correct analysis

  20. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  1. Stress testing in financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 the Basle Committee on the Global Financial System defined stress testing as 'a generic term describing various techniques used by financial firms to gauge their potential vulnerability to exceptional but plausible events'. Exceptional events refer to one-off or recurring events with far-reaching consequences for the concerned financial institution and the financial sector s stability overall. Such unexpected (exceptional events include, for instance: bankruptcy in Argentina in 2001, stock markets collapse ('Black Monday' on 19 October 1987, or the fall of the energy giant Enron in 2001. The adoption of the new Basle Accord (better known as Basle II in 2001 envisaged the implementation of stress tests for the identification of events and future changes in economic circumstances that could cause some unfavorable effects on banks' credit exposure, along with the assessment of banks' ability to survive in the new circumstances. Negative experiences from the past, having undermined the stability of financial systems worldwide, made a decisive impact on regulators at all levels to additionally consider the issue of increasing the financial system's resistance to the occurrence of unexpected - exceptional events. To this end, the introduction of stress tests was the turning point in the process of increased banking systems' resistance to shocks. This paper primarily deals with stress testing methodology and bank risk measurement techniques, along with the main results of conducted tests, directly impacting the entire financial system.

  2. 77 FR 3408 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (``OCC... certain companies to conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective... stress test as prescribed by this proposed rule. In addition to the annual stress test requirement, such...

  3. Sex-Specific Consequences of Neonatal Stress on Cardio-Respiratory Inhibition Following Laryngeal Stimulation in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy, Cécile; Chamberland, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The presence of liquid near the larynx of immature mammals triggers prolonged apneas with significant O2 desaturations and bradycardias. When excessive, this reflex (the laryngeal chemoreflex; LCR) can be fatal. Our understanding of the origins of abnormal LCR are limited; however, perinatal stress and male sex are risk factors for cardio-respiratory failure in infants. Because exposure to stress during early life has deleterious and sex-specific consequences on brain development it is plausible that respiratory reflexes are vulnerable to neuroendocrine dysfunction. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is sufficient to exacerbate LCR-induced cardio-respiratory inhibition in anesthetized rat pups. Stressed pups were separated from their mother 3 h/d from postnatal days 3 to 12. At P14–P15, pups were instrumented to monitor breathing, O2 saturation (Spo2), and heart rate. The LCR was activated by water injections near the larynx (10 µl). LCR-induced apneas were longer in stressed pups than controls; O2 desaturations and bradycardias were more profound, especially in males. NMS increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) of males but not females. The positive relationship between corticosterone and testosterone observed in stressed pups (males only) suggests that disruption of neuroendocrine function by stress is key to sex-based differences in abnormal LCR. Because testosterone application onto medullary slices augments EPSC amplitude only in males, we propose that testosterone-mediated enhancement of synaptic connectivity within the DMNV contributes to the male bias in cardio-respiratory inhibition following LCR activation in stressed pups. PMID:29308430

  4. Concordance in diagnostic testing for respiratory pathogens of bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Bonds, Michael D.; Brown, Daniel R.; Edwards, William H.; Weiser, Glen C.; Drew, Mark L.; Briggs, Robert E.; Fox, Karen A.; Miller, Michael W.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Besser, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic tests are essential for disease investigation and management. This is particularly true for diseases of free-ranging wildlife where sampling is logistically difficult precluding retesting. Clinical assays for wildlife diseases frequently vary among laboratories because of lack of appropriate standardized commercial kits. Results of diagnostic testing may also be called into question when investigators report different etiologies for disease outbreaks, despite similar clinical and pathologic findings. To evaluate reliability of diagnostic testing for respiratory pathogens of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we conducted a series of ring tests across 6 laboratories routinely involved in detection of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Pasteurellaceae, lktA (the Pasteurellaceae gene encoding leukotoxin), and 3 reference laboratories. Consistency of results for replicate samples within laboratories was high (median agreement = 1.0). Agreement between laboratories was high for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of M. ovipneumoniae and culture isolation of Mannheimia spp. and Bibersteinia trehalosi(median agreement = 0.89–0.95, Kappa = 0.65–0.74), and lower for PCR detection of Mannheimiaspp. lktA (median agreement = 0.58, Kappa = 0.12). Most errors on defined status samples were false negatives, suggesting test sensitivity was a greater problem than specificity. However, tests for M. haemolytica and lktA yielded some false positive results. Despite differences in testing protocols, median agreement among laboratories and correct classification of controls for most agents was ≥0.80, meeting or exceeding the standard required by federal proficiency testing programs. This information is valuable for interpreting test results, laboratory quality assessments, and advancing diagnosis of respiratory disease in wild sheep. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with mucoplysaccharidosis using pulmonary function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. El Falaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Evaluation and follow up of patients with MPS using pulmonary function tests are essential to detect early involvement of respiratory system and hence start treatment for respiratory complications early in the course of the disease.

  6. Attrition in Respiratory Care: Stress versus Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Timothy D.

    A recent study (Mathews, Lira, and Neis, 1984) indicated that the reason that respiratory therapists leave or intend to leave their profession is the desire for jobs which offer more job satisfaction, better salary, opportunity for advancement, more status or recognition, better work schedules, and better benefits. Although the lack of these…

  7. 77 FR 3166 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325, Subpart C RIN 3064-AD91 Annual Stress Test... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act'') regarding stress tests (``proposed rule... to conduct annual stress tests in accordance with the proposed rule, report the results of such...

  8. 77 FR 61238 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (``OCC... conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective primary financial... annual stress test as prescribed by this rule. Under the final rule covered institutions are divided into...

  9. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury... billion to conduct an annual stress test and comply with certain reporting and disclosure requirements. To... conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective Federal primary...

  10. Selection of mutants tolerant of oxidative stress from respiratory cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum C17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotta, T; Ianniello, R G; Guidone, A; Parente, E; Ricciardi, A

    2014-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium involved in the production of many fermented foods. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that aerobic or respiratory metabolism in this species leads to improved technological and stress response properties. We investigated respiratory growth, metabolite production and stress resistance of Lact. plantarum C17 during batch, fed-batch and chemostat cultivations under respiratory conditions. Sixty mutants were selected for their ability to tolerate oxidative stress using H2 O2 and menadione as selective agents and further screened for their capability to growth under anaerobic, respiratory and oxidative stress conditions. Dilution rate clearly affected the physiological state of cells and, generally, slow-growing cultures had improved survival to stresses, catalase production and oxygen uptake. Most mutants were more competitive in terms of biomass production and ROS degradation compared with wild-type strain (wt) C17 and two of these (C17-m19 and C17-m58) were selected for further experiments. This work confirms that, in Lact. plantarum, respiration and low growth rates confer physiological and metabolic advantages compared with anaerobic cultivation. Our strategy of natural selection successfully provides a rapid and inexpensive screening for a large number of strains and represents a food-grade approach of practical relevance in the production of starter and probiotic cultures. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Effects of salbutamol combined with ulinastatin on respiratory function, inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD patients with laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effects salbutamol combined with ulinastatin on respiratory function, inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD patients with laparoscopic surgery. Methods: A total of 76 cases of COPD patients were brought into the study. They were randomly divided into observation group (n=38 who accepted salbutamol combined with ulinastatin treatment and the control group (n=38 who accepted single salbutamol treatment. All patients’ respiratory function and inflammation levels and different levels of oxidative stress were tested. Results: After the treatment, the observation group patients’ in-surgery SpO2 and Compl levels were higher than the control group’s, while PETCO2, Paw and Raw levels were lower than those of the control group. The in-surgery AAT, ESR, NPT, AAG and SAA levels of the observation group patients were significantly lower than those of the control group. After the treatment, the observation group patients’ in-surgery GR, CAT, GPX1 and TXNL1 levels were higher than the control group’s, while LOX-1 level was lower than that of the control group. Conclusions: COPD patients receiving salbutamol combined with ulinastatin treatment can significantly improve the respiratory function in surgery, and reduce systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.

  12. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilanus, T. B. M.; Groothuis, J. T.; TenBroek-Pastoor, J. M. C.; Feuth, T. B.; Heijdra, Y. F.; Slenders, J. P. L.; Doorduin, J.; Van Engelen, B. G.; Kampelmacher, M. J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. METHODS: We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity...

  13. Biaxial Stress Tests of Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Cho, M.S.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Containment concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) were tested under biaxial stress and presented basic physical properties and biaxial failure envelops for the concrete specimens. Failure behaviors of concrete under biaxial stress were assessed with stress-strain responses and failure modes. Here provided real test data to develop nonlinear finite element concrete models. (author). 15 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  15. Stress Testing with Student's t Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we propose the use of the Student's t dependence function to model dependence between asset returns when conducting stress tests. To properly include stress testing in a risk management system, it is important to have accurate information about the (joint) probabilities of

  16. Genetic Testing for Respiratory Disease: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Paré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genome project promised a revolution in health care – the development of ‘personalized medicine’, where knowledge of an individual’s genetic code enables the prediction of risk for specific diseases and the potential to alter that risk based on preventive measures and lifestyle modification. The present brief review provides a report card on the progress toward that goal with respect to respiratory disease. Should generalized population screening for genetic risk factors for respiratory disease be instituted? Or not?

  17. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  18. Respiratory panic disorder subtype and sensitivity to the carbon dioxide challenge test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Valença

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify the sensitivity to the carbon dioxide (CO2 challenge test of panic disorder (PD patients with respiratory and nonrespiratory subtypes of the disorder. Our hypothesis is that the respiratory subtype is more sensitive to 35% CO2. Twenty-seven PD subjects with or without agoraphobia were classified into respiratory and nonrespiratory subtypes on the basis of the presence of respiratory symptoms during their panic attacks. The tests were carried out in a double-blind manner using two mixtures: 1 35% CO2 and 65% O2, and 2 100% atmospheric compressed air, 20 min apart. The tests were repeated after 2 weeks during which the participants in the study did not receive any psychotropic drugs. At least 15 of 16 (93.7% respiratory PD subtype patients and 5 of 11 (43.4% nonrespiratory PD patients had a panic attack during one of two CO2 challenges (P = 0.009, Fisher exact test. Respiratory PD subtype patients were more sensitive to the CO2 challenge test. There was agreement between the severity of PD measured by the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale and the subtype of PD. Higher CGI scores in the respiratory PD subtype could reflect a greater sensitivity to the CO2 challenge due to a greater severity of PD. Carbon dioxide challenges in PD may define PD subtypes and their underlying mechanisms.

  19. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-08

    Nov 8, 2008 ... Pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation were analysed with ... dioxide production (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE), respiratory rate. (fR) and .... Protective masks typically have a dead space of 150 - 500 ml and flow resistance of 8.0. - 10.0 cm H2O∙l-1∙s-1 compared with 70 - 150 ml dead space and 0.6 -.

  20. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  1. Stress testing - ettevaatliku investori abimees / Peeter Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Peeter

    2005-01-01

    Autor selgitab stress testingut kui investeerimisportfelli varade väärtuse hindamist ning tutvustab selle võimalusi ja ohtusid. Diagrammid: Portfelli testimis-stsenaariumiks sobivad hästi börsikrahhid. Vt. samas: Stress testing toimib ka mujal

  2. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  3. Cold stress decreases the capacity for respiratory NADH oxidation in potato leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Å.S.; Johansson, F.I.; Møller, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    is 10% of the original level. This decrease is accompanied by specific decreases of immunodetected NDA protein and internal rotenone-insensitive NADH oxidation in mitochondria isolated from cold-treated plants. The alternative oxidase is not cold-induced neither at the protein nor at the activity level......Cold stress effects on the expression of genes for respiratory chain enzymes were investigated in potato (Solarium tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) leaves. The nda1 and ndb1 genes, homologues to genes encoding the non-proton-pumping respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli and yeast......, were compared to genes encoding catalytic subunits of the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase (complex I). Using a real-time PCR system, we demonstrate a specific and gradual decrease of the NDA1 transcript after exposing the plants to 5 C. After 6 days of cold treatment the NDA1 transcript abundance...

  4. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants ( 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  5. Effects of non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading induced by expiratory flow limitation during strenuous incremental cycle exercise on metabolic stress and circulating natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Debord, Camille; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Duranti, Roberto; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-12-01

    Exercise induces release of cytokines and increase of circulating natural killers (NK) lymphocyte during strong activation of respiratory muscles. We hypothesised that non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading during exercise causes an increase in NK cells and in metabolic stress indices. Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oesophageal pressure (Pes), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), dyspnoea and leg effort were measured in eight healthy humans (five men and three women, average age of 31 ± 4 years and body weight of 68 ± 10 kg), performing an incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer under control condition and expiratory flow limitation (FL) achieved by putting a Starling resistor. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at peak of exercise and at iso-workload corresponding to that reached at the peak of FL exercise during control exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue was evaluated by measuring the tension time index of the diaphragm. Respiratory muscle overloading caused an earlier interruption of exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue did not occur in the two conditions. At peak of flow-limited exercise compared to iso-workload, HR, peak inspiratory and expiratory Pes, NK cells and norepinephrine were significantly higher. The number of NK cells was significantly related to ΔPes (i.e. difference between the most and the less negative Pes) and plasmatic catecholamines. Loading of respiratory muscles is able to cause an increase of NK cells provided that activation of respiratory muscles is intense enough to induce a significant metabolic stress.

  6. Reassessment of the cardio-respiratory stress response, using the king penguin as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán; Enstipp, Manfred R; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Research in to short-term cardio-respiratory changes in animals in reaction to a psychological stressor typically describes increases in rate of oxygen consumption (V̇(O2)) and heart rate. Consequently, the broad consensus is that they represent a fundamental stressor response generalizable across adult species. However, movement levels can also change in the presence of a stressor, yet studies have not accounted for this possible confound on heart rate. Thus the direct effects of psychological stressors on the cardio-respiratory system are not resolved. We used an innovative experimental design employing accelerometers attached to king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to measure and thus account for movement levels in a sedentary yet free-to-move animal model during a repeated measures stress experiment. As with previous studies on other species, incubating king penguins (N = 6) exhibited significant increases in both V̇(O2) and heart rate when exposed to the stressor. However, movement levels, while still low, also increased in response to the stressor. Once this was accounted for by comparing periods of time during the control and stress conditions when movement levels were similar as recorded by the accelerometers, only V̇(O2) significantly increased; there was no change in heart rate. These findings offer evidence that changing movement levels have an important effect on the measured stress response and that the cardio-respiratory response per se to a psychological stressor (i.e. the response as a result of physiological changes directly attributable to the stressor) is an increase in V̇(O2) without an increase in heart rate.

  7. Facebook, stress, and incidence of upper respiratory infection in undergraduate college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Jay; Bynog, Pamela; McGehee, Hope; Oakland, Joshua C; Quirk, Shannon; Taga, Carlee; Taylor, Morgan

    2012-12-01

    Having a large social network is generally beneficial to health. However, it is unclear how Internet-based social networks might influence health. Chronic stress can have negative health consequences, and some data suggest that Facebook could be a new source of psychological stress. Thus, we examined undergraduate college student perceptions of Facebook use and incidence of upper respiratory infections (URIs). We hypothesized that subjects with more diverse networks (i.e., more friends on Facebook) would have fewer URIs than their less diverse counterparts; that subjects reporting Facebook-induced stress would be more susceptible to URIs; and that subjects with more diverse networks who report Facebook-induced stress would be less susceptible to URIs than subjects with less diverse social networks who reported Facebook-induced stress. In this prospective study, healthy college students completed online questionnaires that assessed use and perceptions of Facebook and technology, and then were interviewed weekly for 10 weeks to track incidence of URI. URI episodes were defined by a symptom-based criterion. The social network size was significantly related to the rate of URI, such that, the larger the social network, the greater the incidence rate of URI. Most (85.7 percent) respondents experienced some degree of Facebook-induced stress. The effects of Facebook-induced stress on incidence of URI varied across the social network size, such that, the impact of stress on the URI incidence rate increased with the size of the social network. These results are largely in contrast to our hypotheses, but clearly suggest an association between Facebook use, psychological stress, and health.

  8. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  9. Oxidative stress and apoptosis after acute respiratory hypoxia and reoxygenation in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Coimbra-Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute hypoxia increases the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the brain. However, the effect of reoxygenation, unavoidable to achieve full recovery of the hypoxic organ, has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exposition to acute severe respiratory hypoxia followed by reoxygenation on the evolution of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain. We investigated the effect of in vivo acute severe normobaric hypoxia (rats exposed to 7% O2 for 6 h and reoxygenation in normoxia (21% O2 for 24 h or 48 h on oxidative stress markers, the antioxidant system and apoptosis in the brain. After respiratory hypoxia we found increased levels of HIF-1α expression, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and nitric oxide in brain extracts. Antioxidant defence systems such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly decreased in the brain. After 24 h of reoxygenation, oxidative stress parameters and the anti-oxidant system returned to control values. Regarding the apoptosis parameters, acute hypoxia increased cytochrome c, AIF and caspase 3 activity in the brain. The apoptotic effect is greatest after 24 h of reoxygenation. Immunohistochemistry suggests that CA3 and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus seem more susceptible to hypoxia than the cortex. Severe acute hypoxia increases oxidative damage, which in turn could activate apoptotic mechanisms. Our work is the first to demonstrate that after 24 h of reoxygenation oxidative stress is attenuated, while apoptosis is maintained mainly in the hippocampus, which may, in fact, be the cause of impaired brain function. Keywords: Antioxidants, Apoptosis, Normobaric hypoxia, Oxidative stress, Reoxygenation

  10. Test design requirements for overcoring stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1985-12-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for a series of overcoring stress measurements to be performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility. The stress measurements will be made to determine the in situ state of stress within the candidate repository horizon and to determine the magnitude and distribution of the stresses induced by the mined openings of the facility. The overcoring technique involves the measurement of strain (or deformation) in a volume of rock as the stress acting on the rock volume is relieved. This document presents an overview of the measurements, including objectives and rationale for the measurements. A description of the measurements is included. The support requirements are identified as are constraints for the design of the measurements. Discussions on Quality Assurance and Safety are also included in the document. 13 refs

  11. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  12. Stress corrosion testing of irradiated cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Olshausen, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from two fuel rods with different cladding have been stress corrosion tested by closed-end argon-iodine pressurization at 320 0 C. The fuel rods with stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 had received burnups of 10.000 and 20.000 MWd/ton UO 2 , respectively. It was found that the SCC failure stress was unchanged or slightly higher for the irradiated than for the unirradiated control tubes. The tubes failed consistently in the end with the lowest irradiation dose. The diameter increase of the irradiated cladding during the test was 1.1% for the stress-relieved samples and 0.24% for the recrystallized samples. SEM examination revealed no major differences between irradiated and unirradiated cladding. A ''semi-ductile'' fracture zone in recrystallized material is described in some detail. (author)

  13. Profilin is required for viral morphogenesis, syncytium formation, and cell-specific stress fiber induction by respiratory syncytial virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is required for the gene expression and morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, a clinically important Pneumovirus of the Paramyxoviridae family. In HEp-2 cells, RSV infection also induces actin stress fibers, which may be important in the immunopathology of the RSV disease. Profilin, a major regulator of actin polymerization, stimulates viral transcription in vitro. Thus, we tested the role of profilin in RSV growth and RSV-actin interactions in cultured cells (ex vivo. Results We tested three cell lines: HEp-2 (human, A549 (human, and L2 (rat. In all three, RSV grew well and produced fused cells (syncytium, and two RSV proteins, namely, the phosphoprotein P and the nucleocapsid protein N, associated with profilin. In contrast, induction of actin stress fibers by RSV occurred in HEp-2 and L2 cells, but not in A549. Knockdown of profilin by RNA interference had a small effect on viral macromolecule synthesis but strongly inhibited maturation of progeny virions, cell fusion, and induction of stress fibers. Conclusions Profilin plays a cardinal role in RSV-mediated cell fusion and viral maturation. In contrast, interaction of profilin with the viral transcriptional proteins P and N may only nominally activate viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Stress fiber formation is a cell-specific response to infection, requiring profilin and perhaps other signaling molecules that are absent in certain cell lines. Stress fibers per se play no role in RSV replication in cell culture. Clearly, the cellular architecture controls multiple steps of host-RSV interaction, some of which are regulated by profilin.

  14. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  15. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

  16. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 77 FR 62417 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0..., require a covered bank to report stress test results using a simpler format to be specified by the FDIC. G... Federal Register. Section 553(d)(3) of the Administrative Procedure Act (``APA'') provides that...

  18. Concordance in diagnostic testing for respiratory pathogens of Bighorn Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable diagnostic tests are essential for disease investigation and management. This is particularly true for diseases of free-ranging wildlife where sampling is logistically difficult precluding retesting. Clinical assays for wildlife diseases frequently vary among laboratories because of lack ...

  19. Have you stress tested your assay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Cao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a clinical assay is stressed with extraordinarily high volume of specimens over a short period of time, extra caution may be needed to avoid systematic errors and biases. Here we report our experience with a HgbA1c assay used for high volume wellness screening purpose, to illustrate the importance of stress testing during assay validation. Design and Methods: Over 15,000 whole blood specimens were tested for HgbA1c in a period of 2 months. HgbA1c was tested by an immunoturbidimetric method on a high through-put automation line. The HgbA1c population distribution in our study was compared to that from the NHANES database. Daily distributions of HgbA1c values ≥6%, means and medians were plotted. Correlation studies were performed between the high through-put immunoturbidimetric assay and a medium through-put HPLC method. Results: We observed a shift of HgbA1c distribution to the higher values compared to the NHANES. A bias of 15–20% was noted from further stress testing where large number of samples were batched and tested using the immunoturbidimetric assay. A 5–7% higher bias remained after implementing a cuvette washing program after each HgbA1c sample. We hypothesized this bias was caused by build-up of blood cell fragments in the cuvettes when continuous whole blood samples are run through the system. Our experience suggests stress testing needs to be incorporated early in the test validation process for high volume batched screening applications. This seemingly extra validation step may save significant troubleshooting and retesting efforts down the road. Keywords: Hemoglobin A1c, Immunoturbidimetric assay, HPLC, Quality assurance, Systematic bias, High volume, Automation

  20. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue ® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue ® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue ® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  2. On the origins of sex-based differences in respiratory disorders: Lessons and hypotheses from stress neuroendocrinology in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Tenorio-Lopes, Luana; Baldy, Cécile; Janes, Tara Adele; Fournier, Stéphanie; Kinkead, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood. During early life, respiratory diseases commonly associated with dysfunction of neural networks include apnea of prematurity (AOP) and cardio-respiratory failure leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can occur at various life stages, including adulthood. Regardless of age, a common element of these disorders is their greater prevalence in males. While this sexual dimorphism points to a potential role of sex hormones, our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms remain poorly understood. In addition to their modulatory influence on breathing, gonadal hormones regulate sexual differentiation of the brain. Stress alters these effects, and over the years our laboratory has used various perinatal stress protocols to gain insight into the origins of sex-based differences in respiratory disorders. This review discusses our recent advances with a focus on the sex-specific impact of early life stress on O 2 -chemoreflex function both in newborn and adult rats. We conclude by discussing the basic principles emerging from this work, potential mechanisms, and clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  4. Sulpyrine inhalation challenge test monitored continuously by respiratory impedance and 81mKr ventilation image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Naoto; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shiratsuki, Natsuo; Nishioka, Yasuhiro; Kitada, Osamu; Sugita, Minoru

    1993-01-01

    Continuous changes of respiratory impedance by the oscillation method using Asthograph and 81m Kr ventilation image during saline and sulpyrine solution (100 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml) provocation were simultaneously measured in 15 adult asthmatics and 7 normal individuals. Estimation of airway obstruction by respiratory impedance using Asthograph was difficult during sulpyrine inhalation, since respiratory impedance increased gradually. In addition to the measurement of respiratory impedance, images of 81m Kr ventilation were also obtained to estimate the regional ventilatory distribution. Estimation of the airway obstruction was easily obtained. Another advantage of 81m Kr ventilation image is that it can estimate the regional ventilatory distribution. The site of airway obstruction provoked by sulpyrine was observed predominantly in the lower lung field. The results of our present study were as follows. In 3 patients, increase of respiratory impedance and defect of 81m Kr ventilation image were observed. Two cases in this group were clinically diagnosed as having aspirin-induced asthma. In 7 patients, a defect of 81m Kr ventilation image was observed, but no increase of respiratory impedance was observed. Five cases in this group could not be clinically diagnosed as having aspirin-induced asthma. In 5 patients, neither defect of 81m Kr ventilation image nor increase of respiratory impedance could be detected. These results suggest that 81m Kr ventilation image on sulpyrine inhalation challenge test is a useful method for evaluating regional ventilatory distribution, but should be further investigated for application to aspirin-induced asthma. (author)

  5. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, T.B.M.; Groothuis, J.T.; Broek-Pastoor, J.M.C. ten; Feuth, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Slenders, J.P.L.; Doorduin, J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kampelmacher, M.J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown

  6. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, T. B. M.; Groothuis, J. T.; TenBroek-Pastoor, J. M. C.; Feuth, T. B.; Heijdra, Y. F.; Slenders, J. P. L.; Doorduin, J.; van Engelen, B. G.; Kampelmacher, M. J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown

  7. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilanus, T B M; Groothuis, J T; TenBroek-Pastoor, J M C; Feuth, T B; Heijdra, Y F; Slenders, J P L; Doorduin, J; Van Engelen, B G; Kampelmacher, M J; Raaphorst, J

    2017-07-25

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), peak cough flow (PCF), maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) in patients with ALS. Patients who had had at least one assessment of respiratory function and one visit at the HVS, were included. Our aim was to detect the test with the highest predictive value for the need for elective NIV in the following 3 months. We analysed time curves, currently used cut-off values for referral, and respiratory function test results between 'NIV indication' and 'no-NIV indication' patients. One hundred ten patients with ALS were included of whom 87 received an NIV indication; 11.5% had one assessment before receiving an NIV indication, 88.5% had two or more assessments. The NIV indication was based on complaints of hypoventilation and/or proven (nocturnal) hypercapnia. The five respiratory function tests showed a descending trend during disease progression, where SNIP showed the greatest decline within the latest 3 months before NIV indication (mean = -22%). PCF at the time of referral to the HVS significantly discriminated between the groups 'NIV-indication' and 'no NIV-indication yet' patients at the first HVS visit: 259 (±92) vs. 348 (±137) L/min, p = 0.019. PCF and SNIP showed the best predictive characteristics in terms of sensitivity. SNIP showed the greatest decline prior to NIV indication and PCF significantly differentiated 'NIV-indication' from 'no NIV-indication yet' patients with ALS. Currently used cut-off values might be

  8. Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Toledano-Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  9. A short-term supranutritional vitamin E supplementation alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat stressed pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Heat stress (HS triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. Methods A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. Results Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all p<0.05 for diet×temperature the loss of blood CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate, as well as the increase in blood pH in the heat-stressed pigs. The HS reduced (p = 0.003 plasma biological antioxidant potential (BAP and tended to increase (p = 0.067 advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP in the heat-stressed pigs, suggesting HS triggers oxidative stress. The HiVE diet did not affect plasma BAP or AOPP. Only under TN conditions the HiVE diet reduced the plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (p<0.05 for diet× temperature. Conclusion A short-term supplementation with 200 IU/kg VE partially alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

  10. Respiratory fit testing for farmworkers in the Black Dirt region of Hudson Valley, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Fiske, Todd; Wyckoff, Sherry; Shuford, James; May, John

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory protection in agriculture has lagged behind other industries. Migrant farmworkers often work in dusty environments yet do not receive appropriate, fitted respiratory protection. During May and June of 2013, researchers pilot-tested a respiratory protection program adapted to fit the unique needs of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. It was implemented in Spanish, with literacy support, at convenient times and locations. Additionally, staff was known to workers, and a farmworker medical center provided medical follow-up. Fifty-six farmworkers participated (68%; 82 invited). Of the participants, 88% were male; 20% reported using respiratory protection. One worker had been fit tested previously; 57% reported being exposed to pesticides. All but six farmworkers passed the medical clearance (91%). The mask most commonly fit to the American-born population was a good fit for only 41% of Latino farmworkers. The fact that two thirds of invited farmworkers participated in the clearance and over half completed mask fitting indicates that the modified protocol meets farmworker needs. A wide range of mask types should be made available for Latino farmworkers.

  11. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  12. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  13. A short-term supranutritional vitamin E supplementation alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat stressed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Celi, Pietro; Chauhan, Surinder Singh; Cottrell, Jeremy James; Leury, Brian Joseph; Dunshea, Frank Rowland

    2018-02-01

    Heat stress (HS) triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE) can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE) or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE) diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity) or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily) conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all prespiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

  14. The COPD assessment test and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishita-Katsu M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Morishita-Katsu,1,2 Koichi Nishimura,3 Hiroyuki Taniguchi,1 Tomoki Kimura,1 Yasuhiro Kondoh,1 Kensuke Kataoka,1 Tomoya Ogawa,4 Fumiko Watanabe,4 Shinichi Arizono,5 Osamu Nishiyama,6 Kazuhito Nakayasu,7 Kazuyoshi Imaizumi,8 Yoshinori Hasegawa2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Japan; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Japan; 5School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Seirei Christopher University, Hamamatsu, Japan; 6Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Japan; 7Data Research Section, Kondo P.P. Inc., Osaka, Japan; 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan Background: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire.Methods: A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ.Results: Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933. Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0

  15. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. 40 CFR 90.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 90.329... Equipment Provisions § 90.329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for thermally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10...

  17. 40 CFR 91.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 91.329....329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for termally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10 °C. (b) Evaluation...

  18. A versatile hydraulically operated respiratory servo system for ventilation and lung function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Slama, H

    1983-09-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a microcomputer-controlled respiratory servo system that incorporates the characteristics of a mechanical ventilator and also allows the performance of a multitude of test procedures required for assessment of pulmonary function in paralyzed animals. The device consists of a hydraulically operated cylinder-piston assembly and solenoid valves that direct inspiratory and expiratory gas flow and also enable switching to different test gas sources. The system operates as a volume-flow-preset ventilator but may be switched to other operational cycling modes. Gas flow rates may be constant or variable. The system operates as an assister-controller and, combined with a gas analyzer, can function as a "demand" ventilator allowing for set-point control of end-tidal PCO2 and PO2. Complex breathing maneuvers for a variety of single- and multiple-breath lung function tests are automatically performed. Because of the flexibility in selection and timing of respiratory parameters, the system is particularly suitable for respiratory gas studies.

  19. The association between methacholine challenge test and respiratory symptoms: a study on 146 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Asthma is a life-threatening disease that can cause death due to bronchospasm. In addition to clinical symptoms such as wheezing, acute paroxysmal dyspnea, chronic cough after exposure to cold air or cough after exercise, spirometry is also necessary for the diagnosis of asthma. The association between respiratory symptoms and a positive methacholine challenge test (MCT is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the association between methacholine test results and respiratory symptoms and allergy."n "nMethods: One hundred and forty-six patients with respiratory symptoms and normal baseline pulmonary function tests were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their positive or negative response to MCT. The association between MCT and the clinical symptoms and allergy was later evaluated statistically."n "nResults: Out of 146 participants of the study 59 (40.4% were female and 87 (59.6% were male. The mean age of the participants was 33.8±13.8 years. Sixty-one patients (41.8% had positive results for the test. There was an association between a history of allergy, wheezing and age with positive MCT results. The other clinical signs had no association with the test."n "nConclusion: Methacholine challenge test is the best diagnostic test for ruling out asthma in patients with normal pulmonary function tests in whom we cannot definitely rule out asthma based solely on clinical symptoms. Nevertheless, in adults with a history of allergy, wheezing and also in patients below 30, the probability for a positive MCT is high.

  20. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  1. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  2. Hemodynamic stress testing using pacing tachycardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, R.G.; Grossman, W.

    1986-01-01

    A trial pacing was first introduced in 1967 by Sowton and co-workers as a stress test which could be used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to evaluate patients with schemic heart disease. Sowton noted that artificially increasing the heart rate by pacing the right atrium could usually induce angina in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. Since Sowton's original description, numerous investigators have described characteristic pacing-induced electrocardiographic changes, derangements of myocardial lactate metabolism, hemodynamic abnormalities, regional wall abnormalities, and defects in thallium scintigraphy. Although agreement on the overall usefulness of atrial pacing has not been uniform, it is clear that the technique can safely and reliably induce ischemia in most patients with coronary artery disease and that information obtained during the pacing-induced ischemic state can often be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient's underlying disease

  3. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouw, Huib H; Langereis, Martijn A; Knaap, Robert C M; Dalebout, Tim J; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I

  4. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  5. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  6. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  7. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (pwomen. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  8. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o teste QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, EUA para o diagn

  9. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston

  10. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, T. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H. [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  11. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, T [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  12. Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anki Malmborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed.

  13. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C.; Sherwood, Steven C.; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  14. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven C; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  15. Pressure overload-induced mild cardiac hypertrophy reduces leftventricular transmural differences in mitochondrial respiratory chainactivity and increases oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eKINDO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased mechanical stress and contractility characterizes normal left ventricular subendocardium (Endo but whether Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities is reduced as compared to subepicardium (Epi and whether pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH might modulate transmural gradients through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production is unknown. Methods: LVH was induced by 6 weeks abdominal aortic banding and cardiac structure and function were determined with echocardiography and catheterization in sham-operated and LVH rats (n=10 for each group. Mitochondrial respiration rates, coupling, content and ROS production were measured in LV Endo and Epi, using saponin-permeabilised fibres, Amplex Red fluorescence and citrate synthase activity.Results: In sham, a transmural respiratory gradient was observed with decreases in endo maximal oxidative capacity (-36.7%, P<0.01 and complex IV activity (-57.4%, P<0.05. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production was similar in both LV layers.Aortic banding induced mild LVH (+31.7% LV mass, associated with normal LV fractional shortening and end diastolic pressure. LVH reduced maximal oxidative capacity (-23.6 and -33.3%, increased mitochondrial H2O2 production (+86.9 and +73.1%, free radical leak (+27.2% and +36.3% and citrate synthase activity (+27.2% and +36.3% in Endo and Epi, respectively.Transmural mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity was reduced in LVH (-57.4 vs –12.2%; P=0.02. Conclusions: Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities are reduced compared to LV Epi. Mild LVH impairs mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increases oxidative stress and reduces transmural complex IV activity. Further studies will be helpful to determine whether reduced LV transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration might be a new marker of a transition from uncomplicated toward complicated LVH.

  16. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it's aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits.

  17. Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.

  18. Test plan for in situ stress measurement system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1981-09-01

    The tests are to be performed to provide information regarding the state of stress of the basalt rock beneath the Hanford Site. This test series is designed to obtain information necessary to determine if hydrofracturing stress measurement is feasible in a fractured basalt medium. During the course of these field tests, it will be attempted to adapt the conventional hydrofracturing test method and analysis techniques to the basalt medium. If the test is shown to be feasible, more holes will be identified for testing. A comprehensive in situ stress determination program will be initiated. 2 figs

  19. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100...

  20. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  1. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  2. Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...... wall shear stress of 3 Pa for the standardised EHEDG cleaning test method. The cleaning tests were performed on a test disc placed in a radial flowcell assay. Turbulent flow conditions were generated and the corresponding wall shear stresses were predicted from CFD simulations. Combining wall shear...... stress predictions from a simulation using the low Re k-epsilon and one using the two-layer model of Norris and Reynolds were found to produce reliable predictions compared to empirical solutions for the ideal flow case. The comparison of wall shear stress curves predicted for the real RFC...

  3. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...ORISE), Belcamp, MD Parimal J Patel Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is

  4. Stress Testing as a Tool of Bank Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk Oksana I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of theoretical, methodological and practical recommendations on the use of stress testing by Ukrainian commercial banks. Stress testing is defined as a part of bank risk management on the basis of scientific studies of domestic and foreign scientists. The article marks the essence of the bank stress testing and identifies its role in the structure of banks’ risk management in Ukraine. It considers goals of conducting stress testing in banking institutions. It identifies main aspects and specific features of conducting stress testing of bank risks. It characterises main advantages and shortcomings of use of stress testing in the modern bank risk management. It generalises the world and European approaches to the methods of conducting stress testing in commercial banks in comparison with the Ukrainian methodical recommendations. It shows that results of stress testing have practical value, since they help to preliminary assess influence of potentially negative events upon the state of the loan portfolio of the bank and make relevant managerial decisions.

  5. Thermal stresses in the space shuttle orbiter: Analysis versus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, H.R.; Gibson, W.F. Jr.; Benson, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Significant temperature differences occur between the internal structure and the outer skin of the Space Shuttle Orbiter as it returns from space. These temperature differences cause important thermal stresses. A finite element model containing thousands of degrees of freedom is used to predict these stresses. A ground test was performed to verify the prediction method. The analysis and test results compare favorably. (orig.)

  6. 77 FR 60948 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... regulated by a primary federal financial regulatory agency, to conduct annual stress tests to determine... the regulated entities under the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of... regulated by a primary Federal financial regulatory agency shall conduct annual stress tests * * * (emphasis...

  7. Relationships between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to investigate the relationship between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and different aspects of sleep. Method. 175 adolescents (70.8% girls, mean age 15.14 years) participated in the study. Test anxiety, stress and chronic sleep reduction were assessed at baseline using

  8. Alternative Oxidase: A Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathway to Maintain Metabolic and Signaling Homeostasis during Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg C. Vanlerberghe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative oxidase (AOX is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance.

  9. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  10. Exertional headache and coronary ischemia despite normal electrocardiographic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, F Michael; Huerter, Karina

    2006-01-01

    Exertional headaches may under certain conditions reflect coronary ischemia. We report the case of a patient seen in a neurology referral practice whose exertional headaches, even in the face of two normal electrocardiographic stress tests and in the absence of underlying chest pain were the sole symptoms of coronary ischemia as detected by Tc-99m Sestamibi testing SPECT stress testing. Stent placement resulted in complete resolution of headaches. Exertional headache in the absence of chest pain may reflect underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) even when conventional electrocardiographic stress testing does not indicate ischemia.

  11. Comparison of PCR, culture, and serological tests for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Zaat, S. A.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; Spanjaard, L.; Rijntjes, J.; van Waveren, G.; Jensen, J. S.; Angulo, A. F.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    For diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection we compared two rapid tests, PCR and the immunoglobulin M immunofluorescence assay (IgM IFA), with culture and the complement fixation test (CFT), in a prospective study among 92 children with respiratory tract infection and 74 controls. Based on

  12. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  13. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  14. Six minute walk test in respiratory diseases: A university hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ameri Hatem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Six minutes walk test (6MWT, is a sub-maximal exercise test, used as a clinical indicator of the functional capacity, in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Its safety, validity, reliability and its correlation with several physiological instruments, are well studied. However, there are no published data on 6MWT, in the Saudi population. We are reviewing our experience with 6MWT and assessing its safety and its correlation with pulmonary function variables, in patients with pulmonary diseases, in our local population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively studied patients with pulmonary diseases, who underwent 6MWT and pulmonary function test in King Khalid University Hospital, from June 2003 to December 2004. The 6MWTs were conducted according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Spirometry, lung volumes and diffusion capacity measurements were correlated with the absolute walked distance. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty nine tests were performed. All patients were of the Saudi community (59% female, with mean age of 43±15 years. Out of 129 patients, 65 patients had proven respiratory diagnosis. In all patients, the test were performed with no serious complications. The six minute walk distance (6MWD had correlation with patient′s height (r=+0.40, P < 0.001, but not with patients′ weight, BMI, borg scale, or oxygen saturation. The 6MWD correlated significantly with Dlco (r=+0.52, P < 0.01, FVC (r=+0.46, r< 0.001 and had a weaker relation with FEV1 (r=+0.31, P < 0.05. The test had no significant correlation with lung volumetric parameters (TLC, FRC and RV. CONCLUSION: 6MWT is simple and safe test in evaluating patients with chronic pulmonary diseases in the Saudi population. In our study, 6MWD showed correlation with spirometric parameters and diffusion capacity. Further studies are needed to evaluate 6MWT in a more homogenous patients′ population.

  15. Formoterol attenuates increased oxidative stress and myosin protein loss in respiratory and limb muscles of cancer cachectic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Salazar-Degracia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscle mass loss and wasting are characteristic features of patients with chronic conditions including cancer. Therapeutic options are still scarce. We hypothesized that cachexia-induced muscle oxidative stress may be attenuated in response to treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist formoterol in rats. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of tumor-bearing rats (108 AH-130 Yoshida ascites hepatoma cells inoculated intraperitoneally with and without treatment with formoterol (0.3 mg/kg body weight/day for seven days, daily subcutaneous injection, redox balance (protein oxidation and nitration and antioxidants and muscle proteins (1-dimensional immunoblots, carbonylated proteins (2-dimensional immunoblots, inflammatory cells (immunohistochemistry, and mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC complex activities were explored. In the gastrocnemius, but not the diaphragm, of cancer cachectic rats compared to the controls, protein oxidation and nitration levels were increased, several functional and structural proteins were carbonylated, and in both study muscles, myosin content was reduced, inflammatory cell counts were greater, while no significant differences were seen in MRC complex activities (I, II, and IV. Treatment of cachectic rats with formoterol attenuated all the events in both respiratory and limb muscles. In this in vivo model of cancer-cachectic rats, the diaphragm is more resistant to oxidative stress. Formoterol treatment attenuated the rise in oxidative stress in the limb muscles, inflammatory cell infiltration, and the loss of myosin content seen in both study muscles, whereas no effects were observed in the MRC complex activities. These findings have therapeutic implications as they demonstrate beneficial effects of the beta2 agonist through decreased protein oxidation and inflammation in cachectic muscles, especially the gastrocnemius.

  16. Troxerutin attenuates diet-induced oxidative stress, impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain complexes in mice heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Geetha; Chandrasekaran, Sathiya Priya; Carani Venkatraman, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial abnormality is thought to play a key role in cardiac disease originating from the metabolic syndrome (MS). We evaluated the effect of troxerutin (TX), a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural bioflavanoid rutin, on the respiratory chain complex activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in heart of high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) -induced mouse model of MS. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Mice from each dietary regimen were divided into two groups on the 16th day and were treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg body weight [bw], per oral) for the next 45 days. At the end of experimental period, respiratory chain complex activity, uncoupling proteins (UCP)-2 and -3, mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, oxidative stress markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were analyzed. Reduced mtDNA abundance with alterations in the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and fission and fusion processes were observed in HFFD-fed mice. Disorganized and smaller mitochondria, reduction in complexes I, III and IV activities (by about 55%) and protein levels of UCP-2 (52%) and UCP-3 (46%) were noted in these mice. TX administration suppressed oxidative stress, improved the oxidative capacity and biogenesis and restored fission/fusion imbalance in the cardiac mitochondria of HFFD-fed mice. TX protects the myocardium by modulating the putative molecules of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and by its anti-oxidant function in a mouse model of MS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stress Tests for Chest Pain: When You Need an Imaging Test -- and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Adult , Geriatric Stress Tests for Chest Pain Stress Tests for Chest Pain When you need an ... pain isn’t from heart disease. A cardiac stress test makes the heart work hard so your ...

  19. California's Drought - Stress test for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The current California drought is in its third dry years, with this year being the third driest years in a 106-year record. This drought occurs at a time when urban, agricultural, and environmental water demands have never been greater. This drought has revealed the importance of more quantitative evaluation and methods for water assessment and management. All areas of water and environmental management are likely to become increasingly stressed, and have essentially drought-like conditions, in the future, as California's urban, agricultural, and environmental demands continue to expand and as the climate changes. In the historical past, droughts have pre-viewed stresses developing in the future and helped focus policy-makers, the public, and stakeholders on preparing for these developing future conditions. Multi-decade water management strategies are often galvinized by drought. Irrigation was galvanized by California droughts in the 1800s, reservoir systems by the 1928-32 drought, urban water conservation by the 1976-77 drought, and water markets by the 1988-92 drought. With each drought, demands for tighter accounting, rights, and management have increased. This talk reviews the prospects and challenges for increased development and use of water data and systems analysis in the service of human and environmental water demands in California's highly decentralized water management system, and the prospects if these challenges are not more successfully addressed.

  20. The role of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in the diagnosis of allergic diseases of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vooren, P.H.; Kramps, J.A.; Franken, C.; Dijkman, J.H.; Velde, E.A. van der

    1984-01-01

    The predictive value of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was investigated in 472 patients with diseases of the lower respiratory system suspected of an allergic origin. These patients were subjected to inhalation provocation tests with grass pollen, house-dust mites and cat and dog dander. Whereas the history frequently yielded false-positive and false-negative information, both the skin test and the RAST allowed far more reliable prediction, especially in pollen allergy. Negative results of skin test or RAST rendered a specific airway allergy highly improbable. However, in case of anamnestic suspicion corroborated by the skin test and (or) RAST, inhalation tests were still indispensable for the demonstration of respiratory system allergy. (Auth.)

  1. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat

    2018-03-06

    Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

  2. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  3. Stress Testing of Transactional Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meira , Jorge Augusto; Cunha De Almeida , Eduardo; Sunyé , Gerson; Le Traon , Yves; Valduriez , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Transactional database management systems (DBMS) have been successful at supporting traditional transaction processing workloads. However, web-based applications that tend to generate huge numbers of concurrent business operations are pushing DBMS performance over their limits, thus threatening overall system availability. Then, a crucial question is how to test DBMS performance under heavy workload conditions. Answering this question requires a testing methodology to ...

  4. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  5. [Stress-corrosion test of TIG welded CP-Ti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wang, Y; Zhou, Z; Meng, X; Liang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, Y

    2000-12-01

    In this study TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welded CP-Ti were subjected to stress-corrosion test under 261 MPa in artificial saliva of 37 degrees C for 3 months. No significant difference was noted on mechanical test (P > 0.05). No color-changed and no micro-crack on the sample's surface yet. These results indicate that TIG welded CP-Ti offers excellent resistance to stress corrosion.

  6. Differential regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier genes modulates respiratory capacity and stress tolerance in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Timón-Gómez

    Full Text Available Mpc proteins are highly conserved from yeast to humans and are necessary for the uptake of pyruvate at the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used for leucine and valine biosynthesis and as a fuel for respiration. Our analysis of the yeast MPC gene family suggests that amino acid biosynthesis, respiration rate and oxidative stress tolerance are regulated by changes in the Mpc protein composition of the mitochondria. Mpc2 and Mpc3 are highly similar but functionally different: Mpc2 is most abundant under fermentative non stress conditions and important for amino acid biosynthesis, while Mpc3 is the most abundant family member upon salt stress or when high respiration rates are required. Accordingly, expression of the MPC3 gene is highly activated upon NaCl stress or during the transition from fermentation to respiration, both types of regulation depend on the Hog1 MAP kinase. Overexpression experiments show that gain of Mpc2 function leads to a severe respiration defect and ROS accumulation, while Mpc3 stimulates respiration and enhances tolerance to oxidative stress. Our results identify the regulated mitochondrial pyruvate uptake as an important determinant of respiration rate and stress resistance.

  7. Differential regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier genes modulates respiratory capacity and stress tolerance in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timón-Gómez, Alba; Proft, Markus; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Mpc proteins are highly conserved from yeast to humans and are necessary for the uptake of pyruvate at the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used for leucine and valine biosynthesis and as a fuel for respiration. Our analysis of the yeast MPC gene family suggests that amino acid biosynthesis, respiration rate and oxidative stress tolerance are regulated by changes in the Mpc protein composition of the mitochondria. Mpc2 and Mpc3 are highly similar but functionally different: Mpc2 is most abundant under fermentative non stress conditions and important for amino acid biosynthesis, while Mpc3 is the most abundant family member upon salt stress or when high respiration rates are required. Accordingly, expression of the MPC3 gene is highly activated upon NaCl stress or during the transition from fermentation to respiration, both types of regulation depend on the Hog1 MAP kinase. Overexpression experiments show that gain of Mpc2 function leads to a severe respiration defect and ROS accumulation, while Mpc3 stimulates respiration and enhances tolerance to oxidative stress. Our results identify the regulated mitochondrial pyruvate uptake as an important determinant of respiration rate and stress resistance.

  8. Bactericidal peptidoglycan recognition protein induces oxidative stress in Escherichia coli through a block in respiratory chain and increase in central carbon catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Des R; Kuzma, Marcin; Kowalczyk, Dominik A; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through simultaneous induction of oxidative, thiol and metal stress responses in bacteria. However, metabolic pathways through which PGRPs induce these bactericidal stress responses are unknown. We screened Keio collection of Escherichia coli deletion mutants and revealed that deleting genes for respiratory chain flavoproteins or for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle resulted in increased resistance of E. coli to PGRP killing. PGRP-induced killing depended on the production of hydrogen peroxide, which required increased supply of NADH for respiratory chain oxidoreductases from central carbon catabolism (glycolysis and TCA cycle), and was controlled by cAMP-Crp. Bactericidal PGRP induced a rapid decrease in respiration, which suggested that the main source of increased production of hydrogen peroxide was a block in respiratory chain and diversion of electrons from NADH oxidoreductases to oxygen. CpxRA two-component system was a negative regulator of PGRP-induced oxidative stress. By contrast, PGRP-induced thiol stress (depletion of thiols) and metal stress (increase in intracellular free Zn 2+ through influx of extracellular Zn 2+ ) were mostly independent of oxidative stress. Thus, manipulating pathways that induce oxidative, thiol and metal stress in bacteria could be a useful strategy to design new approaches to antibacterial therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Respiratory infectious phenotypes in acute exacerbation of COPD: an aid to length of stay and COPD Assessment Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai MY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Yuan Dai,1 Jin-Ping Qiao,2 Yuan-Hong Xu,2 Guang-He Fei1 1Pulmonary Department, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Patients and methods: We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results: Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion: Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. Keywords: COPD, acute exacerbation, respiratory infectious, phenotypes, LOS, CAT

  10. Time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Stress relaxation tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Guo-Yong; Zhai, Hui-Ru; Dai, L.H.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, stress relaxation tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on coarse-grained (cg), nanograined (ng), and nanotwinned (nt) copper at temperatures of 22 °C (RT), 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C. The comprehensive investigations provide sufficient information for the building-up of a formula to describe the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation and clarify the relationship among the strain rate sensitivity parameter, stress exponent, and activation volume. The typically experimental curves of logarithmic plastic strain rate versus stress exhibited a three staged relaxation process from a linear high stress relaxation region to a subsequent nonlinear stress relaxation region and finally to a linear low stress relaxation region, which only showed-up at the test temperatures higher than 22 °C, 22 °C, and 30 °C, respectively, in the tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens. The values of stress exponent, stress-independent activation energy, and activation volume were determined from the experimental data in the two linear regions. The determined activation parameters, HRTEM images, and MD simulations consistently suggest that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation is predominant in all tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens in the initial linear high stress relaxation region at the five relaxation temperatures, whereas in the linear low stress relaxation region, the grain boundary (GB) diffusion-associated deformation is dominant in the ng- and cg-Cu specimens, while twin boundary (TB) migration, i.e., twinning and detwinning with parallel partial dislocations, governs the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in the nt-Cu specimens.

  11. Respiratory capacity of the Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast isolated from the mezcal process during oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Plaza, Melchor; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Manzo-Ávalos, Salvador; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    During the mezcal fermentation process, yeasts are affected by several stresses that can affect their fermentation capability. These stresses, such as thermal shock, ethanol, osmotic and growth inhibitors are common during fermentation. Cells have improved metabolic systems and they express stress response genes in order to decrease the damage caused during the stress, but to the best of our knowledge, there are no published works exploring the effect of oxidants and prooxidants, such as H2O2 and menadione, during growth. In this article, we describe the behavior of Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from spontaneous mezcal fermentation during oxidative stress, and compared it with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were also obtained from mezcal, using the W303-1A strain as a reference. S. cerevisiae strains showed greater viability after oxidative stress compared with K. marxianus strains. However, when the yeast strains were grown in the presence of oxidants in the media, K. marxianus exhibited a greater ability to grow in menadione than it did in H2O2. Moreover, when K. marxianus SLP1 was grown in a minibioreactor, its behavior when exposed to menadione was different from its behavior with H2O2. The yeast maintained the ability to consume dissolved oxygen during the 4 h subsequent to the addition of menadione, and then stopped respiration. When exposed to H2O2, the yeast stopped consuming oxygen for the following 8 h, but began to consume oxygen when stressors were no longer applied. In conclusion, yeast isolated from spontaneous mezcal fermentation was able to resist oxidative stress for a long period of time.

  12. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rong, Yi, E-mail: yrong@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142.

  13. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Kyle; Rong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142

  14. Triaxial Wetting Test on Rockfill Materials under Stress Combination Conditions of Spherical Stress p and Deviatoric Stress q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A GCTS medium-sized triaxial apparatus is used to conduct a single-line method wetting test on three kinds of rockfill materials of different mother rocks such as mixture of sandstone and slate, and dolomite and granite, and the test stress conditions is the combination of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q. The test results show that (1 for wetting shear strain, the effects of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q are equivalent, and wetting shear strain and deviatoric stress q show the power function relationship preferably. (2 For wetting volumetric strain, the effect of deviatoric stress q can be neglected because it is extremely insignificant, and spherical stress p is the main influencing factor and shows the power function relationship preferably. (3 The wetting strains decrease significantly with the increase in initial water content and sample density generally, but the excessively high dry density will increase the wetting deformation. Also, the wetting strains will decrease with the increase in the saturated uniaxial compressive strength and average softening coefficient of the mother rock. Based on the test results, a wetting strain model is proposed for rockfill materials. The verification results indicate that the model satisfactorily reflects the development law of wetting deformation.

  15. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida

    2016-01-01

    respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections...... reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular...

  16. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol

  17. Six-minute walk test and respiratory muscle strength in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Mancuzo, Eliane Viana; Rezende, Camila Farnese; Côrrea, Ricardo de Amorim

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory muscle strength and six-minute walk test (6MWT) variables in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma (UCSA). This was a cross-sectional study involving UCSA patients followed at a university hospital. The patients underwent 6MWT, spirometry, and measurements of respiratory muscle strength, as well as completing the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The Mann-Whitney test was used in order to analyze 6MWT variables, whereas the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether there was an association between the use of oral corticosteroids and respiratory muscle strength. We included 25 patients. Mean FEV1 was 58.8 ± 21.8% of predicted, and mean ACT score was 14.0 ± 3.9 points. No significant difference was found between the median six-minute walk distance recorded for the UCSA patients and that predicted for healthy Brazilians (512 m and 534 m, respectively; p = 0.14). During the 6MWT, there was no significant drop in SpO2. Mean MIP and MEP were normal (72.9 ± 15.2% and 67.6 ± 22.2%, respectively). Comparing the patients treated with at least four courses of oral corticosteroids per year and those treated with three or fewer, we found no significant differences in MIP (p = 0.15) or MEP (p = 0.45). Our findings suggest that UCSA patients are similar to normal subjects in terms of 6MWT variables and respiratory muscle strength. The use of oral corticosteroids has no apparent impact on respiratory muscle strength.

  18. Dipyridamole cerebral flow stress test evaluating ischemic cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Y.; Chen, S.; Sun, X.; Liu, S.; Li, W.; Fan, W.; Wang, X.

    2000-01-01

    To detect the clinical value of dipyridamole cerebral blood flow stress test in cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Nineteen patients (9 male, 10 female, mean age=65) who were diagnosed as CVD were included. One suffered from infarct, two suffered from thrombosis, one feel dizziness. All 4 performed rest and stress test. The other 15 were VBI, 9 of them performed stress test. Rest and stress test were done two-day method using Elscint Apex SP-6 SPECT equipped with low energy all purpose collimator. Rest perfusion imaging was started 30 min after injecting 1.11 GBq 99m Tc-ECD. Dipyridamole stress test was done within one week. 0.56 mg/Kg dipyridamole was injected intravenously during 4 min the same dose of ECD was injected 2 min later. The acquisition started 30 min later with the same parameter. Heart rate, ECG and the patient's complaint were monitored 2 min before and after dipyridamole. After correction for attenuation, transverse, coronal and sagittal slices were reconstructed. Eighteen ROIs were drawn symmetrically on cingulate, frontal, temporal-parietal, temporal, occipital, vision cortex, basal ganglia, superior frontal and parietal on the 3 rd , 6 th , 9 th transverse slices, selecting the contralateral as the reference region. The counts per pixel in each ROI were divided by the counts of the mirror region to obtain the relative uptake ratio. We think it abnormality when the ratio is above 1,1 or below 0.9. The sensitivity for rest and stress rCBF test was compared. rCBF was decreased at 10 of 19 patients (sensitivity 52.6%). 14 had low rCBF after dipyridamole (sensitivity 72.3%), Among the patients who studied stress test, 6 had normal rCBF at rest and low rCBF after stress. The abnormal area was enlarged after dipyridamole for 1 patients, 2 improved and 2 unchanged. 8 of 15 VBI had normal rCBF at rest (sensitivity 53.3%). 9 of 15 VBI performed stress test. rCBF was normal at rest for 5 patients, rCBF was decreased after stress, it was improved for one

  19. Pilot Testing of the NURSE Stress Management Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Colleen; Barrere, Cynthia; Robertson, Sue; Zahourek, Rothlyn; Diaz, Desiree; Lachapelle, Leeanne

    2016-12-01

    Student nurses experience significant stress during their education, which may contribute to illness and alterations in health, poor academic performance, and program attrition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of an innovative stress management program in two baccalaureate nursing programs in Connecticut, named NURSE (Nurture nurse, Use resources, foster Resilience, Stress and Environment management), that assists nursing students to develop stress management plans. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention with 40 junior nursing students. Results from this study provide evidence that the NURSE intervention is highly feasible, and support further testing to examine the effect of the intervention in improving stress management in nursing students. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a non-invasive index of ′brain-heart′ interaction in stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tonhajzerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA is accepted as a peripheral marker of cardiac-linked parasympathetic regulation. According to polyvagal theory, the RSA is also considered as the index of emotion regulation. The neurovisceral integration model posits that parasympathetic modulation of the heart marked by RSA is related to complex nervous regulation associated with emotional and cognitive processing. From this perspective, high resting RSA amplitude associated with a greater withdrawal during stressors and subsequent recovery could represent a flexible and adaptive physiological response system to a challenge. Conversely, low resting RSA accompanied by an inadequate reactivity to stress might reflect maladaptive regulatory mechanisms. The RSA reactivity is different with various types of stressors: while the RSA decreases to cognitive tasks indicating a vagal withdrawal, the RSA magnitude increases to emotional challenge indicating an effective cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. The RSA reactivity to stress could have important implications for several mental disorders, e.g. depressive or anxiety disorder. It seems that the study of the RSA, as a non-invasive index of ′brain-heart′ communication, could provide important information on the pathway linked to mental and physical health.

  1. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  2. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  3. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  4. Safety of a rapid diagnostic protocol with accelerated stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soremekun, Olan A; Hamedani, Azita; Shofer, Frances S; O'Conor, Katie J; Svenson, James; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-02-01

    Most patients at low to intermediate risk for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receive a 12- to 24-hour "rule out." Recently, trials have found that a coronary computed tomographic angiography-based strategy is more efficient. If stress testing were performed within the same time frame as coronary computed tomographic angiography, the 2 strategies would be more similar. We tested the hypothesis that stress testing can safely be performed within several hours of presentation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting to a university hospital from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, with potential ACS. Patients placed in a clinical pathway that performed stress testing after 2 negative troponin values 2 hours apart were included. We excluded patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or with an elevated initial troponin. The main outcome was safety of immediate stress testing defined as the absence of death or acute myocardial infarction (defined as elevated troponin within 24 hours after the test). A total of 856 patients who presented with potential ACS were enrolled in the clinical pathway and included in this study. Patients had a median age of 55.0 (interquartile range, 48-62) years. Chest pain was the chief concern in 86%, and pain was present on arrival in 73% of the patients. There were no complications observed during the stress test. There were 0 deaths (95% confidence interval, 0%-0.46%) and 4 acute myocardial infarctions within 24 hours (0.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.14%-1.27%). The peak troponins were small (0.06, 0.07, 0.07, and 0.19 ng/mL). Patients who present to the ED with potential ACS can safely undergo a rapid diagnostic protocol with stress testing. © 2013.

  5. Regulation of the Stress-Activated Degradation of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complexes in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Timón-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair and removal of damaged mitochondria is a key process for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Here we investigate in the yeast model how different protein complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are subject to specific degradation upon high respiration load and organelle damage. We find that the turnover of subunits of the electron transport complex I equivalent and complex III is preferentially stimulated upon high respiration rates. Particular mitochondrial proteases, but not mitophagy, are involved in this activated degradation. Further mitochondrial damage by valinomycin treatment of yeast cells triggers the mitophagic removal of the same respiratory complexes. This selective protein degradation depends on the mitochondrial fusion and fission apparatus and the autophagy adaptor protein Atg11, but not on the mitochondrial mitophagy receptor Atg32. Loss of autophagosomal protein function leads to valinomycin sensitivity and an overproduction of reactive oxygen species upon mitochondrial damage. A specific event in this selective turnover of electron transport chain complexes seems to be the association of Atg11 with the mitochondrial network, which can be achieved by overexpression of the Atg11 protein even in the absence of Atg32. Furthermore, the interaction of various Atg11 molecules via the C-terminal coil domain is specifically and rapidly stimulated upon mitochondrial damage and could therefore be an early trigger of selective mitophagy in response to the organelles dysfunction. Our work indicates that autophagic quality control upon mitochondrial damage operates in a selective manner.

  6. Differential Expression of miRNAs in the Respiratory Tree of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Under Hypoxia Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Da; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Ru, Xiaoshang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Xing, Lili; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-11-06

    The sea cucumber, an important economic species, has encountered high mortality since 2013 in northern China because of seasonal environmental stress such as hypoxia, high temperature, and low salinity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in regulating gene expression in marine organisms in response to environmental change. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate alterations in miRNA expression in the sea cucumber under different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). Nine small RNA libraries were constructed from the sea cucumber respiratory trees. A total of 26 differentially expressed miRNAs, including 12 upregulated and 14 downregulated miRNAs, were observed in severe hypoxia (DO 2 mg/L) compared with mild hypoxia (DO 4 mg/L) and normoxic conditions (DO 8 mg/L). Twelve differentially expressed miRNAs were clustered in severe hypoxia. In addition, real-time PCR revealed that 14 randomly selected differentially expressed miRNAs showed significantly increased expressions in severe hypoxia and the expressions of nine miRNAs, including key miRNAs such as Aja-miR-1, Aja-miR-2008, and Aja-miR-184, were consistent with the sequencing results. Moreover, gene ontology and pathway analyses of putative target genes suggest that these miRNAs are important in redox, transport, transcription, and hydrolysis under hypoxia stress. Notably, novel-miR-1, novel-miR-2, and novel-miR-3 were specifically clustered and upregulated in severe hypoxia, which may provide new insights into novel "hypoxamiR" identification. These results will provide a basis for future studies of miRNA regulation and molecular adaptive mechanisms in sea cucumbers under hypoxia stress. Copyright © 2017 Huo et al.

  7. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  8. Alternate immersion stress corrosion testing of 5083 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Dringman, M.R.; Hausburg, D.E.; Jackson, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of Type 5083 aluminum--magnesium alloy in plate form and press-formed shapes was determined in the short transverse direction. C-ring type specimens were exposed to alternate immersion in a sodium chloride solution. The test equipment and procedure, with several innovative features, are described in detail. Statistical test results are listed for seven thermomechanical conditions. A certain processing scheme was shown to yield a work-strengthened part that is not sensitized with respect to stress corrosion cracking

  9. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so-called "spont...... of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress...

  10. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ measurements of soil shear stress in full field conditions for different types of soils located on the right side of the Sele river, at a distance of about 1 km from each other, along the perpendicular to the Sele river in the direction of the sea. Full field tests using the shearometer unit were performed alongside considered soil characteristic parameter data collection. These parameter values derived from hydrostatic compression and triaxial tests performed on considered soil samples and repeated 4 times and we noticed that the difference between the maximum and minimum values detected for every set of performed tests never exceeded 4%. Full field shear tests were simulated by the Abaqus program code considering three different material models of soils normally used in the literature, the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Cam-Clay models. We then compared all data outcomes obtained by numerical simulations with those from the experimental tests. We also discussed any further simulation data results obtained with different material models and selected the best material model for each considered soil to be used in tyre/soil contact simulation or in soil compaction studies.

  12. The predictive value of an adjusted COPD assessment test score on the risk of respiratory-related hospitalizations in severe COPD patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Joanne M; Barton, Christopher A; Buckman, Julie; Bassett, Katherine L.; van der Palen, Job; Frith, Peter A.; Effing, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) with adjusted weights for the CAT items could better predict future respiratory-related hospitalizations than the original CAT. Two focus groups (respiratory nurses and physicians) generated two adjusted CAT

  13. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  14. Panel manipulation in social stress testing:The Bath experimental stress test for children (BEST-C)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, Tara J.; Turner-Cobb, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundWhilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors.MethodsThirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath E...

  15. An acceleration test for stress corrosion cracking using humped specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    By using the humped specimen, which is processed by the humped die, in the slow strain rate technique (SSRT) test, fracture facet due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be observed in relatively short duration. Although the cold work and concentrated stress and strain caused by the characteristic shape of the specimen accelerate the SCC, to date these acceleration effects have not been examined quantitatively. In the present study, the acceleration effects of the humped specimen were examined through experiments and finite element analyses (FEA). The experiments investigated the SCC of alloy 600 in the primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor. SSRT tests were conducted using two kinds of humped specimen: one was annealed after hump processing in order to eliminate the cold work, and the other was hump processed after the annealing treatment. The work ratio caused by the hump processing and stress/strain conditions during SSRT test were evaluated by FEA. It was found that maximum work ratio of 30% is introduced by the hump processing and that the distribution of the work ratio is not uniform. Furthermore, the work ratio is influenced by the friction between the specimen and dies as well as by the shape of dies. It was revealed that not only the cold work but also the concentrated stress and strain during SSRT test accelerate the crack initiation and growth of the SCC. (author)

  16. Stress test, what is the reality and significance of it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Stress test was introduced in July 2011 by 'political judgment' to demonstrate the ability of nuclear power plants to withstand severe earthquake and tsunami. Stress test consisted of two stages and the first stage using computerized simulation required to obtain 'cliff edge' for earthquake, tsunami, their superposition, loss of all alternating current power and loss of final heat sink, and effectiveness of severe accident management after emergency safety measures. Clearing the first stage of the test was a prerequisite for restarting reactors that had been suspended for regular inspections. NISA had received such test results for 14 nuclear reactors as of January 18, 2012. After passing IAEA's evaluation of stress test review process, NISA's endorsement of test results, NSC's confirmation of NISA's screening results and approval of local government, Prime Minister and relevant ministers concerned would decide whether reactors could be restarted as 'political judgment'. Using ranking list and referring to respective experiences of 14 reactors hit by earthquake and tsunami at the Great East Japan earthquake might better perform comprehensive judgment. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Quantification of Applied Stresses of C-Ring Specimens for Stress Corrosion Cracking Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Sun Jae; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kuk, Il Hiun; Choi, Jong Ho

    1997-01-01

    For comparing their resistances for stress-corrosion cracking(SCC) in the K600-MA, K690-MA, and K600-TT tubes, C-ring specimens were fabricated with the various thermal-treatments to control the distributions of the precipitates like Cr-carbides. The bending stresses were analyzed to determine the amounts to make the stress quantitatively to all the C-ring samples, and then the stresses were calculated with the relation to the outer diameter(O.D) deflection(δ) of the C-rings. To measure accurately the bending strains of the C-ring specimens, the strain gauges were used and the compression test was also carried out. In the elastic region, the stresses in both the transverse and the circumferential directions were different with the locations of the strain gauges as attached at α= 30 .deg., 45 .deg., and 90 .deg. to the principal stress direction, but those in the longitudinal direction were independent of their attached locations. Calculated stresses from the strains obtained using the strain gauges were well agreed with the theoretical. In the plastic region over δ=1.0mm, the stresses for the TT tubes showed lower values of about 400MPa than those for the MA tubes. However, the stresses among the TT tubes showed almost the similar values in this region. Therefore, the states of the stresses applied to the C-ring specimens would be different with the material conditions, i.e, the chemical compositions, the thermal treatments such as MA and TT

  18. Activation of Akt is essential for the propagation of mitochondrial respiratory stress signaling and activation of the transcriptional coactivator heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Manti; Fang, Ji-Kang; Monks, Robert; Birnbaum, Morris J; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2010-10-15

    Mitochondrial respiratory stress (also called mitochondrial retrograde signaling) activates a Ca(2+)/calcineurin-mediated signal that culminates in transcription activation/repression of a large number of nuclear genes. This signal is propagated through activation of the regulatory proteins NFκB c-Rel/p50, C/EBPδ, CREB, and NFAT. Additionally, the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNPA2) functions as a coactivator in up-regulating the transcription of Cathepsin L, RyR1, and Glut-4, the target genes of stress signaling. Activation of IGF1R, which causes a metabolic switch to glycolysis, cell invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis, is a phenotypic hallmark of C2C12 myoblasts subjected to mitochondrial stress. In this study, we report that mitochondrial stress leads to increased expression, activation, and nuclear localization of Akt1. Mitochondrial respiratory stress also activates Akt1-gene expression, which involves hnRNPA2 as a coactivator, indicating a complex interdependency of these two factors. Using Akt1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Akt1 mRNA-silenced C2C12 cells, we show that Akt1-mediated phosphorylation is crucial for the activation and recruitment of hnRNPA2 to the enhanceosome complex. Akt1 mRNA silencing in mtDNA-depleted cells resulted in reversal of the invasive phenotype, accompanied by sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. These results show that Akt1 is an important regulator of the nuclear transcriptional response to mitochondrial stress.

  19. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pstress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; pstressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  20. Testing the Predictive Power of Coulomb Stress on Aftershock Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, J.; Lombardi, A.; Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.

    2009-12-01

    Empirical and statistical models of clustered seismicity are usually strongly stochastic and perceived to be uninformative in their forecasts, since only marginal distributions are used, such as the Omori-Utsu and Gutenberg-Richter laws. In contrast, so-called physics-based aftershock models, based on seismic rate changes calculated from Coulomb stress changes and rate-and-state friction, make more specific predictions: anisotropic stress shadows and multiplicative rate changes. We test the predictive power of models based on Coulomb stress changes against statistical models, including the popular Short Term Earthquake Probabilities and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences models: We score and compare retrospective forecasts on the aftershock sequences of the 1992 Landers, USA, the 1997 Colfiorito, Italy, and the 2008 Selfoss, Iceland, earthquakes. To quantify predictability, we use likelihood-based metrics that test the consistency of the forecasts with the data, including modified and existing tests used in prospective forecast experiments within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Our results indicate that a statistical model performs best. Moreover, two Coulomb model classes seem unable to compete: Models based on deterministic Coulomb stress changes calculated from a given fault-slip model, and those based on fixed receiver faults. One model of Coulomb stress changes does perform well and sometimes outperforms the statistical models, but its predictive information is diluted, because of uncertainties included in the fault-slip model. Our results suggest that models based on Coulomb stress changes need to incorporate stochastic features that represent model and data uncertainty.

  1. System for stress corrosion conditions tests on PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Cesar de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The study of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) involves the consideration and evaluation of the inherent compatibility between a material and the environment under conditions of either applied or residual stress. EAC is a critical problem because equipment, components and structure are subject to the influence of mechanical stress, water environment of different composition, temperature and different material history. Testing for resistance to EAC is one of the most effective ways to determine the interrelationships among this variables on the process of EAC. Up to now, several experimental techniques have been developed worldwide, which address different aspects of environmental caused damage. Constant loading of CT specimens test is a typical example of test, which is used for the estimation of parameters of stress corrosion cracking. To assess the initiation stages and kinetics of crack growth, the testing facility should allow active loading of specimens in the environment that is close to the actual operation conditions of assessed component. This paper presents a testing facility for stress corrosion cracking to be installed at CDTN, which was designed and developed at CDTN. The facility is used to carry out constant load tests under simulated PWR environment, where temperature, water pressure and chemistry are controlled, which are considered the most important factors in SCC. Also, the equipment operational conditions, its applications, and restrictions are presented. The system was developed to operate at temperature until 380 degree C and pressure until 180 bar. It consists in a autoclave stuck at a mechanical system, responsible of producing load , a water treatment station, and a data acquisition system. This testing facility allows the evaluation of cracking progress, especially at PWR reactor. (author) operational conditions. (author)

  2. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power

  3. Yield stress determination from miniaturized disk bend test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Harling, O.K.

    1985-04-01

    Methodology for testing 3.0 mm diameter by 0.25 mm thick disks by bending in a punch and die has been described previously. This paper describes the analysis of load/deflection data from such miniaturized disk bend tests (MDBT) using a finite element simulation. Good simulation has been achieved up to a point just beyond the predominantly elastic response, linear initial region. The load at which deviation from linearity begins has been found to correlate with yield stress, and yield stress has been successfully extracted from disk bend tests of a number of known materials. Although finite element codes capable of dealing with large strains and large rotations have been used, simulation of the entire load/deflection curve up to fracture of the specimen has not yet been achieved

  4. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pstatistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  5. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of heat stress on respiratory burst, oxidative damage and SERPINH1 (HSP47) mRNA expression in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanni; Liu, Zhe; Li, Zhen; Shi, Haina; Kang, Yujun; Wang, Jianfu; Huang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Li

    2016-04-01

    For rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, high temperature is a major abiotic stress that limits its growth and productivity. In this study, spleen macrophage respiratory burst (RB), serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and mRNA expression of the SERPINH1 (HSP47) gene in different tissues (liver, spleen, head kidney and heart) were measured in unstressed (18 °C) and heat-stressed (25 °C) fish. Spleen macrophage RB activity, serum SOD activity and MDA content all increased significantly (P mykiss. In practice, close attention should be given to temperature changes in O. mykiss production to reduce the effects of high temperature.

  7. Stress Testing of Organic Light- Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Davis, Kelley Rountree, Karmann Mills

    2018-01-31

    This report builds on previous DOE efforts with OLED technology by updating information on a previously benchmarked OLED product (the Chalina luminaire from Acuity Brands) and provides new benchmarks on the performance of Brite 2 and Brite Amber OLED panels from OLEDWorks. During the tests described here, samples of these devices were subjected to continuous operation in stress tests at elevated ambient temperature environments of 35°C or 45°C. In addition, samples were also operated continuously at room temperature in a room temperature operational life test (RTOL). One goal of this study was to investigate whether these test conditions can accelerate failure of OLED panels, either through panel shorting or an open circuit in the panel. These stress tests are shown to provide meaningful acceleration of OLED failure modes, and an acceleration factor of 2.6 was calculated at 45°C for some test conditions. In addition, changes in the photometric properties of the emitted light (e.g., luminous flux and chromaticity maintenance) was also evaluated for insights into the long-term stability of these products compared to earlier generations. Because OLEDs are a lighting system, electrical testing was also performed on the panel-driver pairs to provide insights into the impact of the driver on long-term panel performance.

  8. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maniaci, G.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Cannizzaro, C.; van Holst, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)

  9. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function in children with rhinitis and asthma after a six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Alice de Almeida; Barros, Camila Moraes; Santos, Cássia Giulliane Costa; Dos Santos, Maria Renata Aragão; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Simões, Silvia de Magalhães

    2018-03-01

    Rhinitis and asthma decrease quality of life. Few studies have assessed the performance of children with asthma or rhinitis under submaximal exercise. We evaluated maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric parameters, and ability to sustain submaximal exercise in these children before and after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), compared to healthy children. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 89 children aged 6-12 years in outpatient follow-up: 27 healthy (H), 31 with rhinitis (R), and 31 with mild asthma under control (A). Pulmonary function parameters and maximal respiratory pressures were measured before and 5, 10, and 30 minutes after the 6MWT. Wilcoxon test was used to compare numerical numerical variables between two groups and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among three groups. Total distance traveled in the 6MWT was similar among the three groups. Compared to pre-test values, VEF1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), VEF0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 0.75 second), and FEF25-75 (Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75% of the Forced Vital Capacity - CVF - curve) decreased significantly after the 6MWT in group A, and VEF0.75, FEF25-75, and VEF1/CVF decreased significantly in group R. Groups A and R had lower Maximum Inspiratory Pressure values than group H before and after the 6MWT at all time points assessed. The findings suggest that children with rhinitis and mild asthma present with alterations in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function not associated with clinical complaints, reinforcing the concept of the united airways.

  10. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  11. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Major outcomes of the stress tests. Learning from each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    Performed by the EU's 'nuclear' member states plus Switzerland and Ukraine, the European stress tests were carried out with some differences, notably in the scope considered. The action plans derived from the conclusions of the national reports peer-reviewed by TSO experts also differ in terms of scope, priorities and scheduling. Similar safety reassessments were performed in other countries such as Japan or Russia. The country-specific focuses described below provide an overview of the similarities and dissimilarities between twelve countries which are represented at EUROSAFE. One common denominator among them might be the fact that the conclusions from the stress tests did not reveal any major deficiency calling for immediate steps to be taken. (orig.)

  13. INTERFACE DEVICE FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF RESIDUAL SURFACE STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady A. Perepelkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the organization of connection of a personal computer with a device for nondestructive testing of residual surface stresses. The device works is based on the phenomenon of diffraction of ionizing radiation from the crystal lattice near the surface of the crystallites. Proposed software interface to the organization for each type of user: the device developers, administrators, users. Some aspects of the organization of communication microcontroller to a PC via USB-port

  14. A Simple Stress Test on Indonesian Islamic Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dece Kurniadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct a stress test on Indonesian Islamic Banking industry in order toassess the capability of the industry to absorb the extreme risks that may happen in the future. Using data from April 2008 to September 2014, the study employs balance sheet approach in performing the stress test on profitability and capital position and the value at risk technique for liquidity stress test. The results of this study show that in term of profitability, Islamic banks in Indonesia are immune from losses if the default rate (Non-Performing Loan is less than 8.5 %. If the industry can improve the profit margin, the resistance will be higher.In term of capital position, by assuming loss given default (LGD is constant at 40%, the industry will not go bankrupt if probability of default (PD is less than 9%. If the PD is more than 9%, total expected loss is more than available capital. Using the value at risk (VaR at 99% confidence, the study finds that possible deposit flight will not exceed IDR 26 trillion and the liquid asset available is IDR 28 trillion. The study concludes that there is no liquidity threat for Islamic banks in Indonesia. The findingsalso uncover the risky condition that even though the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is on average 14%, real capital measured by Equity to total asset (ETA is only 5.4%

  15. SFC/SFBMN guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures: stress testing in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Marie, P.Y.; Maunoury, Ch.; Acar, Ph.; Agostini, D.

    2002-01-01

    The guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures are studied in this article. We find the minimum technique conditions for the stress testing practice, the recommendations for the different ischemia activation tests, the choice of the stress test. (N.C.)

  16. Rapid microbiological testing: monitoring the development of bacterial stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zavizion

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respond to adverse environments effectively along with the ability to reproduce are sine qua non conditions for all sustainable cellular forms of life. Given the availability of an appropriate sensing modality, the ubiquity and immediacy of the stress response could form the basis for a new approach for rapid biological testing. We have found that measuring the dielectric permittivity of a cellular suspension, an easily measurable electronic property, is an effective way to monitor the response of bacterial cells to adverse conditions continuously. The dielectric permittivity of susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, treated with gentamicin and vancomycin, were measured directly using differential impedance sensing methods and expressed as the Normalized Impedance Response (NIR. These same strains were also heat-shocked and chemically stressed with Triton X-100 or H(2O(2. The NIR profiles obtained for antibiotic-treated susceptible organisms showed a strong and continuous decrease in value. In addition, the intensity of the NIR value decrease for susceptible cells varied in proportion to the amount of antibiotic added. Qualitatively similar profiles were found for the chemically treated and heat-shocked bacteria. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant cells showed no change in the NIR values in the presence of the drug to which it is resistant. The data presented here show that changes in the dielectric permittivity of a cell suspension are directly correlated with the development of a stress response as well as bacterial recovery from stressful conditions. The availability of a practical sensing modality capable of monitoring changes in the dielectric properties of stressed cells could have wide applications in areas ranging from the detection of bacterial infections in clinical specimens to antibiotic susceptibility testing and drug discovery.

  17. Rapid test for lung maturity, based on spectroscopy of gastric aspirate, predicted respiratory distress syndrome with high sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verder, Henrik; Heiring, Christian; Clark, Howard

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. By the time symptoms appear, it may already be too late to prevent a severe course, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality. We aimed to develop a rapid test of lung maturity...... for targeting surfactant supplementation. METHODS: Concentrations of the most surface-active lung phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in gastric aspirates from premature infants were measured by mass spectrometry and expressed as the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S). The same...

  18. Is forced oscillation technique the next respiratory function test of choice in childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alblooshi, Afaf; Alkalbani, Alia; Albadi, Ghaya; Narchi, Hassib; Hall, Graham

    2017-12-26

    Respiratory diseases, especially asthma, are common in children. While spirometry contributes to asthma diagnosis and management in older children, it has a limited role in younger children whom are often unable to perform forced expiratory manoeuvre. The development of novel diagnostic methods which require minimal effort, such as forced oscillation technique (FOT) is, therefore, a welcome and promising addition. FOT involves applying external, small amplitude oscillations to the respiratory system during tidal breathing. Therefore, it requires minimal effort and cooperation. The FOT has the potential to facilitate asthma diagnosis and management in pre-school children by faciliting the objective measurement of baseline lung function and airway reactivity in children unable to successfully perform spirometry. Traditionally the use of FOT was limited to specialised centres. However, the availability of commercial equipment resulted in its use both in research and in clinical practice. In this article, we review the available literature on the use of FOT in childhood asthma. The technical aspects of FOT are described followed by a discussion of its practical aspects in the clinical field including the measurement of baseline lung function and associated reference ranges, bronchodilator responsiveness and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. We also highlight the difficulties and limitations that might be encountered and future research directions.

  19. Accelerated stress testing of amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, W. G.; Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for performing accelerated stress tests of large-area thin a-Si solar cells is presented. A computer-controlled short-interval test system employing low-cost ac-powered ELH illumination and a simulated a-Si reference cell (seven individually bandpass-filtered zero-biased crystalline PIN photodiodes) calibrated to the response of an a-Si control cell is described and illustrated with flow diagrams, drawings, and graphs. Preliminary results indicate that while most tests of a program developed for c-Si cells are applicable to a-Si cells, spurious degradation may appear in a-Si cells tested at temperatures above 130 C.

  20. Effects of antecedent fermentative and respiratory growth on the detection of chloramine-stressed Escherichia coil and Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunberg, R L; Sexstone, A J; Calabrese, J P; Bissonnette, G K

    2001-08-01

    In vitro laboratory studies were performed to assess the effects of antecedent growth conditions on the recovery of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 following chloramine disinfection. Six- and 18-h cultures of each organism were grown under aerobic, fermentative, and nitrate-reducing conditions prior to disinfection. At predetermined time intervals during a 10-min exposure to chloramine, survivors were surface plated on nonselective recovery media to determine C(n)t values. It was observed that nitrate-reducing growth predisposed the test organisms towards an increased sensitivity to chloramine stress over cells grown under fermentation or aerobic conditions (p < 0.01).

  1. STRESS TESTS FOR VIDEOSTREAMING SERVICES BASED ON RTSP PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Elías Chanchí Golondrino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Video-streaming is a technology with major implications these days in such diverse contexts as education, health and the business sector; all of this regarding the ease it provides for remote access to live or recorded media content, allowing communication regardless of geographic location. One standard protocol that enables implementation of this technology is real time streaming protocol, or RTSP. However, since most application servers and Internet services are supported on HTTP requests, very little research has been done on generating tools for carrying out stress tests on streaming servers. This paper presents a stress measuring tool called Hermes, developed in Python, which allows calculation of response times for establishing RTSP connections to streaming servers, as well as obtaining RAM memory consumption and CPU usage rate data from these servers. Hermes was deployed in a video-streaming environment where stress testing was carried out on the LIVE555 server, using calls in the background to VLC and OpenRTSP open source clients. 

  2. Application of Enrofloxacin and Orbifloxacin Disks Approved in Japan for Susceptibility Testing of Representative Veterinary Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965

  3. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Air Pollution Effects on the Respiratory System Based on Pulmonary Function Tests Performed During Spirometry Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowiecki, Piotr; Mucha, Dominika; Gayer, Anna; Adamkiewicz, Łukasz; Badyda, Artur J

    2015-01-01

    The Polish Spirometry Day is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the causes, symptoms, course, and effects that accompany respiratory diseases, especially asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In 2013, the second edition of the Spirometry Day was held. It gathered 180 medical centers and other institution. The final analysis encompassed a total of 1187 persons from 26 different locations, including rural areas, and smaller and larger city agglomerations. Of this total, 755 persons (63.6 %) completed their spirometry tests for the first time in life. Each person fulfilled a questionnaire regarding the personal information, respiratory diseases, symptoms, lifestyle, and a place of residence. In the total group, 234 (19.7 %) cases of bronchial obstruction were diagnosed. A hundred and thirty four persons with obstruction, among those tested for the first time in life (17.8 %), were unaware of their disease. The lowest values of FEV1 and FEF(1)/FVC, corresponding to the highest percentage of persons with obstruction (27.9 %) were observed in small and medium cities (100,000-500,000 inhabitants). There were differences in the prevalence of obstruction depending on the distance of the place of residence from a busy traffic road. A significant decrease of both spirometric variables was observed among people living in cities above 100,000 inhabitants within a distance lower than 50 m from roads. In general, better spirometry results were observed among inhabitants living more than 150 m from main roads.

  5. Effects of bedding systems selected by manual muscle testing on sleep and sleep-related respiratory disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Liu, Hau-Min

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying manual muscle testing (MMT) for bedding selection and examined the bedding effect on sleep. Four lay testers with limited training in MMT performed muscle tests for the selection of the bedding systems from five different mattresses and eight different pillows for 14 participants with mild sleep-related respiratory disturbances. For each participant individually, two bedding systems-one inducing stronger muscle forces and the other inducing weaker forces-were selected. The tester-participant pairs showed 85% and 100% agreement, respectively, for the selection of mattresses and pillows that induced the strongest muscle forces. The firmness of the mattress and the height of the pillow were significantly correlated with the body weight and body mass index of the participants for the selected strong bedding system but not for the weak bedding system. Finally, differences were observed between the strong and the weak bedding systems with regard to sleep-related respiratory disturbances and the percentage of slow-wave sleep. It was concluded that MMT can be performed by inexperienced testers for the selection of bedding systems.

  6. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  7. Stress Reactivity to an Electronic Version of the Trier Social Stress Test: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage E Hawn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.

  8. Comparison of exercise stress testing with dobutamine stress echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, K.; Kisacik, H.L.; Oguzhan, A.

    1999-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography, Tc-99m radionuclide ventriculography (RNVG), and exercise stress testing were performed prospectively in 63 patients with suspected coronary artery disease to compare the values of exercise testing, dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG in the non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The sensitivities of dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG were found to be higher than that of exercise testing (93-62%, p 0.05). There were no differences between the sensitivities of the three techniques in multiple vessel disease (p>0.05). The specificities of dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG were higher than that of exercise testing (for both of the tests 86-62%, p 0.05). The results of dobutamine stress echocardiography RNVG were concordant with each other in 46 patients (76%, kappa=65%) in sectional analysis. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG tests were comparable with each other in 85% of the 189 segments (kappa=64%). The expected 5% decrease at peak doses of dobutamine was not detected in stress echocardiography in 25 patients and in RNVG in 26 of the patients. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG are superior to exercise testing in the diagnosis of single vessel disease and there is no significant difference between the two techniques. When the ejection fraction is considered in dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG, it does not make an additional contribution to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. (author)

  9. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  10. Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Santos, Israel; Danaga, Aline Roberta; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Dias, Ismael Souza; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Martins, Aline Almeida; Ferraz, Leonardo Macario; Fonsêca, Nina Teixeira; Fernandes, Virgilio; Fernandes, Vinicius Alves Thomaz; Lopes, Viviane Cristina Delgado; Leitão Filho, Fernando Sérgio Studart; Nacif, Sérgio Roberto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Giannasi, Lílian Christiane; Romano, Salvatore; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Araujo, Ana Karina Fachini; Dellê, Humberto; Souza, Nadia Karina Guimarães; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2013-10-08

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height(2); circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian

  11. Stress test of the nuclear power plants performed in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Teng, W.C.; Chang, S.; Chen, Y.B. [Atomic Energy Council, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In the wake of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants event, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has asked Taiwan's Nuclear Power Plant operator (TPC) to re-examine and re-evaluate the vulnerabilities of its nuclear units, and furthermore, take possible countermeasures against extreme natural disasters, including earthquake, tsunami and rock-and-mud slide. The evaluation process should be based on both within and beyond Design Basis Accidents, by reference to the actions recommended by the world nuclear authorities and groups, namely, IAEA, USNRC, NEI, ENSREG and WANO. Taiwan is a very densely populated region of the world. Furthermore, like Japan, due to its geophysical position, Taiwan is prone to large scale earthquakes, and although historically rare, Taiwan also faces the potential risk of tsunamis. AEC also asked TPC to perform the stress test following the specification given by WENRA (later ENSREG) and conducted in all the EU's nuclear reactors. After completion of the stress test for all the nuclear power plants, AEC was trying to have the reports peer reviewed by international organizations, as EU did. The OECD/NEA accepted AEC's request and formed a review team specific to the review of Taiwan's National Report for the Stress Test. There were 18 follow-up items after the NEA's review. Based on these items, AEC developed five orders to require TPC further enhancing their capabilities to cope with extreme natural hazards. The ENSREG also formed a nine-expert review team for Taiwan's Stress Test in response to AEC's request almost at the same time as the OECD/NEA. The ENSREG review team began their works in June 2013 by desktop review, and ended in early October 2013 by country visit to Taiwan. While the assessment of post-Fukushima evaluation reveals neither immediate nuclear safety concerns nor threats to the public health and safety, AEC requested that TPC focus on strengthening its re-evaluation on design

  12. Stress test of the nuclear power plants performed in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.; Teng, W.C.; Chang, S.; Chen, Y.B.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants event, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has asked Taiwan's Nuclear Power Plant operator (TPC) to re-examine and re-evaluate the vulnerabilities of its nuclear units, and furthermore, take possible countermeasures against extreme natural disasters, including earthquake, tsunami and rock-and-mud slide. The evaluation process should be based on both within and beyond Design Basis Accidents, by reference to the actions recommended by the world nuclear authorities and groups, namely, IAEA, USNRC, NEI, ENSREG and WANO. Taiwan is a very densely populated region of the world. Furthermore, like Japan, due to its geophysical position, Taiwan is prone to large scale earthquakes, and although historically rare, Taiwan also faces the potential risk of tsunamis. AEC also asked TPC to perform the stress test following the specification given by WENRA (later ENSREG) and conducted in all the EU's nuclear reactors. After completion of the stress test for all the nuclear power plants, AEC was trying to have the reports peer reviewed by international organizations, as EU did. The OECD/NEA accepted AEC's request and formed a review team specific to the review of Taiwan's National Report for the Stress Test. There were 18 follow-up items after the NEA's review. Based on these items, AEC developed five orders to require TPC further enhancing their capabilities to cope with extreme natural hazards. The ENSREG also formed a nine-expert review team for Taiwan's Stress Test in response to AEC's request almost at the same time as the OECD/NEA. The ENSREG review team began their works in June 2013 by desktop review, and ended in early October 2013 by country visit to Taiwan. While the assessment of post-Fukushima evaluation reveals neither immediate nuclear safety concerns nor threats to the public health and safety, AEC requested that TPC focus on strengthening its re-evaluation on design

  13. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  14. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ster, Daniel C van der; García, Mario Úbeda; Paladin, Massimo; Elmsheuser, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  15. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power model is proposed as the statistical model of the color shift (CS) process of LED products. Consequently, a CS mechanism constant is obtained for detecting the consistency of CS mechanisms among various s...

  16. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E

    2013-10-01

    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made.

  17. DECOVALEX I - Test Case 1: Coupled stress-flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengren, L.; Christianson, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of the coupled stress-flow model, test case 1 of Decovalex. The model simulates the fourth loading cycle of a coupled stress-flow test and subsequent shearing up to and beyond peak shear resistance. The first loading sequence (A) consists of seven normal loading steps: 0, 5, 15, 25, 15, 5, 0 MPa. The second loading sequence (B) consists of the following eight steps: unstressed state, normal boundary loading of 25 MPa (no shearing), and then shearing of 0.5, 0.8, 2, 4, 2, 0 mm. Two different options regarding the rock joint behaviour were modeled in accordance with the problem definition. In option 1 a linear elastic joint model with Coulomb slip criterion was used. In option 2 a non-linear empirical (i.e. Barton-Bandis) joint model was used. The hydraulic condition during both load sequence A and B was a constant head of 5 m at the inlet point and 0 m at the outlet point. All model runs presented in this report were performed using the two-dimensional distinct element computer code UDEC, version 1.8. 30 refs, 36 figs

  18. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... minimum risk-based capital requirements.\\3\\ Stress testing is one tool that helps both bank supervisors... the FDIC and the OCC to help to ensure that the company-run stress testing regulations are consistent... purposes of the annual company-run stress tests so that the same set of scenarios can be used to conduct...

  19. Microscopic creep models and the interpretation of stress-dip tests during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.P.

    1976-09-01

    A critical analysis is made of the principal divergent view points concerning stress-dip tests. The raw data are examined and interpreted in the light of various creep models. The following problems are discussed: is the reverse strain anelastic or plastic; is the zero creep rate periodic due to recovery or is it spurious; can the existence or inexistence of an internal stress be deduced from stress-dip tests; can stress-dip tests allow to determine whether glide is jerky or viscous; can the internal stress be measured by stress-dip tests

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  1. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Timothy [Research Engineer; Motupally, Sathya [Research Engineer

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  2. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van der Ster, Daniel C; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud (HC) is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HC was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HC has been ...

  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms among smokers in the city of mashhad (north east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boskabady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking was studied using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 176 smokers. The total studied population with family and co-workers were 13289. The number of smokers among studied population was 11.7%. The rate of smoking among male subjects was 17.2% and in female 2.5%. All values of PFTs in smokers were significantly lower (p < 0.001 and respiratory symptoms higher than in non smokers (p < 0.05 for cough and p < 0.001 for wheeze and tightness. There were significant negative correlations between smoking duration and rate with values of PFT (p < 0.05-p < 0.001. In this study the prevalence of smoking in population of Mashhad city was shown. The prevalence of smoking was higher among male than females. Smoking leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of PFTs values. Resumen: A prevalência do acto de fumar foi estudada através de um questionário. Os testes de função pulmonar e sintomas respiratórios foram avaliados em 176 fumadores. O total da população estudada com família e colaboradores foi de 13289. O número de fumadores entre a população estudada foi de 11,7%. A taxa do acto de fumar entre os homens foi de 17,2% e de 2,5% entre as mulheres. Todos os valores de TFP nos fumadores foram significativamente inferiores (p < 0.001 e os sintomas respiratórios foram superiores em relação aos não fumadores (p < 0,05 para tosse e p < 0,001 para pieira e aperto torácico. Registaram-se correlações negativas significativas entre a duração do acto de fumar e a taxa com valores de TFP (p < 0,05-p < 0,001. Neste estudo, foi apresentada a prevalência do acto de fumar na população da cidade de Mashhad. A prevalência do acto de fumar foi maior entre os homens do que entre as mulheres. Fumar leva a um aumento de sintomas respiratórios e à redução dos valores de TFP. Keywords: Prevalence of smoking, smoking duration, smoking amount

  5. Reliability and validity of the test of incremental respiratory endurance measures of inspiratory muscle performance in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Magno F; Roach, Kathryn E; Vital, Isabel; Urdaneta, Gisel; Balestrini, Kira; Calderon-Candelario, Rafael A; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2018-01-01

    The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE) provides a comprehensive assessment of inspiratory muscle performance by measuring maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) over time. The integration of MIP over inspiratory duration (ID) provides the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP). Evidence on the reliability and validity of these measurements in COPD is not currently available. Therefore, we assessed the reliability, responsiveness and construct validity of the TIRE measures of inspiratory muscle performance in subjects with COPD. Test-retest reliability, known-groups and convergent validity assessments were implemented simultaneously in 81 male subjects with mild to very severe COPD. TIRE measures were obtained using the portable PrO2 device, following standard guidelines. All TIRE measures were found to be highly reliable, with SMIP demonstrating the strongest test-retest reliability with a nearly perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.99, while MIP and ID clustered closely together behind SMIP with ICC values of about 0.97. Our findings also demonstrated known-groups validity of all TIRE measures, with SMIP and ID yielding larger effect sizes when compared to MIP in distinguishing between subjects of different COPD status. Finally, our analyses confirmed convergent validity for both SMIP and ID, but not MIP. The TIRE measures of MIP, SMIP and ID have excellent test-retest reliability and demonstrated known-groups validity in subjects with COPD. SMIP and ID also demonstrated evidence of moderate convergent validity and appear to be more stable measures in this patient population than the traditional MIP.

  6. Mitochondrial localization of fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase is required for its lysine acetylation and for cellular stress resistance and respiratory growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Takehiro; Shirai, Atsuko; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Dohmae, Naoshi; Yoshida, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is acetylated. → The mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is required for the acetylation of MnSOD. → The MTS is not crucial for MnSOD activity, but is important for respiratory growth. → Posttranslational regulation of MnSOD differs between budding and fission yeast. -- Abstract: Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is localized in the mitochondria and is important for oxidative stress resistance. Although transcriptional regulation of MnSOD has been relatively well studied, much less is known about the protein's posttranslational regulation. In budding yeast, MnSOD is activated after mitochondrial import by manganese ion incorporation. Here we characterize posttranslational modification of MnSOD in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast MnSOD is acetylated at the 25th lysine residue. This acetylation was diminished by deletion of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, suggesting that MnSOD is acetylated after import into mitochondria. Mitochondrial localization of MnSOD is not essential for the enzyme activity, but is crucial for oxidative stress resistance and growth under respiratory conditions of fission yeast. These results suggest that, unlike the situation in budding yeast, S. pombe MnSOD is already active even before mitochondrial localization; nonetheless, mitochondrial localization is critical to allow the cell to cope with reactive oxygen species generated inside or outside of mitochondria.

  7. Stress Tests Worldwide - IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety action plan relies on 11 important issues. 1) Safety assessments in light of the Fukushima accident: the IAEA secretariat will develop a methodology for stress tests against specific extreme natural hazards and will provide assistance for their implementation; 2) Strengthen existing IAEA peer reviews; 3) Emergency preparedness and response; 4) National Regulatory bodies in terms of independence and adequacy of human and financial resources; 5) The development of safety culture and scientific and technical capacity in Operating Organizations; 6) The upgrading of IAEA safety standards in a more efficient way; 7) A better implementation of relevant conventions concerning nuclear safety and nuclear accidents; 8) To provide a broad assistance on safety standard for countries embarking on a nuclear power program; 9) To facilitate the use of available information, expertise and techniques concerning radiation protection; 10) To enhance the transparency of nuclear industry; and 11) To promote the cooperation between member states in nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  8. A stochastic model to determine the economic value of changing diagnostic test characteristics for identification of cattle for treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, M E; White, B J; Larson, R L; Schroeder, T C

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is an economically important syndrome in the beef industry, and diagnostic accuracy is important for optimal disease management. The objective of this study was to determine whether improving diagnostic sensitivity or specificity was of greater economic value at varied levels of respiratory disease prevalence by using Monte Carlo simulation. Existing literature was used to populate model distributions of published sensitivity, specificity, and performance (ADG, carcass weight, yield grade, quality grade, and mortality risk) differences among calves based on clinical respiratory disease status. Data from multiple cattle feeding operations were used to generate true ranges of respiratory disease prevalence and associated mortality. Input variables were combined into a single model that calculated estimated net returns for animals by diagnostic category (true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative) based on the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity for each iteration. Net returns for each diagnostic category were multiplied by the proportion of animals in each diagnostic category to determine group profitability. Apparent prevalence was categorized into low (increasing specificity created more rapid, positive change in net returns than increasing sensitivity. Improvement of diagnostic specificity, perhaps through a confirmatory test interpreted in series or pen-level diagnostics, can increase diagnostic value more than improving sensitivity. Mortality risk was the primary driver for net returns. The results from this study are important for determining future research priorities to analyze diagnostic techniques for bovine respiratory disease and provide a novel way for modeling diagnostic tests.

  9. Methods and Models of Market Risk Stress-Testing of the Portfolio of Financial Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Karminsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid instability of financial markets and macroeconomic situation the necessity of improving bank risk-management instrument arises. New economic reality defines the need for searching for more advanced approaches of estimating banks vulnerability to exceptional, but plausible events. Stress-testing belongs to such instruments. The paper reviews and compares the models of market risk stress-testing of the portfolio of different financial instruments. These days the topic of the paper is highly acute due to the fact that now stress-testing is becoming an integral part of anticrisis risk-management amid macroeconomic instability and appearance of new risks together with close interest to the problem of risk-aggregation. The paper outlines the notion of stress-testing and gives coverage of goals, functions of stress-tests and main criteria for market risk stress-testing classification. The paper also stresses special aspects of scenario analysis. Novelty of the research is explained by elaborating the programme of aggregated complex multifactor stress-testing of the portfolio risk based on scenario analysis. The paper highlights modern Russian and foreign models of stress-testing both on solo-basis and complex. The paper lays emphasis on the results of stress-testing and revaluations of positions for all three complex models: methodology of the Central Bank of stress-testing portfolio risk, model relying on correlations analysis and copula model. The models of stress-testing on solo-basis are different for each financial instrument. Parametric StressVaR model is applicable to shares and options stress-testing;model based on "Grek" indicators is used for options; for euroobligation regional factor model is used. Finally some theoretical recommendations about managing market risk of the portfolio are given.

  10. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.

  11. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in patients being weaned from the ventilator in a respiratory care center: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chu Lin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stress ulcer prophylaxis with lansoprazole in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilators led to a lower but not statistically significant incidence of apparent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There was no significant increase of incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the prophylaxis group. Further larger scale studies are needed to clarify the benefit of stress ulcer prophylaxis in such patients.

  12. Influence of mechanical stress level in preliminary stress-corrosion testing on fatigue strength of a low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleskerova, S.A.; Pakharyan, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effect of corrosion and mechanical factors of preliminary stress corrosion of a metal in its fatigue strength, has been investigated. Smooth cylindrical samples of 20 steel have been tested. Preliminary corrosion under stress has been carried out under natural sea conditions. It is shown that mechanical stresses in the case of preliminary corrosion affect fatigue strength of low-carbon steels, decreasing the range of limited durability and fatigue limit. This effect increases with the increase of stress level and agressivity of corrosive medium

  13. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  14. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  15. Validation of the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Arne; Helbig, Susanne; Drake, Christopher L; Backhaus, Jutta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test with groups with and without sleep problems. Three studies were analysed. Data set 1 was based on an initial screening for a sleep training program (n = 393), data set 2 was based on a study to test the test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (n = 284) and data set 3 was based on a study to examine the influence of competitive sport on sleep (n = 37). Data sets 1 and 2 were used to test internal consistency, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test. Content validity was tested using data set 3. Cronbach's alpha of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test was good (α = 0.80) and test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = 0.72). Overall, the one-factor model showed the best fit. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test and impaired sleep quality, depression and stress reactivity were in line with the expectations regarding the convergent validity. Subjects with sleep problems had significantly higher scores in the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test than subjects without sleep problems (P Stress Test had significantly lower sleep quality (P = 0.01), demonstrating that vulnerability for stress-induced sleep disturbances accompanies poorer sleep quality in stressful episodes. The findings show that the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess the vulnerability to stress-induced sleep disturbances. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. [Further examination of COPD using spirometry, respiratory function test, and impulse oscillometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Masaru; Kitada, Junya

    2011-10-01

    Spirometry is essential for diagnosis and staging of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Characteristic of physiological change of small airways in COPD is heterogeneous distribution of small airway narrowing, resulting in air-trapping and nonhomogeneous ventilation. FEF25-75, residual volume/total lung capacity, delta N2 in phase III slope of single breath N2 washout test, closing volume, static and dynamic compliance, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor) are measured for detecting small airways disease. Impulse oscillometry is also useful for assessment of small airways disease, especially indices of frequent resonance (Fres) and frequent dependent of resistance change of R5-R20; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz. Impulse oscillometry seems to have a complemental role of spirometry in managing COPD.

  17. A novel method for estimating soil precompression stress from uniaxial confined compression tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    . Stress-strain curves were obtained by performing uniaxial, confined compression tests on undisturbed soil cores for three soil types at three soil water potentials. The new method performed better than the Gompertz fitting method in estimating precompression stress. The values of precompression stress...... obtained from the new method were linearly related to the maximum stress experienced by the soil samples prior to the uniaxial, confined compression test at each soil condition with a slope close to 1. Precompression stress determined with the new method was not related to soil type or dry bulk density......The concept of precompression stress is used for estimating soil strength of relevance to fieldtraffic. It represents the maximum stress experienced by the soil. The most recently developed fitting method to estimate precompression stress (Gompertz) is based on the assumption of an S-shape stress...

  18. The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. © The Author(s) 2012.

  19. Type A behavior and the thallium stress test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.P.; Kornfeld, D.S.; Blood, D.K.; Lynn, R.B.; Heller, S.S.; Frank, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent studies have examined the association between Type A personality and coronary artery disease (CAD) by coronary angiography. Most of these studies have reported a significant association. The present study is an attempt at further confirmation, using a new non-invasive technique for measuring CAD. Subjects were 53 patients undergoing routine exercise stress tests with concomitant thallium-201 myocardial perfusion studies. Five aspects of Type A behavior were assessed by the use of the Rosenman-Friedman Semistructured Interview, and each was rated on a three-point scale. Severity of CAD was independently estimated on a four-point scale. Pearson correlation coefficients were separately computed for patients with and without reported history of myocardial infarction (MI). For 37 patients without reported MI, CAD severity was significantly correlated with Overall Type A (r . -0.53), Vocal Characteristics (r . -0.53), Job Involvement (r . -0.36) and Aggressiveness (r . -0.48), but not Time Urgency (r . -0.25). For 16 patients with reported MI, CAD severity was significantly correlated with Job Involvement only (r . +0.49). The data are consistent with the association of Type A personality and coronary atherogenesis, but may also reflect Type A psychological and physiological characteristics. Future studies may be able to examine these and other aspects of Type A behavior using this noninvasive technique in more diverse patient populations

  20. Respiratory function tests after mantle irradiation in patients with Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cionini, L; Pacini, P; De Paola, E; Corrado, A; De Luca Cardillo, C; Mungai, V; Biti, G P; Ponticelli, P

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests were performed in 43 patients with Hodgkin's disease before mantle irradiation and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 or more months thereafter. Treatment was given with a telecobalt unit to a total dose of 36 to 42 Gy, the higher dose being reserved for cases with considerable mediastinal involvement. The functional parameters explored included static and dynamic lung volumes, gas exchanges, ventilatory efficiency, and airway resistance. Measured parameters were expressed as a percentage of the pre-treatment value (PTV) in the individual patient. In the whole group, only small variations in the functional indices were observed at 3 to 6 months after mantle irradiation. In patients with normal PTVs a greater variation in static and dynamic volumes was observed at 3 to 6 months after mantle irradiation, with complete recovery thereafter. The gas exchange parameters also showed a similar variation at 3 to 6 months but no recovery was demonstrated in the subsequent examinations. No changes in ventilatory efficiency and airway resistance were observed. In patients with abnormal PTVs, usually presenting large mediastinal adenopathy, all parameters improved after mantle irradiation, and the favourable effect of tumour regression was probably more important than the radiation damage on the pulmonary parenchyma.

  1. Results of stress tests of European nuclear power plants after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the European Council laid down the requirement that a transparent and comprehensive risk assessment exercise ('stress tests') be carried out at each European nuclear power plant. The stress tests concentrated on the nuclear power plants' safety margins in the light of the lessons learned from the accident. The reviews focused on natural external events including earthquake, tsunami and extreme weather, loss of safety functions, and severe accident management. The stress test procedure comprised 3 steps: (i) The nuclear facility operators performed the stress tests and prepared proposals for safety improvements. (ii) The national regulators performed independent reviews of the stress tests and prepared national reports. (iii) The reports submitted by the national regulators were subjected to review at a European level. The article describes the scope of the stress tests and their results, verified at the European level. (orig.)

  2. An introduction to the 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST-A standardized instrument for evaluating stress reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Neureiter

    Full Text Available Using a standardized instrument to evaluate patients' stress reactions has become more important in daily clinical routines. Different signs or symptoms of stress are often unilaterally explored: the physiological, psychological or social aspects of stress disorders are each viewed on a single dimension. However, all dimensions afflict patients who have persistent health problems due to chronic stress. Therefore, it is important to use a multidimensional approach to acquire data. The 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST was established to achieve a comprehensive understanding of stress and was further developed at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin in collaboration with the Psychological Department of Freie Universität Berlin. The PPST includes a series of varying stress phases, embedded in two periods of rest. Physiological and psychological parameters are simultaneously measured throughout the test session. Specifically, the PPST activates the sympathetic stress axis, which is measured by heart rate, blood pressure, respiration depth and rate, electro dermal activation and muscle tension (frontalis, masseter, trapezius. Psychological data are simultaneously collected, and include performance, motivation, emotion and behavior. After conducting this diagnostic test, it is possible to identify individual stress patterns that can be discussed with the individual patient to develop and recommend (outpatient treatment strategies. This paper introduces the PPST as a standardized way to evaluate stress reactions by presenting the results from a sample of psychosomatic inpatients (n = 139 who were treated in Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. We observed that the varying testing conditions provoked adjusted changes in the different physiological parameters and psychological levels.

  3. Test-retest repeatability of child's respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality - comparing self- and parent-administered questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Santalahti, Päivi; Pekkanen, Juha

    2018-02-09

    Questionnaires can be used to assess perceived indoor air quality and symptoms in schools. Questionnaires for primary school aged children have traditionally been parent-administered, but self-administered questionnaires would be easier to administer and may yield as good, if not better, information. Our aim was to compare the repeatability of self- and parent-administered indoor air questionnaires designed for primary school aged pupils. Indoor air questionnaire with questions on child's symptoms and perceived indoor air quality in schools was sent to parents of pupils aged 7-12 years in two schools and again after two weeks. Slightly modified version of the questionnaire was administered to pupils aged 9-12 years in another two schools and repeated after a week. 351 (52%) parents and 319 pupils (86%) answered both the first and the second questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficients (k). Test-retest repeatability was generally between 0.4-0.7 (ICC; k) in both self- and parent-administered questionnaire. In majority of the questions on symptoms and perceived indoor air quality test-retest repeatability was at the same level or slightly better in self-administered compared to parent-administered questionnaire. Agreement of self- and parent administered questionnaires was generally indoor air quality. Children aged 9-12 years can give as, or even more, repeatable information about their respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality than their parents. Therefore, it may be possible to use self-administered questionnaires in future studies also with children.

  4. Stress test performed on gas transport pipelines as a method for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelzer, J.; Baessler, R.

    1991-01-01

    Modern pipeline construction increasingly uses the stress test as an integral component test while aiming at enhanced safety and availability. The application described by the article highlights the particular fact that expanded and non-expanded pipes of identical material quality will reveal a different behaviour in the stress test. (orig.) [de

  5. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a single exercise stress test might be misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavitabar, Arash; Silver, Eric S; Liberman, Leonardo

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for sudden death is a complex process, particularly in understanding the utility of the repeat exercise stress test. We report a case of an 18-year-old patient who was found to have a high-risk pathway by both invasive and exercise stress testing after an initial exercise stress test showing beat-to-beat loss of pre-excitation.

  6. The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Title: The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation. Aim: The aim of this thesis is the comparison of the results of stress tests carried out preparatory period before and after the preparation period and whether the results were influenced by the applied training process. Methods: In this thesis was used background research of professional publications, content analyzes of documents and comparison of the results of stress tests and c...

  7. Reliability and validity of the test of incremental respiratory endurance measures of inspiratory muscle performance in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formiga MF

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Magno F Formiga,1,2 Kathryn E Roach,1 Isabel Vital,3 Gisel Urdaneta,3 Kira Balestrini,3 Rafael A Calderon-Candelario,3,4 Michael A Campos,3,4,* Lawrence P Cahalin1,* 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia, Brazil; 3Pulmonary Section, Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE provides a comprehensive assessment of inspiratory muscle performance by measuring maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP over time. The integration of MIP over inspiratory duration (ID provides the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP. Evidence on the reliability and validity of these measurements in COPD is not currently available. Therefore, we assessed the reliability, responsiveness and construct validity of the TIRE measures of inspiratory muscle performance in subjects with COPD. Patients and methods: Test–retest reliability, known-groups and convergent validity assessments were implemented simultaneously in 81 male subjects with mild to very severe COPD. TIRE measures were obtained using the portable PrO2 device, following standard guidelines. Results: All TIRE measures were found to be highly reliable, with SMIP demonstrating the strongest test–retest reliability with a nearly perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.99, while MIP and ID clustered closely together behind SMIP with ICC values of about 0.97. Our findings also demonstrated known-groups validity of all TIRE measures, with SMIP and ID yielding larger effect sizes when compared to MIP in distinguishing between subjects of different COPD status. Finally, our analyses confirmed convergent validity for both SMIP

  8. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  9. Using Uncertainty Analysis to Guide the Development of Accelerated Stress Tests (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M.

    2014-03-01

    Extrapolation of accelerated testing to the long-term results expected in the field has uncertainty associated with the acceleration factors and the range of possible stresses in the field. When multiple stresses (such as temperature and humidity) can be used to increase the acceleration, the uncertainty may be reduced according to which stress factors are used to accelerate the degradation.

  10. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Asante, Kwadwo A.; Baidoo, Elvis; Obirikorang, Christian; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Isoda, Norikazu; Nimako, Collins

    2017-01-01

    Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases. From the results, urinary concentrations of the sum of OH-PAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly higher from urban sites compared to the control site. Geometric mean concentrations adjusted by specific gravity, GM SG , indicated 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) (6.01 ± 4.21 ng/mL) as the most abundant OH-PAH, and exposure could be through the use of naphthalene-containing-mothballs in drinking water purification, insect repellent, freshener in clothes and/or “treatment of various ailments”. The study revealed that exposure to naphthalene significantly increases the occurrence of persistent cough (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.43–5.05), persistent headache (OR = 1.82, CI: 1.02–3.26), tachycardia (OR = 3.36, CI: 1.39–8.10) and dyspnea (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.27–7.43) in Kumasi residents. Highest level of urinary 2-OHNap (224 ng/mL) was detected in a female, who reported symptoms of persistent cough, headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion and inflammation, all of which are symptoms of naphthalene exposure according to USEPA. The ∑OHPAHs, 2-OHNap, 2-3-OHFluorenes, and -OHPhenanthrenes showed a significantly positive correlation with MDA and 4-OHPhenanthrene with 8-OHdG, indicating possible lipid peroxidation/cell damage or degenerative disease in some participants. MDA and 8-OHdG were highest in age group 21–60. The present study

  11. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of the Blood Pressure Response With Exercise Stress Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Ballard, Emma L; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-04-20

    The blood pressure response to exercise has been described as a significant increase in systolic BP (sBP) with a smaller change in diastolic BP (dBP). This has been documented in small numbers, in healthy young men or in ethnic populations. This study examines these changes in low to intermediate risk of myocardial ischaemia in men and women over a wide age range. Consecutive patients having stress echocardiography were analysed. Ischaemic tests were excluded. Manual BP was estimated before and during standard Bruce protocol treadmill testing. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and resting and peak exercise BP were recorded. 3200 patients (mean age 58±12years) were included with 1123 (35%) females, and 2077 males, age range 18 to 93 years. Systolic BP increased from 125±17mmHg to 176±23mmHg. The change in sBP (ΔsBP) was 51mmHg (95% CI 51,52). The ΔdBP was 1mmHg (95% CI 1, 1), from 77 to 78mmHg, p<0.001). The upper limit of normal peak exercise sBP (determined by the 90th percentile) was 210mmHg in males and 200mmHg in females. The upper limit of normal ΔsBP was 80mmHg in males and 70mmHg in females. The lower limit of normal ΔsBP was 30mmHg in males and 20mmHg in females. In this large cohort, sBP increased significantly with exercise. Males had on average higher values than females. Similar changes were seen with the ΔsBP. The upper limit of normal for peak exercise sBP and ΔsBP are reported by age and gender. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  13. Stress analysis of the tokamak engineering test breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhongqi

    1992-01-01

    The design features of the hybrid reactor blanket and main parameters are presented. The stress analysis is performed by using computer codes SAP5p and SAP6 with the three kinds of blanket module loadings, i.e, the pressure of coolant, the blanket weight and the thermal loading. Numerical calculation results indicate that the stresses of the blanket are smaller than the allowable ones of the material, the blanket design is therefore reasonable

  14. The Influence of Test-Based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…

  15. Lung injury and respiratory mechanics in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Bernard, Angelique; Davidson, Shaun M; Redmond, Daniel P; Chiew, Yeong S; Pretty, Christopher; Chase, J Geoffrey; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Gieseg, Steven P; Draper, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Rugby is a highly popular team contact sport associated with high injury rates. Specifically, there is a chance of inducing internal lung injuries as a result of the physical nature of the game. Such injuries are only identified with the use of specific invasive protocols or equipment. This study presents a model-based method to assess respiratory mechanics of N=11 rugby players that underwent a low intensity experimental Mechanical Ventilation (MV) Test before and after a rugby game. Participants were connected to a ventilator via a facemask and their respiratory mechanics estimated using a time-varying elastance model. All participants had a respiratory elastance respiratory mechanics (P>0.05). Model-based respiratory mechanics estimation has been used widely in the treatment of the critically ill in intensive care. However, the application of a ventilator to assess the respiratory mechanics of healthy human beings is limited. This method adapted from ICU mechanical ventilation can be used to provide insight to respiratory mechanics of healthy participants that can be used as a more precise measure of lung inflammation/injury that avoids invasive procedures. This is the first study to conceptualize the assessment of respiratory mechanics in healthy athletes as a means to monitor postexercise stress and therefore manage recovery.

  16. Standard practice for preparation and use of Bent-Beam stress-corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using bent-beam stress-corrosion specimens. 1.2 Different specimen configurations are given for use with different product forms, such as sheet or plate. This practice applicable to specimens of any metal that are stressed to levels less than the elastic limit of the material, and therefore, the applied stress can be accurately calculated or measured (see Note 1). Stress calculations by this practice are not applicable to plastically stressed specimens. Note 1—It is the nature of these practices that only the applied stress can be calculated. Since stress-corrosion cracking is a function of the total stress, for critical applications and proper interpretation of results, the residual stress (before applying external stress) or the total elastic stress (after applying external stress) should be determined by appropriate nondestructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction (1). 1.3 Test procedures are given for stress-corrosion testing by ex...

  17. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  18. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  19. Stress corrosion evaluation of powder metallurgy aluminum alloy 7091 with the breaking load test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of the P/M aluminum alloy 7091 is evaluated in two overaged heat treatment conditions, T7E69 and T7E70, using an accelerated test technique known as the breaking load test method. The breaking load data obtained in this study indicate that P/M 7091 alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion in both longitudinal and transverse orientations at stress levels up to 90 percent of the material yield strength. The reduction in mean breaking stress as a result of corrosive attack is smallest for the more overaged T7E70 condition. Details of the test procedure are included.

  20. Studies on laws of stress-magnetization based on magnetic memory testing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangkun; Ren, Xianzhi

    2018-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Under the different maximum tensile stress, the relationship between the leakage magnetic field of at certain point of cold rolled steel specimen and the tensile stress was measured during the process of loading and unloading by repeated. It shows that when the maximum tensile stress is less than 610 MPa, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the stress is linear; When the maximum tensile stress increase from 610 MPa to 653 MPa of yield point, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the tensile becomes bending line. The location of the extreme point of the bending line will move rapidly from the position of smaller stress to the larger stress position, and the variation of magnetic induction intensity increases rapidly. When the maximum tensile stress is greater than the 653 MPa of yield point, the variation of the magnetic induction intensity remains large, and the position of the extreme point moves very little. In theoretical aspects, tensile stress is to be divided into ordered stress and disordered stress. In the stage of elastic stress, a microscopic model of the order stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the plastic deformation stage, a microscopic model of disordered stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data, too. The research results can provide reference for the accurate quantitative detection and evaluation of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  1. Edaravone attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome associated early pulmonary fibrosis via amelioration of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xida; Lai, Rongde; Su, Xiangfen; Chen, Guibin; Liang, Zijing

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is responsible for the both short-term and long-term outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is still no effective cure to improve prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger, have anti-fibrosis effects in the rat model of ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Rats were subjected to intravenous injection of LPS, and edaravone was given intraperitoneally after LPS administration daily for 7 consecutive days. LPS treatment rapidly increased lung histopathology abnormalities, coefficient of lung, hydroxyproline and collagen I levels, stimulated myofibroblast differentiation and induced expression of TGF-β1 and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling as early as day 7 after LPS injection. Moreover, LPS intoxication significantly increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas it dramatically decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities from day 1 after LPS treatment. On the contrary, edaravone treatment ameliorated LPS-induced myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis, simultaneously, and attenuated LPS-stimulated oxidative stress and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. Collectively, edaravone may attenuate ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis through amelioration of oxidative stress and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Edaravone may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ARDS-related pulmonary fibrosis in early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.100 Audit of the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review...

  3. Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.

  4. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  5. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy's detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.)

  6. Progress and Challenges of Ultrasonic Testing for Stress in Remanufacturing Laser Cladding Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress in laser cladding coating is an important factor affecting the safe operation of remanufacturing components. Ultrasonic testing has become a popular approach in the nondestructive evaluation of stress, because it has the advantages of safety, nondestructiveness, and online detection. This paper provides a review of ultrasonic testing for stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating. It summarizes the recent research outcomes on ultrasonic testing for stress, and analyzes the mechanism of ultrasonic testing for stress. Remanufacturing laser cladding coating shows typical anisotropic behaviors. The ultrasonic testing signal in laser cladding coating is influenced by many complex factors, such as microstructure, defect, temperature, and surface roughness, among others. At present, ultrasonic testing for stress in laser cladding coating can only be done roughly. This paper discusses the active mechanism of micro/macro factors in the reliability of stress measurement, as well as the impact of stress measurement on the quality and safety of remanufacturing components. Based on the discussion, this paper proposes strategies to nondestructively, rapidly, and accurately measure stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating.

  7. Testing of a single-polarity piezoresistive three-dimensional stress-sensing chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, H H; Moussa, W A

    2013-01-01

    A new piezoresistive stress-sensing rosette is developed to extract the components of the three-dimensional (3D) stress tensor using single-polarity (n-type) piezoresistors. This paper presents the testing of a micro-fabricated sensing chip utilizing the developed single-polarity rosette. The testing is conducted using a four-point bending of a chip-on-beam to induce five controlled stress components, which are analyzed both numerically and experimentally. Numerical analysis using finite element analysis is conducted to study the levels of the induced stress components at three rosette-sites and the levels of the stress field non-uniformities, and to simulate the extracted stress components from the sensing rosette. The experimental analysis applied tensile and compressive loads over three rosette-sites at different load increments. The experimentally extracted stress components show good linearity with the applied load and values close to the numerical model. (paper)

  8. [Unpredictable chronic mild stress effects on antidepressants activities in forced swim test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Voronina, T A

    2015-02-01

    The experiments has been designed to study unpredictable chronic mild stress effect on anti-depressive activities of amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) in forced swim test in male outbred mice. It is shown that acute treatment with fluoxetine does not produce any antidepressant effects in mice following stress of 14 days while the sub-chronic injections of fluoxetine result in more deep depressive-like behavior. In 28 daily stressed mice, antidepressant effect of fluoxetine is observed independently of the injection rates. Amitriptyline demonstrates the antidepressant activity regardless of the duration of stress or administration scheduling, but at the same time the severity of anti-immobilization effect of amitriptyline in stressed mice is weaker in compare to non-stressed trails. Thus, the injection rates and duration of unpredictable mild chronic stress are the parameters that determine the efficiency of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  9. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Wolff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities, Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities, Vtmpd (complex IV activity, together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0, were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P<0.0001, Vsucc (−65%; P<0.0001, and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P<0.001. Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0 was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P<0.001. Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P<0.05 and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P<0.001. Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient’s vulnerability to stroke.

  10. The Influence of Cardiac Risk Factor Burden on Cardiac Stress Test Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Jon W; Li, Morgan; Orazulike, Chidubem; Emerman, Charles L

    2011-06-01

    Chest pain is the most common admission diagnosis for observation unit patients. These patients often undergo cardiac stress testing to further risk stratify for coronary artery disease (CAD). The decision of whom to stress is currently based on clinical judgment. We sought to determine the influence of cardiac risk factor burden on cardiac stress test outcome for patients tested from an observation unit, inpatient or outpatient setting. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study for all patients undergoing stress testing in our institution from June 2006 through July 2007. Cardiac risk factors were collected at the time of stress testing. Risk factors were evaluated in a summative fashion using multivariate regression adjusting for age and known coronary artery disease. The model was tested for goodness of fit and collinearity and the c statistic was calculated using the receiver operating curve. A total of 4026 subjects were included for analysis of which 22% had known CAD. The rates of positive outcome were 89 (12.0%), 95 (12.6%), and 343 (16.9%) for the OU, outpatients, and hospitalized patients respectively. While the odds of a positive test outcome increased for additional cardiac risk factors, ROC curve analysis indicates that simply adding the number of risk factors does not add significant diagnostic value. Hospitalized patients were more likely to have a positive stress test, OR 1.41 (1.10 - 1.81). Our study does not support basing the decision to perform a stress test on the number of cardiac risk factors.

  11. 78 FR 59219 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... institutions. C. Methodologies The Banks requested that Sec. 1238.4 of the rule expressly state that the stress... the scenarios provided by FHFA. FHFA will clarify questions about materiality and about which... its regulated financial institutions. Methodologies and Practices--Sec. 1238.4 Section 1238.4 provides...

  12. Facial temperature data Sing-a-Song StressTest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input, body movements and behavior of people involved in conducting the experiment. In our Sing-a-Song

  13. Throat swabs in children with respiratory tract infection: associations with clinical presentation and potential targets for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Hannah V; Hay, Alastair D; Redmond, Niamh M; Turnbull, Sophie L; Christensen, Hannah; Peters, Tim J; Leeming, John P; Lovering, Andrew; Vipond, Barry; Muir, Peter; Blair, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up. Associations and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) statistics sought between clinical presentation and baseline microbe detection. Microbe prevalence compared between baseline (symptomatic) and follow-up (asymptomatic) visits. At baseline, ≥1 bacteria was detected in 1257/2113 (59.5%) children and ≥1 virus in 894/2127 (42%) children. Clinical presentation was not associated with detection of ≥1 bacteria [AUROC 0.54 (95% CI 0.52-0.56)] or ≥1 virus [0.64 (95% CI 0.61-0.66)]. Individually, only respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with clinical presentation [AUROC 0.80 (0.77-0.84)]. Prevalence fell between baseline and follow-up; more so in viruses (68% versus 26%, P clinical presentation cannot distinguish the presence of bacteria or viruses in the upper respiratory tract. However, individual and overall microbe prevalence was greater when children were unwell than when well, providing some evidence that upper respiratory tract microbes may be the cause or consequence of the illness. If causal, selective microbial point-of-care testing could be beneficial. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. The predictive value of an adjusted COPD assessment test score on the risk of respiratory-related hospitalizations in severe COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher A; Bassett, Katherine L; Buckman, Julie; Effing, Tanja W; Frith, Peter A; van der Palen, Job; Sloots, Joanne M

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated whether a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) with adjusted weights for the CAT items could better predict future respiratory-related hospitalizations than the original CAT. Two focus groups (respiratory nurses and physicians) generated two adjusted CAT algorithms. Two multivariate logistic regression models for infrequent (≤1/year) versus frequent (>1/year) future respiratory-related hospitalizations were defined: one with the adjusted CAT score that correlated best with future hospitalizations and one with the original CAT score. Patient characteristics related to future hospitalizations ( p ≤ 0.2) were also entered. Eighty-two COPD patients were included. The CAT algorithm derived from the nurse focus group was a borderline significant predictor of hospitalization risk (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.14; p = 0.050) in a model that also included hospitalization frequency in the previous year (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.30-12.16; p = 0.016) and anticholinergic risk score (OR: 3.08; 95% CI: 0.87-10.89; p = 0.081). Presence of ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure appeared 'protective' (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.62; p = 0.007). The original CAT score was not significantly associated with hospitalization risk. In conclusion, as a predictor of respiratory-related hospitalizations, an adjusted CAT score was marginally significant (although the original CAT score was not). 'Previous respiratory-related hospitalizations' was the strongest factor in this equation.

  15. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  16. Facility-level association of preoperative stress testing and postoperative adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Javier A; Graham, Laura; Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Grunwald, Gary; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T; Bradley, Steven M

    2018-06-22

    Despite limited indications, preoperative stress testing is often used prior to non-cardiac surgery. Patient-level analyses of stress testing and outcomes are limited by case mix and selection bias. Therefore, we sought to describe facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing for non-cardiac surgery, and to determine the association between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We identified patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery within 2 years of percutaneous coronary intervention in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, from 2004 to 2011, facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularisation within 30 days). We determined risk-standardised facility-level rates of stress testing and postoperative MACE, and the relationship between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE. Among 29 937 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery at 131 VA facilities, the median facility rate of preoperative stress testing was 13.2% (IQR 9.7%-15.9%; range 6.0%-21.5%), and 30-day postoperative MACE was 4.0% (IQR 2.4%-5.4%). After risk standardisation, the median facility-level rate of stress testing was 12.7% (IQR 8.4%-17.4%) and postoperative MACE was 3.8% (IQR 2.3%-5.6%). There was no correlation between risk-standardised stress testing and composite MACE at the facility level (r=0.022, p=0.81), or with individual outcomes of death, MI or revascularisation. In a national cohort of veterans undergoing non-cardiac surgery, we observed substantial variation in facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing. Facilities with higher rates of preoperative stress testing were not associated with better postoperative outcomes. These findings suggest an opportunity to reduce variation in preoperative stress testing without sacrificing patient outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  17. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  18. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  19. Optimal design of constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using the M-optimality criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Han; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the M-optimality criterion for designing constant-stress accelerated degradation tests (ADTs). The newly proposed criterion concentrates on the degradation mechanism equivalence rather than evaluation precision or prediction accuracy which is usually considered in traditional optimization criteria. Subject to the constraints of total sample number, test termination time as well as the stress region, an optimum constant-stress ADT plan is derived by determining the combination of stress levels and the number of samples allocated to each stress level, when the degradation path comes from inverse Gaussian (IG) process model with covariates and random effects. A numerical example is presented to verify the robustness of our proposed optimum plan and compare its efficiency with other test plans. Results show that, with a slightly relaxed requirement of evaluation precision and prediction accuracy, our proposed optimum plan reduces the dispersion of the estimated acceleration factor between the usage stress level and a higher accelerated stress level, which makes an important contribution to reliability demonstration and assessment tests. - Highlights: • We establish the necessary conditions for degradation mechanism equivalence of ADTs. • We propose the M-optimality criterion for designing constant-stress ADT plans. • The M-optimality plan reduces the dispersion of the estimated accelerated factors. • An electrical connector with its stress relaxation data is used for illustration.

  20. Stress transfer in microdroplet tensile test: PVC-coated and uncoated Kevlar-29 single fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenkun, Lei; Quan, Wang; Yilan, Kang; Wei, Qiu; Xuemin, Pan

    2010-11-01

    The single fiber/microdroplet tensile test is applied for evaluating the interfacial mechanics between a fiber and a resin substrate. It is used to investigate the influence of a polymer coating on a Kevlar-29 fiber surface, specifically the stress transfer between the fiber and epoxy resin in a microdroplet. Unlike usual tests, this new test ensures a symmetrical axial stress on the embedded fiber and reduces the stress singularity that appears at the embedded fiber entry. Using a homemade loading device, symmetrical tensile tests are performed on a Kevlar-29 fiber with or without polyvinylchloride (PVC) coating, the surface of which is in contact with two epoxy resin microdroplets during curing. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber are recorded by micro-Raman Spectroscopy under different strain levels. Then they are transformed to the distributions of fiber axis stress based on the relationship between stress and Raman shift. The Raman results reveal that the fiber axial stresses increase with the applied loads, and the antisymmetric interfacial shear stresses, obtained by a straightforward balance of shear-to-axial forces argument, lead to the appearance of shear stress concentrations at a distance to the embedded fiber entry. The load is transferred from the outer fiber to the embedded fiber in the epoxy microdroplet. As is observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the existence of a flexible polymer coating on the fiber surface reduces the stress transfer efficiency.

  1. Republic of Poland; Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Note discusses results of stress testing of the banking sector in Poland. The Polish banking system is well capitalized and liquid, as confirmed by stress tests results. Polish banks are, in aggregate, resilient even under severe adverse scenarios. Some small banks could fail to meet minimum regulatory capital and liquidity requirements in these scenarios, but with little impact on the overall banking system. Tests showed that only small banks, together representing up to 30 pe...

  2. Nigeria; Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation––Technical Note on Stress Testing

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    To assess the financial stability in Nigeria, various stress tests and analytic processes were undertaken jointly by the Nigerian authorities and the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) team. The exercise included macroeconomic scenario analysis and its transmission into a range of single- and multifactor shocks. The tests covered the entire Nigerian banking system and looked at the short-term horizon, in part because of data constraints. Sensitivity stress tests estimated the impact o...

  3. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  4. Access to Point-of-Care Tests Reduces the Prescription of Antibiotics Among Antibiotic-Requesting Subjects With Respiratory Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Munck, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) often feel uncomfortable when patients request an antibiotic when there is likely little benefit. This study evaluates the effect of access to point-of-care tests on decreasing the prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections in subjects who...... explicitly requested an antibiotic prescription. METHODS: Spanish GPs registered all cases of respiratory tract infections over a 3-week period before and after an intervention undertaken in 2008 and 2009. Patients with acute sinusitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of COPD were excluded. Two types...... requesting antibiotics received a prescription before and 60% after the intervention, without statistical differences being observed. In the group of GPs assigned to the full intervention group, the percentages were 55.1% and 36.2%, respectively, with a difference of 18.9% (95% CI: 6.4%-30.6%, P

  5. Cardiac stress testing for the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease: a reference for the primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajulapalli, Rama Dilip; Aneja, Ashish; Rovner, Aleksandr

    2012-02-01

    Choosing the appropriate stress test is important in the workup of patients with possible myocardial ischemia. This choice often is challenging and sometimes confusing because of the plethora of tests and guidelines available. We present a broad overview of commonly available stress tests and indications to help physicians select the most appropriate stress test for their patients.

  6. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in pacing rhythm are translated into functional and metabolic changes that can be significantly reflected in the final results of an athlete. Method: Ten male subjects, with moderate performance level (age: 25.2 ± 2.2 years; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 ml kg−1 min−1, performed four 5-min races with different pacing strategies: constant-pace (CP, record-pace (RP, kicker-pace (KP, incremental-pace (IP. Results: The cardio-respiratory response did not show statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the energetic efficiency among the protocols CP vs. RP, CP vs. KP and RP vs. IP. When results were analyzed by partials (1-min duration phases, significant differences were observed in the energetic efficiency during the 3rd-min among CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP and KP vs. IP. These significant differences were extended to the 4th-min when comparing CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP and KP vs. IP. In the last minute of the test, there were significant differences among CP vs. KP. No significant differences were found in any of the variables assessing anaerobic metabolism (accumulated oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate between both protocols. Conclusions: Results suggest that the main functional systems response are significantly affected by the pacing strategy used by middle-level subjects during middle-distance running. Resumen: Objetivo: Los cambios en el ritmo de carrera se traducen en cambios funcionales y metabólicos que pueden reflejarse significativamente en los resultados finales de un atleta. Método: Diez sujetos varones, con un nivel medio (edad: 25.2 ± 2.2 años; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 mlkg−1min−1, llevaron a cabo carreras de 5 minutos con diferentes estrategias: ritmo constante (RC, ritmo récord (RR, ritmo kicker (RK y ritmo incremental (RI. Resultados: La respuesta

  7. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  8. [Stress-ECG is adequate to detect myocardial ischemia: when are additional diagnostic tests needed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, F M

    2007-09-01

    The stress-ECG is the most often adopted and most cost effective initial diagnostic test for the assessment of myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Prerequisites for the diagnostic usefullness of stress-ECG are a clearly interpretable ST-segment, ability to reach the predicted work load, an intermediate pretest probability for CAD ranging between 10% and 90% and the absence of any contraindications for dynamic exercise. Because of the limited diagnostic sensitivity of about 70%, and a high percentage of patients, who are unable to exercise, a negative stress ECG can definitely not exclude hemodynamically significant CAD. Therefore, stress imaging techniques like myocardial scintigraphy, stress-echocardiography and stress magnetic resonance imaging play a major role in the stepwise diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CAD. These stress imaging techniques are basically interchangeable since no method is definitely superior to one of the others. However, each method has its specific pros and cons and inherent contraindications. Therefore the choice of the stress imaging method and the form of stress applied should be based on the individual patients characteristics to gain optimal image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, the decision for one method should take the local availability and institutional expertise of diagnostic centers into account. Although partly substituted by stress imaging techniques the stress-ECG still remains the workhorse for a stepwise diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CAD.

  9. Pulmonary artery wave propagation and reservoir function in conscious man: impact of pulmonary vascular disease, respiration and dynamic stress tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junjing; Manisty, Charlotte; Simonsen, Ulf; Howard, Luke S; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D

    2017-10-15

    also increased, while the diastolic time constant decreased. The forward compression wave energy decreased by ∼8% in controls and ∼6% in PAH patients during expiration compared to inspiration, while the wave speed remained unchanged throughout the respiratory cycle. Wave energy decreased during Valsalva manoeuvre (by ∼45%) and handgrip exercise (by ∼27%) with unaffected wave speed. Moreover, the reservoir and excess pressures decreased during Valsalva manoeuvre but remained unaltered during handgrip exercise. In conclusion, reservoir-excess pressure analysis applied to the pulmonary artery revealed distinctive differences between controls and PAH patients. Variations in the ventricular preload and afterload influence pulmonary arterial wave propagation as demonstrated by changes in wave energy during spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  10. FlowPing - The New Tool for Throughput and Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Vondrous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new tool for network throughput and stress testing. The FlowPing tool is easy to use, and its basic output is very similar to standard Linux ping application. The FlowPing tool is not limited to reach-ability or round trip time testing but is capable of complex UDP based throughput stress testing with rich reporting capabilities on client and server sides. Our new tool implements features, which allow the user to perform tests with variable packet size and traffic rate. All these features can be used in one single test run. This allows the user to use and develop new methodologies for network throughput and stress testing. With the FlowPing tool, it is easy to perform the test with the slowly increasing the amount of network traffic and monitor the behavior of network when the congestion occurs.

  11. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Training load, stress tolerance and upper respiratory tract infection in basketball players. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gobo Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effect of external training load manipulation on internal training load (ITL, stress tolerance (ST and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI severity in basketball players during a 19-week macrocycle. The macrocycle was divided into three distinct phases: preparatory phase (P1 and two competitive phases (P2 and P3. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire (DALDA, for assessment of sources and symptoms of stress, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21, for evaluation of URTI severity, were used on a weekly basis. The ITL was assessed by Rating of Perceived Exertion (session RPE. There was a decrease in ITL at P3 when compared to P1 and P2 (p < 0.05. A decrease in “better than normal” responses in DALDA for both sources and symptoms of stress was observed at P2 and P3 when compared to P1 (p < 0.05. There was also a significant increase in URTI severity. In addition, significant relationships between ST and URTI were shown at P3, suggesting that stress tolerance may modulate URTI severity. In summary, ETL manipulation induced changes in ITL. However, unlike the initial hypothesis, a decrease in ITL during the competitive period was followed by a decrease in stress tolerance and an increase in URTI severity. Furthermore, the magnitude of stress seems to provoke an increase in URTI severity.

  13. Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann

    2016-08-02

    The stress reaction induced by surgery and associated pain may be detrimental for patient recovery and should be minimized. The neuropeptide chromogranin A (CGA) has shown promise as a sensitive biomarker for stress in humans. Little is known about CGA and its derived peptides, catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS), in dogs undergoing surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare concentrations of CGA epitopes CST and VS, cortisol, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scales (VAS) for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy privately owned female dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were included. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain behavior VAS, and stress behavior VAS were recorded and saliva and blood samples were collected before surgery, 3 h after extubation, and once at recall 7-15 days after surgery. Dogs were premedicated with morphine and received carprofen as analgesia for 7 days during the postoperative period. At 3 h after extubation, CMPS-SF and pain behavior VAS scores had increased (p stress behavior VAS scores, temperature, respiratory rate (p stress and pain changed in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. To further evaluate CST and VS usefulness as pain biomarkers, studies on dogs in acute painful situations are warranted.

  14. Present-day stress magnitude at depth from leak-off tests in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, M. T.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present new results from the analysis of leak-off tests, performed in deep oil wells in Italy, to characterize the present-day stress magnitude and regime in the crust. In the last years we have collected a large number of data (more than 500) from different stress indicators, mainly borehole breakouts, earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data, which provided information on the present-day stress orientations. In some areas the tectonic regime has been inferred either from fault plane solutions of M≥4 earthquakes or from stress inversions of smaller earthquakes. Where seismicity lacks, the regime is not well constrained and little or no information on the magnitude of the crustal stresses is available. In order to improve our knowledge in stress regime and its magnitude in Italy, in this work we use the leak-off test technique. Each test is performed at the bottom of an open hole by sealing off a section and then slowly pressurizing with a fluid until hydraulic tensile fractures develop. The minimum horizontal stress is inferred by leak-off pressure record, the vertical stress is computed by rock density data and the maximum horizontal stress is estimated applying a specific formula from the literature. Thanks to ENI S.p.A. (Italian oil company), that kindly provided new well data, we have been able to perform a critical review of our preliminary calculations and to enhance our previous results concerning stress magnitudes. Totally, we have analyzed 192 leak-off tests at depth between 200 and 5400m (average 1800m). In particular, wells are located along the Italian peninsula and in Sicily: most of them are in the Po Plain and along the Apenninic foredeep; few are in southern Apenninic belt and a few tens are in Sicily. After an accurate selection of the most robust results, we better characterize the Italian stress regime at depth.

  15. Cardiac Stress Test Trends Among US Patients Younger Than 65 Years, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Vinay; McCarthy, Fenton H; Dayoub, Elias; Bradley, Steven M; Masoudi, Frederick A; Ho, P Michael; Groeneveld, Peter W

    2016-12-01

    After a period of rapid growth, use of cardiac stress testing has recently decreased among Medicare beneficiaries and in a large integrated health system. However, it is not known whether declines in cardiac stress testing are universal or are confined to certain populations. To determine trends in rates of cardiac stress testing among a large and diverse cohort of commercially insured patients. A serial cross-sectional study with time trends was conducted using administrative claims from all members aged 25 to 64 years belonging to a large, national managed care company from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. Linear trends in rates were determined using negative binomial regression models with procedure count as the dependent variable, calendar quarter as the key independent variable, and the size of the population as a logged offset term. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. Age- and sex-adjusted rates of cardiac stress tests per calendar quarter (reported as number of tests per 100 000 person-years). A total of 2 085 591 cardiac stress tests were performed among 32 921 838 persons (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [10.9] years; 16 625 528 women [50.5%] and 16 296 310 [49.5%] men; 7 604 945 nonwhite [23.1%]). There was a 3.0% increase in rates of cardiac stress testing from 2005 (3486 tests; 95% CI, 3458-3514) to 2012 (3589 tests; 95% CI, 3559-3619; P = .01 for linear trend). Use of nuclear single-photon emission computed tomography decreased by 14.9% from 2005 (1907 tests; 95% CI, 1888-1926) to 2012 (1623 tests; 95% CI, 1603-1643; P = .03). Use of stress echocardiography increased by 27.8% from 2005 (709 tests; 95% CI, 697-721) to 2012 (906 tests; 95% CI, 894 to 920; P < .001). Use of exercise electrocardiography increased by 12.5% from 2005 (861 tests; 95% CI, 847-873) to 2012 (969 tests; 95% CI, 953-985; P < .001). Use of other stress testing modalities increased 65.5% from 2006 (55 tests; 95% CI

  16. Bayesian Approach for Constant-Stress Accelerated Life Testing for Kumaraswamy Weibull Distribution with Censoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd-Alla EL-Helbawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated life tests provide quick information on the life time distributions by testing materials or products at higher than basic conditional levels of stress such as pressure, high temperature, vibration, voltage or load to induce failures. In this paper, the acceleration model assumed is log linear model. Constant stress tests are discussed based on Type I and Type II censoring. The Kumaraswmay Weibull distribution is used. The estimators of the parameters, reliability, hazard rate functions and p-th percentile at normal condition, low stress, and high stress are obtained. In addition, credible intervals for parameters of the models are constructed. Optimum test plan are designed. Some numerical studies are used to solve the complicated integrals such as Laplace and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.

  17. Bayesian Approach for Constant-Stress Accelerated Life Testing for Kumaraswamy Weibull Distribution with Censoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd-Alla EL-Helbawy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated life tests provide quick information on the life time distributions by testing materials or products at higher than basic conditional levels of stress such as pressure, high temperature, vibration, voltage or load to induce failures. In this paper, the acceleration model assumed is log linear model. Constant stress tests are discussed based on Type I and Type II censoring. The Kumaraswmay Weibull distribution is used. The estimators of the parameters, reliability, hazard rate functions and p-th percentile at normal condition, low stress, and high stress are obtained. In addition, credible intervals for parameters of the models are constructed. Optimum test plan are designed. Some numerical studies are used to solve the complicated integrals such as Laplace and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.

  18. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  19. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  20. Study on the Correlation between PSR and Korean Stress Test for Continued Operation of Aging NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Korean nuclear regulatory authority established the stress test guideline based on the EU stress test, and KHNP prepared the execution plan in response to the guideline for the CO of Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1. PSR is a comprehensive safety review program for long term operation of NPP, which was developed by IAEA. Korea adopted PSR in 1999 as the regulatory requirement for CO of NPP. The IAEA standard guideline for PSR program was updated in 2003. However, the Korean PSR has not been revised yet to apply the new IAEA guidelines. Additionally, national legal systems and guidelines associated with the adoption of stress tests are urgently required as well. These revisions are imperative in order to ensure the reliability of NPPs, and to promote public acceptance and understanding. This study presents the technical basis and proposals for review actions necessary to address the issues and controversies surrounding the continued operation and decommissioning of aging NPPs in Korea. As discussed earlier in characteristics of Korean Stress Test, it is more comprehensive than the EU Stress Test in terms of its multilateral evaluation which includes equipment durability, plant operation, human factors, and safety margins, hence substantially raising the significance and value of the evaluation process. Thus, the addition of Korean Stress Test to the existing Korean Evaluation of CO is expected to greatly increase the quality of safety assessment of aging NPPs in Korea due to its stricter safety policies, hence providing a more meaningful evaluation process. However, a one-time application of the Korean Stress Test to only Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1 would be a waste of the great effort that has been done thus far to improve the Korean Evaluation of CO and develop the Korean Stress Test. By extending the Korean Stress Test to all NPPs in Korea would maintain and ensure the reliability of NPPs as well as public

  1. Stress analysis of HLW containers advanced test work Compas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ove Arup and Partners

    1990-01-01

    The Compas project is concerned with the structural performance of metal overpacks which may be used to encapsulate vitrified high-level waste forms before disposal in deep geological repositories. This document describes the activities performed between June and August 1989 forming the advanced test work phase of this project. This is the culmination of two years' analysis and test work to demonstrate whether the analytical ability exists to model containers subjected to realistic loads. Three mild steel containers were designed and manufactured to be one-third scale models of a realistic HLW container, modified to represent the effect of anisotropic loading and to facilitate testing. The containers were tested under a uniform external pressure and all failed by buckling in the mid-body region. The outer surface of each container was comprehensively strain-gauged to provide strain history data at all positions of interest. In parallel with the test work, Compas project partners, from five different European countries, independently modelled the behaviour of each of the containers using their computer codes to predict the failure pressure and produce strain history data at a number of specified locations. The first axisymmetric container was well modelled but predictions for the remaining two non-axisymmetric containers were much more varied, with differences of up to 50% occurring between failure predictions and test data

  2. Stress transfer of a Kevlar 49 fiber pullout test studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhenkun; Wang, Quan; Qiu, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The interfacial stress transfer behavior of a Kevlar 49 aramid fiber-epoxy matrix was studied with fiber pullout tests, the fibers of which were stretched by a homemade microloading device. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber were recorded by micro-Raman spectroscopy, under different strain levels. Then, the fiber axial stress was obtained by the relationship between the stress and Raman shift of the aramid fiber. Experimental results revealed that the fiber axial stress increased significantly with the load. The shear stress concentration occurred at the fiber entry to the epoxy resin. Thus, interfacial friction stages exist in the debonded fiber segment, and the interfacial friction shear stress is constant within one stage. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical model predictions.

  3. A Framework for Macroprudential Bank Solvency Stress Testing; Application to S-25 and Other G-20 Country FSAPs

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas A. Jobst; Li L Ong; Christian Schmieder

    2013-01-01

    The global financial crisis has placed the spotlight squarely on bank stress tests. Stress tests conducted in the lead-up to the crisis, including those by IMF staff, were not always able to identify the right risks and vulnerabilities. Since then, IMF staff has developed more robust stress testing methods and models and adopted a more coherent and consistent approach. This paper articulates the solvency stress testing framework that is being applied in the IMF’s surveillance of member countr...

  4. Evaluation of micro fatigue crack growth under equi-biaxial stress by membranous pressure fatigue test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Satoshi; Abe, Shigeki; Nakamura, Takao; Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    For preventing nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, NPPs are required to ensure system safety in long term safe operation under aging degradation. Now, fatigue accumulation is one of major ageing phenomena and are evaluated to ensure safety by design fatigue curve that are based on the results of uniaxial fatigue tests. On the other hand, thermal stress that occurs in piping of actual components is not uniaxial but equi-biaxial. For accurate evaluation, it is required to conform real circumstance. In this study, membranous pressure fatigue test was conducted to simulated equi-biaxial stress. Crack initiation and crack growth were examined by replica investigation. Calculation result of equivalent stress intensity factor shows crack growth under equi-biaxial stress is faster than under uniaxial stress. It is concluded that equi-biaxial fatigue behavior should be considered in the evaluation of fatigue crack initiation and crack growth. (author)

  5. Performa Inhibitory Control dengan Induksi Sing-a-Song Stress Test pada Dewasa Awal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Kurniawan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control is able to control attention by inhibiting internal tendencies and external influences. Inhibitory control is controlled by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, that can be affected by stress variable. Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST is a current method to induce stress that has never been practiced in study of inhibitory control. This study aimed to determine the effect of SSST against inhibitory control in early adult. Between subjects design was applied in this study. A number of 35 participants with age range from 17 to 21 years old were randomly assigned into experimental group (n = 17 and control group (n = 18. Inhibitory control was measured using Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test (CSCWT. Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS was used to conduct a manipulation check. Independent-Samples T Test explained no significant effect of stress on inhibitory control (t = -0,117; p > 0,05.

  6. Hysteresis analysis of graphene transistor under repeated test and gate voltage stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Jia Kunpeng; Su Yajuan; Zhao Chao; Chen Yang

    2014-01-01

    The current transport characteristic is studied systematically based on a back-gate graphene field effect transistor, under repeated test and gate voltage stress. The interface trapped charges caused by the gate voltage sweep process screens the gate electric field, and results in the neutral point voltage shift between the forth and back sweep direction. In the repeated test process, the neutral point voltage keeps increasing with test times in both forth and back sweeps, which indicates the existence of interface trapped electrons residual and accumulation. In gate voltage stress experiment, the relative neutral point voltage significantly decreases with the reducing of stress voltage, especially in −40 V, which illustrates the driven-out phenomenon of trapped electrons under negative voltage stress. (semiconductor devices)

  7. The "moving valgus stress test" for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Shawn W M; Lawton, Richard L; Smith, Adam M

    2005-02-01

    The diagnosis of a painful partial tear of the medial collateral ligament in overhead-throwing athletes is challenging, even for experienced elbow surgeons and despite the use of sophisticated imaging techniques. The "moving valgus stress test" is an accurate physical examination technique for diagnosis of medial collateral ligament attenuation in the elbow. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical intervention for medial elbow pain due to medial collateral ligament insufficiency or other abnormality of chronic valgus overload, and they were assessed preoperatively with an examination called the moving valgus stress test. To perform the moving valgus stress test, the examiner applies and maintains a constant moderate valgus torque to the fully flexed elbow and then quickly extends the elbow. The test is positive if the medial elbow pain is reproduced at the medial collateral ligament and is at maximum between 120 degrees and 70 degrees. The moving valgus stress test was highly sensitive (100%, 17 of 17 patients) and specific (75%, 3 of 4 patients) when compared to assessment of the medial collateral ligament by surgical exploration or arthroscopic valgus stress testing. The mean shear range (ie, the arc within which pain was produced with the moving valgus stress test) was 120 degrees to 70 degrees. The mean angle at which pain was at a maximum was 90 degrees of elbow flexion. The moving valgus stress test is an accurate physical examination technique that, when performed and interpreted correctly, is highly sensitive for medial elbow pain arising from the medial collateral ligament.

  8. Stress-Dilatancy of Cambria Sand for Triaxial Tests at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szypcio, Zenon

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the stress-dilatancy relationship of Cambria sand for drained triaxial compression and extension tests at high stress level is investigated. The stress dilatancy relationship is obtained by use of frictional state theory and experimental tests data published in literature. It is shown that stress-dilatancy relationship is bilinear, described by three parameters of frictional state theory: critical frictional angle and two other parameters. It is accepted that critical friction angle is independent of confining pressure. The two additional parameters are strongly dependent on confining pressure and different for initial and advanced stages. The point at which the values of these parameters change is termed as Transformation Shear Point. This point is not simply visible either in stress ratio-strain or the volume strain-shear strain relationship which are traditionally shown in soil mechanics papers. Transformation Shear Point is very characteristic in stress ratio-plastic dilatancy plane. Thus, stress ratio- plastic dilatancy is very important for describing stress-strain behaviour of soils. The relationship shown in the paper can be used in soil modelling in the future.

  9. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-07-01

    ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined.

  11. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  12. Stress transmission through Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel in impact compression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, T; Doi, H; Kobayashi, E; Hamanaka, H; Tanabe, Y; Bonfield, W

    2000-06-01

    Impact stress transmission of Ti-Ni alloy was evaluated for biomedical stress shielding. Transformation temperatures of the alloy were investigated by means of DSC. An impact compression test was carried out with use of split-Hopkinson pressure-bar technique with cylindrical specimens of Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel. As a result, the transmitted pulse through Ti-Ni alloy was considerably depressed as compared with those through titanium and stainless steel. The initial stress reduction was large through Ti-Ni alloy and titanium, but the stress reduction through Ti-Ni alloy was more continuous than titanium. The maximum value in the stress difference between incident and transmitted pulses through Ti-Ni alloy or titanium was higher than that through stainless steel, while the stress reduction in the maximum stress through Ti-Ni alloy was statistically larger than that through titanium or stainless steel. Ti-Ni alloy transmitted less impact stress than titanium or stainless steel, which suggested that the loading stress to adjacent tissues could be decreased with use of Ti-Ni alloy as a component material in an implant system. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  13. Results of fatigue tests and prediction of fatigue life under superposed stress wave and combined superposed stress wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shunji; Horikawa, Takeshi; Tsunenari, Toshiyasu; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    In order to examine fatigue life prediction methods at high temperatures where creep damage need not be taken into account, fatigue tests were carried out on plane bending specimens of alloy steels (SCM 435, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo) under superposed and combined superposed stress waves at room temperature and 500 0 C. The experimental data were compared with the fatigue lives predicted by using the cycle counting methods (range pair, range pair mean and zero-cross range pair mean methods), the modified Goodman's equation and the modified Miner's rule. The main results were as follows. (1) The fatigue life prediction method which is being used for the data at room temperature is also applicable to predict the life at high temperatures. The range pair mean method is especially better than other cycle counting methods. The zero-cross range pair mean method gives the estimated lives on the safe side of the experimental lives. (2) The scatter bands of N-bar/N-barsub(es) (experimental life/estimated life) becomes narrower when the following equation is used instead of the modified Goodman's equation for predicting the effect of mean stress on fatigue life. σ sub(t) = σ sub(a) / (1 - Sigma-s sub(m) / kσ sub(B)) σ sub(t); stress amplitude at zero mean stress (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(B); tensile strength (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(m); mean stress (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(a); stress amplitude (kg/mm 2 ) k; modified coefficient of σ sub(B) (author)

  14. Transcriptional activation of LON Gene by a new form of mitochondrial stress: A role for the nuclear respiratory factor 2 in StAR overload response (SOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Isaac, Sara; Eden, Amir; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas; Orly, Joseph

    2015-06-15

    High output of steroid hormone synthesis in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and the gonads requires the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) that facilitates cholesterol mobilization to the mitochondrial inner membrane where the CYP11A1/P450scc enzyme complex converts the sterol to the first steroid. Earlier studies have shown that StAR is active while pausing on the cytosolic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane while subsequent import of the protein into the matrix terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity. Consequently, during repeated activity cycles, high level of post-active StAR accumulates in the mitochondrial matrix. To prevent functional damage due to such protein overload effect, StAR is degraded by a sequence of three to four ATP-dependent proteases of the mitochondria protein quality control system, including LON and the m-AAA membranous proteases AFG3L2 and SPG7/paraplegin. Furthermore, StAR expression in both peri-ovulatory ovarian cells, or under ectopic expression in cell line models, results in up to 3-fold enrichment of the mitochondrial proteases and their transcripts. We named this novel form of mitochondrial stress as StAR overload response (SOR). To better understand the SOR mechanism at the transcriptional level we analyzed first the unexplored properties of the proximal promoter of the LON gene. Our findings suggest that the human nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), also known as GA binding protein (GABP), is responsible for 88% of the proximal promoter activity, including the observed increase of transcription in the presence of StAR. Further studies are expected to reveal if common transcriptional determinants coordinate the SOR induced transcription of all the genes encoding the SOR proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical Review of EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, O.; Lorenz, P.; Wallner, A.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, the core melt accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) showed the world that the nuclear industry cannot prevent severe accidents from happening. The accidents in Japan proved that highly unlikely accidents cannot be excluded. The Fukushima accident confirmed the mistrust towards nuclear power among the Japanese but also European citizens. In reaction to the devastating nuclear disaster in Japan the European Council concluded in March 2011, that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk and safety assessment ('stress tests'). The EU Nuclear Safety Regulators Group – ENSREG took over the task to provide a “targeted reassessment of the safety margins of nuclear power plants”, thus examining whether the safety margins which were used in the licensing of NPPs are sufficient to cover unexpected events. It is important to understand that the stress tests could not take into account all key safety issues such as the capability to prevent accidents - the scope of the stress tests defined by ENSREG didn´t promise to deliver a comprehensive risk and safety assessment. According to some observers the stress tests were mainly set up to improve the confidence in the safety of European NPPs. Nevertheless, the stress tests provided some interesting findings concerning safety: This study assesses the safety of the nuclear power plants in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and the Ukraine. The introduction contains an overview of the content and procedure of the stress tests. This “Critical Review of the Stress Tests” is based on the national stress tests reports written by the national nuclear safety authorities and on the Peer review country reports attached to the Peer review report - Stress tests performed on European nuclear power plants written by the Peer review Teams, the Peer Review Board respectively, and endorsed by ENSREG [ENSREG 2012a, ENSREG 2012c]. It

  16. Critical Review of EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, O.; Lorenz, P.; Wallner, A.

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the core melt accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) showed the world that the nuclear industry cannot prevent severe accidents from happening. The accidents in Japan proved that highly unlikely accidents cannot be excluded. The Fukushima accident confirmed the mistrust towards nuclear power among the Japanese but also European citizens. In reaction to the devastating nuclear disaster in Japan the European Council concluded in March 2011, that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk and safety assessment ('stress tests'). The EU Nuclear Safety Regulators Group – ENSREG took over the task to provide a “targeted reassessment of the safety margins of nuclear power plants”, thus examining whether the safety margins which were used in the licensing of NPPs are sufficient to cover unexpected events. It is important to understand that the stress tests could not take into account all key safety issues such as the capability to prevent accidents - the scope of the stress tests defined by ENSREG didn´t promise to deliver a comprehensive risk and safety assessment. According to some observers the stress tests were mainly set up to improve the confidence in the safety of European NPPs. Nevertheless, the stress tests provided some interesting findings concerning safety: This study assesses the safety of the nuclear power plants in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and the Ukraine. The introduction contains an overview of the content and procedure of the stress tests. This “Critical Review of the Stress Tests” is based on the national stress tests reports written by the national nuclear safety authorities and on the Peer review country reports attached to the Peer review report - Stress tests performed on European nuclear power plants written by the Peer review Teams, the Peer Review Board respectively, and endorsed by ENSREG [ENSREG 2012a, ENSREG 2012c]. It continues

  17. Laser-accelerated particle beams for stress testing of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, M; Scisciò, M; Vallières, S; Cardelli, F; Chen, S N; Famulari, G; Gangolf, T; Revet, G; Schiavi, A; Senzacqua, M; Antici, P

    2018-01-25

    Laser-driven particle acceleration, obtained by irradiation of a solid target using an ultra-intense (I > 10 18  W/cm 2 ) short-pulse (duration testing materials and are particularly suited for identifying materials to be used in harsh conditions. We show that these laser-generated protons can produce, in a very short time scale, a strong mechanical and thermal damage, that, given the short irradiation time, does not allow for recovery of the material. We confirm this by analyzing changes in the mechanical, optical, electrical, and morphological properties of five materials of interest to be used in harsh conditions.

  18. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  19. Model test study on propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian

    2017-12-01

    The study of propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under in-situ stress has important significance for safety excavation of underground rock mass engineering. A model test of the blasting stress waves propagating in the intact rock and jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses was carried out, and the influencing factors on the propagation law, such as the scale of static loads and the number of joints were studied respectively. The results show that the transmission coefficient of intact rock is larger than that of jointed rock mass under the same loading condition. With the increase of confining pressure, the transmission coefficients of intact rock and jointed rock mass both show an trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and the variation of transmission coefficients in intact rock is smaller than that of jointed rock mass. Transmission coefficient of jointed rock mass decreases with the increase of the number of joints under the same loading condition, when the confining pressure is relatively small, the reduction of transmission coefficients decreases with the increasing of the number of joints, and the variation law of the reduction of transmission coefficients is contrary when the confining pressure is large.

  20. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  1. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Predischarge stress test after myocardial infarction in the old stage : results and prognostic value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); R.W. Brower (Ronald); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); J.A.J.M. Beelen; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the results of predischarge stress testing in the elderly, and to assess the prognostic value of the test during one-year follow-up. The database consisted of 48 patients older than 64 years of age and 109 patients 55-64 years of age, who survived

  3. Tests on mechanical behavior of 304 L stainless steel under constant stress associated with cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical analyses of structures, to be efficient, must incorporate materials behavior data. Among the mechanisms liable to cause collapse, progressive distortion (or ratcheting) has been the subject of only a few basic experiments, most of the investigations being theoretical. In order to get meaningful results to characterize materials behavior, an experimental study on ratcheting of austenitic steels has been undertaken at the C.E.A. This paper gives the first results of tests at room temperature on thin tubes of 304L steel submitted to an axial constant stress (primary stress) to which is added a cyclic shearing strain (secondary stress). The tests cover a large combination of the two loading modes. The main results consist of curves of cumulative iso-deformation in the primary and secondary stress field (Bree type diagrams). Results are given for plastic deformations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5% up to N=100 cycles

  4. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  5. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899-6102 (United States); Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn [Intelligent Systems Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899-8220 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  6. Stress-testing the Standard Model at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    With the high-energy run of the LHC now underway, and clear manifestations of beyond-Standard-Model physics not yet seen in data from the previous run, the search for new physics at the LHC may be a quest for small deviations with big consequences. If clear signals are present, precise predictions and measurements will again be crucial for extracting the maximum information from the data, as in the case of the Higgs boson. Precision will therefore remain a key theme for particle physics research in the coming years. The conference will provide a forum for experimentalists and theorists to identify the challenges and refine the tools for high-precision tests of the Standard Model and searches for signals of new physics at Run II of the LHC. Topics to be discussed include: pinning down Standard Model corrections to key LHC processes; combining fixed-order QCD calculations with all-order resummations and parton showers; new developments in jet physics concerning jet substructure, associated jets and boosted je...

  7. A New Test Device for Characterization of Mechanical Stress Caused by Packaging Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Soeren; Doerner, Steffen; Hauptmann, Peter; Schmidt, Bertram

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new method for estimation and minimization of mechanical stress on MEMS sensor and actuator structures due to packaging processes based on flip chip technology. For studying mechanical stress a test chip with silicon membranes was fabricated. A network of piezo-resistive solid state resistors created by diffusion was used to measure the surface tension pattern between adjacent membranes. Finite element method simulation was used to calculate the stress profile and to determine the optimum positions for placing the resistive network

  8. Test plan for suitability assessment of five overcoring stress measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.C.; Rundle, T.A.; McCabe, W.M.; Kim, K.

    1982-08-01

    Tests are to be conducted at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) to assess the suitability of five overcoring techniques for in situ stress determination in a jointed basalt. The overcoring methods to be investigated use the following instrumentation to measure strain relief by overcoring a pilot borehole: USBM borehole deformation gage, CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell, cast epoxy inclusion, the Lulea triaxial strain cell and the ''doorstopper'' biaxial strain cell. The tests are to provide data regarding the state of stress below the NSTF. This information is to be used in the evaluation of each method of overcoring. During the course of field testing, an attempt is to be made to adapt conventional overcoring techniques and analytical methods to the basalt medium. If overcoring stress determination in basalt is shown suitable, then additional studies will be identified to further adapt a technique for use at depth. In addition to the five overcoring techniques to be tested at the NSTF, stress measurements by Hydrofracturing are to be conducted to provide data for direct comparison with overcoring results. 16 refs., 18 figs

  9. Social Support for Divorced Fathers' Parenting: Testing a Stress-Buffering Model*

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.; Patras, Joshua; Eap, Sopagna

    2008-01-01

    A stress-buffering hypothesis for parenting was tested in a county-representative sample of 218 divorced fathers. Social support for parenting (emergency and nonemergency child care, practical support, financial support) was hypothesized to moderate effects of stress (role overload, coparental conflict, and daily hassles) on fathers’ quality parenting. No custody fathers relied more on relatives compared with custodial fathers, who relied more on new partners for parenting support. No differe...

  10. Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Developing and Testing a Biphasic Self-Medication Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and tested a moderated-mediation model of work stress and alcohol use, based on the biphasic (stimulant and sedative) effects of alcohol and the self-medication and stress-vulnerability models of alcohol use. The model proposes that exposure to work stressors can increase both negative affect and work fatigue, and that these two sources of strain can subsequently motivate the use of alcohol. However, the relations of negative affect and work fatigue to a...

  11. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  12. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  13. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  14. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-15

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  15. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A.; Johansson, E.; Hudson, J.A.; Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the ∼ 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely different to the NW-SE regional

  16. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  17. European stress tests for nuclear power plants. The Swedish National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku region in north Honshu, Japan, suffered a severe earthquake with an ensuing tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Due to the accident the Council of the European Union declared in late March that Member States were prepared to begin reviewing safety at nuclear facilities in the European Union by means of a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety ('stress testing'). On 25 May, SSM ordered the licensees of the nuclear power plants to conduct renewed analyses of the facilities' resilience against different kinds of natural phenomena. They were also to analyse how the facilities would be capable of dealing with a prolonged loss of electrical power, regardless of cause. On 31 October, the licensees reported on their stress tests to SSM. After reviewing these reports, SSM produced a summary stress test report, which was submitted to the Government on the 15 December. The present report is the national report on Swedish stress tests of nuclear power plants. The report will be submit to the European Commission no later than 31 December. Based on the review SSM has drawn the conclusion that the stress tests carried out by Swedish licensees are largely performed in accordance with the specification resolved within the European Union. The scope and depth of these analyses and assessments are essentially in accordance with ENSREG's definition of 'a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety'. The stress tests show that Swedish facilities are robust, but the tests also identify a number of opportunities to further strengthen the facilities' robustness. SSM will order the respective licensees to present an action plan for dealing with the results from the stress tests. The Authority will then examine the plans and adopt a standpoint on proposed measures as well as check that the necessary safety improvements are made. In a number of cases, the stress tests indicate deficiencies in relation to, or alternatively

  18. Characterization Of Flow Stress Of Different AA6082 Alloys By Means Of Hot Torsion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Lorenzo; El Mehtedi, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    FEM simulations are become the most powerful tools in order to optimize the different aspects of the extrusion process and an accurate flow stress definition of the alloy is a prerequisite for a reliable effectiveness of the simulation. In the paper the determination of flow stress by means of hot torsion test is initially presented and discussed: the several approximations that are usually introduced in flow stress computation are described and computed for an AA6082 alloy in order to evidence the final effect on curves shapes. The procedure for regressing the parameters of the sinhyperbolic flow stress definition is described in detailed and applied to the described results. Then four different alloys, extracted by different casting batches but all namely belonging to the 6082 class, were hot torsion tested in comparable levels of temperature and strain rate up to specimen failure. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to understand if a mean flow stress behavior can be identified for the whole material class at the different tested conditions or if specific testing conditions (chemical composition of the alloy, specimen shape, etc) influence the materials properties to a higher degree.

  19. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  20. A pilot study of the use of near-patient C-Reactive Protein testing in the treatment of adult respiratory tract infections in one Irish general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Kim E

    2011-08-31

    Abstract Background New approaches are being sought to safely reduce community antibiotic prescribing. A recent study demonstrated that CRP testing resulted in decreased antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infection in primary care. There is little other published primary care data available evaluating CRP in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in routine clinical practice. This pilot study aims to describe the performance of near-patient CRP testing, in a mixed payments health system. Specific areas to be reviewed included the integrity of the study protocol, testing of data collection forma and acceptability of the intervention. Patients Patients over the age of 18 years, with acute cough and\\/or sore throat with a duration of one month or less, in routine clinical practice. Method Design: A pilot with a cross-sectional design. The first 60 recruited patients were treated with routine clinical management, and GP\\'s had no access to a CRP test. For the subsequent 60 patients, access to CRP testing was available. Participants: 3 GP\\'s in one Irish primary care practice recruited 120 patients, fulfilling the above criteria over five months, from January 1 to May 31, 2010. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was antibiotic prescription at the index consultation. Secondary outcomes were the numbers of delayed prescriptions issued, patient satisfaction immediately after consultation and re-consultations and antibiotic prescriptions during 28 days follow-up. Results The protocol and data collection forms worked well and the intervention of CRP testing appeared acceptable. Thirty-five (58%) patients in the no-test group received antibiotic prescriptions compared to 27 (45%) in the test group. Both groups demonstrated similarly high level of patient satisfaction (85%). Fourteen (23%) patients in the CRP test group re-attended within 28 days compared to 9 (15%) in the no-CRP test group. Conclusion This pilot study confirms the

  1. Stress test with adenosine in cerebral perfusion imaging for the diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gengbiao; Kuang Anren; Chen Xuehong; Li Xihuan; Feng Jianzhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study purpose is to evaluate cerebrovascular response and reserve capacity (CVR, CVRC) by stress test with adenosine in cerebral perfusion imaging for the diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Methods There were 25 patients suffered from transient ischemia attack and 16 patients suffered from occlusive cerebral artery in this study. The rest cerebral perfusion imaging was obtained 30 minutes post-injection of 99mTC-ethylene cysteinate dimmer. After 2-5 days, adenosine stress tests were performed. Adenosine (0.14 mg/kg min) was administered intravenously 3 minutes pre-injection of 99mTC-ECD.Under same condition, the rest and stress tests of cerebral perfusion imaging were performed. By visual and semiquantitative analysis, the results of the rest/stress imaging were divided into the following four patterns: A: The stress imaging showed an expand areas of hypoperfusion, asymmetry index (AI) was decreased; B: Rest imaging was normal but new hypoperfused areas appeared with AI index declining in stress test; C: The hypoperfused areas were decreased or disappeared in size with AI index increasing in stress test; D: No changes showed in cerebral perfusion imaging patterns and Al index between rest and stress tests. AI index was ratio of radio account of interest regions than average radio account of cerebella. Results It was found that A, B, C and D type were 24%,12%,56% and 8% respectively in the group of transient ischemia attack patients, and 31%,44%, 19% and 6% respectively in the group of occlusive cerebrovascular patients. In rest test, of 41 patients of cerebrovascular disease, there were 28 cases decreased of radio uptake, moreover in stress test, there were 38 case decreased of radio uptake, positive rate were 68.29% and 92.68% respectively. Compared to X±SD of AI index of rest/stress test, it is found to increasing and being significant statistics (p<0.01, Spass 8.0 statistics software). Conclusion: Adenosinal-induced vasodilatation

  2. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  3. Verification of intraspecimen method using constant stress tension test of sensitized alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ki; Choi, Hoi Su; Hwang, Il Soon

    2005-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurring at the Nibase alloy 600 used in the nuclear power plant SG tubes and CRDM penetration nozzles had been reported after long-term operation in the harsh environment. Intraspecimen method was developed to predict the SCC initiation time statistically. [1] By dividing a test area into a number of smaller regions (intraspecimens) having homogeneous physical and chemical condition each SCC initiation in each intraspecimen could be counted as an independent outcome to provide enough number of statistical data. Earlier work of intraspecimen method had many problems in test method and didn't agree with Weibull statistics which is the theoretical base of intraspecimen method. The test method is improved in this intraspecimen test. To find out the root causes of the problems in earlier work and improve the accuracy of intraspecimen method, two kinds of materials are introduced, which are different in grain size but same in chemical composition. Ni-base alloy 600, heat no. J313 and J323 are used as test materials. Specimens of sensitized Alloy 600 are tested under the condition of constant tensile stress and well defined chemical environment therefore we can easily observe typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Material with finer grain (J323) showed the areadependence in agreement with theoretical prediction. But material with coarser grain (J313) did not show any significant area-dependence. While SCC initiates earlier at grain boundaries that are oriented close to normal to the stress axis, crack initiation time showed no correlation with grain boundary misorientation estimated by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). From the SCC initiation tests with two test materials, it is concluded that the number of grains in an intraspecimen, degree of sensitization and uniform stress distribution are important parameters to meet Weibull statistics

  4. Panic disorder and the respiratory system: clinical subtype and challenge tests Transtorno do pânico e sistema respiratório: subtipo clínico e testes de provocação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Freire

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Respiratory changes are associated with anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder (PD. The stimulation of respiration in PD patients during panic attacks is well documented in the literature, and a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in PD patients. Investigators hypothesized that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in PD. METHODS: The authors searched for articles regarding the connection between the respiratory system and PD, more specifically papers on respiratory challenges, respiratory subtype, and current mechanistic concepts. CONCLUSIONS: Recent evidences support the presence of subclinical changes in respiration and other functions related to body homeostasis in PD patients. The fear network, comprising the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and its brainstem projections, may be abnormally sensitive in PD patients, and respiratory stimulants like CO2 may trigger panic attacks. Studies indicate that PD patients with dominant respiratory symptoms are particularly sensitive to respiratory tests compared to those who do not manifest dominant respiratory symptoms, representing a distinct subtype. The evidence of changes in several neurochemical systems might be the expression of the complex interaction among brain circuitsINTRODUÇÃO: As anormalidades respiratórias estão associadas a transtornos de ansiedade, especialmente ao transtorno do pânico (TP. A estimulação respiratória em pacientes com TP durante os ataques de pânico está bem documentada na literatura, e vários problemas respiratórios como uma elevada sensibilidade ao CO2 foram detectados em pacientes com TP. Os pesquisadores levantam a hipótese de que existe um distúrbio fundamental nos mecanismos fisiológicos que controlam a respiração no TP. MÉTODOS: Os autores pesquisaram artigos sobre a conexão entre o sistema respirat

  5. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  6. Effects of stress on memory in children and adolescents: testing causal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Nikolayev, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Although a sizeable body of research has examined children's memory for stressful prior experiences, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated stress during a to-be-remembered event to draw causal inferences about the effects of stress, especially across wide age ranges. We exposed children and adolescents to a more or a less arousing version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Modified (TSST-M), a widely used laboratory stress task. Two weeks later, we tested their memory for what happened. Interviewers behaved in a supportive or non-supportive manner. In adolescents, those who completed the high-arousal TSST-M provided fewer correct responses to recognition questions and fewer incorrect responses to misleading questions for which any answer would have been incorrect, compared to those who completed the lower-arousal TSST-M. Thus, arousal seemed to have reduced the adolescents' willingness to answer questions rather than having influenced their memory per se. In children, across TSST-M conditions, greater physiological arousal during the TSST-M predicted enhanced recall. Finally, interviewer support reduced the amount of factual information provided in free recall but increased correct responses to misleading questions. Results highlight the complex ways in which event stress and interviewer demeanour shape recounting of prior experiences across development.

  7. The impact of "Ramadan fasting period" on total and differential white blood cells, haematological indices, inflammatory biomarker, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests of healthy and asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H

    2016-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized test of an implementation intention-based tool to reduce stress-induced eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Armitage, Christopher J; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer) by producing deleterious changes to diet. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instruction (control). On-line daily reports of stressors and snacking were completed for 7 days. Daily stressors were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in the control condition but not in the experimental condition. Participants highly motivated towards healthy eating consumed a greater number of healthy snacks in the experimental condition on stressful days compared to participants in the experimental condition with low and mean levels of motivation. This tool is an effective, theory driven, intervention that helps to protect against stress-induced high-calorie snack consumption.

  9. Design of PH-based accelerated life testing plans under multiple-stress-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.A.; Zhang Hao

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated life testing (ALT) is used to obtain failure time data quickly under high stress levels in order to predict product life performance under design stress conditions. Most of the previous work on designing ALT plans is focused on the application of a single stress. However, as components or products become more reliable due to technological advances, it becomes more difficult to obtain significant amount of failure data within reasonable amount of time using single stress only. Multiple-stress-type ALTs have been employed as a means of overcoming such difficulties. In this paper, we design optimum multiple-stress-type ALT plans based on the proportional hazards model. The optimum combinations of stresses and their levels are determined such that the variance of the reliability estimate of the product over a specified period of time is minimized. The use of the model is illustrated using numerical example, and sensitivity analysis shows that the resultant optimum ALT plan is robust to the deviation in model parameters

  10. A test procedure for determining the influence of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J. H.; Wei, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A test procedure is outlined by which the rate of fatigue crack growth over a range of stress ratios and stress intensities can be determined expeditiously using a small number of specimens. This procedure was developed to avoid or circumvent the effects of load interactions on fatigue crack growth, and was used to develop data on a mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate. Experimental data suggest that the rates of fatigue crack growth among the various stress ratios may be correlated in terms of an effective stress intensity range at given values of K max. This procedure is not to be used, however, for determining the corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of alloys when nonsteady-state effects are significant.

  11. A study on stress analysis of small punch-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial-creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song In; Baek, Seoung Se; Kwon, Il Hyun; Yu, Hyo Sun

    2002-01-01

    A basic research was performed to ensure the usefulness of Small Punch-creep(SP-creep) test for residual life evaluation of heat resistant components effectively. This paper presents analytical results of initial stress and strain distributions in SP specimen caused by constant loading for SP-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial creep(Ten-creep) test on 9CrlMoVNb steel. It was shown that the initial maximum equivalent stress, σ eq · max from FE analysis was correlated with steady-state equivalent creep strain rate, ε qf-ss , rupture time, t r , activation energy, Q and Larson-Miller parameter, LMP during SP-creep deformation. The simple correlation laws, σ SP - σ TEN , P SP -σ TEN and Q SP -Q TEN adopted to established a quantitative correlation between SP-creep and Ten-creep test data. Especially, the activation energy obtained from SP-creep test is linearly related to that from Ten-creep test at 650 deg. C as follows : Q SP-P =1.37 Q TEN , Q SP-σ =1.53 Q TEN

  12. Stress corrosion cracking tests on electron beam welded carbon steel specimens in carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking tests have been performed on tapered carbon steel test pieces containing electron beam welds with a view to defining susceptibility to such cracking in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution at 90 C and an appropriate electrode potential. The tests involved applying cyclic loads to the specimens and it is shown that the threshold stress for cracking reduces linearly with increase in the magnitude of the cyclic load component. Extrapolation of these trends to zero fluctuating stress indicates static load threshold stresses in the vicinity of the yield stress (i.e. about 300 N/mm 2 for parent plate without a weld, 400 N/mm 2 for specimens with welds on one side only and 600 N/mm 2 for specimens having welds penetrating through the thickness of the specimen). The averages of the maximum crack velocities observed were least for parent plate material and greatest for weld metal, the former being essentially intergranular in morphology and the latter mostly transgranular, with heat affected zone material being intermediate between these extremes. (author)

  13. Respiratory muscle hemodynamic and metabolic adaptations to 16 weeks of training in varsity soccer players: near-infrared spectroscopy measurements during lung function tests (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Luke; Grob, Tanya; Sandhu, Komal; Schwab, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mobile, wireless near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments can be used during standard lung function tests to measure adaptations in respiratory muscle metabolism over weeks to months. In eight varsity soccer players at 0 weeks and after 16 weeks of routine training, commercially available mobile, wireless NIRS instruments were used to measure oxygenation and hemodynamics in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM, accessory inspiration muscle). During maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuvers we determined peak or antipeak changes relative to baseline in oxygenation and hemodynamics: Δ%Sat (muscle oxygen saturation), ΔtHb (total hemoglobin), ΔO2Hb (oxygenated hemoglobin), and ΔHHb (deoxygenated hemoglobin). Subjects reported that the average training load was 13.3 h/week during the 16 study weeks, compared to 10.4 h/week during 12 prior weeks. After 16 weeks of training compared to 0 weeks we found statistically significant increases in SCM Δ%Sat (57.7%), ΔtHb (55.3%), and ΔO2Hb (56.7%) during MEP maneuvers, and in SCM Δ%Sat (64.8%), ΔtHb (29.4%), and ΔO2Hb (51.6%) during FVC maneuvers. Our data provide preliminary evidence that NIRS measurements during standard lung function tests are sufficiently sensitive to detect improvements or declines in respiratory muscle metabolism over periods of weeks to months due to training, disease, and rehabilitation exercise.

  14. Estimation of Stresses in a Dry Sand Layer Tested on Shaking Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Kulczykowski, Marek; Jankowski, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical analysis of shaking table experiments, simulating earthquake response of a dry sand layer, is presented. The aim of such experiments is to study seismic-induced compaction of soil and resulting settlements. In order to determine the soil compaction, the cyclic stresses and strains should be calculated first. These stresses are caused by the cyclic horizontal acceleration at the base of soil layer, so it is important to determine the stress field as function of the base acceleration. It is particularly important for a proper interpretation of shaking table tests, where the base acceleration is controlled but the stresses are hard to measure, and they can only be deduced. Preliminary experiments have shown that small accelerations do not lead to essential settlements, whilst large accelerations cause some phenomena typical for limit states, including a visible appearance of slip lines. All these problems should be well understood for rational planning of experiments. The analysis of these problems is presented in this paper. First, some heuristic considerations about the dynamics of experimental system are presented. Then, the analysis of boundary conditions, expressed as resultants of respective stresses is shown. A particular form of boundary conditions has been chosen, which satisfies the macroscopic boundary conditions and the equilibrium equations. Then, some considerations are presented in order to obtain statically admissible stress field, which does not exceed the Coulomb-Mohr yield conditions. Such an approach leads to determination of the limit base accelerations, which do not cause the plastic state in soil. It was shown that larger accelerations lead to increase of the lateral stresses, and the respective method, which may replace complex plasticity analyses, is proposed. It is shown that it is the lateral stress coefficient K0 that controls the statically admissible stress field during the shaking table experiments.

  15. Testing the accelerating moment release (AMR) hypothesis in areas of high stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Aurélie; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Ali, Syed Tabrez

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective analyses have proposed that significant increases in moment release occurred prior to many large earthquakes of recent times. However, the finding of accelerating moment release (AMR) strongly depends on the choice of three parameters: (1) magnitude range, (2) area being considered surrounding the events and (3) the time period prior to the large earthquakes. Consequently, the AMR analysis has been criticized as being a posteriori data-fitting exercise with no new predictive power. As AMR has been hypothesized to relate to changes in the state of stress around the eventual epicentre, we compare here AMR results to models of stress accumulation in California. Instead of assuming a complete stress drop on all surrounding fault segments implied by a back-slip stress lobe method, we consider that stress evolves dynamically, punctuated by the occurrence of earthquakes, and governed by the elastic and viscous properties of the lithosphere. We study the seismicity of southern California and extract events for AMR calculations following the systematic approach employed in previous studies. We present several sensitivity tests of the method, as well as grid-search analyses over the region between 1955 and 2005 using fixed magnitude range, radius of the search area and period of time. The results are compared to the occurrence of large events and to maps of Coulomb stress changes. The Coulomb stress maps are compiled using the coseismic stress from all M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1812, their subsequent post-seismic relaxation, and the interseismic strain accumulation. We find no convincing correlation of seismicity rate changes in recent decades with areas of high stress that would support the AMR hypothesis. Furthermore, this indicates limited utility for practical earthquake hazard analysis in southern California, and possibly other regions.

  16. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Within the scope of work, to provide the necessary rock mechanics support for the site investigations, SKB has studied some available pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements in deep boreholes. A project with the objective to compare three different pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements under similar conditions has been carried out. The main objective for the project is to compare the three different pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements and find a strategy for SKB's Site Investigations to determine the state of stress in the rock mass. Two units of equipment use the overcoring method while the third uses the hydraulic fracturing method. The overcoring was performed by AECL, using Deep Door stopper Gauge System (DDGS), and SwedPower, using their triaxial strain measuring instrument (Borre Probe). MeSy Geo Systeme GmbH performed the hydraulic fracturing. The DDGS system is a new method to SKB while the experience of the SwedPower overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing methods are long. The tests were performed in the same orthogonal boreholes at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Oskarshamn, Sweden. The measured results have been verified against known conditions at the Aespoe HRL. The results from the three in situ stress measurement methods rose more questions than answers. Which illustrate the complexity to determine the in situ stresses in a rock mass. To understand the difference in results and answer the questions, it was necessary to do deeper investigations such as laboratory tests and theoretical calculations such as geological structure model, analysis of the influence of a nearby fracture, P-wave measurements, uniaxial tests on small cores from the HQ-3 core, theoretical and numerical analyses of the hole bottom (theoretical strains, stress concentrations and microcracking), auditing of DDGS measurements results and assumptions in the DDGS analyse and microscopy investigations on the cores. The following

  17. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  18. Developing the multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasri, Mahmoud; Airey, Gordon; Thom, Nick

    2018-04-01

    While most published work from Europe has been concerned with evaluating binders' resistance to rutting based on their stiffness (deformation resistance), work originating in the US has mainly been concerned with ranking binders based on their recoverability in a multiple stress form. This paper details the design of a new modified multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test. The test is designed to evaluate binders' rutting resistance based on two rutting resistance mechanisms: stiffness and recoverability. A preliminary investigation is presented in this paper followed by details of the design of the new modified test. A 40/60 penetration grade bitumen and bitumen-filler mastics prepared with three filler concentrations (35%, 50%, and 65% filler content by mass of mastic) were tested. In addition, two polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) using the same base bitumen type were examined for validation. Two parameters are introduced to characterise the short and long recovery in the new test. In terms of stiffness, the test allows the behaviour of binders at different stress levels and loading cycles to be studied and produces a new parameter that can quantify the degree of modification. Finally, a relationship between nonlinearity and normal force in the test was investigated.

  19. Developing Field Test Procedures for Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Farhat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production and petrochemical plants in the Arabian Gulf are exposed to severe environmental conditions of high temperature and humidity. This makes these plants susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CSCC. The laboratory testing fails to provide the exact field environmental conditions. A cost efficient field test setup for CSCC was designed and developed for the Arabian Gulf. The setup included designing self-sustained loading devices, samples, and sample racks. The samples were exposed to a stress equivalent to 80% and 100% of their yield strength. This paper describes the developed test procedures to establish testing with high level of accuracy and repeatability. It also discusses the design aspects and the challenges that were met.

  20. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  1. Simulated Service and Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing for Friction Stir Welded Spun Formed Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Torres, Pablo D.; Caratus, Andrei A.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Simulated service testing (SST) development was required to help qualify a new 2195 aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloy spin forming dome fabrication process for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Development Technology Program. The application for the technology is to produce high strength low weight tank components for NASA s next generation launch vehicles. Since plate material is not currently manufactured large enough to fabricate these domes, two plates are joined by means of friction stir welding. The plates are then pre-contour machined to near final thicknesses allowing for a thicker weld land and anticipating the level of stretch induced by the spin forming process. The welded plates are then placed in a spin forming tool and hot stretched using a trace method producing incremental contours. Finally the dome receives a room temperature contour stretch to final dimensions, heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging to emulate a T-8 condition of temper. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were also performed by alternate immersion in a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using the typical double beam assembly and with 4-point loaded specimens and use of bent-beam stress-corrosion test specimens under alternate immersion conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC (K(sub ISCC)) which to our knowledge has not been determined previously for Al-Li 2195 alloy. The successful simulated service and stress corrosion testing helped to provide confidence to continue to Ares 1 scale dome fabrication

  2. Lessons learned from EU stress tests evaluations with regard to external hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was oriented to critical review of the lessons learned from the European Union (EU) Stress Test focusing on NPP robustness against external hazards. These lessons addressed: - organization of the stress tests, - scope and objectives of the stress tests, - peer review findings, recommendations and implications on the design in the area of external hazards, - further studies recommended in the area of external hazards and PSA, - relevant research areas identified by the SNETP Task Group in response to Fukushima accident. Some important conclusions were made in the final part of the presentation: - Vulnerability to the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents caused by external hazards and including their secondary effects was underestimated, - Lessons learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents, from the EU Stress Test and from peer reviews are to be reflected in safety improvements of operating plants and considered in new designs, - while no completely new phenomena were revealed from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents, improvements in specific research areas (including external hazards and use of PSA) should be considered with high priority

  3. Optimal Constant-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Plans Using Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation test (ADT has been widely used to assess highly reliable products’ lifetime. To conduct an ADT, an appropriate degradation model and test plan should be determined in advance. Although many historical studies have proposed quite a few models, there is still room for improvement. Hence we propose a Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process (NGWP model with consideration of the effects of stress level, product-to-product variability, and measurement errors for a higher estimation accuracy and a wider range of use. Then under the constraints of sample size, test duration, and test cost, the plans of constant-stress ADT (CSADT with multiple stress levels based on the NGWP are designed by minimizing the asymptotic variance of the reliability estimation of the products under normal operation conditions. An optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal stress levels, the number of units allocated to each level, inspection frequency, and measurement times simultaneously. In addition, a comparison based on degradation data of LEDs is made to show better goodness-of-fit of the NGWP than that of other models. Finally, optimal two-level and three-level CSADT plans under various constraints and a detailed sensitivity analysis are demonstrated through examples in this paper.

  4. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required by statute under stipulated conditions of credit risk and interest rate risk. The stress test uses... credit risk, interest rate risk, the cashflow generator, and the capital calculation. Linkages among the components ensure that the measures of credit and interest rate risk pass into the cashflow generator. The...

  6. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.

  7. Relationship between Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Testing for Depression as a Mediator Using Multiple Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2006-01-01

    Relations among academic stress, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined in 1,108 Asian adolescents 12-18 years old from a secondary school in Singapore. Using Baron and Kenny's [J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173-1192, 1986] framework, this study tested the prediction that adolescent depression mediated the relationship between academic stress…

  8. Impact of peak electricity demand in distribution grids: a stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Schuring, Friso; Kootstra, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The number of (hybrid) electric vehicles is growing, leading to a higher demand for electricity in distribution grids. To investigate the effects of the expected peak demand on distribution grids, a stress test with 15 electric vehicles in a single street is conducted and described in this paper.

  9. Toward a generic approach for : Stress testing of drug substances and drug products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klick, Silke; Muijselaar, Pim G.; Waterval, Joop; Eichinger, Thomas; Korn, Christian; Gerding, Thijs K.; Debets, Alexander J.; Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari; Van Den Beld, Cas; Somsen, Govert W.; De Jong, Gerhardus J.

    The Impurity Profiling Group has developed a generic approach for conducting stress testing on drug substances and drug products. The proposed strategy is evaluated and verified with historical data and new experiments. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach is reasonable and generates

  10. 78 FR 71435 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... as a means to better understand the range of a financial company's potential risk exposures.\\2\\ \\1\\ A... to include in the macroeconomic scenarios and in the market shock component of the stress test... described the Board's approach to developing the macroeconomic scenarios and market shocks, as well as the...

  11. Belgium; Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking and Insurance Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    The Belgium Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) stress testing exercise examines a financial sector that remains in a state of transformation. Domestic economic challenges remain sources of continued uncertainty as the banking sector consolidates and reduces funding risks. Insurers face challenges from adverse economic and business conditions. Solvency and funding shocks under different macroeconomic scenarios were assessed. Both banking and insurance tests underscore the importance of...

  12. Early Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family Events, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. We aimed to study the relation of early TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, "stressful" family events, and sex as possible effect modifiers. We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child's first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and sex was investigated. An interquartile range (26 μg/m 3 ) increase in NO x levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family events, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful events, or in girls (all interaction p -values < 0.2). This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of early TRAP exposure.

  13. Standard Test Method for Testing Polymeric Seal Materials for Geothermal and/or High Temperature Service Under Sealing Stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the initial evaluation of (screening) polymeric materials for seals under static sealing stress and at elevated temperatures. 1.2 This test method applies to geothermal service only if used in conjunction with Test Method E 1068. 1.3 The test fluid is distilled water. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  15. Testing and Micromechanical Modelling of Rockfill Materials Considering the Effect of Stress Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have extended the micromechanics-based analytical (M-A model to make it capable of simulating Nuozhadu rockfill material (NRFM under different stress paths. Two types of drained triaxial tests on NRFM were conducted, namely, the stress paths of constant stress ratio (CSR and the complex stress paths with transitional features. The model was improved by considering the interparticle parameter variation with the unloading-reloading cycles and the effect of the stress transition path. The evolution of local dilatancy at interparticle planes due to an externally applied load is also discussed. Compared with Duncan-Chang’s E-u and E-B models, the improved model could not only better describe the deformation properties of NRFM under the stress path loading, but also present the volumetric strain changing from dilatancy to contractancy with increasing transitional confining pressures. All simulations have demonstrated that the proposed M-A model is capable of modelling the mechanical behaviour of NRFM in the dam.

  16. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan Japaridze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2θ0, and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili's method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear interaction between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  17. Myocordial perfusion SPECT with dipyridamole stress test in cardiac syndrome X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czepczynski, R.; Smolarek, I.; Sowinski, J.; Rogacka, D.; Kazmierczak, M.; Wysocki, H.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac syndrome X defines patients with typical anginal chest pain, a positive exercise ECG stress test and angiographically normal coronary arteries. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of myocardial perfusion SPECT with dipyridamole stress in the diagnosis of cardiac syndrome X. Patients, methods: 68 patients with syndrome X aged 32 to 60 years were subjected to myocardial imaging using 99m Tc-MIBI according to the two-days protocol: at rest and after dipyridamole infusion. Semiquantitative evaluation of the images was based on the assessment of 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in 17 myocardial segments using a 5-points scale (0 point - normal uptake, 4 points - no uptake). Scores obtained in each segment were summed up, constituting the summed rest score (SRS) and summed stress score (SSS). Results: mean SRS was 7.9 ± 4.8 and mean SSS was 7.2 ± 4.4 (non-significant difference). Individual comparison of SRS and SSS values revealed three patterns of scintigraphic images: (1) in 25 patients (36.8%), a paradoxical improvement of perfusion at stress images was found, (2) in 23 patients (33.8%), the myocardial perfusion deteriorated after dipyridamole, (3) in 20 patients (29.4%), no significant change of the myocordial perfusion between rest and stress images occurred. Conclusions: in cardiac syndrome X, myocardial SPECT with dipyridamole stress shows different patterns of myocardial perfusion that reflects heterogeneity of this pathology. (orig.)

  18. Pre-test analysis results of a PWR steel lined pre-stressed concrete containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.M.; Ghosh, Barnali; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-02-01

    Pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment serves as the ultimate barrier against the release of radioactivity to the environment. This ultimate barrier must be checked for its ultimate load carrying capacity. BARC participated in a Round Robin analysis activity which is co-sponsored by Sandia National Laboratory, USA and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Japan for the pre-test prediction of a 1:4 size Pre-stressed Concrete Containment Vessel. In house finite element code ULCA was used to make the test predictions of displacements and strains at the standard output locations. The present report focuses on the important landmarks of the pre-test results, in sequential terms of first crack appearance, loss of pre-stress, first through thickness crack, rebar and liner yielding and finally liner tearing at the ultimate load. Global and local failure modes of the containment have been obtained from the analysis. Finally sensitivity of the numerical results with respect to different types of liners and different constitutive models in terms of bond strength between concrete and steel and tension-stiffening parameters are examined. The report highlights the important features which could be observed during the test and guidelines are given for improving the prediction in the post test computation after the test data is available. (author)

  19. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  20. An accurately controllable imitative stress corrosion cracking for electromagnetic nondestructive testing and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a method to simulate stress corrosion cracking. ► The method offers nondestructive signals similar to those of actual cracking. ► Visual and eddy current examinations validate the method. - Abstract: This study proposes a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate an artificial flaw that is identical to stress corrosion cracking especially from the viewpoint of electromagnetic nondestructive evaluations. The key idea of the approach is to embed a partially-bonded region inside a material by bonding together surfaces that have grooves. The region is regarded as an area of uniform non-zero conductivity from an electromagnetic nondestructive point of view, and thus simulates the characteristics of stress corrosion cracking. Since the grooves are introduced using electro-discharge machining, one can control the profile of the imitative stress corrosion cracking accurately. After numerical simulation to evaluate the spatial resolution of conventional eddy current testing, six specimens made of type 316L austenitic stainless steel were fabricated on the basis of the results of the simulations. Visual and eddy current examinations were carried out to demonstrate that the artificial flaws well simulated the characteristics of actual stress corrosion cracking. Subsequent destructive test confirmed that the bonding did not change the depth profiles of the artificial flaw.

  1. Estimation of In Situ Stresses with Hydro-Fracturing Tests and a Statistical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hikweon; Ong, See Hong

    2018-03-01

    At great depths, where borehole-based field stress measurements such as hydraulic fracturing are challenging due to difficult downhole conditions or prohibitive costs, in situ stresses can be indirectly estimated using wellbore failures such as borehole breakouts and/or drilling-induced tensile failures detected by an image log. As part of such efforts, a statistical method has been developed in which borehole breakouts detected on an image log are used for this purpose (Song et al. in Proceedings on the 7th international symposium on in situ rock stress, 2016; Song and Chang in J Geophys Res Solid Earth 122:4033-4052, 2017). The method employs a grid-searching algorithm in which the least and maximum horizontal principal stresses ( S h and S H) are varied, and the corresponding simulated depth-related breakout width distribution as a function of the breakout angle ( θ B = 90° - half of breakout width) is compared to that observed along the borehole to determine a set of S h and S H having the lowest misfit between them. An important advantage of the method is that S h and S H can be estimated simultaneously in vertical wells. To validate the statistical approach, the method is applied to a vertical hole where a set of field hydraulic fracturing tests have been carried out. The stress estimations using the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the results interpreted from the hydraulic fracturing test measurements.

  2. Reference values for spirometry and their use in test interpretation: A Position Statement from the Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzale, Danny; Hall, Graham; Swanney, Maureen P

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally, spirometry testing tended to be confined to the realm of hospital-based laboratories but is now performed in a variety of health care settings. Regardless of the setting in which the test is conducted, the fundamental basis of spirometry is that the test is both performed and interpreted according to the international standards. The purpose of this Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science (ANZSRS) statement is to provide the background and recommendations for the interpretation of spirometry results in clinical practice. This includes the benchmarking of an individual's results to population reference data, as well as providing the platform for a statistically and conceptually based approach to the interpretation of spirometry results. Given the many limitations of older reference equations, it is imperative that the most up-to-date and relevant reference equations are used for test interpretation. Given this, the ANZSRS recommends the adoption of the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 spirometry reference values throughout Australia and New Zealand. The ANZSRS also recommends that interpretation of spirometry results is based on the lower limit of normal from the reference values and the use of Z-scores where available. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Application of stress relaxation testing in evaluation of creep strength of a tungsten-alloyed 10% Cr cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavender Rao, G.; Gupta, O.P.; Pradhan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Uniaxial isothermal stress relaxation tests (SRT) were performed on a tungsten-alloyed 10% Cr cast steel (G-X12Cr Mo W V Nb N 10 1 1) at temperatures of 580, 600 and 620 o C and initial strain levels of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8%. Inelastic strain rates for different stresses were estimated from the stress versus time data generated from the tests. Conventional creep tests were also conducted on the same material at 580, 600 and 620 o C and at different stress levels. The strain rate data estimated from SRT were compared with minimum creep rates derived from the creep tests; the strain rates estimated from SRT with 0.8% initial strain level are in better agreement than those estimated from SRT with 0.2 and 0.5% initial strain levels. In order to ascertain the technique, stress relaxation behaviour was estimated from creep test data and compared with the stress relaxation curves obtained from SRT at corresponding temperatures. The stress relaxation curves obtained from SRT with 0.8% initial strain level are in good agreement with the stress relaxation curves estimated from the creep tests. It is concluded that the stress relaxation test with initial strain level of 0.8% could be considered as an appropriate short-term test technique for estimation of creep strength of newly developed materials.

  4. Standard practice for preparation and use of direct tension stress-corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using ASTM standard tension test specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking. Axially loaded specimens may be stressed quantitatively with equipment for application of either a constant load, constant strain, or with a continuously increasing strain. 1.2 Tension test specimens are adaptable for testing a wide variety of product forms as well as parts joined by welding, riveting, or various other methods. 1.3 The exposure of specimens in a corrosive environment is treated only briefly because other standards are being prepared to deal with this aspect. Meanwhile, the investigator is referred to Practices G35, G36, G37, and G44, and to ASTM Special Technical Publication 425 (1).

  5. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  6. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented

  7. Thermal-stress analysis and testing of DIII-D armor tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Anderson, P.M.; Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Smith, P.D.; Croesmann, C.; Watkins, J.; Whitley, J.

    1987-10-01

    It is planned to install about 1500 new armor tiles in the DIII-D tokamak. The armor tiles currently installed in DIII-D are made by brazing Poco AXF-5Q graphite onto Inconel X-750 stock. A small percentage of these have failed by breakage of graphite. These failures were believed to be related to significant residual stress remaining in graphite after brazing. Hence, an effort was undertaken to improve the design with all-graphite tiles. Three criteria must be satisfied by the armor tiles and the hardware used to attach the tiles to the vessel walls: tiles should not structurally fail, peak tile temperature must be less than 2500 K, and peak vessel stresses must be below acceptable levels. A number of alternate design concepts were first analyzed with the two-dimensional finite element codes TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D. Promising designs were optimized for best parameters such as thicknesses, etc. The two best designs were further analyzed for thermal stresses with the three-dimensional codes P/THERMAL and P/STRESS. Prototype tiles of a number of materials were fabricated by GA and tested at the Plasma Materials Test Facility of the Sandia National Laboratory at Albuquerque. The tests simulated the heat flux and cooling conditions in DIII-D. This paper describes the 2-D and 3-D thermal stress analyses, the test results and logic which led to the selected design of the DIII-D armor tiles. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  9. Business model stress testing : A practical approach to test the robustness of a business model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaker, T.I.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Janssen, W; de Reuver, G.A.

    Business models and business model innovation are increasingly gaining attention in practice as well as in academic literature. However, the robustness of business models (BM) is seldom tested vis-à-vis the fast and unpredictable changes in digital technologies, regulation and markets. The

  10. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  11. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you. Prepare for Emergencies If you have chronic ...

  12. Stress corrosion test of Al- Zn- Mg alloys with and without Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.C.; Garlipp, W.

    1982-01-01

    Two aluminium alloys 1 and 2 with the respectives compositions 6,10 wt% Zn; 1,58 wt% Mg; 0,24 wt% Cu and 6,25 wt% Zn; 2,03 wt% Mg; 0,24 wt% Cu; 0,078 wt% Nb, was cast, annealed, extruded and cold rolled to 10% of the initial area. Samples was made for tensile testing and stress corrosion cracking in accord with the recommended standard test. After quench from 460 0 C they was preaged at 100 0 C, 6 hours and aged again at 160 0 C in different times. The tests revealed better properties for the alloys 2. (Author) [pt

  13. Validation of the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in a population of Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in children younger than 5 years old. To validate the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) questionnaire in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. In a prospective cohort validation study, parents and/or caregivers of children younger than age 5 years and with symptoms consistent with asthma, during a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later, completed the information required to assess the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency reliability, and usability of the TRACK questionnaire. Median (interquartile range) of the TRACK scores were significantly different between patients with well-controlled asthma, patients with not well-controlled asthma, and patients with very poorly controlled asthma (90.0 [75.0-95.0], 75.0 [55.0-85.0], and 35.0 [25.0-55.0], respectively, P Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire has excellent sensitivity to change and usability; adequate criterion validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability; and an acceptable internal consistency, when used in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Operational Review of the First Wireline In Situ Stress Test in Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Moore

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific ocean drilling’s first in situ stress measurement was made at Site C0009A during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 319 as part of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2. The Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT, Schlumbergerwireline logging tool was deployed in riser Hole C0009A to measure in situ formation pore pressure, formation permeability (often reported as mobility=permeability/viscosity, and the least principal stress (S3 at several isolated depths (Saffer et al., 2009; Expedition 319 Scientists, 2010. The importance of in situ stress measurements is not only for scientific interests in active tectonic drilling, but also for geomechanical and well bore stability analyses. Certain in situ tools were not previously available for scientific ocean drilling due to the borehole diameter and open hole limits of riserless drilling. The riser-capable drillship, D/V Chikyu,now in service for IODP expeditions, allows all of the techniques available to estimate the magnitudes and orientations of 3-D stresses to be used. These techniques include downhole density logging for vertical stress, breakout and caliper log analyses for maximum horizontal stress, core-based anelastic strain recovery (ASR, used in the NanTroSEIZE expeditions in 2007–2008, and leak-off test (Lin et al., 2008 and minifrac/hydraulic fracturing (NanTroSEIZE Expedition319 in 2009. In this report, the whole operational planning process related to in situ measurements is reviewed, and lessons learned from Expedition 319 are summarized for efficient planning and testing in the future.

  15. Full-field fabric stress mapping by micro Raman spectroscopy in a yarn push-out test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z K; Qin, F Y; Fang, Q C; Bai, R X; Qiu, W; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    The full-field stress distribution of a two-dimensional plain fabric was mapped using micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) through a novel yarn push-out test, simulating a quasi-static projectile impact on the fabric. The stress-strain relationship for a single yarn was established using a digital image correlation method in a single-yarn tensile test. The relationship between Raman peak shift and aramid Kevlar 49 yarn stress was established using MRS in a single-yarn tensile test. An out-of-plane loading test was conducted on an aramid Kevlar 49 plain fabric, and the yarn stress was measured using MRS. From the full-field fabric stress distribution, it can be observed that there is a cross-shaped distribution of high yarn stress; this result would be helpful in further studies on load transfer on a fabric during a projectile impact.

  16. Comparison of the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to the Word Memory Test in neuropsychological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2008-03-01

    The most commonly feigned cognitive and psychiatric disorders for survivors of traumatic injury are memory dysfunction and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The position of the National Academy of Neuropsychology is that symptom validity tests (SVTs) should be part of any comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. In this article the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (MENT), a SVT for PTSD, was compared to a SVT for memory, the Word Memory Test (WMT). Available archival data on 216 consecutive referrals for neuropsychological evaluations at the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System were reviewed. Of the total records reviewed 37 patients had been administered both the MENT and the WMT. The clinically recommended cutoff on the WMT was used as the main criterion to classify patients into two groups: simulating impairment or credible. The results indicated that the simulating impairment group had significantly more errors on the MENT than the credible group did (p <.0001). The criterion-related characteristics of the MENT in assessing response bias in relation to the WMT were confirmed Clinical and research implications of the utilization of the MENT are discussed in this study.

  17. Comparison between the results of stress relaxation - and creep tests in a stainless steel 316 at 8000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, P.E.V. de.

    1978-07-01

    A sequence of stress relaxation tests from the same initial stress showed an estabilization of the relaxed fraction of stress of a 316 stainless steel at 800 0 C. This represents the exhaustion of the deformation process of the material at this temperature. Results from the relaxation tests were obtained by utilizing a recently proposed model. The slope in from the log epsilon sup(.) x logσ/E curve obtained by relaxation (n = 6,80) closely matched that determined by creep tests (n = 6,50). This presents a possibility of determined by stress relaxation of the parameters usually calculated by creep. (Author) [pt

  18. Investigating psychological and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in young adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age  = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design, fabrication and testing of a prototype stressed-shell fuel isolation container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosthwaite, J.L.; Barrie, J.N.; Nuttall, K.

    1982-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is conducting and coordinating research into the development of engineered barriers for the disposal of unreprocessed irradiated fuel within a deep, stable geologic vault. In one approach, a containment shell of corrosion-resistant metal is proposed as the principal barrier to radionuclide release, giving a high probability of containment for at least 300 years, thus ensuring isolation of nearly all fission products for their hazardous lives. The simplest concept is the 'stressed-shell' container, designed with sufficient shell thickness to withstand the hydrostatic pressure within a 1000-m deep disposal vault postulated to have flooded with groundwater. This report describes the design, fabrication, analysis and hydrostatic testing of a full-scale stressed-shell prototype. The report concludes that the deformation and collapse performance of stressed-shell designs, based on short-term mechanical properties be modelled adequately by BOSOR 5, a commercially available stress-strain computer program. If the stressed-shell concept is retained as a viable fuel isolation concept, future analyses should include an assessment of the role of material creep on long-term container performance

  20. R6 validation exercise: through thickness residual stress measurements on an experiment test vessel ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.

    1988-06-01

    A series of bursting tests on thick-walled pressure vessels has been carried out as part of a validation exercise for the CEGB R6 failure assessment procedure. The objective of these tests was the examination of the behaviour of typical PWR primary vessel material subject to residual stresses in addition to primary loading with particular reference to the R6 assessment procedure. To this end, a semi-elliptic part-through defect was sited in the vessel longitudinal seam, which was a submerged arc weld in the non stress-relieved condition; it was then pressure tested to failure. Prior to the final assembly of this vessel, a ring of material was cut from it to act as a test-piece on which a residual stress survey could be made. Surface measurements using the centre-hole technique were made by CERL personnel, and this has been followed by two through- thickness measurements at BNL using the deep-hole technique. This paper describes these deep-hole measurements and presents the results from them. (author)

  1. Sex ratios in the two Germanies: a test of the economic stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph A

    2003-09-01

    Literature describing temporal variation in the secondary sex ratio among humans reports an association between population stressors and declines in the odds of male birth. Explanations of this phenomenon draw on reports that stressed females spontaneously abort male more than female fetuses, and that stressed males exhibit reduced sperm motility. This work has led to the argument that population stress induced by a declining economy reduces the human sex ratio. No direct test of this hypothesis appears in the literature. Here, a test is offered based on a comparison of the sex ratio in East and West Germany for the years 1946 to 1999. The theory suggests that the East German sex ratio should be lower in 1991, when East Germany's economy collapsed, than expected from its own history and from the sex ratio in West Germany. The hypothesis is tested using time-series modelling methods. The data support the hypothesis. The sex ratio in East Germany was at its lowest in 1991. This first direct test supports the hypothesis that economic decline reduces the human sex ratio.

  2. Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: jpzhanglzu@163.com [College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Wenbin [College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Cheng, Guoliang; Chen, Xiao [Shanghai Tianyi Electric Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201611 (China); Wu, Helen [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Sydney 2751 (Australia); Herman Shen, M.-H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode (OLED), three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress. Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED. The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. - Highlights: • We gain luminance decaying data by accelerated degradation tests on OLED. • The luminance decaying model objectively reveals the decaying law of OLED luminance. • The least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate Weibull parameters. • The plan designed for accelerated degradation tests proves to be feasible. • The accuracy of the OLED life and the luminance decaying fitting formula is high.

  3. Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianping; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Guoliang; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Helen; Herman Shen, M.-H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode (OLED), three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress. Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED. The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. - Highlights: • We gain luminance decaying data by accelerated degradation tests on OLED. • The luminance decaying model objectively reveals the decaying law of OLED luminance. • The least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate Weibull parameters. • The plan designed for accelerated degradation tests proves to be feasible. • The accuracy of the OLED life and the luminance decaying fitting formula is high

  4. Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers: testing moderation and mediation models of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth

    2008-05-01

    The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.

  5. 78 FR 72534 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 Policy Statement on the Principles for... stress test horizon. The variables specified for each scenario generally address economic activity, asset..., 2012, that articulated the principles the FDIC will apply to develop and distribute the stress test...

  6. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress test among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiling; Weng, Tingting; Tao, Fangbiao

    2012-01-01

    To compare obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of their salivary cortisol response to the Trier Socia l Stress Test ( TSST). This is a cross - sectional study involving 41 healthy adolescents aged 12-14 years in the city of Shenyang, China. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements, and measurements were repeated after the test period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to compare salivary cortisol levels between groups. The male group comprised of 16 individuals (10 obese and 6 non-obese), and the female group comprised 25 individuals ( 13 obese and 12 non-obese). ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated that weight status (obese or non-obese) had a significant main effect on the measures of salivary cortisol levels during the TSST among females but not males. The finding suggested that weight status is associated with cortisol response to psychological stress among Chinese adolescent girls.

  7. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-04-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24'' x 24'' x 10'' schedule 40 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. is described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 0 psi and 1800 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 76620 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  8. Trends in referral patterns, invasive management, and mortality in elderly patients referred for exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús; Broullón, Francisco J; Calviño-Santos, Ramón; Mosquera, Víctor X; Barbeito-Caamaño, Cayetana; Larrañaga-Moreira, José María; Maneiro-Melón, Nicolás; Álvarez-García, Nemesio; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Scarce data are available on the temporal patterns in clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients referred for exercise stress testing. We aimed to assess the trends in baseline characteristics, tests results, referrals for invasive management, and mortality in these patients. We evaluated 11,192 patients aged ≥65years who were referred for exercise stress testing between January 1998 and December 2013. Calendar years were grouped into four quadrennia (1998-2001, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013), and trends in clinical characteristics of the patients, type and results of the tests, referrals for invasive management, and mortality across the different periods were assessed. Despite a progressive decrease in the proportion of patients with non-interpretable baseline electrocardiograms or prior history of coronary artery disease, there was a gradual and marked increase in the use of cardiac imaging from 32.8% in 1998-2001 to 67.6% in 2010-2013 (pstress testing both without imaging (from 18.9 to 13.6%, pstress testing, we observed a decline over time in the probability of inducible myocardial ischemia, an increase in the use of cardiac imaging and in the rate of coronary revascularization, and an improvement in the survival rate at 1year. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Isoproterenol stress test for the evaluation of the residual stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Fukuda, T; Kashima, I; Sato, M; Miura, M; Ueda, H; Yoshiba, S

    2001-07-01

    Hemodynamic changes of the right side of the heart during isoproterenol stress test were assessed and analyzed in 36 patients who underwent definitive repair of tetralogy of Fallot or double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis. Patients having atresia of the pulmonary artery were excluded from the study. 24 of the patients had previously undergone reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) with preserving the pulmonary valvar annulus (group N), whilst the remaining 12 patients had undergone transannular enlargement of RVOT with a patch (group T). Preservation of the pulmonary valvar annulus was determined when the intra-operative measurement of diameter of the pulmonary valvar annulus showed values greater than 90% of normal. In both groups, the isoproterenol infusion increased the right to left ventricular peak pressure (RVP/LVP) ratio, pressure gradient between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery (RV-mPAP), and pressure gradient between the main pulmonary artery and peripheral pulmonary artery (m-pPAP). These values were significantly higher than those measured at rest. When comparisons were made between groups, RV-mPAP of group N was significantly higher than that of group T, both at rest and during stress test. By contrast, m-pPAP of group T was significantly higher than that of group N, both at rest and during stress test. Although no significant difference was found between the groups in RVP/LVP at rest and during stress test, RVP/LVP of both groups increased to the level of more than 0.6 after the isoproterenol infusion. These results led us to conclude that preservation of the pulmonary valvar annulus was better to be applied only to the patients who fulfilled our criterions. Additionally, in the setting of patch reconstruction of the pulmonary artery, every effort should be made so as not to leave the residual stenosis of the peripheral pulmonary artery.

  10. Over-pressure test on BARCOM pre-stressed concrete containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, R.M.; Singh, Tarvinder; Thangamani, I.; Trivedi, Neha; Singh, Ram Kumar, E-mail: rksingh@barc.gov.in

    2014-04-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has organized an International Round Robin Analysis program to carry out the ultimate load capacity assessment of BARC Containment (BARCOM) test model. The test model located in BARC facilities Tarapur; is a 1:4 scale representation of 540 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) pre-stressed concrete inner containment structure of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) unit 3 and 4. There are a large number of sensors installed in BARCOM that include vibratory wire strain gauges of embedded and spot-welded type, surface mounted electrical resistance strain gauges, dial gauges, earth pressure cells, tilt meters and high resolution digital camera systems for structural response, crack monitoring and fracture parameter measurement to evaluate the local and global behavior of the containment test model. The model has been tested pneumatically during the low pressure tests (LPTs) followed by proof test (PT) and integrated leakage rate test (ILRT) during commissioning. Further the over pressure test (OPT) has been carried out to establish the failure mode of BARCOM Test-Model. The over-pressure test will be completed shortly to reach the functional failure of the test model. Pre-test evaluation of BARCOM was carried out with the results obtained from the registered international round robin participants in January 2009 followed by the post-test assessment in February 2011. The test results along with the various failure modes related to the structural members – concrete, rebars and tendons identified in terms of prescribed milestones are presented in this paper along with the comparison of the pre-test predictions submitted by the registered participants of the Round Robin Analysis for BARCOM test model.

  11. Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1982-09-01

    Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 365 0 C

  12. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React ''Stress-Managed'' Block Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.; Bish, P.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Hafalia Jr., R.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A.; Lau, W.; Lietzke, A.; McIntyre, P.; Noyes, P.; Nyman, M.; Sattarov, A.; Sattarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    A second phase of a highfield dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A and M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85 percent of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed

  13. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  14. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  15. Stress analysis of neutral beam pivot point bellows for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Tiong, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The neutral beam pivot point bellows serves as an airtight flexible linkage between the torus duct and the neutral beam transition duct in Princeton University's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The bellows considered here is basically rectangular in cross section with rounded corners; a unique shape. Its overall external dimensions are about 28 in. (about 711 mm) X about 35 in. (about 889 mm). The bellows is formed from 18 convolutions and is of the nested ripple type. It is about 11 in. (about 43.3 mm) in length, composed of Inconel 718, and each leaf has a thickness of 0.034 in. (.86 mm). The bellows is subjected to a series of design loading conditions -- vacuum, vacuum + 2 psi (.12 MPa), vacuum + stroke (10,000 cycles), vacuum + temperature increase + extension, extension to a stress of 120 ksi (838 MPa), and a series of rotational loading conditions induced in the bellows by alignment of the neutral beam injector. A stress analysis of the bellows was performed by the finite element method -- locations and magnitude of maximum stresses were calculated for all of the design loading conditions to check with allowable values and help guide placement of strain gauges during proof testing. A typical center convolution and end convolution were analyzed. Loading conditions were separated into symmetric and antisymmetric cases about the planes of symmetry of the cross-section. Iterative linear analyses were performed, i.e. compressive loading conditions led to predicted overlap of the leaves from linear analysis and restraints were added to prevent such overlap. This effect was found to be substantial in stress predicition and necessary to be taken into account. A total of eleven loading conditions and seven models were analyzed. The results showed peak stresses to be within allowable limits and the number of allowable cycles to be greater than the design condition

  16. Diagnostic value of exercise stress testing, dipyridamole stress-echocardiography and perfusion stress-scintigraphy for identification of coronary artery disease in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, S.; Tyrnovska-Kydreva, R.; Khalacheva, S.; Radoslavova, R.; Stoyanova, N.; Draganov, T.; Elenkova, A.; Garcheva, M.; Shejretova, E.

    1995-01-01

    To compare the value of exercise stress testing (EST), dipyridamole stress echocardiography and 99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI)-planer scintigraphy, 75 female patients with angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography were studied. Significant (≥50% stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD) was present in 38 of the patients. EST was performed in all of the patients but dipyridamole echocardiography and MIBI-planer scintigraphy - in 36 of them (22 with and 14 without CAD). Compared with dipyridamole echocardiography, EST and MIBI-planer scintigraphy had a significantly higher sensitivity (74% vs 45%, p<0.01 and 82% vs 45%, p<0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference in sensitivity between EST and MIBI-planer scintigraphy. Dipyridamole echocardiography and MIBI-planer scintigraphy showed a higher specificity than EST (93% vs 54%, p<0.01 and 93% vs 54%, p<0.01, respectively). Diagnostic accuracy of MIBI-planer scintigraphy was higher than that of dipyridamole echocardiography and EST (86% vs 64%, p<0.05 and 86 vs 64%, p<0.01, respectively). Thus, MIBI-planer scintigraphy appears to be superior to EST and dipyridamole echocardiography for the evaluation of CAD in symptomatic women. 20 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  17. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  18. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  19. Cardiac stress test as a risk-stratification tool for posttransplant cardiac outcomes in diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Parikh, Samir; Bhatt, Udayan; Vonvisger, Jon; Nori, Uday; Hasan, Ayesha; Samavedi, Srinivas; Andreoni, Kenneth; Henry, Mitchell; Pelletier, Ronald; Rajab, Amer; Elkhammas, Elmahdi; Pesavento, Todd

    2012-12-27

    The utility of cardiac stress testing as a risk-stratification tool before kidney transplantation remains debatable owing to discordance with coronary angiography and outcome yields at different centers. We conducted a retrospective study of 273 diabetic kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2010. By protocol, all diabetic patients underwent pharmacological radionucleotide stress test or dobutamine stress echocardiography before transplant. We compared the 1-year cardiac outcomes between those with negative stress test results and those with positive stress test results. Patients with a positive stress test result (n=67) underwent coronary angiogram, and significant coronary artery disease (≥70% coronary stenosis) was found in 35 (52.2%) patients. Of the latter, 32 (91.4%) underwent cardiac revascularization (24 underwent cardiac stenting and 8 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting). The rest (n=35) were treated medically. Within 1 year after transplant, the group with positive stress test results experienced more cardiac events (34.3% vs. 3.9%, P<0.001) including acute myocardial infarction (22.4% vs. 3.4%, P<0.001) and ventricular arrhythmias (8.9% vs. 0.05%, P=0.001), higher all-cause mortality (19.4% vs. 4.8%, P<0.001), and cardiac mortality (17.9% vs. 0.9%, P<0.001) compared with the group with negative stress test results. In this diabetic population, stress testing showed positive and negative predictive values of 34.3% and 96.1%, respectively. Pharmacological cardiac stress testing provided excellent risk stratification in diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

  20. Value of stress ultrasound for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability compared to manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Ho; Lee, Doo Hyung; Song, Hyung Keun; Bang, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Tai; Park, Young Uk

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians frequently diagnose chronic ankle instability using the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. However, both examinations can yield incorrect results and do not reveal the extent of ankle instability. Stress ultrasound has been reported to be a new diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of stress ultrasound for chronic ankle instability compared to the manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthroscopy. Twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy and subsequent modified Broström repair for treatment of chronic ankle instability were included. The arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. A standardized physical examination (manual anterior drawer test), stress radiography, MRI, and stress ultrasound were performed to assess the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) prior to operation. Ultrasound images were taken in the resting position and the maximal anterior drawer position. Grade 3 lateral instability was verified arthroscopically in all 28 cases with a clinical diagnosis (100%). Twenty-two cases showed grade III instability on the manual anterior drawer test (78.6%). Twenty-four cases displayed anterior translation exceeding 5 mm on stress radiography (86%), and talar tilt angle exceeded 15° in three cases (11 %). Nineteen cases displayed a partial chronic tear (change in thickness or signal intensity), and nine cases displayed complete tear on MRI (100%). Lax and wavy ATFL was evident on stress ultrasound in all cases (100 %). The mean value of the ATFL length was 2.8 ± 0.3 cm for the stressed condition and 2.1 ± 0.2 cm for the resting condition (p radiography. III.

  1. Manufacturing method for intragranular stress corrosion cracking-induced test specimen for stainless steel pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futagawa, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a manufacturing step for intragranular stress corrosion cracking-induced for stainless steel pipelines, pipe are abutted against with each other and welded, and a heat affected portion is applied with a sensitizing heat treatment. Further, a crevice jig is attached near the heat affected portion at the inner surface of the pipe and kept in a chlorine ion added water under high temperature and high pressure at a predetermined period of time. If tap water is used instead of purified water for C.P.T. test in a step of forming sample of IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking), since the chlorine ion concentration in the tap water is relatively high, TGSCC (intragranular stress corrosion crackings caused in all of the samples. A heat input and an interlayer temperature are determined for the material of stainless pipe having a carbon content of more than 0.05% so that the welding residual stress on the inner surface is applied as tension. The condition for the heat treatment is determined as, for example, 500degC x 24hr, and the samples are kept under water at high temperature and high pressure applied with chlorine ions for 500 to 200hours. As a result, since samples of TGSCC can be formed by utilizing the manufacturing step for IGSCC, there is no requirement for providing devices for applying environmental factors separately. (N.H.)

  2. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  3. Power Cycling Test Method for Reliability Assessment of Power Device Modules in Respect to Temperature Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Power cycling test is one of the important tasks to investigate the reliability performance of power device modules in respect to temperature stress. From this, it is able to predict the lifetime of a component in power converters. In this paper, representative power cycling test circuits......, measurement circuits of wear-out failure indicators as well as measurement strategies for different power cycling test circuits are discussed in order to provide the current state of knowledge of this topic by organizing and evaluating current literature. In the first section of this paper, the structure...... of a conventional power device module and its related wear-out failure mechanisms with degradation indicators are discussed. Then, representative power cycling test circuits are introduced. Furthermore, on-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE ON) and forward voltage (VF) measurement circuits for wear-out condition...

  4. NRI experimental facility for the testing of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Zamboch, M.

    1998-01-01

    IASCC influencing reactor internals of both BWR and PWR reactors is a complex phenomenon covering influences of material structure, neutron fluence, neutron flux, chemistry of environment, gamma radiation and mechanical stress. To evaluate such degradation, tests should be performed under conditions similar to those in real structure. Nuclear Research Institute has built several experimental facilities in order to be able to test IASCC degradation of materials. Basically, reactor water loops, both PWR and BWR, could be used to model environmental conditions including gamma and neutron irradiation. Pre-irradiation can be done in irradiation channels under well controlled temperature conditions. During the experiment, in-pile conditions can be compared with those out of pile. It enables to clarify pure influence of irradiation. For testing of irradiated specimens, hot cell facility has been developed for slow strain rate tests. The paper will show all above mentioned facilities as well as some of the results observed with them. (author)

  5. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11{sup th} March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17{sup th} March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17{sup th} May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13{sup th} May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11{sup th} October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30{sup th} June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30{sup th} June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative

  6. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11 th March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17 th March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17 th May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13 th May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11 th October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30 th June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30 th June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative procedure at that time. The ''stress tests'' were started by all German

  7. Memory for objects and startle responsivity in the immediate aftermath of exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-05-30

    Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  9. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  10. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  11. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress-relaxation tests in the work-hardening regime of tungsten single crystals below 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of work hardening on the results of stress-relaxation tests was studied for highly pure tungsten single crystals isothermally deformed at four temperatures of 274, 241, 131, and 78 K. A method accounting for strong work hardening on the determination of the strain-rate sensitivity from stress-relaxation tests is introduced by establishing special diagrams of SR tests denoted as YX diagrams

  14. Pharmacogenetic tests to predict the efficacy of aspirin desensitization in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases; HLA-DQB302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the association of HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 variability with the response to aspirin desensitization (AD). A total of 16 patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases (AERD, 81.3% were female) with median age of 29 ± 4.3 years were included in this study. Following 6 months, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22), medication, symptom scores, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (all p < 0.001) improved significantly. However, only seven patients (43.7%) had clinically significant improvement in all of the medication and symptom scores and FEV1, who were considered responders to AD. Responders to AD had significantly higher symptom scores compared with non-responders at baseline (20 ± 1.18 vs 10 ± 1.27; p = 0.003). HLADQB1*0302 was significantly lower in non-responders than in responders to AD (0.12 [0.02-0.76]; p = 0.022). Sensitivity and specificity of HLA-DQB1*0302 to predict response to AD was 71.4% (95% CI: 35.8-91.7) and 81.8% (95% CI: 52.3-94.8). This study introduces HLA-DQB1*0302 as a genetic marker for favorable response to AD.

  15. Comparison of Domestic Safety Review and European Union(EU) Stress Test After Nuclear Accident in Fukushima Daiichi NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hwa Sung; Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The European Union(EU) nuclear regulators group established stress test criteria and procedures, and utilities performed a self-review in accordance with those criteria and procedures. For Wolsung nuclear unit-1,the stress test was additionally conducted for deciding the continued operation of NPP, even though the safety review had been conducted after Fukushima NPP accident. Thus, this study is to compares the process, criteria, and results of the safety review performed in domestic NPPs and EU stress test performed in Cernavoda NPP. From the comparisons, the effectiveness and necessity of the stress test to decide the continued operation of NPPs is discussed. and the improvement items for safety enhancement are derived. The comparison showed that the process and review criteria of EU stress test was more systematic and specific than those used in domestic NPPs. But it was indicated that the improvement items resulted from the safety review performed in domestic NPPs are more comprehensive and powerful than EU stress tests (Cernavoda NPP) results. EU stress test for Cernavoda NPP evaluated in 3 fieldsand derived 13 design change items. The 50 improvement items derived from domestic safety review were including the contents of these 13 items.

  16. Laterality as an indicator of emotional stress in ewes and lambs during a separation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Matthews, Lindsay; Messori, Stefano; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We assessed motor laterality in sheep to explore species-specific brain hemi-field dominance and how this could be affected by genetic or developmental factors. Further, we investigated whether directionality and strength of laterality could be linked to emotional stress in ewes and their lambs during partial separation. Forty-three ewes and their singleton lambs were scored on the (left/right) direction of turn in a y-maze to rejoin a conspecific (laterality test). Further, their behavioural response (i.e. time spent near the fence, vocalisations, and activity level) during forced separation by an open-mesh fence was assessed (separation test). Individual laterality was recorded for 44.2% ewes (significant right bias) and 81.4% lambs (equally biased to the left and the right). There was no significant association in side bias between dams and offspring. The Chi-squared test revealed a significant population bias for both groups (p laterality may provide explanation for this decision-making process. Absolute strength of laterality (irrespective of side) was high (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, dams: D = 0.2; p laterality offer a potential novel non-invasive indicator of separation stress.

  17. Influence of residual stresses during eddy current testing of zircaloy bar material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Das, G.; Pratap, Y.; Acharya, S.; Chaube, R.K.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Zirconium alloy bar is the input material for making end plugs required for encapsulating the fuel tubes after loading of uranium di-oxide pellets. These bars are manufactured through extrusion followed by multi-pass swaging and intermediate vacuum annealing. The bar is subjected to 100% Ultrasonic testing to ensure that defect free material is used for making the end plugs. The elements thus welded are subjected to helium leak testing for checking the weld integrity. However, stray cases of helium leakage from fuel elements were observed on few occasions. On investigation, it was found that the leakage was from small porosity present in the plugs. In order to isolate such an eventuality, stricter ultrasonic standards were adopted and additionally eddy current testing was introduced. It was observed that a number of eddy current signals equal to the defect standard were noticed and the reasons for these indications could not be identified. This led to a significant fall in the material recovery. An in-depth study with various heat treatment cycles and process steps was carried out. It was finally concluded that the indications observed in eddy current testing were due to the residual stresses on the periphery of the bar material caused due by improper straightening being carried out at the final stage of the bar manufacture. This paper presents the systematic studies carried out and correlation established between the eddy current signals and the residual stresses

  18. Safety and efficacy of Regadenoson in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) stress tests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2018-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) tests are often used to help diagnose coronary heart disease (CAD). The tests usually involve applying stress, such as hard physical exercise together with administration of vasodilators, to the patients. To date, many of these tests use non-selective A2A adenosine receptor agonists which, however, can be associated with highly undesirable and life-threatening side effects such as chest pain, dyspnea, severe bronchoconstriction and atrioventricular conduction anomalies. Regadenoson is a relatively new, highly selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, suitable for use in MPI tests which exhibits far fewer adverse side effects and, unlike others testing agents, can be used without the necessity of excessive concomitant exercise. Also, the dose of regadenoson required is not dependent upon patient weight or renal impairment, and it can be rapidly administered by i.v. Injection. Regadenoson use in MPI testing thus has the potential as a simplified, relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective method for helping diagnose CAD. The present study was designed to review several articles on the safety, efficacy, and suitability of regadenoson in MPI testing for CAD. Overall, the combined studies demonstrated that use of regadenoson in conjunction with low-level exercise in MPI is a highly efficient and relatively safe test for CAD, especially for more severe health-compromised patients.

  19. The conformity of BPP and vibroacoustic stimulation results in fetal non reactive non stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modarres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used test for evaluation of fetal health is the Non Stress Test (NST. Unfortunately it has a high incidence of false positive results. The combination of vibroacoustic stimulation with the NTS has been shown to reduce non reactive results. Methods: A tests assessment method was chosen with a simple randomized sampling. 40 pregnant women with non reactive NST in the first 20 minutes who received VAS in one of Tehran University's Hospitals were compared with BPP scores. A vibroacoustic stimulation was applied for a 3 seconds on the maternal abdomen and fallowed within 10 minutes.Data collection tools were NST, sonography instruments ,NST result paper, tooth brusher, watch, demographic questioner and check list. Data analysis was made by descriptive static and by using the Fisher's Exact Test (with level of significant at p<0/05. All statistical analysis were performed using an spss/win. Results: After VAS, 70% of non reactive tracing became reactive. All cases with fetal reactivity response after a VAS had a subsequent BPP score of 8 (negative predictive value of 100%. False positivity of VAS was lower than NST. Conclusion: VAS offers benefits, by decreasing the incidence of non reactive test and reducing test time. VAS lowers the rate of false positive NST. VAS is safe and allows more efficient of prenatal services. This test could be used as a rapid antepartum test to predict fetal well-being.

  20. Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juškaitė, Vaida; Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-06-27

    Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds.

  1. Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juškaitė Vaida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds.

  2. Elasto-plastic stress/strain at notches, comparison of test and approximative computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beste, A.; Seeger, T.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetime of cyclically loaded components is decisively determined by the value of the local load in the notch root. The determination of the elasto-plastic notch-stress and-strain is therefore an important element of recent methods of lifetime determination. These local loads are normally calculated with the help of approximation formulas. Yet there are no details about their accuracy. The basic construction of the approximation formulas is presented, along with some particulars. The use of approximations within the fully plastic range and for material laws which show a non-linear stress-strain (sigma-epsilon-)-behaviour from the beginning is explained. The use of approximation for cyclic loads is particularly discussed. Finally, the approximations are evaluated in terms of their exactness. The test results are compared with the results of the approximation calculations. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  3. Stress hormones at rest and following exercise testing predict coronary artery disease severity and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dejana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Djordjevic, Tea; Martic, Dejana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Milinkovic, Neda; Banovic, Marko; Lasica, Ratko; Petrovic, Milan; Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross

    2017-09-01

    Despite considerable knowledge regarding the importance of stress in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis, its underestimation persists in routine clinical practice, in part attributable to lack of a standardized, objective assessment. The current study examined the ability of stress hormones to predict CAD severity and prognosis at basal conditions as well as during and following an exertional stimulus. Forty Caucasian subjects with significant coronary artery lesions (≥50%) were included. Within 2 months of coronary angiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a recumbent ergometer was performed in conjunction with stress echocardiography (SE). At rest, peak and after 3 min of recovery following CPET, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) were measured by immunoassay sandwich technique, radioimmunoassay, and radioimmunometric technique, respectively. Subjects were subsequently followed a mean of 32 ± 10 months. Mean ejection fraction was 56.7 ± 9.6%. Subjects with 1-2 stenotic coronary arteries (SCA) demonstrated a significantly lower plasma cortisol levels during CPET compared to those with 3-SCA (p  .05). Among CPET, SE, and hormonal parameters, cortisol at rest and during CPET recovery demonstrated the best predictive value in distinguishing between 1-, 2-, and 3-SCA [area under ROC curve 0.75 and 0.77 (SE = 0.11, 0.10; p = .043, .04) for rest and recovery, respectively]. ΔCortisol peak/rest predicted cumulative cardiac events (area under ROC curve 0.75, SE = 0.10, p = .049). Cortisol at rest and following an exercise test holds predictive value for CAD severity and prognosis, further demonstrating a link between stress and unwanted cardiac events.

  4. Assessing Stress-Induced Sleep Reactivity in College Students: The European Portuguese Version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Daniel Ruivo; Allen Gomes, Ana; Drake, Christopher Lawrence; Roth, Thomas; de Azevedo, Maria Helena Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the comprehensive models of insomnia have exhibited impressive developments. However, there is scarce knowledge on predisposing or vulnerability factors for insomnia. One of the most promising constructs to aid in filling this gap is stress-induced sleep reactivity assessed through self-report. Our aim was to study the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST).

  5. The limits of testing particle-mediated oxidative stress in vitro in predicting diverse pathologies; relevance for testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulumian Mary

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In vitro studies with particles are a major staple of particle toxicology, generally used to investigate mechanisms and better understand the molecular events underlying cellular effects. However, there is ethical and financial pressure in nanotoxicology, the new sub-specialty of particle toxicology, to avoid using animals. Therefore an increasing amount of studies are being published using in vitro approaches and such studies require careful interpretation. We point out here that 3 different conventional pathogenic particle types, PM10, asbestos and quartz, which cause diverse pathological effects, have been reported to cause very similar oxidative stress effects in cells in culture. We discuss the likely explanation and implications of this apparent paradox, and its relevance for testing in nanotoxicology.

  6. Stress, Social Support, and Depression: A Test of the Stress-Buffering Hypothesis in a Mexican Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Andrade, Flavia C. D.; Wiley, Angela R.; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Edwards, Laura L.; Aradillas-Garcia, Celia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social support as a potential moderator between stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican university applicants aged 16--21 years ("N" = 6,715; "M" age = 17.9 years; 55% female). In bivariate analyses, perceived stress was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and social support with lower…

  7. Comparison of exercise stress testing with dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise technetium-99m isonitrile single photon emission computerized tomography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzhan, A.; Kisacik, H.L.; Ozdemir, K.

    1997-01-01

    To compare the value of exercise electrocardiography with dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise technetium-99m isonitrile single-photon emission computed tomography for coronary artery disease, 70 patients with either suspected or proven coronary artery disease underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography, exercise technetium-99m isonitrile single-photon emission computed tomography (mibi-SPECT) and treadmill exercise electrocardiography (ECG). Dobutamine echocardiography and exercise mibi-SPECT revealed a higher overall sensitivity than exercise testing (90 vs 57%, p 0.05; 90 and 62% p<0.05, respectively) but the difference between dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise mibi-SPECT was not statistically significant. Diagnostic accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise mibi-SPECT was higher than that of exercise testing (90 vs 59%, p<0.001; 89 vs 59%, p<0.001, respectively). Dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise mibi-SPECT have superiority over exercise testing in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and dobutamine stress echocardiography is an alternative for exercise mibi-SPECT. (author)

  8. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  9. Two-step method to evaluate equibiaxial residual stress of metal surface based on micro-indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masaaki; Soyama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sensitivity to residual stress was improved by selecting the depth parameter. → Residual stress could be obtained while determining the effect of unknown parameters. → The estimated residual stress agreed well with those of X-ray diffraction. -- Abstract: The present study proposed a method to evaluate the equibiaxial compressive residual stress of a metal surface by means of a depth-sensing indentation method using a spherical indenter. Inverse analysis using the elastic-plastic finite-element model for an indentation test was established to evaluate residual stress from the indentation load-depth curve. The proposed inverse analysis utilizes two indentation test results for a reference specimen whose residual stress is already known and for a target specimen whose residual stress is unknown, in order to exclude the effect of other unknown mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus and yield stress. Residual stress estimated by using the indentation method is almost identical to that measured by X-ray diffraction for indentation loads of 0.49-0.98 N. Therefore, it can be concluded that the proposed method can effectively evaluate residual stress on metal surface.

  10. Estimation of In Situ Stress and Permeability from an Extended Leak-off Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiep Quach, Quoc; Jo, Yeonguk; Chang, Chandong; Song, Insun

    2016-04-01

    Among many parameters needed to analyze a variety of geomechanical problems related to subsurface CO2 storage projects, two important ones are in situ stress states and permeability of the storage reservoirs and cap rocks. In situ stress is needed for investigating potential risk of fault slip in the reservoir systems and permeability is needed for assessing reservoir flow characteristics and sealing capability of cap rocks. We used an extended leak-off test (XLOT), which is often routinely conducted to assess borehole/casing integrity as well as fracture gradient, to estimate both in situ least principal stress magnitude and in situ permeability in a CO2 storage test site, offshore southeast Korea. The XLOT was conducted at a casing shoe depth (700 m below seafloor) within the cap rock consisting of mudstone, approximately 50 m above the interface between cap rock and storage reservoir. The test depth was cement-grouted and remained for 4 days for curing. Then the hole was further drilled below the casing shoe to create a 4 m open-hole interval at the bottom. Water was injected using hydraulic pump at an approximately constant flowrate into the bottom interval through the casing, during which pressure and flowrate were recorded continuously at the surface. The interval pressure (P) was increased linearly with time (t) as water was injected. At some point, the slope of P-t curve deviated from the linear trend, which indicates leak-off. Pressure reached its peak upon formation breakdown, followed by a gradual pressure decrease. Soon after the formation breakdown, the hole was shut-in by pump shut-off, from which we determined the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP). The ISIP was taken to be the magnitude of the in situ least principal stress (S3), which was determined to be 12.1 MPa. This value is lower than the lithostatic vertical stress, indicating that the S3 is the least horizontal principal stress. The determined S3 magnitude will be used to characterize the

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  12. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  13. Stress Wave Attenuation in Aluminum Alloy and Mild Steel Specimens Under SHPB Tensile Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothnis, J. R.; Ravikumar, G.; Arya, H.; Yerramalli, Chandra S.; Naik, N. K.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on the effect of intensity of incident pressure wave applied through the striker bar on the specimen force histories and stress wave attenuation during split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tensile testing are presented. Details of the tensile SHPB along with Lagrangian x- t diagram of the setup are included. Studies were carried out on aluminum alloy 7075 T651 and IS 2062 mild steel. While testing specimens using the tensile SHPB setup, it was observed that the force calculated from the transmitter bar strain gauge was smaller than the force obtained from the incident bar strain gauge. This mismatch between the forces in the incident bar and the transmitter bar is explained on the basis of stress wave attenuation in the specimens. A methodology to obtain force histories using the strain gauges on the specimen during SHPB tensile testing is also presented. Further, scanning electron microscope images and photomicrographs are given. Correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties is explained. Further, uncertainty analysis was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of the results.

  14. Stress Testing of the Montenegrin Banking System with Aggregated and Bank-Specific Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many different approaches to the process of stress testing and two of them will be investigated in this paper. The first one is a stress test performed on aggregated data i.e. the banking system as a whole. The variable of interest in both exercises is the Loan Loss Provision ratio (hereinafter: the LLP. The main goal of the thesis is to find an answer to the following question: what are the macroeconomic variables that influence LLP the most and how will LLP, as a variable of interest, behave in a situation when all these variables were to experience negative performance at the same time? The resilience of the banking system to such scenario will be tested through the capital adequacy ratio. In order to find out more about the management practices of banks, microlevel data on banks were also used in the analysis. The focus was to see which of the variables are able to explain the LLP ratio for each bank individually and how is this information helpful for possible improvements in the banking sector. The relations between these variables will be able to explain some of the banks’ losses and some of the banks’ practices regarding credit activities. The analysis there will provide for some recommendations for the banks but also for the Central Bank and its way to influence the practices in the banking sector.

  15. 78 FR 64153 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... OCC-2012-0016] Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress... the stress test horizon. The variables specified for each scenario generally address economic activity... institutions by November 15th of each year. This document articulates the principles that the OCC will apply to...

  16. 78 FR 47217 - Proposed Supervisory Guidance on Implementing Dodd-Frank Act Company-Run Stress Tests for Banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... 10-50. More advanced portfolio segmentation can take several forms, such as by product (construction... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 Proposed Supervisory Guidance on Implementing Dodd-Frank Act Company-Run Stress... 165(i)(2) of the Dodd-Frank Act Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``DFA'') stress tests...

  17. A model to predict multivessel coronary artery disease from the exercise thallium-201 stress test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, S.G.; Abbott, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Watson, D.D.; Kaul, S.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether nonimaging variables add to the diagnostic information available from exercise thallium-201 images for the detection of multivessel coronary artery disease; and (2) to develop a model based on the exercise thallium-201 stress test to predict the presence of multivessel disease. The study populations included 383 patients referred to the University of Virginia and 325 patients referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital for evaluation of chest pain. All patients underwent both cardiac catheterization and exercise thallium-201 stress testing between 1978 and 1981. In the University of Virginia cohort, at each level of thallium-201 abnormality (no defects, one defect, more than one defect), ST depression and patient age added significantly in the detection of multivessel disease. Logistic regression analysis using data from these patients identified three independent predictors of multivessel disease: initial thallium-201 defects, ST depression, and age. A model was developed to predict multivessel disease based on these variables. As might be expected, the risk of multivessel disease predicted by the model was similar to that actually observed in the University of Virginia population. More importantly, however, the model was accurate in predicting the occurrence of multivessel disease in the unrelated population studied at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It is, therefore, concluded that (1) nonimaging variables (age and exercise-induced ST depression) add independent information to thallium-201 imaging data in the detection of multivessel disease; and (2) a model has been developed based on the exercise thallium-201 stress test that can accurately predict the probability of multivessel disease in other populations

  18. Investigating the cognitive precursors of emotional response to cancer stress: re-testing Lazarus's transactional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert-Williams, N J; Morrison, V; Wilkinson, C; Neal, R D

    2013-02-01

    Lazarus's Transactional Model of stress and coping underwent significant theoretical development through the 1990s to better incorporate emotional reactions to stress with their appraisal components. Few studies have robustly explored the full model. This study aimed to do so within the context of a major life event: cancer diagnosis. A repeated measures design was used whereby data were collected using self-report questionnaire at baseline (soon after diagnosis), and 3- and 6-month follow-up. A total of 160 recently diagnosed cancer patients were recruited (mean time since diagnosis = 46 days). Their mean age was 64.2 years. Data on appraisals, core-relational themes, and emotions were collected. Data were analysed using both Spearman's correlation tests and multivariate regression modelling. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated weak correlation between change scores of theoretically associated components and some emotions correlated more strongly with cognitions contradicting theoretical expectations. Cross-sectional multivariate testing of the ability of cognitions to explain variance in emotion was largely theory inconsistent. Although data support the generic structure of the Transactional Model, they question the model specifics. Larger scale research is needed encompassing a wider range of emotions and using more complex statistical testing. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: • Stress processes are transactional and coping outcome is informed by both cognitive appraisal of the stressor and the individual's emotional response (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). • Lazarus (1999) made specific hypotheses about which particular stress appraisals would determine which emotional response, but only a small number of these relationships have been robustly investigated. • Previous empirical testing of this theory has been limited by design and statistical limitations. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • This study empirically investigates the cognitive precedents of a

  19. A study on the evaluation of dynamic stress intensity factor in repeated impact bending test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae Ki; Cho, Gyu Jae; Han, Gill Young

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to establish the evaluation of the dynamic stress intensity factor in repeated impact three point bending test. Contact force between the impact bar and the cracked beam (simple supported beam) was analyzed by the using Hertz's contact law. In order to clarify the validity of theoretical analysis, experiments of dynamic stress intensity factir k I (t) are made on the cracked beam. The results obtained from this study are as follow: 1. In case of impact force analysis the theoretical result was obtained by the use of the Hertz's contact law. It's result was agreemant with the experimental result. Particularly, it was good agreement in the low impact velocity range. 2. The time variation of the dynamic stress intensity was determined by using the simple formula developed in this pqper. And the validity of it's result can be confirmed by experiment. Particlarly, this theoretical analysis was a good agreement to actual phenomena on from 0.3 msec to 0.65 msec. (Author)

  20. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  1. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  2. Are Bayesian Fan Charts Useful? The Effect of Zero Lower Bound and Evaluation of Financial Stability Stress Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, M.; Baruník, Jozef; Horváth, Roman; Šmídková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2014), s. 159-187 ISSN 1815-4654 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian vector autoregression * fan chart * inflation targeting * stress tests Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2014

  3. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  4. In situ stress measurements at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creveling, J.B.; Shuri, F.S.; Foster, K.M.; Mills, S.V.

    1984-05-01

    The status of the following studies is given: in situ state of stress; stress gradient into rib from south heater drift; pillar stresses; and rock deformational properties. 11 references, 38 figures, 12 tables

  5. Anelasticity of olivine single crystals investigated by stress-reduction tests and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Kempton, I.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamic phenomena, including glacial isostatic adjustment and postseismic deformation, can involve transient deformation in response to changes in differential stress acting on mantle rocks. As such, rheological models of transient deformation are incorporated in predictions of associated processes, including sea-level rise and stress redistribution after earthquakes. However, experimental constraints on rheological models for transient deformation of mantle materials are sparse. In particular, experiments involving stress reductions have been lacking. Moreover, a material's response to a reduction in stress can provide clues to the microphysical processes controlling deformation. To constrain models of transient deformation of mantle rocks we performed stress-reduction tests on single crystals of olivine at 1250-1300°C. Mechanical and piezoelectric actuators controlled constant initial stress during creep. At various strain intervals stress was reduced near-instantaneously using the piezoelectric actuator, inducing both elastic and anelastic (time-dependent) lengthening of the samples. A range of magnitudes of stress reduction were applied, typically unloading 10-90% of the initial stress. High-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on cross-correlation of diffraction patterns, was used to map dislocation density and elastic strain distributions in the recovered samples. Magnitudes of anelastic back-strain increase with increasing magnitudes of stress reduction and show a marked increase when stress reductions exceed 50% of the initial stress, consistent with previous observations in metals and alloys. This observation is inconsistent with the Burgers rheological model commonly used to describe transient behaviour and suggests that the style of rheological behaviour depends on the magnitude of stress change. HR-EBSD maps reveal that the crystal lattices are smoothly curved and generally lack subgrain boundaries and elastic strain

  6. Sex Differences in Functional Stress Test Versus CT Angiography in Symptomatic Patients With Suspected CAD: Insights From PROMISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagidipati, Neha J.; Hemal, Kshipra; Coles, Adrian; Mark, Daniel B.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Hoffmann, Udo; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Udelson, James; Daubert, Melissa A.; Shah, Svati H.; Martinez, Beth; Lee, Kerry L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk stratification is an important goal of cardiac noninvasive tests (NITs), yet little contemporary data exist on the prognostic value of different NITs by patient sex. Objectives To compare the results and prognostic information derived from anatomic versus stress testing in stable men and women with suspected coronary artery disease. Methods In 8966 PROMISE trial patients tested as randomized (4500 computed tomographic angiography [CTA], 52% female; 4466 stress testing, 53% female), we assessed the relationship between sex and NIT results using logistic regression, and the relationship between sex and a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and unstable angina hospitalization using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In women, a positive CTA (≥70% stenosis) was less likely than a positive stress test (8% vs. 12%, adjusted OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.55-0.82]). Compared with negative tests, a positive CTA was more strongly associated with subsequent clinical events than a positive stress test (CTA adjusted HR 5.86 [95% CI 3.32-10.35]; stress adjusted HR 2.27 [95% CI 1.21-4.25]; adjusted p=0.028). Men were more likely to have a positive CTA than stress test (16% vs. 14%, adjusted OR 1.23 [95% CI 1.04-1.47]). Compared with negative tests, a positive CTA was less strongly associated with subsequent clinical events than a positive stress test in men, although this difference was not statistically significant (CTA adjusted HR 2.80 [95% CI 1.76-4.45]; stress adjusted HR 4.42 [95% CI 2.77-7.07]; adjusted p=0.168). Negative CTA and stress tests were equally likely to predict an event in both sexes (adjusted p-values=NS). A significant interaction between sex, NIT type, and test result (p=0.01) suggests that sex and NIT type jointly influence the relationship between test result and clinical events. Conclusions The prognostic value of an NIT result varies by test type and patient sex. Women appear to derive more prognostic information from a CTA, while men

  7. Testing the adaptation to poverty-related stress model: predicting psychopathology symptoms in families facing economic hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Etter, Erica M

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98 families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 adolescents and preadolescents, 82 school-age children) revealed that, consistent with the model, primary and secondary control coping were protective against poverty-related stress primarily for internalizing symptoms. Conversely, disengagement coping exacerbated externalizing symptoms over time. In addition, involuntary engagement stress responses exacerbated the effects of poverty-related stress for internalizing symptoms, whereas involuntary disengagement responses exacerbated externalizing symptoms. Age and gender effects were found in most models, reflecting more symptoms of both types for parents than children and higher levels of internalizing symptoms for girls.

  8. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is “predicting” who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. Methods: A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Results: Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. Citation: Kalmbach DA, Pillai V, Arnedt JT, Drake CL. Identifying at-risk individuals for insomnia using the ford insomnia response to stress test. SLEEP 2016;39(2):449–456. PMID:26446111

  9. Critical study of test methods in stress corrosion cracking. Application to stainless steels in chloride environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajana, Lotfi

    1985-01-01

    The transposition of results obtained in laboratory to the prediction of in-service material resistance is a crucial problem in the case of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The search for a SCC test which allows a reliable and realistic classification of stainless steels in chloride environments requires a choice of adequate electrolytes and of mechanical solicitation mode. In this research, the author first justifies the choice of an environment which could be representative of actual service conditions in the case of 5 grades of austenitic steels and 1 grade of austeno-ferric steel. Using a computerized data acquisition and processing system, the author compares the information obtained with two types of test: under constant load and under slow strain rate [fr

  10. Accelerated Stress Testing of Multi-Source LED Products: Horticulture Lamps and Tunable-White Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Davis, Kelley Rountree, Karmann Mills

    2018-03-30

    This report discusses the use of accelerated stress testing (AST) to provide insights into the long-term behavior of commercial products utilizing different types of mid-power LEDs (MP-LEDs) integrated into the same LED module. Test results are presented from two commercial lamps intended for use in horticulture applications and one tunable-white LED module intended for use in educational and office lighting applications. Each of these products is designed to provide a custom spectrum for their targeted applications and each achieves this goal in different ways. Consequently, a comparison of the long-term stability of these devices will provide insights regarding approaches that could be used to possibly lengthen the lifetime of SSL products.

  11. Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X

    2014-11-01

    In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Philippe [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2012-07-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  13. Tests on creep and influence of creep on strength of concrete under multiaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanig, N.; Stoeckl, S.; Kupfer, H.

    1988-12-01

    Long-time tests of three-axially loaded, sealed cylindrical specimens d = 15 cm, h = 40 cm, were carried out. The 20-cm-cube strength of the concrete was app. 45 N/mm 2 . The creep stresses were chosen in the following ranges: 0,3 ≤ σ c /β c ≤ 2,1; 0 ≤ σ r /σ l ≤ 1,0. The creep coefficients obtained were clearly depending on the multi-axial stress conditions. The creep coefficients for a t = 2 years loading were reaching app. 1 for σ l /β c = 0,3 and app. 3 for σ l /β c = 2,1, when the test evaluation was based on the initial deformations meausred after 1 minute. For σ l /β c = 2,1 the creep coefficients obtained were about 4 times as large, proceeding form calculated elastic deformations. Further evaluations concerned the Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio μ, the bulk modulus K and the shear modulus G. The preceding permanent load leads to an increase in the Young's modulus of the concrete in longitudinal direction of the specimen up to about 4 times the value of not preloaded comparative specimens. (orig.) [de

  14. Netherlands' National Fukushima Stress Test for the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This is the National Report of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on the post-Fukushima 'stress test' of the Borssele (one unit) Nuclear Power Plant, the KCB. This report complies with the guidelines published by ENSREG (European Nuclear Safety Regulator Group) in May (objectives and scope) and October 2011 (structure of report) for National Reports. The operator of the KCB has submitted a Licensee Report to the regulatory body, that addresses all topics prescribed in the ENSREG guidelines for the 'stress test' and meets the prescribed format. The National Report presents conclusions about licensee's compliance with its design basis. The conclusions are based on the Licensee Report as well as on several decades of regulatory oversight, including regulatory inspections, evaluations of various applications for modification of the licences, regulatory control of the special Long-Term Operation programme and the various extensive Periodic Safety Reviews. The National Report presents conclusions on the safety margins identified in the Licensee Report. The National report notes the measures proposed and considered in the Licensee Report. In principle, the regulatory body can endorse various of these measures, but further assessment is needed to establish the effectiveness of these. The regulatory body proposes additional topics suitable for (more detailed) assessment.

  15. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic correlation of dipyridamole-thallium stress testing with isometric handgrip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, S.; Aurigemma, G.; Pape, L.; Leppo, J.

    1991-01-01

    To determine how frequently new wall-motion abnormalities that are indicative of ischemia accompany thallium redistribution, 47 consecutive patients underwent two-dimensional, echocardiography during routine dipyridamole-thallium stress testing. A secondary aim of the study was to determine whether the addition of isometric handgrip exercises to the standard dipyridamole imaging protocol increased the frequency of wall-motion abnormalities or thallium redistribution. Echocardiograms and thallium scans were independently interpreted, and wall-motion abnormalities that appeared with dipyridamole, handgrip exercise, or both were compared with results of thallium imaging. Five of 24 patients with thallium redistribution had new wall-motion abnormalities, and the extent (number of segments) of thallium redistribution in these five patients was significantly greater than in those who did not have well-motion abnormalities (p less than 0.03). The addition of isometric handgrip exercises to the imaging protocol did not distinguish between patients with and without new wall-motion abnormalities or thallium redistribution. Thus new wall-motion abnormalities infrequently accompany thallium redistribution in routine dipyridamole stress testing in spite of the addition of handgrip exercises, but when new wall-motion abnormalities are present, they are associated with a greater area of thallium redistribution

  16. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  17. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-03-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24 in. x 24 in. x 10 in. schedule 160 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. are described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 100 psi and 7000 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 15,084 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  18. Exaggerated blood pressure response to early stages of exercise stress testing and presence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Picone, Dean S; Nikolic, Sonja B; Williams, Andrew D; Sharman, James E

    2016-12-01

    Exaggerated exercise blood pressure (EEBP) recorded during exercise testing at moderate-intensity is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. It is hypothesized that EEBP may be indicative of underlying hypertension unnoticed by standard clinic (resting) BP measures (thus explaining increased mortality risk), but this has never been confirmed by association with hypertension defined using ambulatory BP monitoring, which was the aim of this study. Cross-sectional study. 100 consecutive patients free from coronary artery disease (aged 56±9 years, 72% male) underwent clinically indicated exercise stress testing. Exercise BP was recorded at each stage of the Bruce protocol. Presence of hypertension was defined as 24-hour systolic BP ≥130mmHg or daytime systolic BP ≥135mmHg. Exercise systolic BP at stage 1 and 2 of the test was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (P130mmHg (AUC=0.752, 95% CI's 0.649-0.846, P150mmHg predicting hypertension independently of age, sex and in-clinic hypertension status (OR=4.83, 95% CI's 1.62-14.39, P=0.005). Irrespective of resting BP, systolic BP ≥150mmHg during early stages of the Bruce exercise stress test is associated with presence of hypertension. EEBP should be a warning signal to health/exercise professionals on the presence of hypertension and the need to provide follow up care to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes about Future Genetic Testing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Addiction among Community-Based Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Lent

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored attitudes toward hypothetical genetic testing for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and addiction among veterans. We surveyed a random sample of community-based veterans (n = 700 by telephone. One year later, we asked the veterans to provide a DNA sample for analysis and 41.9% of them returned the DNA samples. Overall, most veterans were not interested in genetic testing neither for PTSD (61.7% nor for addiction (68.7%. However, bivariate analyses suggested there was an association between having the condition of interest and the likelihood of genetic testing on a 5-point scale (p < 0.001 for PTSD; p = 0.001 for alcohol dependence. While ordinal regressions confirmed these associations, the models with the best statistical fit were bivariate models of whether the veteran would likely test or not. Using logistic regressions, significant predictors for PTSD testing were receiving recent mental health treatment, history of a concussion, younger age, having PTSD, having alcohol dependence, currently taking opioids for pain, and returning the DNA sample during the follow-up. For addiction testing, significant predictors were history of concussion, younger age, psychotropic medication use, having alcohol dependence, and currently taking opioids for pain. Altogether, 25.9% of veterans reported that they would have liked to have known their genetic results before deployment, 15.6% reported after deployment, and 58.6% reported they did not want to know neither before nor after deployment. As advancements in genetic testing continue to evolve, our study suggests that consumer attitudes toward genetic testing for mental disorders are complex and better understanding of these attitudes and beliefs will be crucial to successfully promote utilization.

  20. Differential gene expressions in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chicken in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-01-15

    Acute heat stress affects genes involved in spermatogenesis in mammals. However, there is apparently no elaborate research on the effects of acute heat stress on gene expression in avian testes. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chicken after acute heat stress. Twelve roosters, 45 weeks old, were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2-hour recovery, and with 6-hour recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis. Based on gene expression profiles, 169 genes were upregulated and 140 genes were downregulated after heat stress using a cutoff value of twofold or greater change. Based on gene ontology analysis, differentially expressed genes were mainly related to response to stress, transport, signal transduction, and metabolism. A functional network analysis displayed that heat shock protein genes and related chaperones were the major upregulated groups in chicken testes after acute heat stress. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA expressions of HSP70, HSP90AA1, BAG3, SERPINB2, HSP25, DNAJA4, CYP3A80, CIRBP, and TAGLN confirmed the results of the microarray analysis. Because the HSP genes (HSP25, HSP70, and HSP90AA1) and the antiapoptotic BAG3 gene were dramatically altered in heat-stressed chicken testes, we concluded that these genes were important factors in the avian testes under acute heat stress. Whether these genes could be candidate genes for thermotolerance in roosters requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of degree of lipomobilization on results of glucose test in dairy cows in heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincović M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cows exposed to heat stress exhibit a decreased ability to mobilize lipids due to increased sensitivity to insulin, which is expressed in a decreased concentration of NEFA. However, certain cows can preserve the level of lipid mobilization after adapting to heat stress. We assumed that cows that have a preserved ability to mobilize lipids are less sensitive to insulin and that they have a lower tolerance for glucose. The aim of this work was to compare the results of an intravenous glucose tolerance test in cows that exhibited, in prolonged heat stress, a decreased (NEFA0.30 mmol/l ability for lipid mobilization. Glucose concentration and NEFA concentration were measured following intravenous application of glucose. The mean glycaemic index value did not differ statistically significantly between the two groups of cows at 10, 15 and 20 minutes after glucose application (p>0.05, but there was a tendency at 10 and 15 minutes for the glycaemia to be higher in cows with preserved lipomobilization (p<0.1. At 30, 60 and 90 minutes after glucose application, glycaemia was statistically significantly higher (p<0.01; p<0.05 and p<0.05 in the group of cows with preserved lipomobilization. The glycaemic index values (mmol/l shown in the same order (30, 60 and 90 minutes were as follows 9.91±0.21: 9.23±0.41; 5.41±0.5: 4.67±0.33 and 4.31±0.39: 3.47±0.37. The mean value for NEFA concentration in samples originating from the two experimental groups of cows did not differ statistically significantly following glucose application. The NEFA concentration showed a tendency to be higher in cows with preserved lipid mobilization in comparison with cows with decreased lipomobilization at 20 and 30 minutes after glucose application (p<0.1. Following the intravenous glucose tolerance test, NEFA and glucose concentrations were in a significant negative correlation, and that correlation was more expressed in cows with decreased lipomobilization. Cows with preserved

  2. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  3. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  4. Stable crack growth during over stressing or proof testing of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njo, D.H.

    1985-07-01

    In an earlier study several years ago an attempt has been made by a study group in Switzerland formed by representatives of utilities, manufacturers, inspection agency and the licensing authority to evaluate systematically the advantages and disadvantages of a proof test for a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) taking into account the different aspects involved. In this study, the present day practice in the requirements regarding proof testing in several countries with nuclear power plants were assessed. Using the method of fracture mechanics, taking into account the proof test conditions and material behaviour at hand, qualified quantitative statements were then sought for. One of the important findings of the study was that a sufficiently accurate determination of stable crack growth (SCG) during proof testing is a necessary precondition for a qualified quantitative statement. At that time this requirement could not be met. The aim of the present exercise of collecting available information on SCG was twofold: to get an overview of the present day requirements on pre-service and in-service proof testing of reactor pressure vessels in different countries with NPPs; to collect data on stable crack growth due to over stressing during proof tests to be used in the quantitative assessment, using fracture mechanics methods, and the potential benefit, if any, of proof tests. In the framework of the present study, the originally stipulated aims could not be achieved. It turned out to be a very complex and difficult problem, where various important aspects are little known and could not be assessed without further comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigations

  5. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu; Jia Xiuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd 2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  6. Prognostic significance of silent myocardial ischemia on a thallium stress test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, L.I.; Tresgallo, M.; Sciacca, R.R.; Blood, D.K.; Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical significance of silent ischemia is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence or absence of angina during a thallium stress test positive for ischemia was independently predictive of an adverse outcome. Two hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with ischemia on a thallium stress test were identified. Ischemia was defined as the presence of defect(s) on the immediate postexercise scans not in the distribution of prior infarctions that redistributed on 4-hour scans. During the test 129 patients had angina, defined as characteristic neck, jaw, arm, back or chest discomfort, while the remaining 105 patients had no angina. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 8.2 years (mean 5.2 +/- 2.1) and was successfully obtained in 156 patients. Eighty-two of the 156 patients had angina (group A) and 74 had silent ischemia (group S). Group A patients were significantly older (62 +/- 8 vs 59 +/- 8 years, p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of sex, history of prior infarction or presence of left main/3-vessel disease. A larger percentage of patients in group A were receiving beta blockers (60 vs 41%, p less than 0.05) and nitrates (52 vs 36%, 0.05 less than p less than 0.10). There was a large number of cardiac events (myocardial infarction, revascularization and death) in both groups (37 of 82 [45%] in group A; 28 of 72 [38%] in group S) but no statistically significant difference between the groups. Similarly, life-table analysis revealed no difference in mortality between the 2 groups

  7. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  8. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in rural primary health centres of North Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebyo, Henock; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Spigt, Mark; Hopstaken, Rogier

    2016-01-14

    Unjustified antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory infections (URTIs) is probably more common in poor-resource settings where physicians are scarce. Introducing C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing in such settings could reduce the misuse of antibiotics, which could avert antibiotic resistance. However, information useful for the applicability of CRP test in resource-limited settings is lacking. This study aimed to elicit the frequency of antibiotic prescribing and distribution of CRP levels in remote, rural settings in Ethiopia. We included 414 patients with acute URTIs from four health centres. Health professionals recorded the clinical features of the patients, but the laboratory professionals measured the CRP levels of all patients at the point of care. The most prominent respiratory causes for consultation were acute URTIs combined (44.4%), and lower respiratory tract infections-pneumonia (29.71%) and acute bronchitis (25.84%). The CRP distribution was Ethiopia is unduly high, with high proportions of mild, self-limiting illness, mostly URTIs. Implementation of CRP point-of-care testing in such resource-constrained settings, with low- or middle-grade healthcare professionals, could help reconcile the inappropriate use of antibiotics by withholding from patients who do not benefit from antibiotic treatment.

  9. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linjun, Xie; Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k f of the HDS is obtained. So, the

  10. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linjun, Xie, E-mail: linjunx@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k{sub f} of the HDS is obtained. So, the

  11. Acute Heat Stress Changes Protein Expression in the Testes of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2018-03-19

    Heat stress leads to decreased fertility in roosters. This study investigated the global protein expression in response to acute heat stress in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs). Twelve 45-week-old roosters were randomly allocated to the control group maintained at 25°C, and three groups subjected to acute heat stress at 38°C for 4 h, with 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, apoptosis assay, and protein analysis. The results revealed 101 protein spots that differed significantly from the control following exposure to acute heat stress. The proteins that were differentially expressed participated mainly in protein metabolism and other metabolic processes, responses to stimuli, apoptosis, cellular organization, and spermatogenesis. Proteins that negatively regulate apoptosis were downregulated and proteins involved in autophagy and major heat shock proteins (HSP90α, HSPA5, and HSPA8) were upregulated in the testes of heat-stressed chickens. In conclusion, acute heat stress causes a change in protein expression in the testes of broiler-type B strain TCCs and may thus impair cell morphology, spermatogenesis, and apoptosis. The expression of heat shock proteins increased to attenuate the testicular injury induced by acute heat stress.

  12. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  13. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  14. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test in obese and reduced obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing measurement invariance of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) across four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Bieda, Angela; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-11-01

    The rising burden of mental and behavioral disorders has become a global challenge (Murray et al., 2012). Measurement invariant clinical instruments are necessary for the assessment of relevant symptoms across countries. The present study tested the measurement invariance of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in Poland, Russia, the United Kingdom (U.K.), and the United States of America (U.S.). Telephone interviews were conducted with population-based samples (nPL = 1003, nRU = 3020, nU.K. = 1002, nU.S. = 1002). The DASS-21 shows threshold measurement invariance. Comparisons of latent means did not indicate differences between U.K. and U.S. However, Polish and Russian samples reported more depressive symptoms compared with U.K. and U.S. samples; the Russian sample had the highest levels of anxiety symptoms and the Polish sample demonstrated the highest stress levels. The DASS-21 can be recommended to meaningfully compare the relationships between variables across groups and to compare latent means in Polish-, Russian-, and English-speaking populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is "predicting" who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  18. Biomarkers as point-of-care tests to guide prescription of antibiotics in patients with acute respiratory infections in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-11-06

    Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are by far the most common reason for prescribing an antibiotic in primary care, even though the majority of ARIs are of viral or non-severe bacterial aetiology. Unnecessary antibiotic use will, in many cases, not be beneficial to the patients' recovery and expose them to potential side effects. Furthermore, as a causal link exists between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, reducing unnecessary antibiotic use is a key factor in controlling this important problem. Antibiotic resistance puts increasing burdens on healthcare services and renders patients at risk of future ineffective treatments, in turn increasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. One strategy aiming to reduce antibiotic use in primary care is the guidance of antibiotic treatment by use of a point-of-care biomarker. A point-of-care biomarker of infection forms part of the acute phase response to acute tissue injury regardless of the aetiology (infection, trauma and inflammation) and may in the correct clinical context be used as a surrogate marker of infection,possibly assisting the doctor in the clinical management of ARIs.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of point-of-care biomarker tests of infection to guide antibiotic treatment in patients presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory infections in primary care settings regardless of age.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2013, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (2010 to January 2014), CINAHL (1981 to January 2014), Web of Science (1955 to January 2014) and LILACS (1982 to January 2014).Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in primary care patients with ARIs that compared use of point-of-care biomarkers with standard of care. We included trials that randomised individual patients as well as trials that randomised clusters of patients(cluster-RCTs).Two review authors independently extracted data on the following outcomes: i

  19. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of an approach to modelling the state of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva; Hakami, Hossein [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden); Cosgrove, John [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop, test and establish a method for creating a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model for a site considered in the site investigation programme. The work was divided into three parts, the empirical and theoretical 'property models' and the 'stress model'. The work on the stress model is presented in this report. The work consisted of i) a literature review about geological factors controlling in situ stress and a review about the use of numerical models for this subject, ii) the development of recommendations on the methodology to be applied during a site investigation and iii) the Test Case exercise, where the suggested methods were tested. The main mechanism controlling the in situ stress magnitudes in Sweden is plate tectonics causing the stress field to show similarities in most parts of north-western Europe, having a NW-SE trend of the maximum principal stress. The orientation of the stress field is largely determined by the relative movements by the plates. However, the stress orientation may also be influenced by the presence of large regional weak zones, such as the Tornquist deformation zone that lies between Sweden and Denmark. The strike of the Tornquist deformation zone is parallel to the maximum principal stress as observed in central and southern Sweden. The magnitude of the stress is more difficult to estimate, but the general pattern is an increase in magnitude with depth, at least for the upper kilometres. To determine the stress magnitude at a certain site and depth, with reasonable certainty, stress measurement should be used. A methodology for building a stress model has been proposed. It involves different steps starting with a preliminary stress estimation, followed by steps for interpreting site-specific information. If the stress pattern and structural geology of the site are complex, including major fracture zones intersecting the area, numerical analyses of the

  20. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of an approach to modelling the state of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva; Hakami, Hossein; Cosgrove, John

    2002-05-01

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop, test and establish a method for creating a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model for a site considered in the site investigation programme. The work was divided into three parts, the empirical and theoretical 'property models' and the 'stress model'. The work on the stress model is presented in this report. The work consisted of i) a literature review about geological factors controlling in situ stress and a review about the use of numerical models for this subject, ii) the development of recommendations on the methodology to be applied during a site investigation and iii) the Test Case exercise, where the suggested methods were tested. The main mechanism controlling the in situ stress magnitudes in Sweden is plate tectonics causing the stress field to show similarities in most parts of north-western Europe, having a NW-SE trend of the maximum principal stress. The orientation of the stress field is largely determined by the relative movements by the plates. However, the stress orientation may also be influenced by the presence of large regional weak zones, such as the Tornquist deformation zone that lies between Sweden and Denmark. The strike of the Tornquist deformation zone is parallel to the maximum principal stress as observed in central and southern Sweden. The magnitude of the stress is more difficult to estimate, but the general pattern is an increase in magnitude with depth, at least for the upper kilometres. To determine the stress magnitude at a certain site and depth, with reasonable certainty, stress measurement should be used. A methodology for building a stress model has been proposed. It involves different steps starting with a preliminary stress estimation, followed by steps for interpreting site-specific information. If the stress pattern and structural geology of the site are complex, including major fracture zones intersecting the area, numerical analyses of the stress field is

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  3. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  5. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  6. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  7. The influence of psycho-emotional stress in children of primary school age on the incidence of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and the functional state of the myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scientific and technical progress, intensification of educational process and information overload have a negative effect on unformed central nervous system of primary schoolchildren, causing stress, which affects the increase in the incidence of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI and the functional state of the myocardium. In view of this, we analyzed a functional state of myocardium in children with recurrent URTI. The critical duration of the work of primary school child with electronic means of communication, which affects the quality of nighttime sleep and the nature of awakening in the morning, was established. We have studied the relationship of the above mentioned with the incidence of URTI, the level of school anxiety and functional reserve of the myocardium. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional reserve of the myocardium in children of primary school age, depending on the incidence of URTI and the level of psycho-emotional activity. Materials and me­thods. 239 children aged 6 to 9 years were examined. The analysis of the functional reserve of the myocardium was carried out in pupils with different incidence of the URTI, depending on the age. The influence of electronic communications on the quality of nighttime sleep and morning awakening was stu­died, and the level of school anxiety was evaluated. During the study, children were divided into two groups. Group 1 — children with recurrent acute respiratory diseases (n = 143. Group 2 — children who occasionally have URTI (n = 96. Results. Out of 239 children with recurrent acute respiratory infections, we have identified 173 children with reduced functional reserve of the myocardium (72.4 %. Among children with recurrent URTI, the incidence of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium was 76.2 %, and in occasionally ill children — 66.7 %. Children with recurrent URTI use electronic means of communication more often than

  8. THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING MODELS OF STRESS-TESTING OF THE TRADING PORTFOLIO OF FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimbaev Farkhad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis gave an impetus to finding “weaknesses” in financial institutions. One such tool is the stress-testing. This method is intended to identify through modeling “hypothetical” or “historical” scenarios, the most losses, in the execution of a script. In the simulation of hypothetical scenarios to find the impact factor, as shock events on the trade portfolio. When using historical scenarios, as the shocks applied developments in the past that have caused catastrophic losses, both in quantitative and qualitative size. For example, such scenarios can be: financial crises of the 90-ies and the current decline in international stock markets, a drop or increase in foreign exchange rates, etc.

  9. Sign restriction approach to macro stress-testing of the Croatian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Erjavec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper employs Uhlig’s sign restriction approach to stress-testing of the Croatian banking system. The analysis is based on a standard monetary VAR comprising real economic activity, inflation and short-term interest rates augmented by the ratio of non-performing loans or return on average equity, both measures representing the aggregate banking sector. In spite of the selected indicator, the results suggest a strong sensitivity of the Croatian banking sect