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Sample records for respiratory protection ii

  1. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  2. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  3. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  5. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  6. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene Airborne...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  12. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  13. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide increases mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II activity and protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Dujuan; Wang, Luna; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lai; Li, Qiming; Li, Jin; Qian, Jian; Gu, Shuangshuang; Han, Ling; Xu, Peng; Xu, Yun

    2014-09-25

    The mechanisms of ischemic stroke, a main cause of disability and death, are complicated. Ischemic stroke results from the interaction of various factors including oxidative stress, a key pathological mechanism that plays an important role during the acute stage of ischemic brain injury. This study demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide, specifically CART55-102, increased the survival rate, but decreased the mortality of neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), in a dose-dependent manner. The above-mentioned effects of CART55-102 were most significant at 0.4nM. These results indicated that CART55-102 suppressed neurotoxicity and enhanced neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CART55-102 (0.4nM) significantly diminished reactive oxygen species levels and markedly increased the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II in oxygen-glucose deprived neurons. In summary, CART55-102 suppressed oxidative stress in oxygen-glucose deprived neurons, possibly through elevating the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II. This result provides evidence for the development of CART55-102 as an antioxidant drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory Protection Program. Programmatic description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J.M.; Porter, W.E.

    1986-03-01

    The ORNL Respirator Program is designed to provide employees with devices which afford maximum protection with minimum inconvenience and discomfort. Teamwork is essential since a comprehensive program involves the Medical Department, the Industrial Hygiene Department, Radiation and Safety Surveys, the Operations Division, Quality Assurance and Inspection, and the Fire Department. The purpose of this manual is to describe in detail the ORNL Respirator Program. Included are discussions of the following elements: quality assurance, selection, fit-testing, maintenance and issue, certified breathing air for self-contained breathing apparatus, inspection, program surveillance, available devices, and standard operating procedures. As program modifications develop and improvements are made, periodic revisions may be necessary. The Industrial Hygiene Department will perform this task on an ''as required'' basis.

  15. Field selection of chemical protective clothing and respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinette, S.; Dodgen, C.; Morley, M.

    1991-01-01

    Safety professionals who must choose appropriate personal protective equipment for hazardous substance response or hazardous waste sites require useable information about the effectiveness of the various products available. Each hazardous waste operation involves a unique combination of chemical hazards requiring a unique combination of protective apparel. A chemical protective suit or respirator must be chosen for each site and each operation on the site. No single protective suit is effective against all chemical hazards. No single respirator is the best choice in every situation. Various sources of information on the effectiveness of protective clothing products will be discussed. Site-specific permeation testing of the proposed protective clothing options will also be discussed. It is both possible and practical to obtain specific information about the degree of protection afforded by a particular suit against a particular chemical mixture. It is also important to know how long the suit will last. Choosing adequate respiratory protection is a complex process. Respirator cartridge performance depends on various environmental factors as well as upon the combination and concentration of chemicals in the air. Once characterization of the air at a site has been accomplished, it may be appropriate to select an alternative to airline respirators and SCBAs. Respirator cartridges can be tested against specific chemical mixtures using worse case environmental factors. The results can be used to predict both the effectiveness and duration of protection afforded by respirator cartridges which can reduce costs and worker fatigue

  16. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  17. Emergency respiratory protection with common materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.W.; Hinds, W.C.; Price, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Certain unexpected accidents, such as fires, explosions, chemical spills, or nuclear reactor malfunctions, can lead to the exposure of workers and the public to toxic gases, vapors, and aerosols. The efficacy of readily available materials, such as cotton fabric, toweling, and a single-use respirator, for providing emergency respiratory protection was evaluated by determining the filtration efficiency as a function of particle size over the range of 0.4 to 5 μm diameter and performance against a reactive water soluble (I 2 ) and unreactive vapor (CH 3 I). At a reasonable design face velocity (1.5 cm/s), the respirator mask used at double thickness could reduce particle concentrations a factor of 30 or more throughout the particle range tested, and a wetted towel four layers thick could provide a factor of five. Dry fabrics were ineffective in removing iodine vapor, but wetted sheeting or toweling reduced concentration by a factor of ten or more under design conditions, 1.5 cm/s face velocity and 50 Pa pressure drop (0.2 inches of water). The fabrics provided a statistically insignificant reduction in methyliodide. In practice, any leaks around the seal to the face would lessen the protection offered by such materials. The effectiveness factor approach proved useful in comparing filter performance under different conditions

  18. Radiological respiratory protection in Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Marcos A. do

    1996-01-01

    The present paper has the purpose to describe the actual situation of the Radiological respiratory Protection in Angra I Nuclear Power Plant, the difficulties found and the goals to achieve, in order of the radiological protection excellence. (author)

  19. Acceptable respiratory protection program and LASL respirator research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A short history is presented on the LASL Respiratory Protection Training Programs. Then a discussion is given on the major points of an acceptable respiratory protection program utilizing the points required by the Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulation 29 CFR 1910.134. Contributions to respirator research are reviewed. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: program administration; respirator selection; respirator use; fitting and training; respirator maintenance; medical clearance and surveillance; special problems; program evaluation; and documentation

  20. 76 FR 13668 - Respiratory Protection Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...] Respiratory Protection Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of... proposal to extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements specified by the Respiratory... Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134; hereafter, ``the [[Page 13669

  1. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  2. RCT: Module 2.07, Respiratory Protection, Course 8773

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Internal dosimetry controls require the use of engineering controls to prevent the internal deposition of radioactive and nonradiological contaminants. However, when engineering and administrative controls are not available or feasible, respiratory protection may be necessary. The radiation control technician (RCT) should know and apply the considerations used in determining the respiratory protection equipment that is most appropriate for the job. The inappropriate use of or the use of the wrong respiratory protection equipment may result in undesirable health effects. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  3. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  4. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection

  5. Respiratory protection standard: comments on OSHA's proposed revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M D

    1995-06-01

    On November 15, 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published in the Federal Register (59:58884-58956) the draft of a proposed revision of the Respiratory Protection Standard. One of OSHA's oldest standards, the Respiratory Protection Standard defines the conduct of the employer (eg, hospital) with respect to respirator training, fit testing, medical examinations, use, storage, and so on. The proposed revision appears to have been drafted with no consideration for its effect on healthcare workers or the healthcare industry. SHEA has prepared the following comments to OSHA, which have been submitted to the docket and will be presented at public hearings later this month.

  6. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuvi P. Mutua

    Full Text Available In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  7. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  8. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  9. Filtration of nanoparticles - Application to respiratory protecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochot, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine how the respiratory protective devices (RPD), whose performances are qualified for particles above 100 nm, are effective for nanoparticles. Indeed, if the use of a collective filtration is inadequate, wearing a RPD is the last protection recommended. A literature review showed that no research concerned the effectiveness of half-masks for nanoparticles. The test bench ETNA has been sized and built to overcome these lacks. Two half masks were tested according to different configurations: constant flow rate and cyclic flow rate (average flow of 84 L /min), particle size (from 5 to 100 nm), positions of the mask (sealed, usual, or with calibrated leaks). The results show that, since the RPD contain high efficiency filter media (without charged fibers) for the most penetrating particle size (100 nm - 300 nm), the RPD is more efficient for nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results obtained in the presence of actual and calibrated leaks, highlighted the importance of face seal leakages in determining the performance of RPD. A model for calculating the protection factor was established based on the balance between the airflow through the filter and the leak. This model was validated using measurements obtained in the presence of calibrated leaks, and applied for the analysis of our results in usual position. (author)

  10. The AgI/II family adhesin AspA is required for respiratory infection by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Franklin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS is a human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive diseases such as toxic shock syndrome and sepsis. The upper respiratory tract is the primary reservoir from which GAS can infect new hosts and cause disease. The factors involved in colonisation are incompletely known however. Previous evidence in oral streptococci has shown that the AgI/II family proteins are involved. We hypothesized that the AspA member of this family might be involved in GAS colonization. We describe a novel mouse model of GAS colonization of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract to elucidate these interactions. We used two clinical M serotypes expressing AspA, and their aspA gene deletant isogenic mutants in experiments using adherence assays to respiratory epithelium, macrophage phagocytosis and neutrophil killing assays and in vivo models of respiratory tract colonisation and infection. We demonstrated the requirement for AspA in colonization of the respiratory tract. AspA mutants were cleared from the respiratory tract and were deficient in adherence to epithelial cells, and susceptible to phagocytosis. Expression of AspA in the surrogate host Lactococcus lactis protected bacteria from phagocytosis. Our results suggest that AspA has an essential role in respiratory infection, and may function as a novel anti-phagocytic factor.

  11. Attenuation of earmuffs used simultaneously with respiratory protective devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kozłowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the work environment, apart from the noise, employees may be exposed to other harmful factors. Therefore, they wear hearing protectors and other personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to determine whether simultaneous use of earmuffs and respiratory protective devices affects the attenuation of earmuffs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in laboratory conditions using the subjective REAT (Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold and objective MIRE (Microphone in Real Ear methods. The REAT method was used to measure sound attenuation of earmuffs, while MIRE was used to determine changes in attenuation of earmuffs due to the use of other personal protective equipment. Results: The study showed reduction in attenuation of earmuffs due to the use of a full face mask up to 20 dB. Using a full face mask causes that attenuation of earmuffs in the low frequency range is close to zero. Reduction in attenuation due to the use of half masks for complete with particle filters (half masks is 3–15 dB. Simultaneous use of earmuffs and filtering half masks makes small changes in attenuation not exceeding 3 dB. Conclusions: The study showed that full face masks give the greatest reduction in attenuation of earmuffs. On the other hand, the least reduction is observed in the case of filtering half masks. There is a significant difference between the reduction in attenuation of earmuffs worn with half masks for complete with particle filters because they may be equipped with different kind of the head strap. Med Pr 2017;68(3:349–361

  12. Evaluation of Respiratory Protection Program in Petrochemical Industries: Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kolahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory protection equipment (RPE is the last resort to control exposure to workplace air pollutants. A comprehensive respiratory protection program (RPP ensures that RPE is selected, used, and cared properly. Therefore, RPP must be well integrated into the occupational health and safety requirements. In this study, we evaluated the implementation of RPP in Iranian petrochemical industries to identify the required solutions to improve the current status of respiratory protection. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 24 petrochemical industries in Iran. The survey instrument was a checklist extracted from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration respiratory protection standard. An index, Respiratory Protection Program Index (RPPI, was developed and weighted by analytic hierarchy process to determine the compliance rate (CR of provided respiratory protection measures with the RPP standard. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2010. Results: The most important element of RPP, according to experts, was respiratory hazard evaluation. The average value of RPPI in the petrochemical plants was 49 ± 15%. The highest and lowest of CR among RPP elements were RPE selection and medical evaluation, respectively. Conclusion: None of studied petrochemical industries implemented RPP completely. This can lead to employees' overexposure to hazardous workplace air contaminants. Increasing awareness of employees and employers through training is suggested by this study to improve such conditions. Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, petrochemical industries, respiratory protection program

  13. Ebola virus disease: Effects of respiratory protection on healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa sends an alarming message to all countries in the world, to increase the level of coordination and application of preventive measures globally to avoid a disastrous epidemic in the World, as the current situation in West Africa is critical especially after the World Health Organization increased the alarming level to an emergency in public health all over the world. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are important because they can readily spread within a hospital or mortuary setting, there is no effective cure or vaccine, they have a high mortality rate and they are difficult to recognize and diagnose rapidly. WHO has recommended respiratory protection for HCWs performing certain tasks such as aerosol-generating procedures, laboratory procedures, and autopsies. Particulate respirators are designed to help reduce the wearer’s exposure to certain airborne particles. The most effective way to block aerosolized particles is to use either a half-face or a full-face respirator. HCWs still need shoe covers, a full face respirator and latex or nitrile gloves to decrease the risk of Ebola virus contamination.

  14. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs - protection in the presence of maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Ke-Fei; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2004-01-01

    The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4...

  15. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  16. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection: A revision of the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) appointed a task group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. The model was originally published in 1966, modified slightly in Publication No. 19, and again in Publication No. 30 (in 1979). The task group concluded that research during the past 20 y suggested certain deficiencies in the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. Research has also provided sufficient information for a revision of the model. The task group's approach has been to review, in depth, morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract; deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract; clearance of deposited materials; and the nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled radioactive substances. This review has led to a redefinition of the regions of the respiratory tract for dosimetric purposes. The redefinition has a morphologic and physiological basis and is consistent with observed deposition and clearance of particles and with resultant pathology. Regions, as revised, are the extrathoracic (E-T) region, comprising the nasal and oral regions, the pharynx, larynx, and upper part of the trachea; the fast-clearing thoracic region (T[f]), comprising the remainder of the trachea and bronchi; and the slow-clearing thoracic region (T[s]), comprising the bronchioles, alveoli, and thoracic lymph nodes. A task group report will include models for calculating radiation doses to these regions of the respiratory tract following inhalation of representative alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. The models may be implemented as a package of computer codes available to a wide range of users

  17. Control and prevention of healthcare-associated tuberculosis: the role of respiratory isolation and personal respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H

    2007-05-01

    Although the prevalence of tuberculosis continues to decline in most developed countries, the risk of healthcare-associated tuberculosis, remains for patients or healthcare staff. Outbreaks of healthcare-associated tuberculosis are usually associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment, or the care of patients in sub-optimal facilities. The control and prevention of tuberculosis in hospitals is best achieved by three approaches, namely administrative (early investigation diagnosis, etc.), engineering (physical facilities e.g. ventilated isolation rooms) and personal respiratory protection (face sealing masks which are filtered). Recent guidelines on the prevention of tuberculosis in healthcare facilities from Europe and the USA have many common themes. In the UK, however, negative pressure isolation rooms are recommended only for patients with suspected multi-drug resistant TB and personal respiratory protection, i.e. filtered masks, are not considered necessary unless multi-drug resistant TB is suspected, or where aerosol-generating procedures are likely. In the US, the standard of care for patients with infectious tuberculosis is a negative pressure ventilated room and the use of personal respiratory protection for all healthcare workers entering the room of a patient with suspected or confirmed tuberculosis. The absence of clinical trials in this area precludes dogmatic recommendations. Nonetheless, observational studies and mathematical modelling suggest that all measures are required for effective prevention. Even when policies and facilities are optimal, there is a need to regularly review and audit these as sometimes compliance is less than optimal. The differences in recommendations may reflect the variations in epidemiology and the greater use of BCG vaccination in the UK compared with the United States. There is a strong argument for advising ventilated facilities and personal respiratory protection for the care of all patients with tuberculosis, as

  18. Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, Hortensia; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Susana; Villena, Julio

    2013-08-15

    Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible

  19. Evaluation of a model training program for respiratory-protection preparedness at local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano-Sobsey, Edie; Kennedy, Bobby; Beck, Frank; Combs, Brian; Kady, Wendy; Ramsey, Steven; Stockweather, Allison; Service, Will

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory-protection programs have had limited application in local health departments and have mostly focused on protecting employees against exposure to tuberculosis (TB). The need to provide the public health workforce with effective respiratory protection has, however, been underscored by recent concerns about emerging infectious diseases, bioterrorism attacks, drug-resistant microbes, and environmental exposures to microbial allergens (as in recent hurricane flood waters). Furthermore, OSHA has revoked the TB standard traditionally followed by local health departments, replacing it with a more stringent regulation. The additional OSHA requirements may place increased burdens on health departments with limited resources and time. For these reasons, the North Carolina Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response and industrial hygienists of the Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams have developed a training program to facilitate implementation of respiratory protection programs at local health departments. To date, more than 1,400 North Carolina health department employees have been properly fit-tested for respirator use and have received training in all aspects of respiratory protection. This article gives an overview of the development and evaluation of the program. The training approach presented here can serve as a model that other health departments and organizations can use in implementing similar respiratory-protection programs.

  20. Respiratory and protective equipment at a large nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-12-01

    A variety of personal protective equipment is used in a large nuclear facility to protect employees against both nuclear and ordinary industrial materials. Equipment requirements are based on risk evaluation and may range from a minimum of shoe covers to whole body protection by air-supplied plastic suits. Types of equipment are listed and one-year costs are given. Criteria for evaluating and compartmentalizing risks are discussed. Air-supplied suits and hoods are discussed in detail

  1. Powerhouse down: Complex II dissociation in the respiratory chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hwang, M.-S.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.-F.; Neužil, Jiří; Grimm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, Part A SI (2014), 20-28 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Mitochondria * Apoptosis * Complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.249, year: 2014

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein expressed in insect cells form protein nanoparticles that induce protective immunity in cotton rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Smith

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is an important viral agent causing severe respiratory tract disease in infants and children as well as in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The lack of a safe and effective RSV vaccine represents a major unmet medical need. RSV fusion (F surface glycoprotein was modified and cloned into a baculovirus vector for efficient expression in Sf9 insect cells. Recombinant RSV F was glycosylated and cleaved into covalently linked F2 and F1 polypeptides that formed homotrimers. RSV F extracted and purified from insect cell membranes assembled into 40 nm protein nanoparticles composed of multiple RSV F oligomers arranged in the form of rosettes. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified RSV F nanoparticles was compared to live and formalin inactivated RSV in cotton rats. Immunized animals induced neutralizing serum antibodies, inhibited virus replication in the lungs, and had no signs of disease enhancement in the respiratory track of challenged animals. RSV F nanoparticles also induced IgG competitive for binding of palivizumab neutralizing monoclonal antibody to RSV F antigenic site II. Antibodies to this epitope are known to protect against RSV when passively administered in high risk infants. Together these data provide a rational for continued development a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine candidate.

  3. WI-CERFP Respiratory Protection Optimization: A Detailed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Protection, “M50” http://www.avon-protection.com/ products /m50.htm, Accessed 14 Dec 2015. 17 Factor 3: Cost for Initial Purchase The Avon M50 APR, IRT...seal, the air inside the mask is “ cleaner ”. The output of the test is a ratio of dirty air to clean air, with a minimum value required to be

  4. Environment and development of respiratory allergy. II. Indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M

    1994-12-01

    Even if it is difficult to obtain correct epidemiological evidence, there is a body of evidence which suggests that the frequency of allergic respiratory diseases is increasing. The majority of atopic patients, in particular in childhood and adolescence, develop immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies with clinical symptoms to aeroallergens, such as those derived from house dust mites, pollens and pets. Since, in the economically-developed countries individuals spend most of their time indoors (home, school and workplace), indoor pollutants (tobacco smoke etc.) and allergens (house dust mite, cats, etc.) are the most important source of exposure. Indoor allergens are associated with a wide variety of particles in a broad size range, only some of which are microscopically identifiable, culturable, or detectable with existing immunoassay. Evaluation of indoor allergens requires both air and source sampling, and several different analytical techniques. It is likely that the increased prevalence of allergy and asthma may be caused in the indoor environment by the synergistic action of air pollution (in particular derived from tobacco smoking) with allergic sensitization. Passive smoking in infancy has also been involved in the airways allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens.

  5. High Molecular Weight Forms of Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Holzerová, Eliška; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Klučková, Katarína; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří; Houštěk, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71869 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : supercomplexes * high molecular weihgt forms of complex II * native electrophoretic systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  6. Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: hospital based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, Karim; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; McLean, Duncan J; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Grabitz, Stephanie D; Kurth, Tobias; Eikermann, Matthias

    2015-07-14

    To evaluate the effects of intraoperative protective ventilation on major postoperative respiratory complications and to define safe intraoperative mechanical ventilator settings that do not translate into an increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. Hospital based registry study. Academic tertiary care hospital and two affiliated community hospitals in Massachusetts, United States. 69,265 consecutively enrolled patients over the age of 18 who underwent a non-cardiac surgical procedure between January 2007 and August 2014 and required general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Protective ventilation, defined as a median positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O or more, a median tidal volume of less than 10 mL/kg of predicted body weight, and a median plateau pressure of less than 30 cmH2O. Composite outcome of major respiratory complications, including pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, pneumonia, and re-intubation. Of the 69,265 enrolled patients 34,800 (50.2%) received protective ventilation and 34,465 (49.8%) received non-protective ventilation intraoperatively. Protective ventilation was associated with a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications in multivariable regression (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.98, P=0.013). The results were similar in the propensity score matched cohort (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.97, P=0.004). A PEEP of 5 cmH2O and median plateau pressures of 16 cmH2O or less were associated with the lowest risk of postoperative respiratory complications. Intraoperative protective ventilation was associated with a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. A PEEP of 5 cmH2O and a plateau pressure of 16 cmH2O or less were identified as protective mechanical ventilator settings. These findings suggest that protective thresholds differ for intraoperative ventilation in patients with normal lungs compared with those used for patients

  7. A brain-targeted ampakine compound protects against opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Xiao, Dian; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Xin-Bo; Fang, Tong-Yu; Yong, Zheng; Su, Rui-Bin

    2017-08-15

    The use of opioid drugs for pain relief can induce life-threatening respiratory depression. Although naloxone effectively counteracts opioid-induced respiratory depression, it diminishes the efficacy of analgesia. Our studies indicate that ampakines, in particular, a brain-targeted compound XD-8-17C, are able to reverse respiratory depression without affecting analgesia at relatively low doses. Mice and rats were subcutaneously or intravenously injected with the opioid agonist TH-030418 to induce moderate or severe respiratory depression. XD-8-17C was intravenously administered before or after TH-030418. The effect of XD-8-17C on opioid-induced respiratory depression was evaluated in terms of the opioid-induced acute death rate, arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests. In addition, the hot-plate test was conducted to investigate whether XD-8-17C influenced opioid-induced analgesia. Pre-treatment with XD-8-17C significantly reduced opioid-induced acute death, and increased the median lethal dose of TH-030418 by 4.7-fold. Blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests demonstrated that post-treatment with XD-8-17C alleviated respiratory depression, as indicated by restoration of arterial blood gas (pO 2 , sO 2 , cK + ) and lung function parameters (respiratory frequency, minute ventilation) to the normal range. The hot-plate test showed that XD-8-17C had no impact on the antinociceptive efficacy of morphine. The ability of XD-8-17C to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression has the potential to increase the safety and convenience of opioid treatment. These findings contribute to the discovery of novel therapeutic agents that protect against opioid-induced respiratory depression without loss of analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  9. Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loss, G.; Depner, M.; Ulfman, L.H.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Hose, A.J.; Genuneit, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. Objective: To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on

  10. Work-Related Health Effects in Swine Building Workers After Respiratory Protection Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Veillette, Marc; Mériaux, Anne

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare inflammation and lung function in swine workers after periods with and without respiratory protection during work. METHODS:Twenty-three workers were examined before and after two nonprotected work shifts. One shift was preceded by a period with diminished exposure by use...

  11. Radiological respiratory protection in Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant; Protecao respiratoria radiologica na Usina Nuclear de Angra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Marcos A. do [Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A., Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Central Nuclear de Angra I. Div. de Protecao Radiologica e Ambiental

    1996-07-01

    The present paper has the purpose to describe the actual situation of the Radiological respiratory Protection in Angra I Nuclear Power Plant, the difficulties found and the goals to achieve, in order of the radiological protection excellence. (author)

  12. Study of efficiency and current use of respiratory protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Kalos, F.

    1984-12-01

    The efficiency of a helmet-type powered air-purifying respirator was studied in the work environment of an underground uranium mine. Workplace protection factors (WPF) were measured, using approximately 30-minute air sampling periods and repeated sampling throughout the work shifts for six miners during three shifts each. The WPF of the modified Racal AH-5 helmet was 17.8 (geometric mean) with new filters in the respirator; the WPF dropped to 5.3 when four-day-old filters were used. The WPF results were lognormally distributed. The test population appeared to be a homogeneous set: there was no significant difference in the mean WPFs of individual test subjects. The study could not resolve any effect of elapsed time within the work shift or of ambient Working Level on the WPF. The actual use levels and the problems associated with respirator use were studied at the same time, principally via a user survey. The respirators have a high level of acceptance among the user population of underground uranium miners and 72.5 percent of the 207 survey respondents stated six or more hours use with the visor in the correct 'down' position per shift

  13. Lessons learned at TMI: cleanup for respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, B.A.; Gee, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) presented GPU Nuclear with technical challenges unprecedented in the nuclear power industry. Among these challenges were a myriad of health physics problems that had to be solved to ensure a radiologically safe environment for workers performing cleanup activities. The application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy has been a fundamental aspects in protecting cleanup workers. The unique conditions produced by the accident, however, have necessitated novel and innovative approaches in making this philosophy effective. The option to use respirators is based on which method will result in the lowest radiation dose to the worker. Inherent to this program has been the training of workers to overcome the perception that any internal contamination is of foremost concern and is orders of magnitude greater in biological effect than an identical external dose. It is, of course, the total dose (internal dose plus external dose) that must be minimized to implement a true ALARA philosophy. The need for considering the total radiation dose when making decisions to use respirators has been clear during the TMI-2 cleanup. Prescribing respirators is not always good for the ALARA concept

  14. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Relation to Possible Food-Related Risk and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory health outcomes are among the top five causes of child morbidity and mortality around the world. We aimed to investigate possible food-related risk and protective factors for respiratory health outcomes in children. Structured questionnaires completed by primary caregivers of 10-year old children were used to collect information on demographics, socio-economic status, house characteristics and child respiratory health status. Upper (URIs) and Lower (LRIs) respiratory illnesses comprised hay fever, and wheezing, asthma and bronchitis, respectively. Eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, 648 retrieved and 420 completed in full (52.5% response rate). The hay fever 6-month prevalence was 22.4% and wheezing had the highest 6-month prevalence among the LRIs (13.8%). The majority of children ate vegetables (75.5%), fruit (69.3%) and chicken or fish (81.7%) regularly. Nearly half of the children (45.5%) regularly ate processed food. Eating processed food regularly was statistical significantly associated with wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.38-5.08), hay fever (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09-2.64) and bronchitis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-2.56). The study found an association between regular consumption of processed foods and wheeze, hay fever and bronchitis among 10 year old children. The regular consumption of processed food plays a role in adverse respiratory health effects among children and healthy eating is emphasized.

  15. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT. Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents.

  16. Evaluation on the implementation of respiratory protection measures in old age homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee DT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diana TF Lee,1 Doris Yu,1 Margaret Ip,2 Jennifer YM Tang3 1The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, 3Sau Po Centre on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong Purpose: Old age homes (OAHs represent a vulnerable community for influenza outbreaks. Effective implementation of respiratory protection measures has been identified as an effective prevention measure to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by such outbreaks. Yet, relatively little is known about this aspect in these homes. This study evaluated the implementation of respiratory protection measures among infection control officers (ICOs and health care workers (HCWs in these homes in Hong Kong.Patients and methods: A territory-wide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 87 OAHs. A total of 87 ICOs and 1,763 HCWs (including nurses, health workers, care workers, allied HCWs and assistants completed the questionnaires that evaluated the implementation at the organizational level and individual level, respectively. Generalized estimating equations with unstructured working correlation matrix were used to analyze the simultaneous influence of organizational and individual factors on the implementation.Results: At the organizational level, all homes had a policy on respiratory protection and implementation of such measures was generally adequate. Basic resources such as paper towels/hand dryers and equipment disinfectants, however, were rated as most inadequate by HCWs. Training opportunities were also identified as grossly inadequate. Only less than half of the ICOs and HCWs participated in training on infection control either at the initiation of employment or on a regular basis. Twenty-five percent of HCWs even indicated that they had never participated in any infection control training. At the individual level, hand hygiene, among other

  17. Protection by recombinant viral proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Parag; Njenga, M Kariuki; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2005-12-15

    Protection by recombinant avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) N or M proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent aMPV was examined. N, M or N+M proteins were administered intramuscularly (IM) with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or by the oculonasal (ON) route with cholera toxin-B (CTB). Each turkey received 40 or 80 microg of each recombinant protein. Birds were considered protected against challenge if the challenge virus was not detectable in the choanal swabs by RT-PCR. At a dose of 40 microg/bird, N protein given with IFA by the IM route protected eight out of nine birds. M protein at the same dose protected three out of seven birds, while a combination of N+M proteins (40 microg each) protected three out of four birds. At a dose of 80 microg of each of N and M proteins per bird given with IFA by the IM route, 100% protection was achieved. ON immunization with a mixture of N and M proteins induced partial protection when the proteins were given with CTB; no detectable protection was noted without CTB. N and M proteins induced anti-aMPV antibodies, although protection against virulent virus challenge did not appear to be associated with the level or presence of antibodies.

  18. Comparison of performance of three different types of respiratory protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Robert B; Duling, Matthew G; Calvert, Catherine A; Coffey, Christopher C

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory protection is offered to American workers in a variety of ways to guard against potential inhalation hazards. Two of the most common ways are elastomeric N95 respirators and N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. Some in the health care industry feel that surgical masks provide an acceptable level of protection in certain situations against particular hazards. This study compared the performance of these types of respiratory protection during a simulated workplace test that measured both filter penetration and face-seal leakage. A panel of 25 test subjects with varying face sizes tested 15 models of elastomeric N95 respirators, 15 models of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 6 models of surgical masks. Simulated workplace testing was conducted using a TSI PORTACOUNT Plus model 8020, and consisted of a series of seven exercises. Six simulated workplace tests were performed with redonning of the respirator/mask occurring between each test. The results of these tests produced a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF). The geometric mean (GM) and the 5th percentile values of the SWPFs were computed by category of respiratory protection using the six overall SWPF values. The level of protection provided by each of the three respiratory protection types was compared. The GM and 5th percentile SWPF values without fit testing were used for the comparison, as surgical masks were not intended to be fit tested. The GM values were 36 for elastomeric N95 respirators, 21 for N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 3 for surgical masks. An analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference between all three. Elastomeric N95 respirators had the highest 5th percentile SWPF of 7. N95 filtering-facepiece respirators and surgical masks had 5th percentile SWPFs of 3 and 1, respectively. A Fisher Exact Test revealed that the 5th percentile SWPFs for all three types of respiratory protection were statistically different. In addition, both

  19. Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Stowe, Meredith H; Bello, Dhimiter; Woskie, Susan R; Sparer, Judy; Gore, Rebecca; Youngs, Fred; Cullen, Mark R; Redlich, Carrie A

    2006-05-01

    This study, part of the Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), evaluated the effectiveness of respiratory protection against exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates. A total of 36 shops were assessed for respiratory protection program completeness; 142 workers were measured for respirator fit factor (FF) using PortaCount Plus respirator fit tester. Twenty-two painters from 21 shops were sampled using NIOSH method 5525 to determine the workplace protection factor (WPF) of negative pressure, air-purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapor cartridges and paint prefilters during spray-painting and priming activities. Only 11 shops (30%) had written respiratory protection programs. Eighty percent of all fit tested workers passed the test on the first try with FF >or= 100, and 92% passed the second test after respirator use training. Overall geometric mean (GM) FF was 1012 for all fit tested workers. Significant differences on pass rate (92% vs. 72%) and on FF (1990 vs. 736) were found between previously fit tested workers vs. nontested workers. Twenty-nine WPF samples were collected. The outside facepiece GM concentration of total isocyanate group (NCO) was 378.4 micro g NCO/m(3) with 96% concentrations exceeding the U.K. short-term exposure limit, 70 micro g NCO/m(3), but no in-facepiece concentrations exceeded the limit. The GM WPF of total NCO was 319 (GSD 4) and the 5th percentile was 54. WPF of total NCO was positively correlated with the duration of painting task. FF positively correlated with WPF when FF was 450. We conclude that negative pressure, air-purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapor cartridges and paint prefilters provide effective protection against isocyanate exposure in spray and priming operations if workers are properly trained and fitted.

  20. [Treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome using pressure and volume controlled ventilation with lung protective strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Wan, Yong; Wang, Da-qing; Su, Xiao-lin; Li, Jun-ying; Chen, Jing

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the significance and effect of pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) as well as volume controlled ventilation (VCV) by lung protective strategy on respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis and hemodynamics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Fifty patients with ARDS were randomly divided into PCV and VCV groups with permissive hypercapnia and open lung strategy. Changes in respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis and hemodynamics were compared between two groups. Peak inspiration pressure (PIP) in PCV group was significantly lower than that in VCV group, while mean pressure of airway (MPaw) was significantly higher than that in VCV after 24 hours mechanical ventilation. After 24 hours mechanical ventilation, there were higher central venous pressure (CVP) and slower heart rate (HR) in two groups, CVP was significantly higher in VCV compared with PCV, and PCV group had slower HR than VCV group, the two groups had no differences in mean blood pressure (MBP) at various intervals. All patients showed no ventilator-induced lung injury. Arterial blood oxygenations were obviously improved in two groups after 24 hours mechanical ventilation, PCV group had better partial pressure of oxygen in artery (PaO2) than VCV group. Both PCV and VCV can improve arterial blood oxygenations, prevent ventilator-induced lung injury, and have less disturbance in hemodynamic parameters. PCV with lung protective ventilatory strategy should be early use for patients with ARDS.

  1. Protection against avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys immunized via the respiratory tract with inactivated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-01-10

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Georg; Depner, Martin; Ulfman, Laurien H; van Neerven, R J Joost; Hose, Alexander J; Genuneit, Jon; Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Kaulek, Vincent; Roduit, Caroline; Weber, Juliane; Lauener, Roger; Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Pekkanen, Juha; Vaarala, Outi; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on common infections in infants. The PASTURE birth cohort followed 983 infants from rural areas in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland, for the first year of life, covering 37,306 person-weeks. Consumption of different types of cow's milk and occurrence of rhinitis, respiratory tract infections, otitis, and fever were assessed by weekly health diaries. C-reactive protein levels were assessed using blood samples taken at 12 months. When contrasted with ultra-heat treated milk, raw milk consumption was inversely associated with occurrence of rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio from longitudinal models [95% CI]: 0.71 [0.54-0.94]), respiratory tract infections (0.77 [0.59-0.99]), otitis (0.14 [0.05-0.42]), and fever (0.69 [0.47-1.01]). Boiled farm milk showed similar but weaker associations. Industrially processed pasteurized milk was inversely associated with fever. Raw farm milk consumption was inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels at 12 months (geometric means ratio [95% CI]: 0.66 [0.45-0.98]). Early life consumption of raw cow's milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30%. If the health hazards of raw milk could be overcome, the public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees.

  4. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  5. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: Protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Baertsch, N.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. PMID:23816599

  6. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  7. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ascough

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell

  8. Establishing Correlates of Protection for Vaccine Development: Considerations for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad S; Hurwitz, Julia L; Simões, Eric A F; Piedra, Pedro A

    2018-03-01

    Correlates of protection (CoPs) can play a significant role in vaccine development by assisting the selection of vaccine candidates for clinical trials, supporting clinical trial design and implementation, and simplifying tests of vaccine modifications. Because of this important role in vaccine development, it is essential that CoPs be defined by well-designed immunogenicity and efficacy studies, with attention paid to benefits and limitations. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) field is unique in that a great deal of information about the humoral response is available from basic research and clinical studies. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used routinely in the clinic to protect vulnerable infants from infection, providing a wealth of information about correlations between neutralizing antibodies and disease prevention. Considerations for the establishment of future CoPs to support RSV vaccine development in different populations are therefore discussed.

  9. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival.

  10. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  11. Review of economic evaluations of mask and respirator use for protection against respiratory infection transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shohini; MacIntyre, C Raina; Newall, Anthony T

    2015-10-13

    There has been increasing debate surrounding mask and respirator interventions to control respiratory infection transmission in both healthcare and community settings. As decision makers are considering the recommendations they should evaluate how to provide the most efficient protection strategies with minimum costs. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate the existing economic evaluation literature in this area and to offer advice on how future evaluations on this topic should be conducted. We searched the Scopus database for all literature on economic evaluation of mask or respirator use to control respiratory infection transmission. Reference lists from the identified studies were also manually searched. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria from the initial 806 studies identified by the search strategy and our manual search. Five studies considered interventions for seasonal and/or pandemic influenza, with one also considering SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). The other two studies focussed on tuberculosis transmission control interventions. The settings and methodologies of the studies varied greatly. No low-middle income settings were identified. Only one of the reviewed studies cited clinical evidence to inform their mask/respirator intervention effectiveness parameters. Mask and respirator interventions were generally reported by the study authors to be cost saving or cost-effective when compared to no intervention or other control measures, however the evaluations had important limitations. Given the large cost differential between masks and respirators, there is a need for more comprehensive economic evaluations to compare the relative costs and benefits of these interventions in situations and settings where alternative options are potentially applicable. There are at present insufficient well conducted cost-effectiveness studies to inform decision-makers on the value for money of alternative mask/respirator options.

  12. Interactions of Francisella tularensis with Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and the Murine Respiratory Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Faron

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC due to its low infectious dose and the possibility that the organism can be used as a bioweapon. The low dose of infection suggests that Francisella is unusually efficient at evading host defenses. Although ~50 cfu are necessary to cause human respiratory infection, the early interactions of virulent Francisella with the lung environment are not well understood. To provide additional insights into these interactions during early Francisella infection of mice, we performed TEM analysis on mouse lungs infected with F. tularensis strains Schu S4, LVS and the O-antigen mutant Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn. For all three strains, the majority of the bacteria that we could detect were observed within alveolar type II epithelial cells at 16 hours post infection. Although there were no detectable differences in the amount of bacteria within an infected cell between the three strains, there was a significant increase in the amount of cellular debris observed in the air spaces of the lungs in the Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant compared to either the Schu S4 or LVS strain. We also studied the interactions of Francisella strains with human AT-II cells in vitro by characterizing the ability of these three strains to invade and replicate within these cells. Gentamicin assay and confocal microscopy both confirmed that F. tularensis Schu S4 replicated robustly within these cells while F. tularensis LVS displayed significantly lower levels of growth over 24 hours, although the strain was able to enter these cells at about the same level as Schu S4 (1 organism per cell, as determined by confocal imaging. The Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant that we have previously described as attenuated for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence displayed interesting properties as well. This mutant induced significant airway inflammation (cell debris and had an attenuated growth phenotype in the human AT-II cells. These

  13. Human milk 90K (Mac-2 BP): possible protective effects against acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornarini, B; Iacobelli, S; Tinari, N; Natoli, C; De Martino, M; Sabatino, G

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-six children fed human milk were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age to assess the effect of milk 90K, a secreted glycoprotein with immune-stimulatory properties, on development of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The level of human milk 90K was inversely related to episodes of ARI (r = - 0.34; P = 0.001). The average 90K level in human milk fed to children who did not develop ARI was significantly higher than in milk fed to children in whom infection occurred on multiple occasions (156.6 +/- 144.8 microg/ml versus 70.9 +/- 92.3 microg/ml; P = 0.001). These data suggest that the protective effects of human milk against ARI may be due in part to immune maturation effects by secreted 90K.

  14. The new ICRP respiratory model for radiation protection (ICRP 66) : applications and comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Luciani, A.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this report is to present the New ICRP Respiratory Model Tract for Radiological Protection. The model allows considering anatomical and physiological characteristics, giving reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5,10, and 15 years for adults; it also takes into account aerosol and gas characteristics. After a general description of the model structure, deposition, clearance and dosimetric models are presented. To compare the new and previous model (ICRP 30), dose coefficients (committed effective dose for unit intake) foe inhalation of radionuclides by workers are calculated considering aerosol granulometries with activity median aerodynamic of 1 and 5 μm, reference values for the respective publications. Dose coefficients and annual limits of intakes concerning respective dose limits (50 and 20 mSv respectively for ICRP 26 and 60) for workers and for members of population in case of dispersion of fission products aerosols, are finally calculated

  15. Non-specific Effect of Vaccines: Immediate Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young J. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-specific effects (NSEs of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses. The vaccination induced an immediate release of cytokines and infiltration of leukocytes into the respiratory tract, moderating the immune perturbation caused by RSV infection. The potency of protection against RSV challenge was significantly reduced in TLR3-/- TLR7-/- mice, confirming that the TLR3/7 signaling pathways are necessary for the observed immediate and short-term protection. The results suggest that CAIVs provide short-term, non-specific protection against genetically unrelated respiratory pathogens. The additional benefits of CAIVs in mitigating acute respiratory infections for which vaccines are not yet available need to be assessed in future studies.

  16. Effective personal protective clothing for health care workers attending patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas K S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Li, Y; Chan, Wai F; Ching, Patricia T Y; Lam, Conita H S; Chow, Chun B; Seto, Wing H

    2004-04-01

    Optimal usability is crucial in providing protection for health care workers who are exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome day and night while taking care of patients with the virus. No research study has yet tested the usability of personal protective clothing (PPC). The study was carried out in 3 stages. PPC available in Hong Kong were sorted by their physical properties in the first stage. The second stage was a single-blinded study examining the different usability aspects of the PPC. The third stage was a simulated viral load test. Four types were identified: good water repellency and water resistance, poor air permeability (Type A PPC); good water repellency and air permeability, poor water resistance (Type B PPC); poor water repellency, poor water resistance, and fair air permeability (Type C PPC); and good water repellency, poor air permeability, and fair water resistance (Type D PPC). Type D PPC had a significantly higher number of contamination sites on the subjects' dorsum and palm. Type C PPC had the highest contamination over the trunk. Findings in the viral load test showed that there was a significant difference in the contamination of the face (t=4.69, df=38, Phand contamination is lowest among the 4 groups in the current study.

  17. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100...

  18. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of healthcare workers regarding the use of respiratory protection equipment at Iran hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, Marzieh; Jahangiri, Mehdi; Ghaem, Haleh

    2018-01-01

    Using appropriate respiratory protection equipment (RPE) is very important to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) against respiratory hazards. The aim of this study was to identify the level of knowledge, perceptions and practices of HCWs on using RPE. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 284 employees of educational hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The study's instrument was a self-made questionnaire that comprised four components: demographic inquiries and questions designed to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practice of HCWs regarding RPE. Collected data were analysed using SPSS software version 21. Average scores of knowledge, perceptions and practice of HCWs on using RPE were 66.50% ± 11.93%, 80.32% ± 10.05% and 70.12% ± 20.51%, respectively. A significant association was observed between knowledge and age, job experience, history of using respirator, marital status and risk of respiratory hazards in the workplace and perceptions with age and education and practice with education. Studied HCWs had positive perceptions and moderate level of knowledge and practice about the use of RPE. Full implementation of respiratory protection program in the hospitals would be helpful to improve the knowledge, perceptions and practices of HCWs regarding RPE.

  19. Logic of quench protection assembly for BEPC II interaction region superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fusan; Cheng Jian

    2006-01-01

    Two superconducting magnet complexes are used in BEPC II interaction region. The corresponding quench protection system divides all related faults into two classes and takes different protection actions according to the urgency degree. Since BEPC II has two operating modes and the superconducting magnets use different power supplies in different operating modes, the quench protection system must take the mode switching into consideration. (authors)

  20. Reliability analysis for Atucha II reactor protection system signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose Luis

    1996-01-01

    Atucha II is a 745 MW Argentine Power Nuclear Reactor constructed by ENACE SA, Nuclear Argentine Company for Electrical Power Generation and SIEMENS AG KWU, Erlangen, Germany. A preliminary modular logic analysis of RPS (Reactor Protection System) signals was performed by means of the well known Swedish professional risk and reliability software named Risk-Spectrum taking as a basis a reference signal coded as JR17ER003 which command the two moderator loops valves. From the reliability and behavior knowledge for this reference signal follows an estimation of the reliability for the other 97 RPS signals. Because the preliminary character of this analysis Main Important Measures are not performed at this stage. Reliability is by the statistic value named unavailability predicted. The scope of this analysis is restricted from the measurement elements to the RPS buffer outputs. In the present context only one redundancy is analyzed so in the Instrumentation and Control area there no CCF (Common Cause Failures) present for signals. Finally those unavailability values could be introduced in the failure domain for the posterior complete Atucha II reliability analysis which includes all mechanical and electromechanical features. Also an estimation of the spurious frequency of RPS signals defined as faulty by no trip is performed

  1. Reliability analysis for Atucha II reactor protection system signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2000-01-01

    Atucha II is a 745 MW Argentine power nuclear reactor constructed by Nuclear Argentine Company for Electric Power Generation S.A. (ENACE S.A.) and SIEMENS AG KWU, Erlangen, Germany. A preliminary modular logic analysis of RPS (Reactor Protection System) signals was performed by means of the well known Swedish professional risk and reliability software named Risk-Spectrum taking as a basis a reference signal coded as JR17ER003 which command the two moderator loops valves. From the reliability and behavior knowledge for this reference signal follows an estimation of the reliability for the other 97 RPS signals. Because the preliminary character of this analysis Main Important Measures are not performed at this stage. Reliability is by the statistic value named unavailability predicted. The scope of this analysis is restricted from the measurement elements to the RPS buffer outputs. In the present context only one redundancy is analyzed so in the Instrumentation and Control area there no CCF (Common Cause Failures) present for signals. Finally those unavailability values could be introduced in the failure domain for the posterior complete Atucha II reliability analysis which includes all mechanical and electromechanical features. Also an estimation of the spurious frequency of RPS signals defined as faulty by no trip is performed. (author)

  2. Propagation prevention: a complementary mechanism for "lung protective" ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, John J; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2008-12-01

    To describe the clinical implications of an often neglected mechanism through which localized acute lung injury may be propagated and intensified. Experimental and clinical evidence from the medical literature relevant to the airway propagation hypothesis and its consequences. The diffuse injury that characterizes acute respiratory distress syndrome is often considered a process that begins synchronously throughout the lung, mediated by inhaled or blood-borne noxious agents. Relatively little attention has been paid to possibility that inflammatory lung injury may also begin focally and propagate sequentially via the airway network, proceeding mouth-ward from distal to proximal. Were this true, modifications of ventilatory pattern and position aimed at geographic containment of the injury process could help prevent its generalization and limit disease severity. The purposes of this communication are to call attention to this seldom considered mechanism for extending lung injury that might further justify implementation of low tidal volume/high positive end-expiratory pressure ventilatory strategies for lung protection and to suggest additional therapeutic measures implied by this broadened conceptual paradigm.

  3. [Great depth pneumatic caisson and its load work involved with the efficiency of respiratory protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, M; Oda, S; Takeuchi, J; Ikeda, Y; Yamamura, I; Mano, Y

    1989-07-01

    Pneumatic caisson work in Japan has been in operation since 1924. Afterward, this technique of compressed air work has been utilized in the constructions like as foundation works, the basements, and shafts of the bottom tunnel or shields for subway and so forth. While, it means for people to be exposed to hyperbaric environment that they use compressed air work, this technique has risks to be suffered from not only decompression sickness (DCS) but toxicity of poisonous gas or oxygen deficiency. However, this technique is necessary for urban civil engineering and recent compressed air works over than 1.0 kg/cm2 has been increased in 1.5 times more than in 1970's and the higher compressed air work more than 4.0 kg/cm2 will be actually planned in near future. So unmanned caisson work is considered as a better technique for such high pressure work, even though people must enter into hyperbaric working fields for maintenance or repair of unmanned operated machinery and materials. This research is to establish the safety work under hyperbaric environment within 7 kg/cm2. It is necessary for us to establish the system not only to keep safety but to maintain working efficiency. According to obtain the purpose, the effect of respiratory protection has been investigated and work load under hyperbaric caisson work has also been studied.

  4. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Differences in Hospital Managers’, Unit Managers’, and Health Care Workers’ Perceptions of the Safety Climate for Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristina; Rogers, Bonnie M. E.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Payne, Julianne; Cooney, Jennifer; Joe, Lauren; Novak, Debra

    2017-01-01

    This article compares hospital managers’ (HM), unit managers’ (UM), and health care workers’ (HCW) perceptions of respiratory protection safety climate in acute care hospitals. The article is based on survey responses from 215 HMs, 245 UMs, and 1,105 HCWs employed by 98 acute care hospitals in six states. Ten survey questions assessed five of the key dimensions of safety climate commonly identified in the literature: managerial commitment to safety, management feedback on safety procedures, coworkers’ safety norms, worker involvement, and worker safety training. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found across the three respondent types. HCWs had less positive perceptions of management commitment, worker involvement, and safety training aspects of safety climate than HMs and UMs. UMs had more positive perceptions of management’s supervision of HCWs’ respiratory protection practices. Implications for practice improvements indicate the need for frontline HCWs’ inclusion in efforts to reduce safety climate barriers and better support effective respiratory protection programs and daily health protection practices. PMID:27056750

  6. Differences in Hospital Managers', Unit Managers', and Health Care Workers' Perceptions of the Safety Climate for Respiratory Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristina; Rogers, Bonnie M E; Brosseau, Lisa M; Payne, Julianne; Cooney, Jennifer; Joe, Lauren; Novak, Debra

    2016-07-01

    This article compares hospital managers' (HM), unit managers' (UM), and health care workers' (HCW) perceptions of respiratory protection safety climate in acute care hospitals. The article is based on survey responses from 215 HMs, 245 UMs, and 1,105 HCWs employed by 98 acute care hospitals in six states. Ten survey questions assessed five of the key dimensions of safety climate commonly identified in the literature: managerial commitment to safety, management feedback on safety procedures, coworkers' safety norms, worker involvement, and worker safety training. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found across the three respondent types. HCWs had less positive perceptions of management commitment, worker involvement, and safety training aspects of safety climate than HMs and UMs. UMs had more positive perceptions of management's supervision of HCWs' respiratory protection practices. Implications for practice improvements indicate the need for frontline HCWs' inclusion in efforts to reduce safety climate barriers and better support effective respiratory protection programs and daily health protection practices. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kelly R; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12%) more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Moran

    Full Text Available Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport. Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12% more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.

  9. Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues.

  10. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system

  11. Cleistanthus collinus induces type I distal renal tubular acidosis and type II respiratory failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneksh, Delinda; Sidharthan, Anita; Kettimuthu, Kavithapriya; Kanthakumar, Praghalathan; Lourthuraj, Amala A; Ramachandran, Anup; Subramani, Sathya

    2010-06-01

    A water decoction of the poisonous shrub Cleistanthus collinus is used for suicidal purposes. The mortality rate is 28%. The clinical profile includes distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) and respiratory failure. The mechanism of toxicity is unclear. To demonstrate features of C. collinus toxicity in a rat model and to identify its mechanism(s) of action. Rats were anesthetized and the carotid artery was cannulated. Electrocardiogram and respiratory movements were recorded. Either aqueous extract of C. collinus or control solution was administered intraperitoneally. Serial measurements of blood gases, electrolytes and urinary pH were made. Isolated brush border and basolateral membranes from rat kidney were incubated with C. collinus extract and reduction in ATPase activity was assessed. Venous blood samples from human volunteers and rats were incubated with an acetone extract of C. collinus and plasma potassium was estimated as an assay for sodium-potassium pump activity. The mortality was 100% in tests and 17% in controls. Terminal event in test animals was respiratory arrest. Controls had metabolic acidosis, respiratory compensation acidic urine and hyperkalemia. Test animals showed respiratory acidosis, alkaline urine and low blood potassium as compared to controls. C. collinus extract inhibited ATPase activity in rat kidney. Plasma K(+) did not increase in human blood incubated with C. collinus extract. Active principles of C. collinus inhibit proton pumps in the renal brush border, resulting in type I DRTA in rats. There is no inhibition of sodium-potassium pump activity. Test animals develop respiratory acidosis, and the immediate cause of death is respiratory arrest.

  12. Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 in airway host protection and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Cohn, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease.

  13. Dose-Dependent Protective Effect of Inhalational Anesthetics Against Postoperative Respiratory Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabitz, Stephanie D; Farhan, Hassan N; Ruscic, Katarina J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inhalational anesthetics are bronchodilators with immunomodulatory effects. We sought to determine the effect of inhalational anesthetic dose on risk of severe postoperative respiratory complications. DESIGN: Prospective analysis of data on file in surgical cases between January 2007...... with endotracheal intubation. INTERVENTIONS: Median effective dose equivalent of inhalational anesthetics during surgery (derived from mean end-tidal inhalational anesthetic concentrations). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Postoperative respiratory complications occurred in 6,979 of 124,497 cases (5.61%). High...... inhalational anesthetic dose of 1.20 (1.13-1.30) (median [interquartile range])-fold median effective dose equivalent versus 0.57 (0.45-0.64)-fold median effective dose equivalent was associated with lower odds of postoperative respiratory complications (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.53-0.65; p

  14. Low-Flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Using the Hemolung Respiratory Dialysis System® to Facilitate Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanti, Bindu; Rajagopal, Keshava; Patel, Kirti P; Aravind, Sangeeta; Nunez-Centanu, Emmanuel; Hussain, Rahat; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Banjac, Igor S; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D; Loyalka, Pranav

    2017-06-01

    Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) permits reductions in alveolar ventilation requirements that the lungs would otherwise have to provide. This concept was applied to a case of hypercapnia refractory to high-level invasive mechanical ventilator support. We present a case of an 18-year-old man who developed post-pneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection of a mediastinal germ cell tumor involving the left lung hilum. Hypercapnia and hypoxemia persisted despite ventilator support even at traumatic levels. ECCO 2 R using a miniaturized system was instituted and provided effective carbon dioxide elimination. This facilitated establishment of lung-protective ventilator settings and lung function recovery. Extracorporeal lung support increasingly is being applied to treat ARDS. However, conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) generally involves using large cannulae capable of carrying high flow rates. A subset of patients with ARDS has mixed hypercapnia and hypoxemia despite high-level ventilator support. In the absence of profound hypoxemia, ECCO 2 R may be used to reduce ventilator support requirements to lung-protective levels, while avoiding risks associated with conventional ECMO.

  15. Poor Adherence to Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shan L; Quinn, Carson M; Valentine, Stacey L; Sapru, Anil; Curley, Martha A Q; Willson, Douglas F; Liu, Kathleen D; Matthay, Michael A; Flori, Heidi R

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of low-tidal volume ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and assess if any demographic or clinical factors improve low-tidal volume ventilation adherence. Descriptive post hoc analysis of four multicenter pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome studies. Twenty-six academic PICU. Three hundred fifteen pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. All patients who received conventional mechanical ventilation at hours 0 and 24 of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome who had data to calculate ideal body weight were included. Two cutoff points for low-tidal volume ventilation were assessed: less than or equal to 6.5 mL/kg of ideal body weight and less than or equal to 8 mL/kg of ideal body weight. Of 555 patients, we excluded 240 for other respiratory support modes or missing data. The remaining 315 patients had a median PaO2-to-FIO2 ratio of 140 (interquartile range, 90-201), and there were no differences in demographics between those who did and did not receive low-tidal volume ventilation. With tidal volume cutoff of less than or equal to 6.5 mL/kg of ideal body weight, the adherence rate was 32% at hour 0 and 33% at hour 24. A low-tidal volume ventilation cutoff of tidal volume less than or equal to 8 mL/kg of ideal body weight resulted in an adherence rate of 58% at hour 0 and 60% at hour 24. Low-tidal volume ventilation use was no different by severity of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome nor did adherence improve over time. At hour 0, overweight children were less likely to receive low-tidal volume ventilation less than or equal to 6.5 mL/kg ideal body weight (11% overweight vs 38% nonoverweight; p = 0.02); no difference was noted by hour 24. Furthermore, in the overweight group, using admission weight instead of ideal body weight resulted in misclassification of up to 14% of patients as receiving low-tidal volume ventilation when they actually were not. Low

  16. Implementation of smoke-free legislation in Malaysia: are adolescents protected from respiratory health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Rahman, Anita Abd; Rasdi, Irniza; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Semple, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  17. TWO CASES OF TYPE II RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN COPD TREATED IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR AND AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT OF ACUTE EXACERBATION AND RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Type II Respiratory Failure in a COPD patient is a difficult task for the ICU and Pulmonary physician. Multi factorial and multi - disciplinary approach is required . Our experience of two cases treated recently in Katuri medical College Hospita l have common features. One is a male of 54 years age and the other is a female of similar age. Both of them were obese and were nonsmokers. Both were poor and could not afford any ICU treatment on their own. Both were rescued by State sponsored Arogyasree programme. Both of them had the advantage of support from their families. Aided by Arogyasree programme, dedicated staff of ICU, Pulmonology, ENT departments , timely interventions with electrolyte balance, balanced antibiotic therapy, Noninvasive and inva sive ventilator strategies, Nutritional support, Blood transfusions, Timely Tracheostomy and excellent nursing care and drug administration in ICU both patients recovered back to normalcy . Initially both required home oxygen therapy and both were subsequen tly seen maintaining normal oxygenation status even without oxygen causing happiness to family members and the treating physicians

  18. Autophagy protects type II alveolar epithelial cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xu-Guang; Ji, Tian-Xing; Xia, Yong; Ma, Yue-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the protective effect of autophagy pathway against MTB infection. ► MTB-infected A549 cells had higher LDH release. ► Inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced the MTB-induced necrosis. ► Autophagy prevents apoptosis and promotes cell survival in infected cells. -- Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the autophagy signaling pathway against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in type II alveolar epithelial cells. An in vitro M. tuberculosis system was established using human A549 cells. Infection-induced changes in the expression of the autophagic marker LC3 were assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Morphological changes in autophagosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The function of the autophagy signaling pathway during infection was assessed by measuring the level of cell death and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the presence or absence of the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, effects on LDH release were assessed after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the essential autophagosomal structural membrane protein Atg5. LC3 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells (16888.76 ± 1576.34 vs. uninfected: 12744.29 ± 1089.37; P < 0.05). TEM revealed M.tuberculosis bacilli-containing compartments that were surrounded by double membranes characteristic of the autophagic process. M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells released more LDH (1.45 ± 0.12 vs. uninfected: 0.45 ± 0.04; P < 0.05). The inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced M.tuberculosis-induced necrosis (3-MA: 75 ± 5% vs. untreated: 15 ± 1%; P < 0.05) and LDH release (3-MA: 2.50 ± 0.24 vs. untreated: 0.45 ± 0.04; Atg5 knockdown: 3.19 ± 0.29 vs. untreated: 1.28 ± 0.11; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that autophagy signaling pathway prevents apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells

  19. Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II project is to develop lightweight reinforced aerogel materials for use as the core structural insulation material in...

  20. Recession-Tolerant Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  1. Short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory morbidity at Rio de Janeiro--Part II: health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, S I V; Pires, J C M; Martins, E M; Fortes, J D N; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G

    2012-08-01

    The effects of air pollution on health have been studied worldwide. Given that air pollution triggers oxidative stress and inflammation, it is plausible that high levels of air pollutants cause higher number of hospitalisations. This study aimed to assess the impact of air pollution on the emergency hospitalisation for respiratory disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was divided in two parts: Part I specifically addressing the air pollution assessment and Part II addressing the health assessment. Accordingly, this Part II aimed to estimate the association between the concentrations of PM₁₀, SO₂ and CO observed in Rio de Janeiro and the number of emergency hospitalisations at a central hospital due to respiratory diseases. The pollutant concentrations were measured at two different sites in Rio de Janeiro, but the excess relative risks were calculated based on the concentrations observed at one of the sites, where limits were generally exceeded more frequently, between September 2000 and December 2005. A time series analysis was performed using the number of hospitalisations, divided in three categories (children until 1 year old, children aged between 1 and 5 years old and elderly with 65 years old or more) as independent variable, the concentrations of pollutants as dependent variables and temperature, relative humidity, long term trend, and seasonality as confounders. Data were analysed using generalised additive models with smoothing for some of the dependent variables. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalisation for respiratory disease higher than 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in PM₁₀ concentrations for children under 5 years old, of 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in SO₂ for elderly above 65 years old and around 0.1% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in CO for children under 1 year and elderly. Other studies have found associations that are in agreement with the results achieved in this study. The study suggests that the ambient levels of air

  2. Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis: a protective or harmful strategy for critically ill newborn foals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengust, Modest

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews both the beneficial and adverse effects of permissive hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in critically ill newborn foals. It has been shown that partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) above the traditional safe range (hypercapnia), has beneficial effects on the physiology of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous system in neonates. In human neonatal critical care medicine permissive hypercapnic acidosis is generally well-tolerated by patients and is more beneficial to their wellbeing than normal carbon dioxide (CO2) pressure or normocapnia. Even though adverse effects of hypercapnia have been reported, especially in patients with central nervous system pathology and/or chronic infection, critical care clinicians often artificially increase PCO2 to take advantage of its positive effects on compromised neonate tissues. This is referred to as therapeutic hypercapnia. Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis is common in critically ill newborn foals and has traditionally been considered as not beneficial. A search of online scientific databases was conducted to survey the literature on the effects of hypercapnia in neonates, with emphasis on newborn foals. The dynamic status of safety levels of PCO2 and data on the effectiveness of different carbon dioxide levels are not available for newborn foals and should be scientifically determined. Presently, permissive hypercapnia should be implemented or tolerated cautiously in compromised newborn foals and its use should be based on relevant data from adult horses and other species.

  3. NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel...

  4. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A.; Gaynor, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  5. Live Attenuated Tularemia Vaccines for Protection Against Respiratory Challenge With Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingmei; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a Tier I bioterrorism agent. In the 1900s, several vaccines were developed against tularemia including the killed “Foshay” vaccine, subunit vaccines comprising F. tularensis protein(s) or lipoproteins(s) in an adjuvant formulation, and the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS); none were licensed in the U.S.A. or European Union. The LVS vaccine retains toxicity in humans and animals—especially mice—but has demonstrated efficacy in humans, and thus serves as the current gold standard for vaccine efficacy studies. The U.S.A. 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attack spawned renewed interest in vaccines against potential biowarfare agents including F. tularensis. Since live attenuated—but not killed or subunit—vaccines have shown promising efficacy and since vaccine efficacy against respiratory challenge with less virulent subspecies holarctica or F. novicida, or against non-respiratory challenge with virulent subsp. tularensis (Type A) does not reliably predict vaccine efficacy against respiratory challenge with virulent subsp. tularensis, the route of transmission and species of greatest concern in a bioterrorist attack, in this review, we focus on live attenuated tularemia vaccine candidates tested against respiratory challenge with virulent Type A strains, including homologous vaccines derived from mutants of subsp. holarctica, F. novicida, and subsp. tularensis, and heterologous vaccines developed using viral or bacterial vectors to express F. tularensis immunoprotective antigens. We compare the virulence and efficacy of these vaccine candidates with that of LVS and discuss factors that can significantly impact the development and evaluation of live attenuated tularemia vaccines. Several vaccines meet what we would consider the minimum criteria for vaccines to go forward into clinical development—safety greater than LVS and efficacy at least as great as LVS, and of these, several meet the

  6. Protection against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection through Passive Transfer of PRRSV-Neutralizing Antibodies Is Dose Dependent▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, O. J.; Oliveira, M. F.; Garcia, E. Alvarez; Kwon, B. J.; Doster, A.; Osorio, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that passive transfer of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-neutralizing antibodies (NA) protected pregnant sows against reproductive failure and conferred sterilizing immunity in sows and offspring. We report here on the dose requirement for protection by passive transfer with NA in young weaned pigs. The presence of a 1:8 titer of PRRSV-NA in serum consistently protected pigs against viremia. Nevertheless, their lungs, to...

  7. Effect of lung-protective ventilation-induced respiratory acidosis on the duration of neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Shinya; Ono, Kazumi; Hidaka, Hidekuni; Koyama, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether lung-protective ventilation-induced respiratory acidosis increased the duration of neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. A total of 72 patients were enrolled. After the induction of general anesthesia, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg real body weight was administered. Tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure were randomly assigned as either 10 ml/kg predicted body weight and 0 cmH 2 O (group S) or 6 ml/kg and 5 cmH 2 O (group L), respectively. Respiratory rate was started at 10/min. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored by acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis with train-of-four stimulation. The time from the initial bolus injection of rocuronium to first recovery of the first twitch was defined as DUR1. Immediately, rocuronium 0.15 mg/kg was administered. The time from first recovery of the first twitch to second recovery of the first twitch was defined as DUR2. We also measured arterial pH (pH1 and pH2, respectively). Data from 66 patients (33 each in groups L and S) were eventually available. pH1 and pH2 were significantly lower in group L compared with group S [pH1: 7.308 (7.288-7.334) vs. 7.439 (7.423-7.466); p respiratory acidosis increased the duration of neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium.

  8. Reactive oxygen species are generated by the respiratory complex II - evidence for lack of contribution of the reverse electron flow in complex I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Hernandez-Esquivel, L.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Ralph, S. J.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2013), s. 927-938 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : anti-cancer drugs * mitochondria * respiratory complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  9. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  10. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 77 FR 46948 - Respiratory Protection; Mechanical Power Presses; Scaffold Specifications; Correction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Communications, OSHA, U.S. Department of Labor, Room N-3647, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210... workplace (establishment). (ii) Employee's name, injury sustained, and the task being performed (operation... scaffold platform and the tank exceeds 12 inches (30.48 cm). In the event the open space on either side of...

  12. pRotective vEntilation with veno-venouS lung assisT in respiratory failure: A protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, J J; Gillies, M A; Barrett, N A; Agus, A M; Beale, R; Bentley, A; Bodenham, A; Brett, S J; Brodie, D; Finney, S J; Gordon, A J; Griffiths, M; Harrison, D; Jackson, C; McDowell, C; McNally, C; Perkins, G D; Tunnicliffe, W; Vuylsteke, A; Walsh, T S; Wise, M P; Young, D; McAuley, D F

    2017-05-01

    One of the few interventions to demonstrate improved outcomes for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure is reducing tidal volumes when using mechanical ventilation, often termed lung protective ventilation. Veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (vv-ECCO 2 R) can facilitate reducing tidal volumes. pRotective vEntilation with veno-venouS lung assisT (REST) is a randomised, allocation concealed, controlled, open, multicentre pragmatic trial to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation facilitated by vv-ECCO 2 R in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure will be randomly allocated to receive either vv-ECCO 2 R and lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation or standard care with stratification by recruitment centre. There is a need for a large randomised controlled trial to establish whether vv-ECCO 2 R in acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure can allow the use of a more protective lung ventilation strategy and is associated with improved patient outcomes.

  13. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  14. 10 CFR 20.1703 - Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continuous communication with the workers (visual, voice, signal line, telephone, radio, or other suitable... characteristics of the equipment are capable of providing the proposed degree of protection under anticipated... communication failure, significant deterioration of operating conditions, or any other conditions that might...

  15. Discovery of a Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Greater In Vivo Protection than the Murine Precursor of Palivizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Lu-Ting; Cao, Jian-Li; Sun, Yong-Peng; McLellan, Jason S; Graham, Barney S; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2017-08-01

    Palivizumab, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes antigenic site II on both the prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein, is the only prophylactic agent approved for use for the treatment of RSV infection. However, its relatively low neutralizing potency and high cost have limited its use to a restricted population of infants at high risk of severe disease. Previously, we isolated a high-potency neutralizing antibody, 5C4, that specifically recognizes antigenic site Ø at the apex of the pre-F protein trimer. We compared in vitro and in vivo the potency and protective efficacy of 5C4 and the murine precursor of palivizumab, antibody 1129. Both antibodies were synthesized on identical murine backbones as either an IgG1 or IgG2a subclass and evaluated for binding to multiple F protein conformations, in vitro inhibition of RSV infection and propagation, and protective efficacy in mice. Although 1129 and 5C4 had similar pre-F protein binding affinities, the 5C4 neutralizing activity was nearly 50-fold greater than that of 1129 in vitro In BALB/c mice, 5C4 reduced the peak titers of RSV 1,000-fold more than 1129 did in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data indicate that antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø are more efficacious at preventing RSV infection than antibodies specific for antigenic site II. Our data also suggest that site Ø-specific antibodies may be useful for the prevention or treatment of RSV infection and support the use of the pre-F protein as a vaccine antigen. IMPORTANCE There is no vaccine yet available to prevent RSV infection. The use of the licensed antibody palivizumab, which recognizes site II on both the pre-F and post-F proteins, is restricted to prophylaxis in neonates at high risk of severe RSV disease. Recommendations for using passive immunization in the general population or for therapy in immunocompromised persons with

  16. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  17. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  18. Angiotensin II protects primary rat hepatocytes against bile salt-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Karimian

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Angiotensin II (AT-II is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that AT-1R blockers may induce hepatocyte injury. Therefore, we investigated the effect of AT-II and its receptor blockers on cytokine-, oxidative stress- and bile salt-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to TNF-α/Actinomycin D, the ROS-generating agent menadione or the bile salts: glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA and tauro-lithocholic acid-3 sulfate (TLCS, to induce apoptosis. AT-II (100 nmol/L was added 10 minutes prior to the cell death-inducing agent. AT-1R antagonists (Sartans and the AT-2R antagonist PD123319 were used at 1 µmol/L. Apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, acridine orange staining and necrosis (Sytox green staining were quantified. Expression of CHOP (marker for ER stress and AT-II receptor mRNAs were quantified by Q-PCR. AT-II dose-dependently reduced GCDCA-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05 without inducing necrosis. In addition, AT-II reduced TLCS-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05. However, AT-II did not suppress TNF/Act-D and menadione-induced apoptosis. Only the AT-1R antagonists abolished the protective effect of AT-II against GCDCA-induced apoptosis. AT-II increased phosphorylation of ERK and a significant reversal of the protective effect of AT-II was observed when signaling kinases, including ERK, were inhibited. Moreover, AT-II prevented the GCDCA-induced expression of CHOP (the marker of the ER-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II protects hepatocytes from bile salt-induced apoptosis through a combined activation of PI3-kinase, MAPKs, PKC pathways and inhibition of bile salt-induced ER stress. Our results suggest a mechanism for the observed hepatocyte

  19. Association Between Use of Lung-Protective Ventilation With Lower Tidal Volumes and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Cardoso, Sérgio Oliveira; Manetta, José Antônio; Pereira, Victor Galvão Moura; Espósito, Daniel Crepaldi; Pasqualucci, Manoela de Oliveira Prado; Damasceno, Maria Cecília Toledo; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Lung-protective mechanical ventilation with the use of lower tidal volumes has been found to improve outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been suggested that use of lower tidal volumes also benefits patients who do not have ARDS. Objective To determine

  20. The protective effect of Transhinone II A in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghu; Li Zhiping; Xu Yong; Xu Feng; Wang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and it's possible mechanism of Tanshinone II A in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Having the right hemithorax of female Wistar rats irradiated 30 Gy in 10 fractions within 14 days by 6 MV photons, the radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis animal model was established. In the treatment group, sodium Tanshinone II A sulfonate (15 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection 1 hour before each fraction of irradiation. Five months after irradiation, the difference of the histopathological changes, the hyckoxyproline content and expression of TGF-β1 between the radiation alone group, tanshinone plus radiation and control group were analyzed by HE stain, Massion stain, immunohistochemical methor and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) method. Results: The histopathological comparison revealed the protective effect of Tanshinone II A. The content of hydroxyproline was (21.99±3.96), (38.25± 7.18), (28.94±4.29) μg/g in the control group, radiation alone group and radiation plus Tanshinone II A. The expression of TGF-β1 (mRNA and protein) was reduced by Tanshinone II A. Pathological changes of the pulmonary fibrosis was reduced by Tanshinone II A yet. Conclusions: Our study shows that Tanshinone II A can inhibit radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and the possible mechanism of its may be made possible through down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in the irritated lung tissue. (authors)

  1. Lactobacillus priming of the respiratory tract: Heterologous immunity and protection against lethal pneumovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Katia E; Chan, Calvin C; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Percopo, Caroline M; Rigaux, Peter; Dyer, Kimberly D; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2013-03-01

    We showed previously that wild-type mice primed via intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated Lactobacillus species were fully (100%) protected against the lethal sequelae of infection with the virulent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a response that is associated with diminished expression of proinflammatory cytokines and diminished virus recovery. We show here that 40% of the mice primed with live Lactobacillus survived when PVM challenge was delayed for 5months. This robust and sustained resistance to PVM infection resulting from prior interaction with an otherwise unrelated microbe is a profound example of heterologous immunity. We undertook the present study in order to understand the nature and unique features of this response. We found that intranasal inoculation with L. reuteri elicited rapid, transient neutrophil recruitment in association with proinflammatory mediators (CXCL1, CCL3, CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-alpha and IL-17A) but not Th1 cytokines. IFNγ does not contribute to survival promoted by Lactobacillus-priming. Live L. reuteri detected in lung tissue underwent rapid clearance, and was undetectable at 24h after inoculation. In contrast, L. reuteri peptidoglycan (PGN) and L. reuteri genomic DNA (gDNA) were detected at 24 and 48h after inoculation, respectively. In contrast to live bacteria, intranasal inoculation with isolated L. reuteri gDNA elicited no neutrophil recruitment, had minimal impact on virus recovery and virus-associated production of CCL3, and provided no protection against the negative sequelae of virus infection. Isolated PGN elicited neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory cytokines but did not promote sustained survival in response to subsequent PVM infection. Overall, further evaluation of the responses leading to Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity may provide insight into novel antiviral preventive modalities. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  3. Protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract pretreatment against cardiovascular and respiratory depressant effects of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Sim, S M

    2010-12-01

    The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract (MPE) against the cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular paralytic effects induced by injection of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) venom in anaesthetized rats were investigated. While MPE pretreatment did not reverse the inhibitory effect of the venom on the gastrocnemius muscle excitability, it significantly attenuated the venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant effects (p < 0.05). The protection effects may have an immunological mechanism, as indicated by the presence of several proteins in the venom that are immunoreactive against anti-MPE. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the pretreatment may exert a direct, non-immunological protective action against the venom.

  4. 19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and isoniazid protect against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhatali, Samya; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A.; Elshenawy, Osama H. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Abdelhamid, Ghada [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@ualberta.ca [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    We have recently demonstrated that 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE) is the major subterminal-HETE formed in the heart tissue, and its formation was decreased during cardiac hypertrophy. In the current study, we examined whether 19-HETE confers cardioprotection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The effect of Ang II, with and without 19-HETE (20 μM), on the development of cellular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte RL-14 cells was assessed by real-time PCR. Also, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by Ang II, and the effect of increasing 19-HETE by isoniazid (INH; 200 mg/kg/day) was assessed by heart weight and echocardiography. Also, alterations in cardiac cytochrome P450 (CYP) and their associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites were determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting and liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that 19-HETE conferred a cardioprotective effect against Ang II-induced cellular hypertrophy in vitro, as indicated by the significant reduction in β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio. In vivo, INH improved heart dimensions, and reversed the increase in heart weight to tibia length ratio caused by Ang II. We found a significant increase in cardiac 19-HETE, as well as a significant reduction in AA and its metabolite, 20-HETE. In conclusion, 19-HETE, incubated with cardiomyocytes in vitro or induced in the heart by INH in vivo, provides cardioprotection against Ang II-induced hypertrophy. This further confirms the role of CYP, and their associated AA metabolites in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • We found 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid to protect cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy. • We validated the use of isoniazid as a cardiac 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid inducer. • We found isoniazid to increase protective and inhibit toxic eicosanoides. • We found isoniazid to protect against angiotensin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • This will help to

  5. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.

    2004-12-17

    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  6. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Majchrzycka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs. Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%–92% and temperature increased to 29–30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%–200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48–72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of N95 respirators and medical masks to protect healthcare workers in China from respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shohini; MacIntyre, C Raina; Seale, Holly; Wang, Quanyi; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xiaoli; Newall, Anthony T

    2017-07-03

    There are substantial differences between the costs of medical masks and N95 respirators. Cost-effectiveness analysis is required to assist decision-makers evaluating alternative healthcare worker (HCW) mask/respirator strategies. This study aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks for protecting HCWs in Beijing, China. We developed a cost-effectiveness analysis model utilising efficacy and resource use data from two cluster randomised clinical trials assessing various mask/respirator strategies conducted in HCWs in Level 2 and 3 Beijing hospitals for the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. The main outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per clinical respiratory illness (CRI) case prevented. We used a societal perspective which included intervention costs, the healthcare costs of CRI in HCWs and absenteeism costs. The incremental cost to prevent a CRI case with continuous use of N95 respirators when compared to medical masks ranged from US $490-$1230 (approx. 3000-7600 RMB). One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the CRI attack rate and intervention effectiveness had the greatest impact on cost-effectiveness. The determination of cost-effectiveness for mask/respirator strategies will depend on the willingness to pay to prevent a CRI case in a HCW, which will vary between countries. In the case of a highly pathogenic pandemic, respirator use in HCWs would likely be a cost-effective intervention.

  8. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-04

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%-92% and temperature increased to 29-30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%-200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48-72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  9. Association of maternal anti-HLA class II antibodies with protection from allergy in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Jeal, H; Harris, J M; Smith, J D; Rose, M L; Taylor, A N; Cullinan, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the birth order effect in allergy may be established during the prenatal period and that the protective effect may originate in the mother. HLA class II disparity between mother and foetus has been associated with significantly increased Th1 production. In this study, we investigated whether production of HLA antibodies 4 years after pregnancy with index child is associated with allergic outcomes in offspring at 8 years. Anti-HLA class I and II antibodies were measured in maternal serum (n = 284) and levels correlated to numbers of pregnancies and birth order, and allergic outcomes in offspring at 8 years of age. Maternal anti-HLA class I and II antibodies were significantly higher when birth order, and the number of pregnancies were larger. Anti-HLA class II, but not class I antibodies were associated with significantly less atopy and seasonal rhinitis in the offspring at age 8 years. Mothers with nonatopic (but not atopic) offspring had a significant increase in anti-HLA class I and II antibodies with birth order. This study suggests that the 'birth order' effect in children may be due to parity-related changes in the maternal immune response to foetal antigens. We have observed for the first time an association between maternal anti-HLA class II antibodies and protection from allergy in the offspring. Further work is required to determine immunologically how HLA disparity between mother and father can protect against allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An αII Spectrin-Based Cytoskeleton Protects Large-Diameter Myelinated Axons from Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Zollinger, Daniel R; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N

    2017-11-22

    Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1 f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K + channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1 f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in

  11. Yogurt supplemented with probiotics can protect the healthy elderly from respiratory infections: A randomized controlled open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fangfang; Guo, Yue; Li, Ming; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijie; Shen, Xi; He, Miao; Huang, Chengyu; He, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain could protect middle-aged and elderly people from acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) using a randomized, blank-controlled, parallel-group design. Two hundred and five volunteers aged ≥45 years were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects in the intervention group were orally administered 300 mL/d of yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (N1115), 3.6×10 7 CFU/mL for 12 weeks, while those in the control group retained their normal diet without any probiotic supplementation. The primary outcome was the incidence of URTI, and changes in serum protein, immunoglobulins, and the profiles of the T-lymphocyte subsets (total T-cells [CD3 + ], T-helper cells [CD4 + ], and T-cytotoxic-suppressor cells [CD8 + ]) during the intervention were the secondary outcomes. Compared to the control group, the number of persons diagnosed with an acute URTI and the number of URTI events significantly decreased in the intervention group ( P =0.038, P =0.030, respectively). The risk of URTI in the intervention group was evaluated as 55% of that in the control group (relative risk =0.55, 95% CI: 0.307-0.969). The change in the percentage of CD3 + cells in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group ( P =0.038). However, no significant differences were observed in the total protein, albumin, globulin, and prealbumin levels in both groups ( P >0.05). The study suggested that yogurt with selected probiotic strains such as N1115 may reduce the risk of acute upper tract infections in the elderly. The enhancement of the T-cell-mediated natural immune defense might be one of the important underlying mechanisms for probiotics to express their anti-infective effects.

  12. Effect of health education based on BASNEF pattern on use of personal protective respiratory equipment in Ahvaz carbon block factory workers, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Solhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aims: Respiratory diseases due to work with 50 million annually incidence included one third of all occupational diseases and it is one of the main causes of absenteeism from work in workers. Some occupational diseases can be prevented with personal protective equipment. BASNEF model is one of the effective health education and safety training models for workers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational intervention based on BASNEF pattern on increasing the use of personal protective respiratory equipment among carbon black factory workers , where many air pollutants such as carbon block exists. Methods: In this study the intervention curriculum based on BASNEF pattern administrated on 100 (experimental and control Ahvaz carbon block factory workers. Data were collected by questionnaires. The data were analyzed by Independent T, χ square and Pearson correlation co- efficient using SPSS version16.   Results : After the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, intention, and enabling factors showed significant increase in experimental group in comparison of control group (p<0.00001. In addition, the mean score of subjective norms in experimental and control groups showed no significant differences. Conclusion: The educational program based on BASNEF pattern was effective in improving the use of respiratory personal protective equipment in Ahvaz carbon block factory workers 

  13. Recognition of lysophosphatidylcholine by type II NKT cells and protection from an inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Igor; Girardi, Enrico; Zajonc, Dirk M; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-11-01

    Lipids presented by the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d, are recognized by NK T (NKT) cells, which can be broadly categorized into two subsets. The well-characterized type I NKT cells express a semi-invariant TCR and can recognize both α- and β-linked glycolipids, whereas type II NKT cells are less well studied, express a relatively diverse TCR repertoire, and recognize β-linked lipids. Recent structural studies have shown a distinct mode of recognition of a self-glycolipid sulfatide bound to CD1d by a type II NKT TCR. To further characterize Ag recognition by these cells, we have used the structural data and screened other small molecules able to bind to CD1d and activate type II NKT cells. Using plate-bound CD1d and APC-based Ag presentation assay, we found that phospholipids such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) can stimulate the sulfatide-reactive type II NKT hybridoma Hy19.3 in a CD1d-dependent manner. Using plasmon resonance studies, we found that this type II NKT TCR binds with CD1d-bound LPC with micromolar affinities similar to that for sulfatide. Furthermore, LPC-mediated activation of type II NKT cells leads to anergy induction in type I NKT cells and affords protection from Con A-induced hepatitis. These data indicate that, in addition to self-glycolipids, self-lysophospholipids are also recognized by type II NKT cells. Because lysophospholipids are involved during inflammation, our findings have implications for not only understanding activation of type II NKT cells in physiological settings, but also for the development of immune intervention in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. New phase II trial of avelumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor, in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Christian Hinrichs, Investigator and Lasker Clinical Research Scholar in the Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch (ETIB), is leading a trial of avelumab in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Learn more...

  15. Increased GABA(A receptor ε-subunit expression on ventral respiratory column neurons protects breathing during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith B Hengen

    Full Text Available GABAergic signaling is essential for proper respiratory function. Potentiation of this signaling with allosteric modulators such as anesthetics, barbiturates, and neurosteroids can lead to respiratory arrest. Paradoxically, pregnant animals continue to breathe normally despite nearly 100-fold increases in circulating neurosteroids. ε subunit-containing GABA(ARs are insensitive to positive allosteric modulation, thus we hypothesized that pregnant rats increase ε subunit-containing GABA(AR expression on brainstem neurons of the ventral respiratory column (VRC. In vivo, pregnancy rendered respiratory motor output insensitive to otherwise lethal doses of pentobarbital, a barbiturate previously used to categorize the ε subunit. Using electrode array recordings in vitro, we demonstrated that putative respiratory neurons of the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC were also rendered insensitive to the effects of pentobarbital during pregnancy, but unit activity in the VRC was rapidly inhibited by the GABA(AR agonist, muscimol. VRC unit activity from virgin and post-partum females was potently inhibited by both pentobarbital and muscimol. Brainstem ε subunit mRNA and protein levels were increased in pregnant rats, and GABA(AR ε subunit expression co-localized with a marker of rhythm generating neurons (neurokinin 1 receptors in the preBötC. These data support the hypothesis that pregnancy renders respiratory motor output and respiratory neuron activity insensitive to barbiturates, most likely via increased ε subunit-containing GABA(AR expression on respiratory rhythm-generating neurons. Increased ε subunit expression may be critical to preserve respiratory function (and life despite increased neurosteroid levels during pregnancy.

  16. Effect of protective lung ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of protective lung ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver (RM in the treatment patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.Methods: Totally 74 patients with ARDS admitted to the Department of Intensive Care Unit, Changshu Second People's Hospital in Jiangsu Province between September 2010 and June 2013 were selected and randomly divided into lung recruitment group and non-lung recruitment group, and the initial ventilation solution for both groups was synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV. For RM, SIMV mode (pressure control and pressure support was adopted. Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased by 5 cm H2O every time and maintained for 40-50 s before entering the next increasing period, and the peak airway pressure was kept below 45 cm H2O. After PEEP reached the maximum value, it was gradually reduced by 5 cm H2O every time and finally maintained at 15 cm H2O for 10 min.Results: A total of 74 patients with mean age of (49.0±18.6 years old were enrolled, 36 patients were enrolled in lung recruitment maneuver (RM group and 38 patients were enrolled into non-lung recruitment maneuver (non-RM group. 44 were male and accounted for 59.5% of all the patients. For the indicators such as PEEP, pressure support (PS, plateau airway pressure (Pplat, peak airway pressure (Ppeak, vital capacity (VC and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2, no statistical differences in the indicators were found between the RM group and non-RM group on D1, D3 and D7 (P>0.05, except that only FiO2 of RM group on D7 was significantly lower than that of non-RM group (47.2±10.0 vs. (52.2±10.5, P0.05. 28-day mortality, ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality were 25% vs. 28.9%, 25% vs. 26.3% and 36.1% vs. 39.5% respectively between RM group and non-RM group (all P>0.05.Conclusion: Protective lung ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver can improve

  17. Data on effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity, respiration and activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in isolated rat brain mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Rekuviene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Rotenone decreases ischemia-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition in mature brains” (Rekuviene et al., 2017 [1]. Data in this article present the direct effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity (CRC in isolated normal cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, effects of rotenone intravenous infusion on leak and phosphorylating respiration rates of isolated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, on activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in freezed-thawed/sonicated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria after brain ischemia. In addition, detailed experimental procedures of isolation of brain mitochondria, measurements of CRC, respiration, activities of respiratory chain complexes and H2O2 generation in cortex and cerebellum mitochondria are described.

  18. Assessment of blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline treatment of COPD complicated with type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ru Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline therapy on blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: A total of 80 patients with COPD and type Ⅱ respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=40, control group received symptomatic treatment + aminophylline treatment, observation group received symptomatic treatment + aminophylline + noninvasive positive pressure ventilation treatment, and then differences in blood gas parameters, pulmonary function parameters, hemorheology parameters and inflammatory factor levels were compared between two groups of patients after treatment. Results: Radial artery pH and PO2 values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group while PCO2, Cl- and CO2CP values were lower than those of control group; pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75, MMF, PEF and FRC values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group; whole blood viscosity (150 s- and 10 s-, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation index and erythrocyte rigidity index values in peripheral venous blood of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum IL-17, IL-33, TREM-1, sICAM-1 and PGE2 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline can optimize the respiratory function of patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure and improve blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation.

  19. Effects of lung protective mechanical ventilation associated with permissive respiratory acidosis on regional extra-pulmonary blood flow in experimental ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Rudolf; Kreyer, Stefan; Putensen, Christian

    2017-10-27

    Lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure has been shown to affect cardiac output in patients with ARDS. However, little is known about the impact of lung protective mechanical ventilation on regional perfusion, especially when associated with moderate permissive respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure and moderate respiratory acidosis results in an increased cardiac output but unequal distribution of blood flow to the different organs of pigs with oleic-acid induced ARDS. Twelve pigs were enrolled, 3 died during instrumentation and induction of lung injury. Thus, 9 animals received pressure controlled mechanical ventilation with a PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O and limited peak inspiratory pressure (17 ± 4 cmH 2 O) versus increased peak inspiratory pressure (23 ± 6 cmH 2 O) in a crossover-randomized design and were analyzed. The sequence of limited versus increased peak inspiratory pressure was randomized using sealed envelopes. Systemic and regional hemodynamics were determined by double indicator dilution technique and colored microspheres, respectively. The paired student t-test and the Wilcoxon test were used to compare normally and not normally distributed data, respectively. Mechanical ventilation with limited inspiratory pressure resulted in moderate hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis (PaCO 2 71 ± 12 vs. 46 ± 9 mmHg, and pH 7.27 ± 0.05 vs. 7.38 ± 0.04, p respiratory acidosis was associated with an increase in cardiac output. However, the better systemic blood flow was not uniformly directed to the different organs. This observation may be of clinical interest in patients, e.g. with cardiac, renal and cerebral pathologies.

  20. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  1. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; MacDougall, Colin C.; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A.; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. Methods: We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case–control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. Results: We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case–control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03–6.41; case–control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25–3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19–1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57–1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions

  2. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D; MacDougall, Colin C; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E

    2016-05-17

    Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case-control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03-6.41; case-control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25-3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19-1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57-1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions, compared with surgical masks. Although N95

  3. Effects on Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics of Two Different Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies in an Experimental Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Arnoldo; Gomez-Peñalver, Eva; Monge-Garcia, M Ignacio; Retamal, Jaime; Borges, João Batista; Tusman, Gerardo; Hedenstierna, Goran; Larsson, Anders; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of two lung-protective ventilation strategies on pulmonary vascular mechanics in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Experimental study. University animal research laboratory. Twelve pigs (30.8 ± 2.5 kg). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Thereafter, animals were randomized to 4 hours ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network protocol or to an open lung approach strategy. Pressure and flow sensors placed at the pulmonary artery trunk allowed continuous assessment of pulmonary artery resistance, effective elastance, compliance, and reflected pressure waves. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange data were collected. Acute respiratory distress syndrome led to pulmonary vascular mechanics deterioration. Four hours after randomization, pulmonary vascular mechanics was similar in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network and open lung approach: resistance (578 ± 252 vs 626 ± 153 dyn.s/cm; p = 0.714), effective elastance, (0.63 ± 0.22 vs 0.58 ± 0.17 mm Hg/mL; p = 0.710), compliance (1.19 ± 0.8 vs 1.50 ± 0.27 mL/mm Hg; p = 0.437), and reflection index (0.36 ± 0.04 vs 0.34 ± 0.09; p = 0.680). Open lung approach as compared to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network was associated with improved dynamic respiratory compliance (17.3 ± 2.6 vs 10.5 ± 1.3 mL/cm H2O; p mechanics similarly. The use of higher positive end-expiratory pressures in the open lung approach strategy did not worsen pulmonary vascular mechanics, improved lung mechanics, and gas exchange but at the expense of a lower cardiac index.

  4. Feasibility and safety of low-flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to facilitate ultra-protective ventilation in patients with moderate acute respiratory distress sindrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, Marco V; Mancebo, Jordi; Moerer, Onnen; Quintel, Michael; Morley, Scott; Moran, Indalecio; Parrilla, Francisco; Costamagna, Andrea; Gaudiosi, Marco; Combes, Alain

    2016-02-10

    Mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume (VT) of 6 mL/kg/predicted body weight (PBW), to maintain plateau pressure (Pplat) lower than 30 cmH2O, does not completely avoid the risk of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and feasibility of a ventilation strategy consisting of very low VT combined with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R). In fifteen patients with moderate ARDS, VT was reduced from baseline to 4 mL/kg PBW while PEEP was increased to target a plateau pressure--(Pplat) between 23 and 25 cmH2O. Low-flow ECCO2R was initiated when respiratory acidosis developed (pH 60 mmHg). Ventilation parameters (VT, respiratory rate, PEEP), respiratory compliance (CRS), driving pressure (DeltaP = VT/CRS), arterial blood gases, and ECCO2R system operational characteristics were collected during the period of ultra-protective ventilation. Patients were weaned from ECCO2R when PaO2/FiO2 was higher than 200 and could tolerate conventional ventilation settings. Complications, mortality at day 28, need for prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and data on weaning from both MV and ECCO2R were also collected. During the 2 h run in phase, VT reduction from baseline (6.2 mL/kg PBW) to approximately 4 mL/kg PBW caused respiratory acidosis (pH protective mechanical ventilation strategy in patients with moderate ARDS.

  5. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  6. Safety philosophy in upgrading the EBR-II plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The EBR-II plant protection system (PPS) has been substantially modified, upgrading its performance to more fully comply with modern safety philosophy and criteria. The upgrading effort required that the total reactor system be evaluated for possible faults and that a PPS be designed to accommodate them. The result was deletion of a number of existing trip functions and upgrading of others. Particular attention was given to loss of primary pumping power and reactivity insertion events. The design and performance criteria for the PPS has been more firmly established, understanding of the PPS function has been improved and the reactor has been subjected to fewer spurious trips, improving operational reliability

  7. Computerized transportation model for the NRC Physical Protection Project. Versions I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Details on two versions of a computerized model for the transportation system of the NRC Physical Protection Project are presented. The Version I model permits scheduling of all types of transport units associated with a truck fleet, including truck trailers, truck tractors, escort vehicles and crews. A fixed-fleet itinerary construction process is used in which iterations on fleet size are required until the service requirements are satisfied. The Version II model adds an aircraft mode capability and provides for a more efficient non-fixed-fleet itinerary generation process. Test results using both versions are included

  8. [Respiratory function evaluation in welders taking into account tecnological evolution of individual protection dispositive and risk specific information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, B; Graziuso, G; Carbone, U

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of specific information program on DPI use on the functional respiratory parameters in a group of 15 welders compared with 18 welders not included in the program and 18 workers of industrial sector. Spirometryc parameters were recorded and compared and the results pointed out a significant increase of FEV1 and FVC in the study group compared with welder out of the study while no difference were observed between study group and workers of industrial sector. Results shown that the correct use of DPI could reduce the effects of welding fumes on respiratory tract making these effects equal to the exposure to industrial dusts.

  9. SIRT1 Functions as an Important Regulator of Estrogen-Mediated Cardiomyocyte Protection in Angiotensin II-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family, which could activate cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective in regulation of heart function. Here, we determined the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates Angiotensin II- (AngII- induced cardiac hypertrophy and injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods. We analyzed SIRT1 expression in the hearts of control and AngII-induced mouse hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and pretreated with 17β-estradiol to measure SIRT1 expression. Protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte surface area analysis, qRT-PCR, TUNEL staining, and Western blot were performed on AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy samples and cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs to investigate the function of SIRT1. Results. SIRT1 expression was slightly upregulated in AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. SIRT1 overexpression relieves AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. 17β-Estradiol was able to protect cardiomyocytes from AngII-induced injury with a profound upregulation of SIRT1 and activation of AMPK. Moreover, estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI 182,780 and SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could block SIRT1’s protective effect. Conclusions. These results indicate that SIRT1 functions as an important regulator of estrogen-mediated cardiomyocyte protection during AngII-induced heart hypertrophy and injury.

  10. Evaluation of the topoisomerase II-inactive bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-161 as a protectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, E.; Thougaard, A.V.; Grauslund, M.

    2009-01-01

    of topoisomerase II, resulting in the risk of additional myelosuppression in patients receiving ICRF-187 as a cardioprotectant in combination with doxorubicin. The development of a topoisomerase II-inactive iron chelating compound thus appeared attractive. In the present paper we evaluate the topoisomerase II...... chelation alone does not appear to be sufficient for protection against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/8...

  11. Radiation protection during decommissioning of the salt cavern Asse II. Recommendations by the German Commission on radiological protection; Strahlenschutz bei der Stilllegung der Schachtanlage Asse II. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-15

    The recommendations by the German Commission on radiological protection concerning radiation protection during decommissioning of the salt cavern Asse II include the following issues: radiological consequences of non-controllable solution ingress, optional decommissioning modes, basis requirements of decommissioning, fact evaluation, determination of radiation exposure, radiological requirements for long-term safety, analysis of consequences and long-term safety demonstration, data and information, emergency protection, public transparency.

  12. Protection of the 6 T YBCO insert in the 13 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Fresca II dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Stenvall, A.; Fazilleau, Ph.; Devaux, M.; Durante, M.; Lecrevisse, T.; Rey, J. -M.; Fleiter, J.; Sorbi, M.; Volpini, G.; Tixador, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the EuCARD project, we aim to construct a dipole magnet in YBCO producing 6 T in the background field of a 13 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole FRESCA II. This paper reviews the quench analysis and protection of the YBCO coil. In addition, a recommendation for the protection system of the YBCO coil is presented.

  13. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  14. Incidence Proportion of Acute Cor Pulmonale in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Subjected to Lung Protective Ventilation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh Kumar; Choupoo, Nang Sujali; Saikia, Priyam; Lahkar, Amitabh

    2017-06-01

    Reported incidence of acute cor pulmonale (ACP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) varies from 10% to 84%, despite being subjected to lung protective ventilation according to the current guidelines. The objective of this review is to find pooled cumulative incidence of ACP in patients with ARDS undergoing lung protective ventilation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, LILACS, and WHO Clinical Trial Registry. Cross-sectional or cohort studies were included if they reported or provided data that could be used to calculate the incidence proportion of ACP. Inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet) and random effect model were used for the main outcome and measures. We included 16 studies encompassing 1661 patients. The cumulative incidence of ACP using IVhet analysis was 23% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 18%-28%) over 3 days of lung protective ventilation. Random effect analysis of 7 studies (1250 patients) revealed pooled odd ratio of mortality of 1.16 (95% CI = 0.80-1.67, P = 0.44) due to ACP. Patients with ARDS have a 23% risk of developing ACP with lung protective ventilation. Findings of this review indicate the need of updating existing guidelines for ventilating ARDS patients to incorporate right ventricle protective strategy.

  15. Low-flow venovenous CO₂ removal in association with lung protective ventilation strategy in patients who develop severe progressive respiratory acidosis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, F; Bergantino, B; Testa, M C; D'Arena, C; Zullino, V; Congi, P; Paglialunga, S G; Diso, D; Venuta, F; Pugliese, F

    2013-09-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) might occur after lung transplantation. In some severe cases, conventional therapies like ventilatory support, administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), and intravenous prostacyclins are not sufficient to provide an adequate gas exchange. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of a lung protective ventilation strategy associated with a low-flow venovenous CO2 removal treatment to reduce ventilator-associated injury in patients that develop severe PGD after lung transplantation. From January 2009 to January 2011, 3 patients developed PGD within 24 hours after lung transplantation. In addition to conventional medical treatment, including hemodynamic support, iNO and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), we initiated a ventilatory protective strategy associated with low-flow venovenous CO2 removal treatment (LFVVECCO2R). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed at baseline as well as after 3, 12, 24, and 48 hours. No adverse events were registered. Despite decreased baseline elevated pulmonary positive pressures, application of a protective ventilation strategy with LFVVECCO2R reduced PaCO2 and pulmonary infiltrates as well as increased pH values and PaO2/FiO2 ratios. Every patient showed simultaneous improvement of clinical and hemodynamic conditions. They were weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated after 24 hours after the use of the low-flow venovenous CO2 removal device. The use of LFVVECCO2R together with a protective lung ventilation strategy during the perioperative period of lung transplantation may be a valid clinical strategy for patients with PGD and severe respiratory acidosis occured despite adequate mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Ming Zhu1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o analyze the effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: 90 patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=45. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received conventional therapy + adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and differences in blood gas parameters, cardiac function, inflammatory state, etc., were compared between two groups of patients 2 weeks after treatment. Results: Arterial blood gas parameters pH and alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A-aO2] levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while, potassium ion (K+, chloride ion (Cl﹣ and carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP levels were lower than those of control group 2 weeks after treatment; echocardiography parameters Doppler-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (DTIS and pulmonary arterial velocity (PAV levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while pulmonary artery accelerating time (PAACT, left ventricular enddiastolic dimension (LVDd and right atrioventricular tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum cardiac function indexes adiponectin (APN, Copeptin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, cystatin C (CysC, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory factors hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Adjuvant

  17. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  18. A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Vectored by a Stable Chimeric and Replication-Deficient Sendai Virus Protects Mice without Inducing Enhanced Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Marian Alexander; Gori-Savellini, Gianni; Gandolfo, Claudia; Papa, Guido; Kaufmann, Christine; Felder, Eva; Ginori, Alessandro; Disanto, Maria Giulia; Spina, Donatella; Cusi, Maria Grazia

    2017-05-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe respiratory infections in children and elderly people, and no marketed vaccine exists. In this study, we generated and analyzed a subunit vaccine against RSV based on a novel genome replication-deficient Sendai virus (SeV) vector. We inserted the RSV F protein, known to be a genetically stable antigen, into our vector in a specific way to optimize the vaccine features. By exchanging the ectodomain of the SeV F protein for its counterpart from RSV, we created a chimeric vectored vaccine that contains the RSV F protein as an essential structural component. In this way, the antigen is actively expressed on the surfaces of vaccine particles in its prefusion conformation, and as recently reported for other vectored vaccines, the occurrence of silencing mutations of the transgene in the vaccine genome can be prevented. In addition, its active gene expression contributes to further stimulation of the immune response. In order to understand the best route of immunization, we compared vaccine efficacies after intranasal (i.n.) or intramuscular (i.m.) immunization of BALB/c mice. Via both routes, substantial RSV-specific immune responses were induced, consisting of serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies, as well as cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, i.n. immunization was also able to stimulate specific mucosal IgA in the upper and lower respiratory tract. In virus challenge experiments, animals were protected against RSV infection after both i.n. and i.m. immunization without inducing vaccine-enhanced disease. Above all, the replication-deficient SeV appeared to be safe and well tolerated. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory diseases in young children and elderly people worldwide. There is a great demand for a licensed vaccine. Promising existing vaccine approaches based on live-attenuated vaccines or viral vectors have suffered from unforeseen drawbacks related to immunogenicity

  19. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T

    1994-01-01

    are resistant. Interestingly, rats with the MHC u haplotype develop an immune response to the MBP 63-88, but do not get EAE. In this study we have used intra-MHC recombinant rat strains to compare the influences of the MHC u with the a haplotype. We discovered the following: 1) The class II region of the MHC...... a haplotype permits EAE and a Th1 type of immune response as measured by IFN-gamma production after in vitro challenge of in vivo-primed T cells with MBP 63-88. 2) The class II region of the u haplotype is associated with a disease-protective immune response characterized by production of not only IFN......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  20. Berberine Protects against NEFA-Induced Impairment of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Function and Insulin Signaling in Bovine Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Shi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver is a major lipid metabolic disease in perinatal dairy cows and is characterized by high blood levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and insulin resistance. Berberine (BBR has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity in mice with hepatic steatosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a causal factor that induces insulin resistance. This study investigates the underlying mechanism and the beneficial effects of BBR on mitochondrial and insulin signaling in bovine hepatocytes. Revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI of cows with fatty liver was significantly lower than that of healthy cows. Importantly, the Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation levels, protein levels of PGC-1α and four of the five representative subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS were significantly decreased in cows with fatty liver using Western Blot analysis. In bovine hepatocytes, 1.2 mmol/L NEFA reduced insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiratory chain function, and 10 and 20 umol/L BBR restored these changes. Furthermore, activation of PGC-1α played the same beneficial effects of BBR on hepatocytes treated with NEFA. BBR treatment improves NEFA-impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain function and insulin signaling by increasing PGC-1α expression in hepatocytes, which provides a potential new strategy for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows.

  1. A recombinant anchorless respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein/monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) vaccine protects against RSV-induced replication and lung pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jorge C G; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Shirey, Kari Ann; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2014-03-14

    We previously demonstrated that the severe cytokine storm and pathology associated with RSV infection following intramuscular vaccination of cotton rats with FI-RSV Lot 100 could be completely abolished by formulating the vaccine with the mild TLR4 agonist and adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Despite this significant improvement, the vaccine failed to blunt viral replication in the lungs. Since MPL is a weak TLR4 agonist, we hypothesized that its adjuvant activity was mediated by modulating the innate immune response of respiratory tract resident macrophages. Therefore, we developed a new vaccine preparation with purified, baculovirus expressed, partially purified, anchorless RSV F protein formulated with synthetic MPL that was administered to cotton rats intranasally, followed by an intradermal boost. This novel formulation and heterologous "prime/boost" route of administration resulted in decreased viral titers compared to that seen in animals vaccinated with F protein alone. Furthermore, animals vaccinated by this route showed no evidence of enhanced lung pathology upon RSV infection. This indicates that MPL acts as an immune modulator that protects the host from vaccine-enhanced pathology, and reduces RSV replication in the lower respiratory tract when administered by a heterologous prime/boost immunization regimen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of tumor growth in vivo by the mitocan alpha-tocopheryl succinate requires respiratory complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dong, L.F.; Freeman, R.; Liu, J.; Zobalová, Renata; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Stantic, M.; Rohlena, Jakub; Vališ, Karel; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.; Butcher, B.; Goodwin, J.; Brunk, U.T.; Witting, P. K.; Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Scheffler, I.E.; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2009), s. 1593-1600 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/08/0811; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : SDHC-mutants * mitocans * mitochondrial complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.747, year: 2009

  3. Variations in constitutive and inducible UV-B tolerance; dissecting photosystem II protection in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marcel A K; Martret, Bénedicte Le; Koornneef, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The rise in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) (280-315 nm) radiation levels, that is a consequence of stratospheric ozone layer depletion, has triggered extensive research on the effects of UV-B on plants. Plants raised under natural sunlight conditions are generally well protected from the potentially harmful effects of UV-B radiation. However, it is mostly unknown to which extent UV protection is constitutive and/or induced. In this study, we have analysed the role of constitutive and inducible protection responses in avoiding UV-B damage to photosystem II of photosynthesis. We have assayed the UV susceptibility of photosystem II in 224 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions from across the Northern hemisphere, and found a continuum of constitutive UV-protection levels, with some accessions being UV sensitive and others UV tolerant. Statistical analysis showed only very weak associations between constitutive UV tolerance and the geographic origin of accessions. Instead, most of the variance in constitutive UV-B protection of photosynthesis is present at the level of local Arabidopsis populations originating in the same geographic and climatic area. The variance in constitutive UV protection is, however, small compared to the amplitude of environmentally induced changes in UV protection. Thus, our data emphasise the importance of inducible responses for the protection of photosystem II against UV-B. Remarkably, the conditions that induce UV-protective responses vary; accessions from lower latitudes were found to switch-on UV defences more readily than those of higher latitudes. Such altered regulation of induction may comprise a suitable adaptation response when levels of a stressor are fluctuating in the short term, but predictable over longer periods.

  4. Does the Size of a Company Make a Difference in the Prevalence of Exposure to Asthmagens and in the Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaemey, Sonia; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Rushton, Lesley; McElvenny, Damien M; Fritschi, Lin

    2018-05-08

    About half of all workers in high-income countries work in small companies. However, regulatory bodies and researchers predominantly work with large companies because they are more convenient to study and easier to reach. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of exposure to asthmagens and the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) by company size. This analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study-Asthma, a telephone survey which investigated exposure to 27 asthmagen groups. Among 4844 respondents, 18.8, 19.9, 31.9, and 29.4% of workers reported working in micro (200 employees) companies, respectively. Compared to workers in large companies, workers in micro, small, or medium companies had higher prevalence of exposure to most asthmagens and lesser use of RPE. Our results suggest that policy actions and regulatory measures should target micro/small companies in order to have the greatest effect.

  5. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  6. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Garman, Lori; Dumas, Eric K.; Kurella, Sridevi; Hunt, Jonathan J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Nguyen, Melissa L.; Cox, Philip M.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class I...

  7. An Antibody Blocking Activin Type II Receptors Induces Strong Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Protects from Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Giulia C.; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N.; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings. PMID:24298022

  8. [The comparison of heparan sulfate and its fragments on the protection against extracellular histones during the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Guan, L; Zheng, Y M; Zhao, Z M; Mao, L J; Li, S Q; Zhao, J Y

    2018-01-20

    Objective: In order to explore the role of heparan sulfate (HS) during the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) , the protective effect of HS and its fragments against extracellular histones was compared. Methods: Calf thymus histones (CTH) were injected via femoral vein to induce ARDS in rats. HS, HS fragments or saline was intraperitoneally injected (10mg/kg, Q6h, 24h) to test the protective effect against CTH. The ratio of wet/dry lung weight, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) , total leukocyte and neutrophil count in BALF were measured. Results: After CTH injection, the ratio of wet/dry lung weight (5.7±0.95) was much higher than the saline control group (3.1±0.15). The protein content (0.47±0.086mg/ml) , total leukocyte[ (97.4±15.6l) ×10(4)/ml] and neutrophil (18±3.4/LPF) in BALF were obviously increased compared with the saline control group. The intervention of HS evidently decreased ratio of wet/dry lung weight (4.2±0.41) , protein content[ (0.26±0.019) mg/ml], leukocyte[ (61.3±5.74) ×10(4)/ml] and neutrophil (12±1.8/LPF) in BALF. HS fragments also decreased ratio of wet/dry lung weight, protein content, leukocyte and neutrophil count in BALF though the strength was much less than HS. Conclusion: HS and its fragments could provide protection against extracellular histones during the pathogenesis of ARDS. For the protective effect full length HS was much better than HS fragments.

  9. CATALYSTS BASED ON UKRAINIAN NATURAL SORBENTS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE CARBON MONOXIDE OXIDATION MEANT FOR INDIVIDUAL RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakyts’ka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a great number of patented formulas of catalysts for neutralization of carbon monoxide (CO which is the most widespread atmospheric pollutant, only batch-produced hopcalite and alumina supported palladium (Pd/Al2O3 are used in practice. The named catalysts have significant defects: hopcalite is poisonable in the presence of water vapor and Pd/Al2O3 is characterized by the great content of palladium. We have found the possibility of using inexpensive Ukrainian natural sorbents differing by their mineralogical and chemical compositions, i.e. zeolites, bentonites, basalt tuffs, and disperse silicas, as supports for development and subsequent application of palladium(II and copper(II based catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation. Acid-thermally modified Ukrainian sorbents have been found to be proper for obtaining supported copper-palladium complexes the most catalytically active in the reaction. Application of Ukrainian natural tripolis permitted to avoid the step of acid-thermal modification complicating the technique of catalyst production. As was found, the origin and phase composition of tripolis affect the activity of catalysts supported on them in the reaction of low-temperature Co oxidation. The most active catalyst permitting sanitary purification of air from CO to a level permissible for atmosphere of populated areas have been obtained in the case of insignificantly (thermally or hydrothermally modified tripoli from Konoplianskoe deposit.

  10. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Jong Seok [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gyeonggi-do, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minkyoung [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, Sang-Moo, E-mail: skang24@gsu.edu [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  11. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  12. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D.; Barbas, Carmen S. V.; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M.; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients

  13. Angiotensin II Protects Primary Rat Hepatocytes against Bile Salt-Induced Apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimian, Golnar; Buist-Homan, Manon; Mikus, Bojana; Henning, Robert H.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AT-II) is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R) and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that

  14. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  15. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  16. Protective role of quercetin against copper(II)-induced oxidative stress: A spectroscopic, theoretical and DNA damage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomova, Klaudia; Lawson, Michael; Drostinova, Lenka; Lauro, Peter; Poprac, Patrik; Brezova, Vlasta; Michalik, Martin; Lukes, Vladimir; Valko, Marian

    2017-12-01

    The radical scavenging and metal chelating properties of flavonoids indicate that they may play a protective role in diseases with perturbed metal homeostasis such as Alzheimer's disease. In this work we investigated the effect of the coordination of quercetin to copper(II) in view of the formation of ROS in Cu-catalyzed Fenton reaction. ABTS and DPPH assays confirmed that the copper(II)-quercetin complex exhibits a stronger radical scavenging activity than does quercetin alone. EPR spin trapping experiments have shown that chelation of quercetin to copper significantly suppressed the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the Cu(II)-Fenton reaction. DNA damage experiments revealed a protective effect for quercetin, but only at higher stoichiometric ratios of quercetin relative to copper. DNA protective effect of quercetin against ROS attack was described by two mechanisms. The first mechanism lies in suppressed formation of ROS due to the decreased catalytic action of copper in the Fenton reaction, as a consequence of its chelation and direct scavenging of ROS by free quercetin. Since the Cu-quercetin complex intercalates into DNA, the second mechanism was attributed to a suppressed intercalating ability of the Cu-quercetin complex due to the mildly intercalating free quercetin into DNA, thus creating a protective wall against stronger intercalators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protecting Healthcare Personnel in Outpatient Settings: The Influence of Mandatory Versus Nonmandatory Influenza Vaccination Policies on Workplace Absenteeism During Multiple Respiratory Virus Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John; Brown, Alexandria C; Cummings, Derek A; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Gibert, Cynthia L; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Los, Jenna G; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Perl, Trish M; Price, Connie S; Radonovich, Lewis J; Reich, Nicholas G; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Bessesen, Mary T; Simberkoff, Michael S

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP). DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies. PARTICIPANTS The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites. METHODS To determine the incidence and duration of absenteeism in outpatient settings, HCP participating in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial at both mandatory and nonmandatory vaccination sites over 3 viral respiratory illness (VRI) seasons (2012-2015) reported their influenza vaccination status and symptomatic days absent from work weekly throughout a 12-week period during the peak VRI season each year. The adjusted effects of vaccination and other modulating factors on absenteeism rates were estimated using multivariable regression models. RESULTS The proportion of participants who received influenza vaccination was lower each year at nonmandatory than at mandatory vaccination sites (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.11). Among HCP who reported at least 1 sick day, vaccinated HCP had lower symptomatic days absent compared to unvaccinated HCP (OR for 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.93; OR for 2014-2015, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies increase influenza vaccination rates and that HCP symptomatic absenteeism diminishes as rates of influenza vaccination increase. These findings should be considered in formulating HCP influenza vaccination policies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:452-461.

  18. Physiologic Evaluation of Ventilation Perfusion Mismatch and Respiratory Mechanics at Different Positive End-expiratory Pressure in Patients Undergoing Protective One-lung Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Savino; Grasso, Salvatore; Karbing, Dan Stieper; Fogagnolo, Alberto; Contoli, Marco; Bollini, Giacomo; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Cinnella, Gilda; Verri, Marco; Cavallesco, Narciso Giorgio; Rees, Stephen Edward; Volta, Carlo Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Arterial oxygenation is often impaired during one-lung ventilation, due to both pulmonary shunt and atelectasis. The use of low tidal volume (VT) (5 ml/kg predicted body weight) in the context of a lung-protective approach exacerbates atelectasis. This study sought to determine the combined physiologic effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and low VT during one-lung ventilation. Data from 41 patients studied during general anesthesia for thoracic surgery were collected and analyzed. Shunt fraction, high V/Q and respiratory mechanics were measured at positive end-expiratory pressure 0 cm H2O during bilateral lung ventilation and one-lung ventilation and, subsequently, during one-lung ventilation at 5 or 10 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure. Shunt fraction and high V/Q were measured using variation of inspired oxygen fraction and measurement of respiratory gas concentration and arterial blood gas. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure was applied in random order and maintained for 15 min before measurements. During one-lung ventilation, increasing positive end-expiratory pressure from 0 cm H2O to 5 cm H2O and 10 cm H2O resulted in a shunt fraction decrease of 5% (0 to 11) and 11% (5 to 16), respectively (P ventilation, high positive end-expiratory pressure levels improve pulmonary function without increasing high V/Q and reduce driving pressure.

  19. A prime-boost vaccination strategy using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector elicits protective immunity against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Hui; He, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Xian-Xian; Wu, Qiang; Xie, Can; Zhang, Mei; Wei, Wei; Tang, Qian; Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

    2010-04-23

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), for which no clinically approved vaccine is available yet, is globally a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract. Several approaches have been used to develop vaccines against RSV, but none of these have been approved for use in humans. An efficient vaccine-enhancing strategy for RSV is still urgently needed. We found previously that oral SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F and intranasal FGAd/F were able to induce an effective protective immune response against RSV. The heterologous prime-boost immunization regime has been reported recently to be an efficient vaccine-enhancing strategy. Therefore, we investigated the ability of an oral SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F prime and intranasal (i.n.) FGAd/F boost regimen to generate immune responses to RSV. The SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F prime-FGAd/F boost regimen generated stronger RSV-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses in BALB/c mice than the oral SL7207/pcDNA3.1/F regimen alone, and stronger specific cellular immune responses than the i.n. FGAd/F regimen alone. Histopathological analysis showed an increased efficacy against RSV challenge by the heterologous prime-boost regimen. These results suggest that such a heterologous prime-boost strategy can enhance the efficacy of either the SL7207 or the FGAd vector regimen in generating immune responses in BALB/c mice. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-immunization with virus-like particle and DNA vaccines induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection and bronchiolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Si-Eun; Lee, Yu-Na; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Tae; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ji-Yun; Li, Jian Dong; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that immunization with non-replicating virus-like particle (FFG VLP) containing RSV F and G glycoproteins together with RSV F DNA induced T helper type 1 antibody responses to RSV F similar to live RSV infection. Upon RSV challenge 21 weeks after immunization, FFG VLP vaccination induced protection against RSV infection as shown by clearance of lung viral loads, and the absence of eosinophil infiltrates, and did not cause lung pathology. In contrast, formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccination showed significant pulmonary eosinophilia, severe mucus production, and extensive histopathology resulting in a hallmark of pulmonary pathology. Substantial lung pathology was also observed in mice with RSV re-infections. High levels of systemic and local inflammatory cytokine-secreting cells were induced in mice with FI-RSV but not with FFG VLP immunization after RSV challenge. Therefore, the results provide evidence that recombinant RSV FFG VLP vaccine can confer long-term protection against RSV without causing lung pathology. PMID:25110201

  1. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Hydroxyl-Directed C–H Olefination Enabled by Mono-Protected Amino Acid Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Dong-Hui; Engle, Keary M.

    2010-01-01

    A novel Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-C–H olefination protocol has been developed using spatially remote, unprotected tertiary, secondary, and primary alcohols as the directing groups. Mono-N-protected amino acid ligands were found to promote the reaction, and an array of olefin coupling partners could be used. When electron-deficient alkenes were used, the resulting olefinated intermediates underwent subsequent Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidative intramolecular cyclization to give the corresponding pyran products, which could be converted into ortho-alkylated alcohols under hydrogenolysis conditions. The mechanistic details of the oxidative cyclization step are discussed and situated in the context of the overall catalytic cycle. PMID:20359184

  2. Effects of tidal volume on work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Campbell, Andre R; Dicker, Rochelle A; Katz, Jeffrey A; Mackersie, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    To assess the effects of step-changes in tidal volume on work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prospective, nonconsecutive patients with ALI/ARDS. Adult surgical, trauma, and medical intensive care units at a major inner-city, university-affiliated hospital. Ten patients with ALI/ARDS managed clinically with lung-protective ventilation. Five patients were ventilated at a progressively smaller tidal volume in 1 mL/kg steps between 8 and 5 mL/kg; five other patients were ventilated at a progressively larger tidal volume from 5 to 8 mL/kg. The volume mode was used with a flow rate of 75 L/min. Minute ventilation was maintained constant at each tidal volume setting. Afterward, patients were placed on continuous positive airway pressure for 1-2 mins to measure their spontaneous tidal volume. Work of breathing and other variables were measured with a pulmonary mechanics monitor (Bicore CP-100). Work of breathing progressively increased (0.86 +/- 0.32, 1.05 +/- 0.40, 1.22 +/- 0.36, and 1.57 +/- 0.43 J/L) at a tidal volume of 8, 7, 6, and 5 mL/kg, respectively. In nine of ten patients there was a strong negative correlation between work of breathing and the ventilator-to-patient tidal volume difference (R = -.75 to -.998). : The ventilator-delivered tidal volume exerts an independent influence on work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with ALI/ARDS. Patient work of breathing is inversely related to the difference between the ventilator-delivered tidal volume and patient-generated tidal volume during a brief trial of unassisted breathing.

  3. Galacto-Oligosaccharide/Polidextrose Enriched Formula Protects against Respiratory Infections in Infants at High Risk of Atopy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusy Ranucci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX-formula (PF on atopic dermatitis (AD and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. Methods: A total of 201 and 199 infants were randomized to receive a PF and standard formula (SF, respectively; 140 infants remained on exclusive breastfeeding (BF. Results: The cumulative incidence of AD and its intensity and duration were not statistically different among the three groups. The number of infants with at least one episode of respiratory infection (RI and the mean number of episodes until 48 weeks of age were significantly lower in the PF group than in the SF group. The number of patients with recurrent RIs and incidence of wheezing lower RIs until 96 weeks were lower in the PF group than the SF group, but similar to the BF group. Bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster I colonization increased over time in the PF group but decreased in the SF and BF groups. Bifidobacteria had a protective role in RIs, whereas Clostridium cluster I was associated with atopy protection. Conclusion: The early administration of PF protects against RIs and mediates a species-specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Trial registration: clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT02116452.

  4. Protection of Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria from UV Radiation by Biogenic Fe(III) Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an ozone layer in the Archean, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reached early Earth's surface almost unattenuated; as a consequence, a terrestrial biosphere in the form of biological soil crusts would have been highly susceptible to lethal doses of irradiation. However, a self-produced external screen in the form of nanoparticular Fe(III) minerals could have effectively protected those early microorganisms. In this study, we use viability studies by quantifying colony-forming units (CFUs), as well as Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction rates, to show that encrustation in biogenic and abiogenic Fe(III) minerals can protect a common soil bacteria such as the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and strain 2AN from harmful UVC radiation. Analysis of DNA damage by quantifying cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) confirmed the protecting effect by Fe(III) minerals. This study suggests that Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms, as would have grown in association with mafic and ultramafic soils/outcrops, would have been able to produce their own UV screen, enabling them to live in terrestrial habitats on early Earth.

  5. The overvoltage protection module for the power supply system for the pixel detector at Belle II experiment at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, P.; Kisielewski, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the overvoltage protection modules (OVP) for the power supply (PS) system of the Belle II pixel detector (PXD) are described. The aim of the OVP is to protect the detector and associated electronics against overvoltage conditions. Most critical in the system are voltages supplying the front-end ASICs. The PXD detector consists of the DEPFET sensor modules with integrated chips like the Drain Current Digitizer, the Switcher and the Data Handling Processor. These chips, implemented in modern sub-micron technologies, are quite vulnerable to variations in the supply voltages. The PXD will be placed in the Belle II experiment as close as possible to the interaction point, where access during experiment is very limited or even impossible, thus the PS and OVP systems exploit the remote-sensing method. Overvoltage conditions are due to failures of the PS itself, wrong setting of the output voltages or transient voltages coming out of hard noisy environment of the experiment. The OVP modules are parts of the PS modules. For powering the PXD 40 PS modules are placed 15 m outside the Belle II spectrometer. Each one is equipped with the OVP board. All voltages (22) are grouped in 4 domains: Analog, Digital, Steering and Gate which have independent grounds. The OVP boards are designed from integrated circuits from Linear Technology. All configurations were simulated with the Spice program. The control electronics is designed in a Xilinx CPLD. Two types of integrated circuits were used. LT4356 surge stopper protects loads from high voltage transients. The output voltages are limited to a safe value and also protect loads against over current faults. For less critical voltages, the LTC2912 voltage monitors are used that detect under-voltage and overvoltage events. It has to be noted that the OVP system is working independently of any other protection of the PS system, which increases its overall reliability. (authors)

  6. The overvoltage protection module for the power supply system for the pixel detector at Belle II experiment at KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, P.; Kisielewski, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-875 Krakow, (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the overvoltage protection modules (OVP) for the power supply (PS) system of the Belle II pixel detector (PXD) are described. The aim of the OVP is to protect the detector and associated electronics against overvoltage conditions. Most critical in the system are voltages supplying the front-end ASICs. The PXD detector consists of the DEPFET sensor modules with integrated chips like the Drain Current Digitizer, the Switcher and the Data Handling Processor. These chips, implemented in modern sub-micron technologies, are quite vulnerable to variations in the supply voltages. The PXD will be placed in the Belle II experiment as close as possible to the interaction point, where access during experiment is very limited or even impossible, thus the PS and OVP systems exploit the remote-sensing method. Overvoltage conditions are due to failures of the PS itself, wrong setting of the output voltages or transient voltages coming out of hard noisy environment of the experiment. The OVP modules are parts of the PS modules. For powering the PXD 40 PS modules are placed 15 m outside the Belle II spectrometer. Each one is equipped with the OVP board. All voltages (22) are grouped in 4 domains: Analog, Digital, Steering and Gate which have independent grounds. The OVP boards are designed from integrated circuits from Linear Technology. All configurations were simulated with the Spice program. The control electronics is designed in a Xilinx CPLD. Two types of integrated circuits were used. LT4356 surge stopper protects loads from high voltage transients. The output voltages are limited to a safe value and also protect loads against over current faults. For less critical voltages, the LTC2912 voltage monitors are used that detect under-voltage and overvoltage events. It has to be noted that the OVP system is working independently of any other protection of the PS system, which increases its overall reliability. (authors)

  7. Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This...

  8. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  9. Technical summary of Groundwater Quality Protection Program at Savannah River Plant. Volume II. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Christensen, E.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report (Volume II) presents representative monitoring data for radioactivity in groundwater at SRP. Four major groups of radioactive waste disposal sites and three minor sites are described. Much of the geohydrological and and other background information given in Volume I is applicable to these sites and is incorporated by reference. Several of the sites that contain mixed chemical and radioactive wastes are discussed in both Volumes I and II. Bulk unirradiated uranium is considered primarily a chemical waste which is addressed in Volume I, but generally not in Volume II

  10. ENETRAP II: European network of education and training in radiation protection, data base training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco Arboli, M.; Llorente, C.; Coeck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Development and implementation of a European standard for high quality initial training and professional development continued in the R adiation Protection Expert-RPE and Radiation Protection Officer-RPO, also of a methodology for the mutual recognition of these professionals by making use of the available instruments of the European Union (GE).

  11. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  12. The Renal Protective Effect of Jiangya Tongluo Formula, through Regulation of Adrenomedullin and Angiotensin II, in Rats with Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of Jiangya Tongluo (JYTL formula on renal function in rats with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. A total of 21 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were randomized into 3 groups: valsartan (10 mg/kg/d valsartan, JYTL (14.2 g/kg/d JYTL, and a model group (5 mL/kg/d distilled water; Wistar Kyoto rats comprised the control group (n = 7, 5 mL/kg/d distilled water. Treatments were administered by gavage every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, 24-h urine protein, pathological changes in the kidney, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels were estimated. The contents of adrenomedullin (ADM and angiotensin II (Ang II in both the kidney and plasma were evaluated. JYTL lowered BP, 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine, and BUN. ADM content in kidneys increased and negatively correlated with BP, while Ang II decreased and negatively correlated with ADM, but there was no statistically significant difference of plasma ADM between the model and the treatment groups. Possibly, activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertensive nephrosclerosis and the protective function of ADM via local paracrine. JYTL may upregulate endogenous ADM level in the kidneys and antagonize Ang II during vascular injury by dilating renal blood vessels.

  13. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  14. Enabling Technology for Thermal Protection on HIAD and Other Hypersonic Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas conduction and radiation are the two important heat transfer mechanisms in highly porous reusable thermal protection systems used for planetary entry of space...

  15. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II : Properties of Steel Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Breugel, K.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  16. Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bauer, Alison K; Arredouani, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression...... in lungs of ozone-resistant mice suggested an additional role protecting against inhaled oxidants. After ozone exposure, MARCO-/- mice showed greater lung injury than did MARCO+/+ mice. Ozone is known to generate oxidized, proinflammatory lipids in lung lining fluid, such as 5beta,6beta......-epoxycholesterol (beta-epoxide) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-glycerophosphocholine (PON-GPC). Intratracheal instillation of either lipid caused substantial neutrophil influx in MARCO-/- mice, but had no effect in MARCO+/+ mice. Normal AMs showed greater uptake in vitro of beta-epoxide compared with MARCO-/- AMs...

  17. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part II: radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Ajdacic, N.; Zaric, M.; Vukovic, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor and radiation protection; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Decontamination and relevant actions, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and and solid radioactive wastes [sr

  18. A Quasi-Experimental, Before-After Trial Examining the Impact of an Emergency Department Mechanical Ventilator Protocol on Clinical Outcomes and Lung-Protective Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian T; Mohr, Nicholas M; Drewry, Anne M; Palmer, Christopher; Wessman, Brian T; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Keeperman, Jacob; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of an emergency department mechanical ventilation protocol on clinical outcomes and adherence to lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Quasi-experimental, before-after trial. Emergency department and ICUs of an academic center. Mechanically ventilated emergency department patients experiencing acute respiratory distress syndrome while in the emergency department or after admission to the ICU. An emergency department ventilator protocol which targeted variables in need of quality improvement, as identified by prior work: 1) lung-protective tidal volume, 2) appropriate setting of positive end-expiratory pressure, 3) oxygen weaning, and 4) head-of-bed elevation. A total of 229 patients (186 preintervention group, 43 intervention group) were studied. In the emergency department, the intervention was associated with significant changes (p protective ventilation from 11.1% to 61.5%, p value of less than 0.01. The intervention was associated with a reduction in mortality from 54.8% to 39.5% (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.83; p = 0.02) and a 3.9 day increase in ventilator-free days, p value equals to 0.01. This before-after study of mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrates that implementing a mechanical ventilator protocol in the emergency department is feasible and associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  19. Pd(II)-catalyzed di-o-olefination of carbazoles directed by the protecting N-(2-pyridyl)sulfonyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urones, Beatriz; Gómez Arrayás, Ramón; Carretero, Juan Carlos

    2013-03-01

    Despite the significance of carbazole in pharmacy and material science, examples of the direct C-H functionalization of this privileged unit are quite rare. The N-(2-pyridyl)sulfonyl group enables the Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of carbazoles and related systems, acting as both a directing and readily removable protecting group. This method features ample structural versatility, affording typically the double ortho-olefination products (at C1 and C8) in satisfactory yields and complete regiocontrol. The application of this procedure to related heterocyclic systems, such as indoline, is also described.

  20. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D; Barbas, Carmen S V; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-10-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome and the association between occurrence of pulmonary complications and outcome in these patients. Individual patient data analysis. ICU patients not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome at the onset of ventilation. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume. The primary endpoint was development of a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia during hospital stay. Based on the tertiles of tidal volume size in the first 2 days of ventilation, patients were assigned to a "low tidal volume group" (tidal volumes ≤ 7 mL/kg predicted body weight), an "intermediate tidal volume group" (> 7 and volume group" (≥ 10 mL/kg predicted body weight). Seven investigations (2,184 patients) were included. Acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia occurred in 23% of patients in the low tidal volume group, in 28% of patients in the intermediate tidal volume group, and in 31% of the patients in the high tidal volume group (adjusted odds ratio [low vs high tidal volume group], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98; p = 0.042). Occurrence of pulmonary complications was associated with a lower number of ICU-free and hospital-free days and alive at day 28 (10.0 ± 10.9 vs 13.8 ± 11.6 d; p volumes is associated with a lower risk of development of pulmonary complications in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  1. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification review plan - 7/29/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to verify the implementation status of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) for the River Protection Project (RPP) facilities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC). This review will also ascertain whether within RPP facilities and operations the work planning and execution processes are in place and functioning to effectively protect the health and safety of the workers, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The RPP ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOERL-96-92) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste and deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS central theme to ''Do work safely'' and protect human health and the environment

  2. Use of remote video auditing to validate Ebola level II personal protective equipment competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Peter J; Frank-Cooper, Madalyn

    2015-06-01

    Faced with an Ebola-related mandate to regularly train frontline hospital staff with the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment, a community hospital's emergency department implemented remote video auditing (RVA) to assist in the training and remediation of its nursing staff. RVA was found to be useful in assessing performance and facilitating remediation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Association between use of lung-protective ventilation with lower tidal volumes and clinical outcomes among patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Cardoso, Sérgio Oliveira; Manetta, José Antônio; Pereira, Victor Galvão Moura; Espósito, Daniel Crepaldi; Pasqualucci, Manoela de Oliveira Prado; Damasceno, Maria Cecília Toledo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2012-10-24

    Lung-protective mechanical ventilation with the use of lower tidal volumes has been found to improve outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been suggested that use of lower tidal volumes also benefits patients who do not have ARDS. To determine whether use of lower tidal volumes is associated with improved outcomes of patients receiving ventilation who do not have ARDS. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to August 2012. Eligible studies evaluated use of lower vs higher tidal volumes in patients without ARDS at onset of mechanical ventilation and reported lung injury development, overall mortality, pulmonary infection, atelectasis, and biochemical alterations. Three reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Disagreement was resolved by consensus. Twenty articles (2822 participants) were included. Meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model showed a decrease in lung injury development (risk ratio [RR], 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.47; I2, 0%; number needed to treat [NNT], 11), and mortality (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.89; I2, 0%; NNT, 23) in patients receiving ventilation with lower tidal volumes. The results of lung injury development were similar when stratified by the type of study (randomized vs nonrandomized) and were significant only in randomized trials for pulmonary infection and only in nonrandomized trials for mortality. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model showed, in protective ventilation groups, a lower incidence of pulmonary infection (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.92; I2, 32%; NNT, 26), lower mean (SD) hospital length of stay (6.91 [2.36] vs 8.87 [2.93] days, respectively; standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.82; I2, 75%), higher mean (SD) PaCO2 levels (41.05 [3.79] vs 37.90 [4.19] mm Hg, respectively; SMD, -0.51; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.32; I2, 54%), and lower mean (SD) pH values (7.37 [0.03] vs 7.40 [0

  4. Equation Discovery for Model Identification in Respiratory Mechanics of the Mechanically Ventilated Human Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzert, Steven; Guttmann, Josef; Steinmann, Daniel; Kramer, Stefan

    Lung protective ventilation strategies reduce the risk of ventilator associated lung injury. To develop such strategies, knowledge about mechanical properties of the mechanically ventilated human lung is essential. This study was designed to develop an equation discovery system to identify mathematical models of the respiratory system in time-series data obtained from mechanically ventilated patients. Two techniques were combined: (i) the usage of declarative bias to reduce search space complexity and inherently providing the processing of background knowledge. (ii) A newly developed heuristic for traversing the hypothesis space with a greedy, randomized strategy analogical to the GSAT algorithm. In 96.8% of all runs the applied equation discovery system was capable to detect the well-established equation of motion model of the respiratory system in the provided data. We see the potential of this semi-automatic approach to detect more complex mathematical descriptions of the respiratory system from respiratory data.

  5. N-3 PUFAs protect against aortic inflammation and oxidative stress in angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Wales

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells into the aortic wall. The inflammatory response is also evident in animal models, such as apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- mice that have been infused with angiotensin II, prior to development of aortic aneurysm. Since omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activity, we hypothesised that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs would protect against inflammatory processes in this mouse model. Twenty C57 and 20 ApoE-/- 3-4 week old male mice were supplemented with a low (0.14%, n = 10/group or high (0.70%, n = 10/group n-3 PUFA diet for 8 weeks before 2-day infusion with 0.9% saline or angiotensin II (1000 ng/kg/min. Four ApoE-/- mice on the low n-3 PUFA diet and none of the ApoE-/- mice on the high n-3 PUFA diet showed morphological evidence of abdominal aortic dissection. The plasma concentration of the n-3 PUFA metabolite, resolvin D1 was higher in angiotensin II-infused ApoE-/- mice fed the high, compared to the low n-3 PUFA diet. The number of neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the abdominal aorta was elevated in ApoE-/- mice on the low n-3 PUFA diet, and this was significantly attenuated in mice that were fed the high n-3 PUFA diet. Most neutrophils and macrophages were associated with dissected aortas. Immunoreactivity of the catalytic subunit of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase, Nox2, and superoxide were elevated in ApoE-/- mice that were fed the low n-3 PUFA diet, and this was also significantly attenuated in mice that were fed the high n-3 PUFA diet. Together, the findings indicate that supplementation of ApoE-/- mice with a diet high in n-3 PUFA content protected the mice against pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses following short-term infusion with angiotensin II.

  6. Privacy and ethics in pediatric environmental health research-part II: protecting families and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    2006-10-01

    In pediatric environmental health research, information about family members is often directly sought or indirectly obtained in the process of identifying child risk factors and helping to tease apart and identify interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, federal regulations governing human subjects research do not directly address ethical issues associated with protections for family members who are not identified as the primary "research participant." Ethical concerns related to family consent and privacy become paramount as pediatric environmental health research increasingly turns to questions of gene-environment interactions. In this article I identify issues arising from and potential solutions for the privacy and informed consent challenges of pediatric environmental health research intended to adequately protect the rights and welfare of children, family members, and communities. I first discuss family members as secondary research participants and then the specific ethical challenges of longitudinal research on late-onset environmental effects and gene-environment interactions. I conclude with a discussion of the confidentiality and social risks of recruitment and data collection of research conducted within small or unique communities, ethnic minority populations, and low-income families. The responsible conduct of pediatric environmental health research must be conceptualized as a goodness of fit between the specific research context and the unique characteristics of subjects and other family stakeholders.

  7. Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research—Part II: Protecting Families and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2006-01-01

    Background In pediatric environmental health research, information about family members is often directly sought or indirectly obtained in the process of identifying child risk factors and helping to tease apart and identify interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, federal regulations governing human subjects research do not directly address ethical issues associated with protections for family members who are not identified as the primary “research participant.” Ethical concerns related to family consent and privacy become paramount as pediatric environmental health research increasingly turns to questions of gene–environment interactions. Objectives In this article I identify issues arising from and potential solutions for the privacy and informed consent challenges of pediatric environmental health research intended to adequately protect the rights and welfare of children, family members, and communities. Discussion I first discuss family members as secondary research participants and then the specific ethical challenges of longitudinal research on late-onset environmental effects and gene–environment interactions. I conclude with a discussion of the confidentiality and social risks of recruitment and data collection of research conducted within small or unique communities, ethnic minority populations, and low-income families. Conclusions The responsible conduct of pediatric environmental health research must be conceptualized as a goodness of fit between the specific research context and the unique characteristics of subjects and other family stakeholders. PMID:17035154

  8. A bovine respiratory syncytial virus strain with mutations in subgroup-specific antigenic domains of the G protein induces partial heterologous protection in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, R.S.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Middel, W.G.J.; Kramps, J.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) strains are tentatively divided in subgroups A, AB and B, based on antigenic differences of the G protein. A Dutch BRSV strain (Waiboerhoeve: WBH), could not be assigned to one of the subgroups, because the strain did not react with any monoclonal antibody

  9. Cobalamin Protection against Oxidative Stress in the Acidophilic Iron-oxidizing Bacterium Leptospirillum group II CF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Paz Levicán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Leptospirillum are aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the phylum Nitrospira. They are important members of microbial communities that catalyze the biomining of sulfidic ores, thereby solubilizing metal ions. These microorganisms live under extremely acidic and metal-loaded environments and thus must tolerate high concentrations of reactive oxygen species. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing tetrapyrrole cofactor involved in intramolecular rearrangement reactions and has recently been suggested to be an intracellular antioxidant. In this work, we investigated the effect of the exogenous addition of cobalamin on oxidative stress parameters in Leptospirillum group II strain CF-1. Our results revealed that the external supplementation of cobalamin reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the damage to biomolecules, and also stimulates the growth and survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress exerted by ferric ion, hydrogen peroxide, chromate and diamide. Furthermore, exposure of strain CF-1 to oxidative stress elicitors resulted in the transcriptional activation of the cbiA gene encoding CbiA of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. Altogether, these data suggest that cobalamin plays an important role in redox protection of Leptospirillum strain CF-1, supporting survival of this microorganism under extremely oxidative environmental conditions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of cobalamin against oxidative stress may help to develop strategies to make biomining processes more effective.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel H.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are ''hypersensitive'' to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. (orig.)

  11. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  12. Meglumine Exerts Protective Effects against Features of Metabolic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Nuevo, Arturo; Marcy, Alice; Huang, Minzhou; Kappler, Frank; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa; Reichman, Melvin; Tobia, Annette; Prendergast, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetes complications pose a growing medical challenge worldwide, accentuating the need of safe and effective strategies for their clinical management. Here we present preclinical evidence that the sorbitol derivative meglumine (N-methyl-D-glucamine) can safely protect against several features of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as elicit enhancement in muscle stamina. Meglumine is a compound routinely used as an approved excipient to improve drug absorption that has not been ascribed any direct biological effects in vivo. Normal mice (SV129) administered 18 mM meglumine orally for six weeks did not display any gastrointestinal or other observable adverse effects, but had a marked effect on enhancing muscle stamina and at longer times in limiting weight gain. In the established KK.Cg-Ay/J model of non-insulin dependent diabetes, oral administration of meglumine significantly improved glycemic control and significantly lowered levels of plasma and liver triglycerides. Compared to untreated control animals, meglumine reduced apparent diabetic nephropathy. Sorbitol can improve blood glucose uptake by liver and muscle in a manner associated with upregulation of the AMPK-related enzyme SNARK, but with undesirable gastrointestinal side effects not seen with meglumine. In murine myoblasts, we found that meglumine increased steady-state SNARK levels in a dose-dependent manner more potently than sorbitol. Taken together, these findings provide support for the clinical evaluation of meglumine as a low-cost, safe supplement offering the potential to improve muscle function, limit metabolic syndrome and reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24587200

  13. Meglumine exerts protective effects against features of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetes complications pose a growing medical challenge worldwide, accentuating the need of safe and effective strategies for their clinical management. Here we present preclinical evidence that the sorbitol derivative meglumine (N-methyl-D-glucamine can safely protect against several features of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as elicit enhancement in muscle stamina. Meglumine is a compound routinely used as an approved excipient to improve drug absorption that has not been ascribed any direct biological effects in vivo. Normal mice (SV129 administered 18 mM meglumine orally for six weeks did not display any gastrointestinal or other observable adverse effects, but had a marked effect on enhancing muscle stamina and at longer times in limiting weight gain. In the established KK.Cg-Ay/J model of non-insulin dependent diabetes, oral administration of meglumine significantly improved glycemic control and significantly lowered levels of plasma and liver triglycerides. Compared to untreated control animals, meglumine reduced apparent diabetic nephropathy. Sorbitol can improve blood glucose uptake by liver and muscle in a manner associated with upregulation of the AMPK-related enzyme SNARK, but with undesirable gastrointestinal side effects not seen with meglumine. In murine myoblasts, we found that meglumine increased steady-state SNARK levels in a dose-dependent manner more potently than sorbitol. Taken together, these findings provide support for the clinical evaluation of meglumine as a low-cost, safe supplement offering the potential to improve muscle function, limit metabolic syndrome and reduce diabetic complications.

  14. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  15. Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions during gamma irradiation of their aqueous solutions by sacrificial protection. I- Valency stabilization of Fe (II) ions by sulphate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, M F [Nuclear chemistry department, hot lab. center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Abdel-Hamid, M M [Arab Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 402 El-Manzah-1004 Tunis, (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Polyvalent ions are very sensitive to gamma irradiation in aqueous solutions. The present work is a part of a more comprehensive study dealing with the stabilization or protection of certain oxidation states of some polyvalent ions during their gamma irradiation in aqueous systems. The behaviour of aqueous acidic Fe (II) solutions during gamma irradiation, in presence the prevailing protection mechanism. The conditions and stabilization limits in the studied case has been found out. 9 figs.

  16. Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions during gamma irradiation of their aqueous solutions by sacrificial protection. I- Valency stabilization of Fe (II) ions by sulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polyvalent ions are very sensitive to gamma irradiation in aqueous solutions. The present work is a part of a more comprehensive study dealing with the stabilization or protection of certain oxidation states of some polyvalent ions during their gamma irradiation in aqueous systems. The behaviour of aqueous acidic Fe (II) solutions during gamma irradiation, in presence the prevailing protection mechanism. The conditions and stabilization limits in the studied case has been found out. 9 figs

  17. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  18. Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve results in protective conventional ventilation comparable to high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies comparing high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome have used low values of positive end-expiratory pressure and identified a need for better recruitment and pulmonary stability with high frequency. OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional and high frequency ventilation using the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve as the determinant of positive end-expiratory pressure to obtain similar levels of recruitment and alveolar stability. METHODS: After lung lavage of adult rabbits and lower inflection point determination, two groups were randomized: conventional (positive end-expiratory pressure = lower inflection point; tidal volume=6 ml/kg and high frequency ventilation (mean airway pressures= lower inflection point +4 cmH2O. Blood gas and hemodynamic data were recorded over 4 h. After sacrifice, protein analysis from lung lavage and histologic evaluation were performed. RESULTS: The oxygenation parameters, protein and histological data were similar, except for the fact that significantly more normal alveoli were observed upon protective ventilation. High frequency ventilation led to lower PaCO2 levels. DISCUSSION: Determination of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve is important for setting the minimum end expiratory pressure needed to keep the airways opened. This is useful when comparing different strategies to treat severe respiratory insufficiency, optimizing conventional ventilation, improving oxygenation and reducing lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve in the ventilation strategies considered in this study resulted in comparable efficacy with regards to oxygenation and hemodynamics, a high PaCO2 level and a lower pH. In addition, a greater number of normal alveoli were found after protective conventional ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  19. Respiratory muscle training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodillo, E; Noble-Jamieson, C M; Aber, V; Heckmatt, J Z; Muntoni, F; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were entered into a randomised double blind crossover trial to compare respiratory muscle training with a Triflow II inspirometer and 'placebo' training with a mini peak flow meter. Supine posture was associated with significantly impaired lung function, but respiratory muscle training showed no benefit.

  20. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  1. ELABELA-APJ axis protects from pressure overload heart failure and angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Teruki; Sato, Chitose; Kadowaki, Ayumi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ho, Lena; Ishida, Junji; Yamaguchi, Tomokazu; Kimura, Akinori; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Penninger, Josef M; Reversade, Bruno; Ito, Hiroshi; Imai, Yumiko; Kuba, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    Elabela/Toddler/Apela (ELA) has been identified as a novel endogenous peptide ligand for APJ/Apelin receptor/Aplnr. ELA plays a crucial role in early cardiac development of zebrafish as well as in maintenance of self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells. Apelin was the first identified APJ ligand, and exerts positive inotropic heart effects and regulates the renin-angiotensin system. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of ELA in the cardiovascular system. Continuous infusion of ELA peptide significantly suppressed pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and impaired contractility in mice. ELA treatment reduced mRNA expression levels of genes associated with heart failure and fibrosis. The cardioprotective effects of ELA were diminished in APJ knockout mice, indicating that APJ is the key receptor for ELA in the adult heart. Mechanistically, ELA downregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression in the stressed hearts, whereas it showed little effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, which are distinct from the effects of Apelin. FoxM1 transcription factor, which induces ACE expression in the stressed hearts, was downregulated by ELA but not by Apelin. ELA antagonized angiotensin II-induced hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis in mice. The ELA-APJ axis protects from pressure overload-induced heart failure possibly via suppression of ACE expression and pathogenic angiotensin II signalling. The different effects of ELA and Apelin on the expression of ACE and ACE2 implicate fine-tuned mechanisms for a ligand-induced APJ activation and downstream signalling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 76 FR 44372 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Respiratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Respiratory Protection Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Respiratory Protection Standard,'' to the Office of Management... Respiratory Protection Standard outlined in 29 CFR 1910.134 assists employers in protecting the health of...

  3. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2-Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M; Freed, Curt R; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G; Bowler, Russell P; Mason, Robert J; Kosmider, Beata

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases.

  4. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  5. H- ras deletion protects against angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling through protein kinase G-Iβ pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Paloma; Luengo, Alicia; Griera, Mercedes; Orea, María Jesús; López-Olañeta, Marina; Chiloeches, Antonio; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Calleros, Laura; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Ras proteins regulate cell survival, growth, differentiation, blood pressure, and fibrosis in some organs. We have demonstrated that H- ras gene deletion produces mice hypotension via a soluble guanylate cyclase-protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of H- ras deletion on cardiac remodeling induced by continuous angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the molecular mechanisms implied. Left ventricular posterior wall thickness and mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were similar between AngII-treated H-Ras knockout (H -ras -/- ) and control wild-type (H -ras +/+ ) mice, as were extracellular matrix protein expression. Increased cardiac PKG-Iβ protein expression in H -ras -/- mice suggests the involvement of this protein in heart protection. Ex vivo experiments on cardiac explants could support this mechanism, as PKG blockade blunted protection against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis markers in H -ras -/- mice. Genetic modulation studies in cardiomyocytes and cardiac and embryonic fibroblasts revealed that the lack of H-Ras down-regulates the B-RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which induces the glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent activation of the transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein, which is responsible for PKG-Iβ overexpression in H -ras -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. This study demonstrates that H- ras deletion protects against AngII-induced cardiac remodeling, possibly via a mechanism in which PKG-Iβ overexpression could play a partial role, and points to H-Ras and/or downstream proteins as potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease.-Martín-Sánchez, P., Luengo, A., Griera, M., Orea, M. J., López-Olañeta, M., Chiloeches, A., Lara-Pezzi, E., de Frutos, S., Rodríguez-Puyol, M., Calleros, L., Rodríguez-Puyol, D. H- ras deletion protects against angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling through protein kinase G-Iβ pathway activation.

  6. A Recombinant Trivalent Fusion Protein F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) Augments Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Imparts Full Protection against Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra K; Batra, Lalit; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model. Here, we made two recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II). The caf1 and lcrV genes of Y. pestis and hsp70 domain II of M. tuberculosis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Both the recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II) were cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion proteins F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were purified using Ni-NTA columns and formulated with alum to evaluate the humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacies of F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were determined following challenge of immunized mice with 100 LD50 of Y. pestis through intraperitoneal route. Significant differences were noticed in the titers of IgG and it's isotypes, i.e., IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 in anti- F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) sera in comparison to anti-F1-LcrV sera. Similarly, significant differences were also noticed in the expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in splenocytes of F1-LcrV-HSP(II) immunized mice in comparison to F1-LcrV. Both F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) provided 100% protection. Our research findings suggest that F1-LcrV fused with HSP70 domain II of M. tuberculosis significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses in mouse model.

  7. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

  8. The effect of safety education based on Health Belief Model (HBM on the workers practice of Borujen industrial town in using the personal protection respiratory equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasanzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Every year 50-158 million occupational diseases and job accidents occur in the world. Studies on the job injuries show that about 150000 injuries occur annually in  Iran. Unhealthy behaviors are important problems in public health. Education is one of the best ways to change unhealthy behaviors. Interventions based on model and theories have many  capacities for behavior change. Health Belief Model is one of the health education models that are  useful for behavior change. This research has been performed in order to assess the effect of health  education program based on health belief model (HBM to prevent occupational respiratory   diseases in workers.   Methods   Aquasi-experimental design was used for this interventional study, in which 88 of workers of Borujen industrial town participated, who were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. Data collecting tool were a self-administered questionnaire including 53 questions based on health belief model that was completed by the workers, in addition to the performance check list which was conducted by researcher via insensible controlling the workers' safety behaviour. Validity and reliability of the tools were examined prior to the study. Educational  intervention was conducted in the first stage following by the second data collection one month  later. The data of both experimental and control group were compared statistically before and  after the intervention.   Results   The results showed that the mean of the grade of all parts of health belief model  (HBM and performance mark of the workers about safety and use of personal respiratory  preventive equipment in experimental group after educational intervention compared to prior the  study and also compared to control group were significantly increased.   Conclusion   The results of this survey showed that by enhancement of health belief model (HBM components including

  9. ["Assessment of indoor school environment and identification of measures to protect the respiratory health of school children and adolescents" in a sample of schools in Milan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, S; Gulino, A; Pulvirenti, S; Vercelli, F; Carrer, P

    2012-01-01

    The management of indoor air quality in schools needs special attention because it has a strong impact on respiratory health of children with effects also on performance and social development. In Italy a prevention program for indoor environments is provided in the "Guidelines for the prevention of indoor risk factors for allergies and asthma in the school", developed by the Ministry of Health (G.U n. 9 del 13.01.11). In this context, the Ministry of Health has promoted the "Indoor school" project (CCM2010). The main objective of the project is the implementation of these guidelines. In this paper we report the results of the first phase of the project which assessed the knowledge of school principals on issues related to IAQ and building characteristics of the school.

  10. A single intranasal administration of virus-like particle vaccine induces an efficient protection for mice against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue-Ying; Fu, Yuan-Hui; Yan, Yi-Fei; Hua, Ying; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Song, Jing-Dong; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Huang, Jiaqiang; Hong, Tao; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully. The resulting VLPs showed similar immunoreactivity and function to RSV virion in vitro. Moreover, Th1 polarized response, and effective mucosal virus-neutralizing antibody and CD8 + T-cell responses were induced by a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of RSV VLPs rather than intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation, although the comparable RSV F-specific serum IgG and long-lasting RSV-specific neutralizing antibody were detected in the mice immunized by both routes. Upon RSV challenge, VLP-immunized mice showed increased viral clearance but decreased signs of enhanced lung pathology and fewer eosinophils compared to mice immunized with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). In addition, a single i.n. RSV VLP vaccine has the capability to induce RSV-specific long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses observable up to 15 months. Our results demonstrate that the long-term and memory immune responses in mice against RSV were induced by a single i.n. administration of RSV VLP vaccine, suggesting a successful approach of RSV VLPs as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and an applicable and qualified platform of FGAd-infected Vero cells for VLP production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Variables predictive of outcome in patients with acute hypercapneic respiratory failure treated with noninvasive ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahuddin, N.; Irfan, M.; Khan, S.; Naeem, M.; Haque, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess results with NIV in acute hypercapneic respiratory failure and to identify outcome predictors. This was a retrospective observational study on consecutive patients presenting with acute type II respiratory failure and meeting criteria for NIV use over a 5 year period. Patients presenting with haemodynamic instability, inability to protect their airway, malignant arrhythmias and recent oesophageal surgery were excluded. Univariate and Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the impact on survival. A p value of 35 Meq/L (adjusted Odds ratio 0.9; 95% CI 0.83, 0.98, p < 0.015) identified those less at risk for intubation. NIV was found to be both safe and effective in the management of acute hypercapneic respiratory failure. Sepsis and serum HCO/sub 3/ at admission identified patients having poor outcomes (JPMA 60:13; 2010). (author)

  12. Interferon-γ induces expression of MHC class II on intestinal epithelial cells and protects mice from colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Thelemann

    Full Text Available Immune responses against intestinal microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and involve CD4(+ T cells, which are activated by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs. However, it is largely unexplored how inflammation-induced MHCII expression by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC affects CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunity or tolerance induction in vivo. Here, we investigated how epithelial MHCII expression is induced and how a deficiency in inducible epithelial MHCII expression alters susceptibility to colitis and the outcome of colon-specific immune responses. Colitis was induced in mice that lacked inducible expression of MHCII molecules on all nonhematopoietic cells, or specifically on IECs, by continuous infection with Helicobacter hepaticus and administration of interleukin (IL-10 receptor-blocking antibodies (anti-IL10R mAb. To assess the role of interferon (IFN-γ in inducing epithelial MHCII expression, the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis was used. Abrogation of MHCII expression by nonhematopoietic cells or IECs induces colitis associated with increased colonic frequencies of innate immune cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CD4(+ T-helper type (Th1 cells - but not group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs or Th17 cells - are elevated, resulting in an unfavourably altered ratio between CD4(+ T cells and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+ regulatory T (Treg cells. IFN-γ produced mainly by CD4(+ T cells is required to upregulate MHCII expression by IECs. These results suggest that, in addition to its proinflammatory roles, IFN-γ exerts a critical anti-inflammatory function in the intestine which protects against colitis by inducing MHCII expression on IECs. This may explain the failure of anti-IFN-γ treatment to induce remission in IBD patients, despite the association of elevated IFN-γ and IBD.

  13. Class I and II Small Heat Shock Proteins Together with HSP101 Protect Protein Translation Factors during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Fionn; Basha, Eman; Fowler, Mary E; Kim, Minsoo; Bordowitz, Juliana; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Vierling, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress. Affinity purification of CI and CII sHSPs from heat-stressed seedlings recovered eukaryotic translation elongation factor (eEF) 1B (α-, β-, and γ-subunits) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (three isoforms), although the association with CI sHSPs was stronger and additional proteins involved in translation were recovered with CI sHSPs. eEF1B subunits became partially insoluble during heat stress and, in the CI and CII RNAi lines, showed reduced recovery to the soluble cell fraction after heat stress, which was also dependent on HSP101. Furthermore, after heat stress, CI sHSPs showed increased retention in the insoluble fraction in the CII RNAi line and vice versa. Immunolocalization revealed that both CI and CII sHSPs were present in cytosolic foci, some of which colocalized with HSP101 and with eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bβ. Thus, CI and CII sHSPs have both unique and overlapping functions and act either directly or indirectly to protect specific translation factors in cytosolic stress granules. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The new ICRP respiratory model for radiation protection (ICRP 66) : applications and comparative evaluations; Nuovo modello polmonare della ICRP per radioprotezione (ICRP 66)azioni e confronti con la modellistica precedenteIl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.; Luciani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this report is to present the New ICRP Respiratory Model Tract for Radiological Protection. The model allows considering anatomical and physiological characteristics, giving reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5,10, and 15 years for adults; it also takes into account aerosol and gas characteristics. After a general description of the model structure, deposition, clearance and dosimetric models are presented. To compare the new and previous model (ICRP 30), dose coefficients (committed effective dose for unit intake) foe inhalation of radionuclides by workers are calculated considering aerosol granulometries with activity median aerodynamic of 1 and 5 {mu}m, reference values for the respective publications. Dose coefficients and annual limits of intakes concerning respective dose limits (50 and 20 mSv respectively for ICRP 26 and 60) for workers and for members of population in case of dispersion of fission products aerosols, are finally calculated.

  15. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  16. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  17. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52 Respiratory...

  18. ‘Fortress Europe’: Compliance of the Dublin II Regulation with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lenart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Dublin II Regulation, a cornerstone of the emerging Common European Asylum System, has been gravely criticised, especially in context of the living conditions and general situation of asylum seekers in Greece. The main concerns regard the potential noncompliance of the Dublin II Regulation with the European Convention on Human Rights ('ECHR', particularly with Article 3 - the prohibition of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment. This article examines the competing views in this respect. It analyses the relationship between EU law and the ECHR, protection of rights of refugees under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and main deficiencies of the Dublin II Regulation. The analysis starts with the non-equivalent protection of asylum seekers throughout the EU and finishes with the very limited definition of a family member and case law relevant to the principle of non-refoulement. This article concludes that the Dublin II Regulation per se cannot be deemed noncompliant with the ECHR. However, it emphasises the urgent need to change relevant legal provisions, or at least enforcement, and proposes possible solutions therein.

  19. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of exercise-induced asthma, respiratory and allergic disorders in sports and the relationship to doping: Part II of the report from the Joint Task Force of European Respiratory Society (ERS) and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) in cooperation with GA(2)LEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, K H; Anderson, S D; Bjermer, L; Bonini, S; Brusasco, V; Canonica, W; Cummiskey, J; Delgado, L; Del Giacco, S R; Drobnic, F; Haahtela, T; Larsson, K; Palange, P; Popov, T; van Cauwenberge, P

    2008-05-01

    The aims of part II is to review the current recommended treatment of exercise-induced asthma (EIA), respiratory and allergic disorders in sports, to review the evidence on possible improvement of performance in sports by asthma drugs and to make recommendations for their treatment. The literature cited with respect to the treatment of exercise induced asthma in athletes (and in asthma patients) is mainly based upon the systematic review given by Larsson et al. (Larsson K, Carlsen KH, Bonini S. Anti-asthmatic drugs: treatment of athletes and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In: Carlsen KH, Delgado L, Del Giacco S, editors. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of exercise-related asthma, respiratory and allergic disorders in sports. Sheffield, UK: European Respiratory Journals Ltd, 2005:73-88) during the work of the Task Force. To assess the evidence of the literature regarding use of beta(2)-agonists related to athletic performance, the Task Force searched Medline for relevant papers up to November 2006 using the present search words: asthma, bronchial responsiveness, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, athletes, sports, performance and beta(2)-agonists. Evidence level and grades of recommendation were assessed according to Sign criteria. Treatment recommendations for EIA and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes are set forth with special reference to controller and reliever medications. Evidence for lack of improvement of exercise performance by inhaled beta(2)-agonists in healthy athletes serves as a basis for permitting their use. There is a lack of evidence of treatment effects of asthma drugs on EIA and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes whereas extensive documentation exists in treatment of EIA in patients with asthma. The documentation on lack of improvement on performance by common asthma drugs as inhaled beta(2)-agonists with relationship to sports in healthy individuals is of high evidence, level (1+). Exercise induced asthma should be

  1. Targeting arginase-II protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis through suppression of macrophage inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Rajapakse, Angana G; Riedo, Erwin; Fellay, Benoit; Bernhard, Marie-Claire; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2016-02-05

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hypoactive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and macrophage-mediated inflammation are mechanistically linked to NAFLD. Studies investigating roles of arginase particularly the extrahepatic isoform arginase-II (Arg-II) in obesity-associated NAFLD showed contradictory results. Here we demonstrate that Arg-II(-/-) mice reveal decreased hepatic steatosis, macrophage infiltration, TNF-α and IL-6 as compared to the wild type (WT) littermates fed high fat diet (HFD). A higher AMPK activation (no difference in mTOR signaling), lower levels of lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1c and activity/expression of lipogenic enzymes were observed in the Arg-II(-/-) mice liver. Moreover, release of TNF-α and IL-6 from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) of Arg-II(-/-) mice is decreased as compared to WT-BMM. Conditioned medium from Arg-II(-/-)-BMM exhibits weaker activity to facilitate triglyceride synthesis paralleled with lower expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 and higher AMPK activation in hepatocytes as compared to that from WT-BMM. These effects of BMM conditioned medium can be neutralized by neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6. Thus, Arg-II-expressing macrophages facilitate diet-induced NAFLD through TNF-α and IL-6 in obesity.

  2. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist Compound 21 is protective in experimental diabetes-associated atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, Bryna S M; Koulis, Christine; Krishnaswamy, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Angiotensin II is well-recognised to be a key mediator in driving the pathological events of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis via signalling through its angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) subtype. However, its actions via the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) subtype...... are still poorly understood. This study is the first to investigate the role of the novel selective AT2R agonist, Compound 21 (C21) in an experimental model of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis (DAA). METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe-knockout mice were treated with vehicle (0.1 mol/l citrate...

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  4. Profound protection against respiratory challenge with a lethal H7N7 influenza A virus by increasing the magnitude of CD8(+) T-cell memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Doherty, P C; Branum, K C

    2000-01-01

    The recall of CD8(+) T-cell memory established by infecting H-2(b) mice with an H1N1 influenza A virus provided a measure of protection against an extremely virulent H7N7 virus. The numbers of CD8(+) effector and memory T cells specific for the shared, immunodominant D(b)NP(366) epitope were...... greatly increased subsequent to the H7N7 challenge, and though lung titers remained as high as those in naive controls for 5 days or more, the virus was cleared more rapidly. Expanding the CD8(+) memory T-cell pool (10%) by sequential priming with two different influenza A viruses (H3N2-->H1N1......) gave much better protection. Though the H7N7 virus initially grew to equivalent titers in the lungs of naive and double-primed mice, the replicative phase was substantially controlled within 3 days. This tertiary H7N7 challenge caused little increase in the magnitude of the CD8(+) D(b)NP(366)(+) T...

  5. Novel mechanism of cardiac protection by valsartan: synergetic roles of TGF-β1 and HIF-1α in Ang II-mediated fibrosis after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xizhong; Wei, Hongchao; Wang, Dacheng

    2015-08-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a known factor in angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (Hif-1α) was recently demonstrated to involve in the tissue fibrosis and influenced by Ang II. However, whether Hif-1α contributed to the Ang II-mediated cardiac fibrosis after MI, and whether interaction or synergetic roles between Hif-1α and TGF-β pathways existed in the process was unclear. In vitro, cardiac cells were incubated under hypoxia or Ang II to mimic ischaemia. In vivo, valsartan was intravenously injected into Sprague-Dawley rats with MI daily for 1 week; saline and hydralazine (another anti-hypertensive agent like valsartan) was used as control. The fibrosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. Cardiac structure and function were assessed with multimodality methods. We demonstrated in vitro that hypoxia would induce the up-regulation of Ang II, TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α, which further induced collagen accumulation. By blocking with valsartan, a blocker of Ang II type I (AT1) receptor, we confirmed that the up-regulation of TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α was through the Ang II-mediated pathway. By administering TGF-β or dimethyloxalylglycine, we determined that both TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α contributed to Ang II-mediated collagen accumulation and a synergetic effect between them was observed. Consistent with in vitro results, valsartan significantly attenuated the expression of TGF-β/Smad, Hif-1α and fibrosis-related protein in rats after MI. Heart function, infarcted size, wall thickness as well as myocardial vascularization of ischaemic hearts were also significantly improved by valsartan compared with saline and hydralazine. Our study may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis as well as into the cardiac protection of valsartan. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and

  6. Work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a comparison between volume and pressure-regulated breathing modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Campbell, Andre R; Dicker, Rochelle A; Katz, Jeffrey A; Mackersie, Robert C

    2005-12-01

    Pressure-control ventilation (PCV) and pressure-regulated volume-control (PRVC) ventilation are used during lung-protective ventilation because the high, variable, peak inspiratory flow rate (V (I)) may reduce patient work of breathing (WOB) more than the fixed V (I) of volume-control ventilation (VCV). Patient-triggered breaths during PCV and PRVC may result in excessive tidal volume (V(T)) delivery unless the inspiratory pressure is reduced, which in turn may decrease the peak V (I). We tested whether PCV and PRVC reduce WOB better than VCV with a high, fixed peak V (I) (75 L/min) while also maintaining a low V(T) target. Fourteen nonconsecutive patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied prospectively, using a random presentation of ventilator modes in a crossover, repeated-measures design. A target V(T) of 6.4 + 0.5 mL/kg was set during VCV and PRVC. During PCV the inspiratory pressure was set to achieve the same V(T). WOB and other variables were measured with a pulmonary mechanics monitor (Bicore CP-100). There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher WOB (in J/L) during PCV (1.27 + 0.58 J/L) and PRVC (1.35 + 0.60 J/L), compared to VCV (1.09 + 0.59 J/L). While mean V(T) was not statistically different between modes, in 40% of patients, V(T) markedly exceeded the lung-protective ventilation target during PRVC and PCV. During lung-protective ventilation, PCV and PRVC offer no advantage in reducing WOB, compared to VCV with a high flow rate, and in some patients did not allow control of V(T) to be as precise.

  7. [Effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on patients with severe burn complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Wenbin; Chen, Bib; Liu, Changling; Cao, Wenjuan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on ARDS complicating patients with severe burn. Clinical data of 15 severely burned patients with ARDS admitted to our burn ICU from September 2011 to September 2013 and conforming to the study criteria were analyzed. Right after the diagnosis of acute lung injury/ARDS, patients received mechanical ventilation with lung protective ventilation strategy. When the oxygenation index (OI) was below or equal to 200 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0. 133 kPa), lung recruitment maneuver was performed combining incremental positive end-expiratory pressure. When OI was above 200 mmHg, lung recruitment maneuver was stopped and ventilation with lung protective ventilation strategy was continued. When OI was above 300 mmHg, mechanical ventilation was stopped. Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, variables of blood gas analysis (pH, PaO2, and PaCO2) were obtained by blood gas analyzer, and the OI values were calculated; hemodynamic parameters including heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP) of all patients and the cardiac output (CO), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) of 4 patients who received pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring were monitored. Treatment measures and outcome of patients were recorded. Data were processed with analysis of variance of repeated measurement of a single group and LSD test. (1) Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, the levels of PaO2 and OI of patients were respectively (77 ± 8), (113 ± 5), (142 ± 6) mmHg, and (128 ± 12), (188 ± 8), (237 ± 10) mmHg. As a whole, levels of PaO2 and OI changed significantly at different time points (with F values respectively 860. 96 and 842. 09, P values below

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  9. Organization of measures on protection of population and territories against weapons of mass destruction: brief analysis of laboratory control and conditions of personnel protective means of respiratory organs in the Republic of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, D.D.; Makhmadov, T.F.; Stotskiy, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    and territory protection from mass-destruction weapon. Organization of actions on population and territory protection is caused on geographical location of Tajikistan. There is a number of some states near Tajikistan that have nuclear weapon: India, China, Pakistan. The basic actions for protection of the population and territories from weapons of mass destruction are: maintenance and accumulation of means of an individual defense, creation of stocks; creation and restoration of protective constructions of a civil defense; evacuation actions planning; restoration of system of monitoring and the laboratory control of a civil defense of Republic Tajikistan; according to the Government Regulation N 527 and dated on 31"s"t of October, 2008 the 'Emergency situations and civil defense system development 2009-2014' Program was adopted. According to the Plan of the events within this Programme Committee of emergency situations and civil defense under the Government of Republic of Tajikistan provides a stage-by-stage realization of the actions for protection of population and territories from mass-destruction weapon. One of the important actions is provision and accumulation of the means of personal protection, keeping of this means. The means of personal protections are laboratory tested by the specialists of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense. Analytical data of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense allows making some conclusions concerning experienced storage of the means of personal protection. A general analysis of laboratory test indicates that: laboratory tests of filtering boxes indicate the preservation of air flow resistance and waterproof due to the adherence to the rules of keeping; laboratory tests of the front parts of the gas masks and their hardness and waterproof, and the waterproof of the valves show that the front part is dependent on meteorological character of the region of storage at long-term keeping. Conclusions

  10. Preferential protection of domains ii and iii of bacillus thuringiensis cry1aa toxin by brush border membrane vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed-Rehan A.; Flórez, Álvaro M.; Dean, Donald H.; Alzate, Óscar

    2011-01-01

    Título español: Protección preferencial de los dominios II y III de la toxina Cry1Aa de Bacillus thuringiensis en Vesículas de Membrana de Borde de Cepillo Abstract The surface exposed Leucine 371 on loop 2 of domain II, in Cry1Aa toxin, was mutated to Lysine to generate the trypsin-sensitive mutant, L371K. Upon trypsin digestion L371K is cleaved into approximately 37 and 26 kDa fragments. These are separable on SDS-PAGE, but remain as a single molecule of 65 kDa upon purification by ...

  11. Preferential Protection of Domains II and III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa Toxin by Brush Border Membrane Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Syed-Rehan A. Hussain; Álvaro M. Flórez; Donald H. Dean; Óscar Alzate

    2011-01-01

    Título español: Protección preferencial de los dominios II y III de la toxina Cry1Aa de Bacillus thuringiensis en Vesículas de Membrana de Borde de Cepillo Abstract The surface exposed Leucine 371 on loop 2 of domain II, in Cry1Aa toxin, was mutated to Lysine to generate the trypsin-sensitive mutant, L371K. Upon trypsin digestion L371K is cleaved into approximately 37 and 26 kDa fragments. These are separable on SDS-PAGE, but remain as a single molecule of 65 kDa upon purification by ...

  12. ["Epistemic Negotiations" and the Pluralism of the Radiation Protection Regime: The Determination of Radiation Protection Standards for the General Population in the Early Years After World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Radiation protection standards for the general population have constituted one of the most controversial subjects in the history of atomic energy uses. This paper reexamines the process in which the first such standards evolved in the early postwar period. While the existing literature has emphasized a "collusion" between the standard-setters and users, the paper seeks to examine the horizontal relationship among the standard-setters. It first examines a series of expert consultations between the United States and the United Kingdom. Representing a different configuration of power and interest, the two failed to agree on the assessment of genetic damage and cancer induction whose occurrence might have no threshold and therefore be dependent on the population size. This stalemate prevented the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), established in 1950, from formulating separate guidelines for the general public. Situations radically changed when the Bikini incident in 1954 led to the creation of more scientific panels. One such panel under the U.S. Academy of Sciences enabled the geneticists to bridge their internal divide, unanimously naming 100 mSv as the genetically permissible dose for the general population. Not to be outdone, ICRP publicized its own guidelines for the same purpose. The case examined in this paper shows that the standard-setting process is best understood as a series of "epistemic negotiations" among and within the standard-setters, whose agendas were determined from the outset but whose outcomes were not.

  13. II International Conference: Radiation Protection Training. Future Strategies. Ciemat, 17-19 September, 2003. Book of Papers and Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Safety in the use of ionising radiation and protection against potential risks due to exposure to radiation sources are not static concepts, rather their evolution runs parallel with an increased knowledge of the technologies and basic concepts employed. Education and training, which are inherently tied to with research, are the means to disseminate the advances made to the scientists and professionals working with ionising radiation. At present, Radiation Protection (RP) training is considered to be the best means to promote a safety culture and to improve the competence of exposed workers. Indeed, progress in both RP teaching and training, which form part of this transfer of technology and specialized knowledge, are fields that are in continuous motion. The first conference on Radiation Protection training was celebrated in Saclay (France) under the slogan Radiation Protection: What are the Future Training needs?. It can be considered as the first such meeting dedicated to the community of professionals, from a wide range of scientific and technological backgrounds, related in some way to Radiation Protection training. (Author)

  14. Radiation protection guidance to Federal agencies for occupational exposure. Recommendations approved by the President. Part II The President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Lee M.

    1987-01-01

    This memorandum transmits recommendations that would update previous guidance to Federal agencies for the protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These recommendations were developed cooperatively by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) of the States, and the Health Physics Society were consulted during the development of this guidance. These recommendations are based on consideration of (1) current scientific understanding of effects on health from ionizing radiation, (2) recommendations of international and national organizations involved in radiation protection, (3) proposed 'Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Occupational Exposure' published on January 23, 1981 (46 FR 7836) and public comments on that proposed guidance, and (4) the collective experience of the Federal agencies in the control of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. A summary of the considerations that led to these recommendations is provided

  15. He-Ne laser protection barrier by means of poly (Tetrafluoroethylene-Perfluoro vinyl Ether) grafted by acrylic acid complexed with Cu(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ahdal, M.A.; Fayek, S.A.; El-Sawy, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate eye and skin protection is a prerequisite for the safe operation of He-Ne laser in industrial and laboratory environments. In the present paper, measurement of the optical parameters of poly (tetrafluoroethylene-perfluorovinyl ether) grafted by acrylic acid and complexed with Cu(II) are reported. He-Ne laser beam radiation on wavelength of 632.8 nm and power 12.5mW was used. Transmittance and reflectance spectra and refractive index dispersion are presented. The study showed that the material has a protective level 4. Environmental conditions like thermal and fading processes were tested. This suggested that the material preserves its protective features as a protective eye and skin barriers of protective level 4. This was applied for occupational working time up to 8 h, temperature up to 50 degree C and for a time equal 74 days after laser irradiation. Radiation protection from laser sources has attracted a great deal of attention for long time because of their importance for human body. Intensive progress in lasers, optical communications, and data storage has challenged scientists to achieve perfection in optical components. These challenges have resulted in an active development of a wide variety of unconventional optical elements (Hariharan, 1996 and Efimov et al., 2002). Alexandrite solid state lasers with a wavelength of about 755 nm are frequently used in the field of medicine (Schirmarcher and Sutter, 2001). For removing tattoos, the Q-switched versions with impulse widths of several ten nanoseconds are an ideal instrument to keep the thermal stress of the patient's skin at low level. He-Ne laser is one of the most commonly used visible light lasers

  16. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. History of mechanical ventilation may affect respiratory mechanics evolution in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Perraki, Helen; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Tromaropoulos, Andreas; Sotiropoulou, Christina; Roussos, Charis

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical ventilation (MV) before acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on subsequent evolution of respiratory mechanics and blood gases in protectively ventilated patients with ARDS. Nineteen patients with ARDS were stratified into 2 groups according to ARDS onset relative to the onset of MV: In group A (n = 11), MV was applied at the onset of ARDS; in group B (n = 8), MV had been initiated before ARDS. Respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gas were assessed in early (protectively ventilated patients with ARDS, late alteration of respiratory mechanics occurs more commonly in patients who have been ventilated before ARDS onset, suggesting that the history of MV affects the subsequent progress of ARDS even when using protective ventilation.

  18. Simulation and planning of treatment of breast with respiratory control; Simulacion y planifiacion de un tratamiento de mama con control respiratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Castro Tejero, P.; Fuente Alonso, C. de la; Regueiro Otero, C.

    2013-07-01

    The radiotherapy with beams of photons of the breast cancer in stages I and II is an established technique. The principal risks of the treatment derived from accidental irradiation of pulmonary and cardiac tissue. Several previous studies have indicated that respiratory control techniques involve a benefit in the protection of pulmonary and cardiac volume, and therefore, it would mean a reduction in the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiac damage. The objective of this work is to check if there is a dosimetric benefit of breast with respiratory control treatments, such as reflects the literature. (Author)

  19. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  2. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  4. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  5. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  6. Variations in constitutive and inducible UV-B tolerance; dissecting photosystem II protection in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; LeMartret, B.; Koornneef, M.

    2010-01-01

    The rise in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) (280–315 nm) radiation levels, that is a consequence of stratospheric ozone layer depletion, has triggered extensive research on the effects of UV-B on plants. Plants raised under natural sunlight conditions are generally well protected from the potentially harmful

  7. Climate change and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Daniel A; Kellerman, Roy A

    2014-10-01

    To discuss the nature of climate change and both its immediate and long-term effects on human respiratory health. This review is based on information from a presentation of the American College of Chest Physicians course on Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease held in Toronto, Canada, June 2013. It is supplemented by a PubMed search for climate change, global warming, respiratory tract diseases, and respiratory health. It is also supplemented by a search of Web sites including the Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Meteorological Association, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, and the World Health Organization. Health effects of climate change include an increase in the prevalence of certain respiratory diseases, exacerbations of chronic lung disease, premature mortality, allergic responses, and declines in lung function. Climate change, mediated by greenhouse gases, causes adverse health effects to the most vulnerable patient populations-the elderly, children, and those in distressed socioeconomic strata.

  8. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  10. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo II. protection by vitamin A and soybean oil against radiation damage caused by internal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harapanhalli, R.S.; Narra, V.R.; Yaghmai, V.; Azure, M.T.; Goddu, M.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-incorporated radionuclides impart radiation energy over extended periods of time depending on their effective half-lives. The capacity of vitamin A dissolved in soybean oil to protect against the biological effects caused by internal radionuclides is investigated. The radiochemicals examined are DNA-binding 125 IdU, cytoplasmically localized H 125 IPDM and the α-particle emitter 210 Po citrate. As in our previous studies, spermatogenesis in mice is used as the experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival is the biological end point. Surprisingly, soybean oil itself provides substantial and equal protection against the Auger effect of 125 IdU, which is comparable to a high-LET radiation effect, as well as the low-LET effects of H 125 IPDM, the dose modification factors (DMFs) being 3.6 ± 0.9 (SEM) and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The protection afforded by the oil against the effects of 5.3 MeV α particles emitted by 210Po is also significant (DMF = 2.2 ± 0.4). The presence of vitamin A in the oil further enhanced the radioprotection against the effect of 125 IdU (DMF = 4.8 ± 1.3) and H 125 IKPDM (DMF = 5.1 ± 0.6); however, no enhancement is provided against the effects of α particles. These interesting results with soybean oil and vitamin A, together with data on the subcellular distribution of the protectors, provide clues regarding the mechanistic aspects of the protection. In addition, the data for vitamin A reaffirm our earlier conclusion that the mechanism by which DNA-bound Auger emitters impart biological damage is primarily indirect in nature. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Influência da adequação postural em cadeira de rodas na função respiratória de pacientes com amiotrofia espinhal tipo II Influence of wheelchair positioning aids on the respiratory function of patients with type II spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda André Collange

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou determinar a influência da adequação postural em cadeira de rodas na função respiratória de pacientes com amiotrofia espinhal tipo II (AME. Doze pacientes (idades entre 7 e 24 anos com diagnóstico de AME II, confirmado por achados clínicos e análise genética, participaram do estudo. Os parâmetros respiratórios - volume minuto (VM, volume corrente (VC, capacidade vital forçada (CVF, pressões inspiratória (PImáx e expiratória (PEmáx máximas e pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE - na cadeira de rodas individual, com adaptações, e em uma cadeira de rodas padrão, isto é, sem reclinação ou inclinação. Os resultados mostram valores melhores estatisticamente significativos de todos os parâmetros respiratórios (VM, p=0,002; VC, p=0,003; CVF, p=0,017; PImáx, p=0,002; PEmáx, p=0,006; e PFE, p=0,007 nas medidas tomadas na cadeira adaptada para a postura adequada. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adequação postural em cadeira de rodas influencia positivamente a função respiratória de pacientes com AME tipo II.This study aimed at determining the influence of adequate wheelchair positioning aids on the respiratory function in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type II patients. Twelve patients (aged 7 to 24 with SMA diagnosed by clinical findings and confirmed by genetic analysis, who owned wheelchairs with positioning aids, underwent spirometric assessment - as to minute volume (MV, tidal volume (TV, forced vital capacity (FVC, maximum inspiratory (IPmax and expiratory (EPmax pressures, and peak expiratory flow (PEF - both on their own wheelchair and on a standard wheelchair with no recline or tilt. Results show significantly better values in all assessed parameters (MV, p=0.002; TV, p=0.003; FVC, p=0.017; IPmax, p=0.002, EPmax, p=0.006; and PEF, p=0.007 of measures taken at the patient's own chair, with positioning aids. These results allow for concluding that wheelchair positioning aids may positively

  12. Tasks related to increase of RA reactor exploitation and experimental potential, 01. Designing the protection chamber in the RA reactor hall for handling the radioactive experimental equipment (I-II) Part II, Vol. II; Radovi na povecanju eksploatacionih i eksperimentalnih mogucnosti reaktora RA, 01. Projektovanje zastitne komore u hali reaktora RA za rad sa aktivnim eksperimentalnim uredjajima (I-II), II Deo, Album II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-07-15

    This second volume of the project for construction of the protection chamber in the RA reactor hall for handling the radioactive devices includes the technical description of the chamber, calculation of the shielding wall thickness, bottom lead plate, horizontal stability of the chamber, cost estimation, and the engineering drawings.

  13. Focused ultrasound examination of the chest on patients admitted with acute signs of respiratory problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, M; Laursen, C B; Teglbjærg, L S

    2016-01-01

    . As standard for correct diagnosis, we perform a blinded journal audit after discharge. As primary analysis, we use the intention-to-treat analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first multicentre trial in EDs to investigate whether f-US, in the hands of the EP, increases the proportion of correct diagnosis...... at 4 hours after arrival when performed on patients with respiratory problems. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial is conducted in accordance with the Helsinki II Declaration and approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency and the Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics for the Region of Southern...

  14. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  15. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  16. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic...... from immunized thymus grafted animals provided only limited protective effect, and treatment with cells from athymic animals had no effect. The study shows that although isogeneic thymus-grafted nude rats become resistent to reinfection with S. typhimurium, only large doses of spleen cells from...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... indicator (ESLI) means a system that warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of adequate... to the PLHCP before the PLHCP makes a recommendation concerning an employee's ability to use a..., the employer shall: (i) Obtain a written recommendation regarding the employee's ability to use the...

  18. Respiratory Protection Performance: Impact of Helmet Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    usage. In addition, NVG usage did not result in significant differences within the integrated or nonintegrated configurations. Figure 4 illustrates the...DISTRIBUTION LIST The following individuals and organizations were provided with one Adobe portable document format (pdf) electronic

  19. Effects of anti-schistosomal chemotherapy on immune responses, protection and immunity. II. Concomitant immunity and immunization with irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.F.; Colley, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Resistance of mice to challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated before and after elimination of their primary, established S. mansoni infections with the chemotherapeutic drug praziquantel. Mice treated after either 10 or 20 weeks of primary infection were challenged 6 or 10 weeks after treatment. Mice infected for for 10 weeks prior to treatment expressed progressively less resistance 6 and 10 weeks after treatment. By 10 weeks after treatment significant levels of protection were no longer observed. Resistance waned more slowly if mice were treated 20 weeks after infection, and there was still significant expression of resistance to challenge 10 weeks after treatment. A separate set of experiments evaluated the use of highly irradiated cercariae as a vaccine in mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and cured with praziquantel. It was observed that effective immunizations were possible in previously infected mice. These studies demonstrate that established resistance waned after treatment and the rate of loss of protection was dependent upon the duration of infection prior to treatment. Furthermore, the irradiated cercarial vaccine studies indicate that in the murine model induction of immunological resistance was feasible following chemotherapeutic treatment of infected populations

  20. Tasks related to increase of RA reactor exploitation and experimental potential, 01. Designing the protection chamber in the RA reactor hall for handling the radioactive experimental equipment (I-II) Part II, Vol. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1963-07-01

    This second volume of the project for construction of the protection chamber in the RA reactor hall for handling the radioactive devices includes the technical description of the chamber, calculation of the shielding wall thickness, bottom lead plate, horizontal stability of the chamber, cost estimation, and the engineering drawings

  1. An evaluation of the respiratory health status of automotive spray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administered standardised respiratory health questionnaire and a cross-shift .... safety matters;. (il) a general questionnaire on the employee's knowledge of ... Occupational Safety and Health.' ... All establishments had provided some form of respiratory protection .... asthma,13 the effects of HOl exposure are not as clearly.

  2. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  3. Weed infestation of field crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part II. Root crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of root crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park was conducted in the years 1991-1995. As many as 240 phytosociological records, made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method, were taken in potato and sugar beet fields. The number of weed species in sugar beet and potato in the area depended on the soil and type of root crop. In the same environment conditions. the iiuinber of weed species was higher in potato than in sugar beet. The most difficult weed species iii all types of soil were: Chenopodium album, Stellaria media and Convolvulus arvensis. Podsolic soils were highly infested by two acidophylic species: Spergula arvensis and Raphanus raphanistum. Potato in loess soil and brown soil made of loamy sands were highly infested by Echinochloa crus-galli, Equisetum arvense and Galinsoga parviflora. Root crop plantations in brown soils formed from gaizes of granulometric loam texture and limestone soils were infested by: Galium aparine, Sonchus arvensis, Sinapis arvensis and Veronica persica.

  4. Hydrogen protects against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells via activation of PI3K/Akt/Foxo3a signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liang, Mulin; Dang, Hongxing; Fang, Fang; Xu, Feng; Liu, Chengjun

    2018-01-08

    Oxidative stress is regarded as a key regulator in the pathogenesis of prolonged hyperoxia-induced lung injury, which causes injury to alveolar epithelial cells and eventually leads to development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Many studies have shown that hydrogen has a protective effect in a variety of cells. However, the mechanisms by which hydrogen rescues cells from damage due to oxidative stress in BPD remains to be fully elucidated. This study sought to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on hyperoxia-induced lung injury and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Primary type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) were divided into four groups: control (21% oxygen), hyperoxia (95% oxygen), hyperoxia + hydrogen, and hyperoxia + hydrogen + LY294002 (a PI3K/Akt inhibitor). Proliferation and apoptosis of AECIIs were assessed using MTS assay and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. Gene and protein expression were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and western blot analysis. Stimulation with hyperoxia decreased the expression of P-Akt, P- FoxO3a, cyclinD1 and Bcl-2. Hyperoxic conditions increased levels of Bim, Bax, and Foxo3a, which induced proliferation restriction and apoptosis of AECIIs. These effects of hyperoxia were reversed with hydrogen pretreatment. Furthermore, the protective effects of hydrogen were abrogated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. The results indicate that hydrogen protects AECIIs from hyperoxia-induced apoptosis by inhibiting apoptosis factors and promoting the expression of anti-apoptosis factors. These effects were associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  6. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  7. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

  8. A method for rapid estimation of internal dose to members of the public from inhalation of mixed fission products (based on the ICRP 1994 human respiratory tract model for radiological protection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jieli

    1999-01-01

    Based on the computing principle given in ICRP-30, a method had been given by the author for fast estimating internal dose from an intake of mixed fission products after nuclear accident. Following the ICRP-66 Human respiratory tract model published in 1994, the method was reconstructed. The doses of 1 Bq intake of mixed fission products (its AMAD = 1 μm, decay rate coefficient n = 0.2∼2.0) during the period of 1∼15 d after an accident were calculated. It is lower slightly based on ICRP 1994 respiratory tract model than that based on ICRP-30 model

  9. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II and folate deficiencies result in reciprocal protection against cognitive and social deficits in mice: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Picker, Jonathan D; Rana, Jasmine; Kolodny, Nancy H; Shane, Barry; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E; Coyle, Joseph T

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors underlie a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ) and autism (AD). Due to the complexity and multitude of the genetic and environmental factors attributed to these disorders, recent research strategies focus on elucidating the common molecular pathways through which these multiple risk factors may function. In this study, we examine the combined effects of a haplo-insufficiency of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) and dietary folic acid deficiency. In addition to serving as a neuropeptidase, GCPII catalyzes the absorption of folate. GCPII and folate depletion interact within the one-carbon metabolic pathway and/or of modulate the glutamatergic system. Four groups of mice were tested: wild-type, GCPII hypomorphs, and wild-types and GCPII hypomorphs both fed a folate deficient diet. Due to sex differences in the prevalence of SZ and AD, both male and female mice were assessed on a number of behavioral tasks including locomotor activity, rotorod, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, and spatial memory. Wild-type mice of both sexes fed a folic acid deficient diet showed motor coordination impairments and cognitive deficits, while social interactions were decreased only in males. GCPII mutant mice of both sexes also exhibited reduced social propensities. In contrast, all folate-depleted GCPII hypomorphs performed similarly to untreated wild-type mice, suggesting that reduced GCPII expression and folate deficiency are mutually protective. Analyses of folate and neurometabolite levels associated with glutamatergic function suggest several potential mechanisms through which GCPII and folate may be interacting to create this protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2–Related Factor-2–Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M.; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M.; Freed, Curt R.; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G.; Bowler, Russell P.; Mason, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases. PMID:27093578

  11. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  12. Infection of the upper respiratory tract with seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus induces protective immunity in ferrets against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus after intranasal, but not intratracheal, inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.L.B. Hillaire (Marine); S.E. Vogelzang-van Trierum (Stella ); N. Nieuwkoop; P. van Run (Peter); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical symptoms caused by infection with influenza A virusvary widely and depend on the strain causing the infection, the dose and route of inoculation, and the presence of preexisting immunity. In most cases, seasonal influenza A viruses cause relatively mild upper respiratory

  13. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracorporeal respiratory support in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gomes Romano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In patients with severe respiratory failure, either hypoxemic or hypercapnic, life support with mechanical ventilation alone can be insufficient to meet their needs, especially if one tries to avoid ventilator settings that can cause injury to the lungs. In those patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, which is also very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the blood, can provide life support, allowing the application of protective lung ventilation. In this review article, we aim to explore some of the most relevant aspects of using ECMO for respiratory support. We discuss the history of respiratory support using ECMO in adults, as well as the clinical evidence; costs; indications; installation of the equipment; ventilator settings; daily care of the patient and the system; common troubleshooting; weaning; and discontinuation.

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  16. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  19. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  20. Exercise Protects Against Defective Insulin Signaling and Insulin Resistance of Glucose Transport in Skeletal Muscle of Angiotensin II-Infused Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juthamard Surapongchai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose transport and the protein expression and phosphorylation status of the signaling molecules known to be involved in the glucose transport process in the soleus muscle as well as other cardiometabolic risks in a rat model with insulin resistance syndrome induced by chronic angiotensin II (ANGII infusion.Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary or voluntary wheel running (VWR groups. Following a 6-week period, rats in each group were subdivided and subcutaneously administered either normal saline or ANGII at 100 ng/kg/min for 14 days. Blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose transport and signaling proteins, including insulin receptor (IR, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, Akt, Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160, AMPKα, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, p38 MAPK, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, ANGII type 1 receptor (AT1R, ACE2, Mas receptor (MasR and oxidative stress marker in the soleus muscle, were evaluated.Results: Exercise protected against the insulin resistance of glucose transport and defective insulin signaling molecules in the soleus muscle; this effect was associated with a significant increase in AMPK Thr172 (43% and decreases in oxidative stress marker (31% and insulin-induced p38 MAPK Thr180/Tyr182 (45% and SAPK/JNK Thr183/Tyr185 (25%, without significant changes in expression of AT1R, AT2R, ACE, ACE2, and MasR when compared to the sedentary rats given ANGII infusion. At the systemic level, VWR significantly decreased body weight, fat weight, and systolic blood pressure as well as improved serum lipid profiles.Conclusion: Voluntary exercise can alleviate insulin resistance of glucose transport and impaired insulin signaling molecules in the soleus muscle and improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in rats chronically administered with ANGII.

  1. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  2. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  3. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  4. Personalizing mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, S Clark; Beitler, Jeremy R; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-03-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes remains the cornerstone for treating patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Personalizing such an approach to each patient's unique physiology may improve outcomes further. Many factors should be considered when mechanically ventilating a critically ill patient with ARDS. Estimations of transpulmonary pressures as well as individual's hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics should influence PEEP decisions as well as response to therapy (recruitability). This summary will emphasize the potential role of personalized therapy in mechanical ventilation.

  5. Personalizing mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berngard, S. Clark; Beitler, Jeremy R.; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes remains the cornerstone for treating patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Personalizing such an approach to each patient's unique physiology may improve outcomes further. Many factors should be considered when mechanically ventilating a critically ill patient with ARDS. Estimations of transpulmonary pressures as well as individual's hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics should influence PEEP decisions as well as response ...

  6. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  7. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  8. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  10. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  11. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  12. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis

  13. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  14. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  16. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  17. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  18. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  19. ENETRAP II: European network of education and training in radiation protection, data base training; ENETRAP II: Red Europea de Educacion y Formacion en Proteccion Radiologica, base de datos de formacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco Arboli, M.; Llorente, C.; Coeck, M.

    2012-07-01

    Development and implementation of a European standard for high quality initial training and professional development continued in the {sup R}adiation Protection Expert-RPE and Radiation Protection Officer-RPO, also of a methodology for the mutual recognition of these professionals by making use of the available instruments of the European Union (GE).

  20. What You Can Do to Protect Children from Environmental Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips for protection from pesticides, chemical poisoning, lead poisoning, respiratory problems, carbon monoxide poisoning, contaminated fish, radon, too much sun, and mercury. Also how to promote healthier communities.

  1. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  2. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  3. Evaluation of respiratory pattern during respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Suguru; Mori, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory cycle is not strictly regular, and generally varies in amplitude and period from one cycle to the next. We evaluated the characteristics of respiratory patterns acquired during respiratory gating treatment in more than 300 patients. A total 331 patients treated with respiratory-gated carbon-ion beam therapy were selected from a group of patients with thoracic and abdominal conditions. Respiratory data were acquired for a total of 3,171 fractions using an external respiratory sensing monitor and evaluated for respiratory cycle, duty cycle, magnitude of baseline drift, and intrafractional/interfractional peak inhalation/exhalation positional variation. Results for the treated anatomical sites and patient positioning were compared. Mean ± SD respiratory cycle averaged over all patients was 4.1 ± 1.3 s. Mean ± SD duty cycle averaged over all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 %. Two types of baseline drift were seen, the first decremental and the second incremental. For respiratory peak variation, the mean intrafractional variation in peak-inhalation position relative to the amplitude in the first respiratory cycle (15.5 ± 9.3 %) was significantly larger than that in exhalation (7.5 ± 4.6 %). Interfractional variations in inhalation (17.2 ± 18.5 %) were also significantly greater than those in exhalation (9.4 ± 10.0 %). Statistically significant differences were observed between patients in the supine position and those in the prone position in mean respiratory cycle, duty cycle, and intra-/interfractional variations. We quantified the characteristics of the respiratory curve based on a large number of respiratory data obtained during treatment. These results might be useful in improving the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatment.

  4. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  5. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  6. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  7. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  8. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  9. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  10. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  11. Effects of respiratory muscle work on respiratory and locomotor blood flow during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Archiza, Bruno; Ramsook, Andrew H; Mitchell, Reid A; Peters, Carli M; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; Boushel, Robert; Sheel, A William

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does manipulation of the work of breathing during high-intensity exercise alter respiratory and locomotor muscle blood flow? What is the main finding and its importance? We found that when the work of breathing was reduced during exercise, respiratory muscle blood flow decreased, while locomotor muscle blood flow increased. Conversely, when the work of breathing was increased, respiratory muscle blood flow increased, while locomotor muscle blood flow decreased. Our findings support the theory of a competitive relationship between locomotor and respiratory muscles during intense exercise. Manipulation of the work of breathing (WOB) during near-maximal exercise influences leg blood flow, but the effects on respiratory muscle blood flow are equivocal. We sought to assess leg and respiratory muscle blood flow simultaneously during intense exercise while manipulating WOB. Our hypotheses were as follows: (i) increasing the WOB would increase respiratory muscle blood flow and decrease leg blood flow; and (ii) decreasing the WOB would decrease respiratory muscle blood flow and increase leg blood flow. Eight healthy subjects (n = 5 men, n = 3 women) performed a maximal cycle test (day 1) and a series of constant-load exercise trials at 90% of peak work rate (day 2). On day 2, WOB was assessed with oesophageal balloon catheters and was increased (via resistors), decreased (via proportional assist ventilation) or unchanged (control) during the trials. Blood flow was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy optodes placed over quadriceps and the sternocleidomastoid muscles, coupled with a venous Indocyanine Green dye injection. Changes in WOB were significantly and positively related to changes in respiratory muscle blood flow (r = 0.73), whereby increasing the WOB increased blood flow. Conversely, changes in WOB were significantly and inversely related to changes in locomotor blood flow (r = 0.57), whereby decreasing the

  12. A young man with spinal muscular atrophy and impending respiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Janine Penfield; Weisleder, Pedro

    2011-02-01

    From a statutory standpoint, the decision-making capacity of adolescents differs significantly from that of adults because adolescents are considered to lack the experience and judgment necessary to make legally binding decisions. Furthermore, in the case of minors, the principle of protection of life tends to outweigh the principle of autonomy. Here we present the hypothetical case of a 16-year-old boy with spinalmuscular atrophy type II who was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe respiratory distress. We focus on the tension that developed among the patient, his parents, and his physicians when the need for emergency mechanical ventilation became apparent. We review the legal and ethical premises under which adolescents are permitted to make legally binding decisions, ie, the emancipated minor and the mature minor doctrines. Finally, we discuss the concepts of protectionism and liberationism as they apply to adolescents' decision-making capacity.

  13. Impact of nasopharyngeal microbiota on the development of respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the last 15 years using the following key words: "microbiota" or "microbioma" and "nasopharyngeal" or "respiratory" or "nasal" and "children" or "paediatric" or "infant". Analysis of the literature showed that respiratory microbiota can regulate health and disease development in the respiratory tract. Like the gut microbiota, the respiratory microbiota is established at birth, and early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children. Protective and dangerous bacteria have been identified, and this can be considered the base for developing new approaches to diseases that respond poorly to traditional interventions. Reconstitution of missing microbes can be achieved by the administration of pre- and probiotics. Modulation of respiratory microbiota by favouring colonisation of the upper respiratory tract by beneficial commensals can interfere with the proliferation and activity of resident pathobionts and is a possible new measure to reduce the risk of disease. However, further studies are needed because a deeper understanding of these and related issues can be transferred to clinical practice.

  14. The CD8 T Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan E; Varga, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection. However, the mucosal antibody response to many respiratory viruses is not long-lasting and declines with age. CD8 T cells are critical for mediating clearance following many acute viral infections in the lung. In addition, memory CD8 T cells are capable of providing protection against secondary infections. Therefore, the combined induction of virus-specific CD8 T cells and antibodies may provide optimal protective immunity. Herein, we review the current literature on CD8 T cell responses induced by respiratory virus infections. Additionally, we explore how this knowledge could be utilized in the development of future vaccines against respiratory viruses, with a special emphasis on RSV vaccination.

  15. Evaluation of several types of curing and protective materials for concrete : final report on part II : installation report and initial condition survey of bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Thirty-nine test panels were installed on three interstate bridges to evaluate several combinations of curing and protective treatments for concrete. Panels were cured with white pigmented liquid membrane and white polyethylene, both with and without...

  16. Respiratory mechanics to understand ARDS and guide mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Tommaso; Lazzeri, Marta; Bellani, Giacomo; Zanella, Alberto; Grasselli, Giacomo

    2017-11-30

    As precision medicine is becoming a standard of care in selecting tailored rather than average treatments, physiological measurements might represent the first step in applying personalized therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could represent a step in this direction, for two main reasons. Approach and Main results: On the one hand, respiratory mechanics are a powerful physiological method to understand the severity of this syndrome in each single patient. Decreased respiratory system compliance, for example, is associated with low end expiratory lung volume and more severe lung injury. On the other hand, respiratory mechanics might guide protective mechanical ventilation settings. Improved gravitationally dependent regional lung compliance could support the selection of positive end-expiratory pressure and maximize alveolar recruitment. Moreover, the association between driving airway pressure and mortality in ARDS patients potentially underlines the importance of sizing tidal volume on respiratory system compliance rather than on predicted body weight. The present review article aims to describe the main alterations of respiratory mechanics in ARDS as a potent bedside tool to understand severity and guide mechanical ventilation settings, thus representing a readily available clinical resource for ICU physicians.

  17. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II alleles which confer susceptibility or protection in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-class I) and II (HLA-class II) alleles associated with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort by a nested case–control association study. Methods Morphea patients were included from MAC cohort and matched controls from the NIH/NIAMS Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA- Class II genotyping and SSCP typing was performed of HLA-A, -B, -C alleles. Associations between HLA-Class I and II alleles and morphea as well as its subphenotypes were determined. Results There were 211 cases available for HLA-class I typing with 726 matched controls and 158 cases available for HLA Class-II typing with 1108 matched controls. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–4.0 P=0.002) and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among Class I alleles (3.3, 95% CI 1.6–6.9, P= 0.0016). Comparison with risk alleles in systemic sclerosis determined using the same methods and control population revealed one common allele (DRB*04:04). Conclusion Results of the present study demonstrate specific HLA Class I and II alleles are associated with morphea and likely generalized and linear subtypes. The associated morphea alleles are different than in scleroderma, implicating morphea is also immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population based studies indicate patients with RA have increased risk of morphea, implicating a common susceptibility allele. PMID:25223600

  18. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Gash, C; Fragaszy, E; Hayward, AC

    2012-01-01

    : Please cite this paper as: Warren-Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary an...

  19. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens.

  20. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: II. Comparison of responses to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, J L; Barrett, E G; Day, K C; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Harrod, K S; Lund, A K; Reed, M D; Seagrave, J C; Campen, M J; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    The NERC Program conducted identically designed exposure-response studies of the respiratory and cardiovascular responses of rodents exposed by inhalation for up to 6 months to diesel and gasoline exhausts (DE, GE), wood smoke (WS) and simulated downwind coal emissions (CE). Concentrations of the four combustion-derived mixtures ranged from near upper bound plausible to common occupational and environmental hotspot levels. An "exposure effect" statistic was created to compare the strengths of exposure-response relationships and adjustments were made to minimize false positives among the large number of comparisons. All four exposures caused statistically significant effects. No exposure caused overt illness, neutrophilic lung inflammation, increased circulating micronuclei or histopathology of major organs visible by light microscopy. DE and GE caused the greatest lung cytotoxicity. WS elicited the most responses in lung lavage fluid. All exposures reduced oxidant production by unstimulated alveolar macrophages, but only GE suppressed stimulated macrophages. Only DE retarded clearance of bacteria from the lung. DE before antigen challenge suppressed responses of allergic mice. CE tended to amplify allergic responses regardless of exposure order. GE and DE induced oxidant stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses in aorta; WS and CE had no such effects. No overall ranking of toxicity was plausible. The ranking of exposures by number of significant responses varied among the response models, with each of the four causing the most responses for at least one model. Each exposure could also be deemed most or least toxic depending on the exposure metric used for comparison. The database is available for additional analyses.

  1. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Inhibitors of Succinate: Quinone Reductase/Complex II Regulate Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Protect Normal Cells from Ischemic Damage but Induce Specific Cancer Cell Death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ralph, S.J.; Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Neužil, Jiří; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2011), s. 2695-2730 ISSN 0724-8741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitocans * SDH/Complex II * mitochondrial ROS production Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2011

  3. Fenofibrate Therapy Restores Antioxidant Protection and Improves Myocardial Insulin Resistance in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome and Myocardial Ischemia: The Role of Angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ibarra-Lara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation promotes oxidative stress which increases the risk of cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome (MetS and favors local insulin resistance. Fibrates regulate RAS improving MetS, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of fenofibrate treatment on the myocardic signaling pathway of Angiotensin II (Ang II/Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 and its relationship with oxidative stress and myocardial insulin resistance in MetS rats under heart ischemia. Control and MetS rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; and (c fenofibrate-treated myocardial infarction (MI-F. Treatment with fenofibrate significantly reduced triglycerides, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C, insulin levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR in MetS animals. MetS and MI increased Ang II concentration and AT1 expression, favored myocardial oxidative stress (high levels of malondialdehyde, overexpression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, decreased total antioxidant capacity and diminished expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2 and catalase and inhibited expression of the insulin signaling cascade: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PkB, also known as Akt/Glut-4/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. In conclusion, fenofibrate treatment favors an antioxidant environment as a consequence of a reduction of the Ang II/AT1/NOX4 signaling pathway, reestablishing the cardiac insulin signaling pathway. This might optimize cardiac metabolism and improve the vasodilator function during myocardial ischemia.

  4. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  5. Remodeling pathway control of mitochondrial respiratory capacity by temperature in mouse heart: electron flow through the Q-junction in permeabilized fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Hélène; Blier, Pierre U; Gnaiger, Erich

    2017-06-06

    Fuel substrate supply and oxidative phosphorylation are key determinants of muscle performance. Numerous studies of mammalian mitochondria are carried out (i) with substrate supply that limits electron flow, and (ii) far below physiological temperature. To analyze potentially implicated biases, we studied mitochondrial respiratory control in permeabilized mouse myocardial fibers using high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of oxidative phosphorylation at 37 °C was nearly two-fold higher when fueled by physiological substrate combinations reconstituting tricarboxylic acid cycle function, compared with electron flow measured separately through NADH to Complex I or succinate to Complex II. The relative contribution of the NADH pathway to physiological respiratory capacity increased with a decrease in temperature from 37 to 25 °C. The apparent excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase above physiological pathway capacity increased sharply under hypothermia due to limitation by NADH-linked dehydrogenases. This mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in the hypothermic mammalian heart is comparable to the pattern in ectotherm species, pointing towards NADH-linked mt-matrix dehydrogenases and the phosphorylation system rather than electron transfer complexes as the primary drivers of thermal sensitivity at low temperature. Delineating the link between stress and remodeling of oxidative phosphorylation is important for understanding metabolic perturbations in disease evolution and cardiac protection.

  6. Detection of 12 respiratory viruses by duplex real time PCR assays in respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvia, Rosaria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Ciccone, Nunziata; Della Malva, Nunzia; Azzi, Alberta

    2015-12-01

    Different viruses can be responsible for similar clinical manifestations of respiratory infections. Thus, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory viral diseases requires the detection of a large number of viruses. In this study, 6 duplex real-time PCR assays, using EvaGreen intercalating dye, were developed to detect 12 major viruses responsible for respiratory diseases: influenza A and B viruses, enteroviruses (including enterovirus spp, and rhinovirus spp), respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses group I (of which CoV 229E and CoV NL63 are part) and II (including CoV OC43 and CoV HKU1), parainfluenza viruses type 1, 2, 3 and 4, human adenoviruses and human bocaviruses. The 2 target viruses of each duplex reaction were distinguishable by the melting temperatures of their amplicons. The 6 duplex real time PCR assays were applied for diagnostic purpose on 202 respiratory samples from 157 patients. One hundred fifty-seven samples were throat swabs and 45 were bronchoalveolar lavages. The results of the duplex PCR assays were confirmed by comparison with a commercial, validated, assay; in addition, the positive results were confirmed by sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of the duplex PCR assays varied from 10(3) copies/ml to 10(4) copies/ml. For parainfluenza virus 2 only it was 10(5) copies/ml. Seventy clinical samples (35%) from 55 patients (30 children and 25 adults) were positive for 1 or more viruses. In adult patients, influenza A virus was the most frequently detected respiratory virus followed by rhinoviruses. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus in children, followed by enteroviruses, influenza A virus and coronavirus NL63. The small number of samples/patients does not allow us to draw any epidemiological conclusion. Altogether, the results of this study indicate that the 6 duplex PCR assays described in this study are sensitive, specific and cost-effective. Thus, this assay could be

  7. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1993, Part II, Decontamination and actions, collection of liquid effluents and solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, M.; Vukovic, Z.; Lazic, S.; Plecas, I.; Voko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Certain amount of solid waste results from RA reactor operation, the mean quantity of which depends on the duration of reactor operation and related activities. During repair, when reactor is not operated as well under accidental conditions, the quantity of waste is higher, dependent on the type of repair and comprehensiveness of decontamination of the working surface, contaminated tools and components. The waste is sorted and packed on the spot where they appeared according to the existing regulations and principles of radiation protection with aim to minimize unnecessary exposure of the radiation protection personnel who deals with control, transport, radioactive waste treatment and decontamination. During exceptional operations (decontamination, repair, bigger volume of contaminated material, etc.) professional staff of the Radiation protection department gives recommendations and helps in planning the actions related to repair, sorting and packaging of radioactive waste in special containers, identification of the contaminants, etc. [sr

  8. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. II. extension to additional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, V.V.; Pshakin, G.M.; Belov, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC ampersand A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia focused on improving the protection of nuclear materials at the BFS Fast Critical Facility. BFS has thousands of fuel disks containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium that are used to simulate the core configurations of experimental reactors in two critical assemblies. Completed tasks culminated in demonstrations of newly implemented equipment and methods that enhanced the MPC ampersand A at BFS through computerized accounting, nondestructive inventory verification measurements, personnel identification and assess control, physical inventory taking, physical protection, and video surveillance. The collaborative work is now being extended. The additional tasks encompass communications and tamper-indicating devices; new storage alternatives; and systemization of the MPC ampersand A elements that are being implemented

  9. Subcomponent vaccine based on CTA1-DD adjuvant with incorporated UreB class II peptides stimulates protective Helicobacter pylori immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrud, John G; Bagheri, Nayer; Schön, Karin; Xin, Wei; Bergroth, Hilda; Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Lycke, Nils Y

    2013-01-01

    A mucosal vaccine against Helicobacter pylori infection could help prevent gastric cancers and peptic ulcers. While previous attempts to develop such a vaccine have largely failed because of the requirement for safe and effective adjuvants or large amounts of well defined antigens, we have taken a unique approach to combining our strong mucosal CTA1-DD adjuvant with selected peptides from urease B (UreB). The protective efficacy of the selected peptides together with cholera toxin (CT) was first confirmed. However, CT is a strong adjuvant that unfortunately is precluded from clinical use because of its toxicity. To circumvent this problem we have developed a derivative of CT, the CTA1-DD adjuvant, that has been found safe in non-human primates and equally effective compared to CT when used intranasally. We genetically fused the selected peptides into the CTA1-DD plasmid and found after intranasal immunizations of Balb/c mice using purified CTA1-DD with 3 copies of an H. pylori urease T cell epitope (CTA1-UreB3T-DD) that significant protection was stimulated against a live challenge infection. Protection was, however, weaker than with the gold standard, bacterial lysate+CT, but considering that we only used a single epitope in nanomolar amounts the results convey optimism. Protection was associated with enhanced Th1 and Th17 immunity, but immunizations in IL-17A-deficient mice revealed that IL-17 may not be essential for protection. Taken together, we have provided evidence for the rational design of an effective mucosal subcomponent vaccine against H. pylori infection based on well selected protective epitopes from relevant antigens incorporated into the CTA1-DD adjuvant platform.

  10. Subcomponent vaccine based on CTA1-DD adjuvant with incorporated UreB class II peptides stimulates protective Helicobacter pylori immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Nedrud

    Full Text Available A mucosal vaccine against Helicobacter pylori infection could help prevent gastric cancers and peptic ulcers. While previous attempts to develop such a vaccine have largely failed because of the requirement for safe and effective adjuvants or large amounts of well defined antigens, we have taken a unique approach to combining our strong mucosal CTA1-DD adjuvant with selected peptides from urease B (UreB. The protective efficacy of the selected peptides together with cholera toxin (CT was first confirmed. However, CT is a strong adjuvant that unfortunately is precluded from clinical use because of its toxicity. To circumvent this problem we have developed a derivative of CT, the CTA1-DD adjuvant, that has been found safe in non-human primates and equally effective compared to CT when used intranasally. We genetically fused the selected peptides into the CTA1-DD plasmid and found after intranasal immunizations of Balb/c mice using purified CTA1-DD with 3 copies of an H. pylori urease T cell epitope (CTA1-UreB3T-DD that significant protection was stimulated against a live challenge infection. Protection was, however, weaker than with the gold standard, bacterial lysate+CT, but considering that we only used a single epitope in nanomolar amounts the results convey optimism. Protection was associated with enhanced Th1 and Th17 immunity, but immunizations in IL-17A-deficient mice revealed that IL-17 may not be essential for protection. Taken together, we have provided evidence for the rational design of an effective mucosal subcomponent vaccine against H. pylori infection based on well selected protective epitopes from relevant antigens incorporated into the CTA1-DD adjuvant platform.

  11. Respiratory Disorders in Complicated Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pervukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluating the results of respiratory therapy in patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine.Materials and methods. A retrospective comparative analysis of the clinical course was carried out in 52 patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine: group A: complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A, 37 patients and group B: incomplete injury (ASIA B, 15 patients. The severity of patients' status on integral scales, parameters of the respiratory pattern and thoracopulmonary compliance, gas composition, and acidbase status of the blood were assessed. Data on patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, duration of stay in the ICU, time of hospital treatment, and mortality were included in the analysis. Results. The average APACHE II and SOFA scores were higher in group A patients. The development of the acute respiratory failure required longterm mechanical ventilation (more than 48 hours in 91.4% of group A patients and in 53.3% of group B patients. Ventilatorassociated pneumonia complicated the disease in 81.3% of group A patients and 62.5% of group B patients and was accompanied by sepsis in 25% and 12.5% of cases, respectively. Statistically significant deterioration of biomechanical properties and gas exchange function of the lungs was observed in patients complicated with septic pneumonia.Conclusion. Patients with complicated ASIA A and ASIA B cervical spine injuries demonstrate the presence of respiratory failure of neurogenic origin. In addition, the infectious bronchopulmonary complications aggravated respiratory failure in patients with ASIA A injury in 70.3% versus 33.3% in patients with ASIA B. Developmentof pulmonogenic sepsis led to deterioration of the biomechanical and gas exchange functions of the lungs and increased the likelihood of unfavorable outcome of the disease in 77.8% of cases. The high

  12. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  13. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  14. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PART I: Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Fire Protection Training Area Site FY-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina. PART II: Draft Interim Pilot Test Results Report for Fire Protection Training Area Site FT-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    This site-specific work plan presents the scope of a bioventing pilot test for in situ treatment of fuel contaminated soils at the Fire Protection Training Area designated as Site FT-O3, Charleston Air Force Base (AFB), South Carolina...

  16. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  17. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  18. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  20. Auditory and Respiratory Health Disorders Among Workers in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For early detection of respiratory and auditory disorders, spirometry and audiometry should be included in the periodic medical examination. Accurate health records of workers, so, those at risk can be monitored, and/or pre-placed. Using personal protective equipments especially masks and ear muffles as well as prohibit ...

  1. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  2. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function among textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smokers among the exposed and unexposed workers had significantly lower lung function values than nonsmokers. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among workers in most dusty sections of the factory. Use of protective mask should be enforced. Workers in the spinning and weaving sections of ...

  3. Effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin-provoked allergic respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate that tangeritin exerts protective effects against OVA-induced allergic respiratory asthma in Swiss albino mice, and that the drug can potentially be .... (0.1 mg/kg) was injected to suppress inhalation, and the mice were allowed ventilation from oxygen-filled air at 120 beats/min, with beat ...

  4. Chronic treatment with pioglitazone does not protect obese patients with diabetes mellitus type II from free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, Mireille J.; Allick, Gideon; Groener, Johanna E.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Heijligenberg, Rik; Voermans, Barbara C.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Meijer, Alfred J.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thiazolidinediones increase peripheral insulin sensitivity and decrease plasma free fatty acids (FFA). However, their exact mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We studied the protective effect of pioglitazone on FFA-induced insulin resistance and the effects on

  5. Intra-arterial cis-platinum infusion with sodium thiosulfate protection and angiotensin II induced hypertension for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onohara, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Itoh, Y.; Shinohara, S.

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CDDP; 52-169 mg/m/sup 2/) mixed with angiotensin II (1.5-10 ..mu..g/min) was infused into the hepatic artery in 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneously, sodium thiosulfate (10-50 g) was administered intravenously in order to reduce the systemic toxicity of CDDP. Over 50% reduction in tumor size was obtained in 18 patients (55%). Complete response was achieved in 4 patients (12%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels decreased by more than 75% in 10 of 18 patients in whom the previous AFP level was more than 200 mg/ml. The one year survival rate was estimated at 61% by the Kaplan-Meier method. Alimentary symptoms (nausea, vomiting) were mild or non-existent in nearly 90 per cent of treatments. Peptic ulcer and abdominal pain were manifested in small numbers. Severe changes in the laboratory data were not observed. High dosage arterial infusion of CDDP and angiotensin II and intravenous injection of sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated and gave effective therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) InfectionJoleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  7. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part II - radiation protection at the RA nuclear reactor in 1984; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Deo II - zastita od zracenja kod nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1984. godini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M; Ajdacic, N; Zaric, M; Vukovic, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-12-15

    Radon protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and (4) radioactive wastes, decontamination and actions. Each category is described as a separate annex of this report.

  8. Trends in Canadian Respiratory Clinical Trials from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Elizabeth Tacon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the number of trials investigating common respiratory diseases is unknown. The objective of the present study was to monitor the trends in industry- and non-industry-sponsored respiratory clinical trials in Canada from 2001 to 2011. Trialtrove 2012 (Citeline, an Informa UK business, a database containing summarized clinical trial information regarding pharmaceutical products, was searched using common chronic respiratory disease terms: “allergic rhinitis”, “asthma”, “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD”, “cystic fibrosis”, “respiratory infections”, “pulmonary fibrosis” and “smoking cessation”. Over the past 10 years, the number of respiratory clinical trials conducted in Canada has increased (4.49 per year; P=0.004. From 2001 to 2011, the majority of trials were performed in asthma, followed closely by respiratory infections and COPD. Over the past decade, the number of trials investigating COPD and respiratory infections increased (P<0.05, while asthma trials showed a declining trend since 2007. Of the clinical trials performed during this 10-year period, the majority were in phase III, with a significant increase in the number of phase II trials (2.49 per year; P=0.008. However, certain trends observed are concerning and warrant further monitoring in the coming years.

  9. Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure, is associated with a mortality of 30–50% and is precipitated by both direct and indirect pulmonary insults. Treatment is largely supportive, consisting of lung protective ventilation and thereby necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission. The most common precipitant is community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but other putative pathogens include viruses and fungi. On rare occasions, ARDS can be secondary to tropical disease. Accordingly, a history should include travel to endemic regions. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease most common in the tropics and typically associated with mild pulmonary complications. We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with undiagnosed leptospirosis, presenting with fever and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, returning from a Costa Rican holiday. There was no other organ failure. He was intubated and received lung protective ventilation. His condition improved after ampicillin and penicillin G were added empirically. This case illustrates the rare complication of ARDS from leptospirosis, the importance of taking a travel history, and the need for empiric therapy because of diagnostic delay.

  10. Solid Lipid Particles for Oral Delivery of Peptide and Protein Drugs II - The Digestion of Trilaurin Protects Desmopressin from Proteolytic Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Zhang, Long; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-01-01

    , which is the same rank order as the lipid degradation rate. A reverse rank order was found for the protection of desmopressin from enzymatic degradation due to spatial separation of desmopressin from the protease. TG12 accelerated the release of desmopressin from all lipid particles when added as either...... and protease was determined. Trilaurin (TG12), trimyristin (TG14), tripalmitin (TG16), and tristearin (TG18) were used as lipid excipients to produce solid lipid microparticles. RESULTS: In the presence of lipase, the rate of drug release from different lipid particles was in the order of TG14 > TG16 > TG18...... drug-free microparticles to the lipolysis medium or incorporated in TG16 particles. Additionally, TG12 particles protected desmopressin from degradation when present in the lipolysis medium with the other lipid microparticles. CONCLUSIONS: TG12 is a very interesting lipid for oral lipid formulations...

  11. Workshop on the role of enhancement of utilization of primary and secondary hydro potential in the context of environmental protection. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the workshop on the role of enhancement of utilization of primary and secondary hydro potential in the context of environmental protection. The proceedings consist of the following chapters: (1) Use of a part and a secondary hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic for electric energy production and its impact on the environment; (2) Economic problems of utilization of hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic and possibilities for their solution; (3) Modernization of control systems of primary and secondary hydro energetic sources of electricity from the point of view of their fulfillment of important functions in operation of a power engineering system in the Slovak Republic; (4) The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production; (5) Progressive technologies, modernization of hydro power projects aimed at rationalization in a use of hydroenergetic potential and environment protection; (6) Possibilities of further utilization of hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic.

  12. Workshop on the role of enhancement of utilization of primary and secondary hydro potential in the context of environmental protection. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the workshop on the role of enhancement of utilization of primary and secondary hydro potential in the context of environmental protection. The proceedings consist of the following chapters: (1) Use of a part and a secondary hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic for electric energy production and its impact on the environment; (2) Economic problems of utilization of hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic and possibilities for their solution; (3) Modernization of control systems of primary and secondary hydro energetic sources of electricity from the point of view of their fulfillment of important functions in operation of a power engineering system in the Slovak Republic; (4) The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production; (5) Progressive technologies, modernization of hydro power projects aimed at rationalization in a use of hydroenergetic potential and environment protection; (6) Possibilities of further utilization of hydroenergetic potential of the Slovak Republic

  13. Successful topical respiratory tract immunization of primates against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Rollin, Pierre E; Tate, Mallory K; Yang, Lijuan; Zaki, Sherif R; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L; Sanchez, Anthony

    2007-06-01

    Ebola virus causes outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans. The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by contact and by the aerosol route. These features make Ebola virus a potential weapon for bioterrorism and biological warfare. Therefore, a vaccine that induces both systemic and local immune responses in the respiratory tract would be highly beneficial. We evaluated a common pediatric respiratory pathogen, human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), as a vaccine vector against Ebola virus. HPIV3 recombinants expressing the Ebola virus (Zaire species) surface glycoprotein (GP) alone or in combination with the nucleocapsid protein NP or with the cytokine adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were administered by the respiratory route to rhesus monkeys--in which HPIV3 infection is mild and asymptomatic--and were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge with Ebola virus. A single immunization with any construct expressing GP was moderately immunogenic against Ebola virus and protected 88% of the animals against severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus. Two doses were highly immunogenic, and all of the animals survived challenge and were free of signs of disease and of detectable Ebola virus challenge virus. These data illustrate the feasibility of immunization via the respiratory tract against the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which topical immunization through respiratory tract achieved prevention of a viral hemorrhagic fever infection in a primate model.

  14. Doping and respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  15. Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals. II. Review of models and their potential to address environmental protection aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Whereas current chemical risk assessment (RA) schemes within the European Union (EU) focus mainly on toxicity and bioaccumulation of chemicals in individual organisms, most protection goals aim at preserving populations of nontarget organisms rather than individuals. Ecological models are tools rarely recommended in official technical documents on RA of chemicals, but are widely used by researchers to assess risks to populations, communities and ecosystems. Their great advantage is the relatively straightforward integration of the sensitivity of species to chemicals, the mode of action and fate in the environment of toxicants, life-history traits of the species of concern, and landscape features. To promote the usage of ecological models in regulatory risk assessment, this study tries to establish whether existing, published ecological modeling studies have addressed or have the potential to address the protection aims and requirements of the chemical directives of the EU. We reviewed 148 publications, and evaluated and analyzed them in a database according to defined criteria. Published models were also classified in terms of 5 areas where their application would be most useful for chemical RA. All potential application areas are well represented in the published literature. Most models were developed to estimate population-level responses on the basis of individual effects, followed by recovery process assessment, both in individuals and at the level of metapopulations. We provide case studies for each of the proposed areas of ecological model application. The lack of clarity about protection goals in legislative documents made it impossible to establish a direct link between modeling studies and protection goals. Because most of the models reviewed here were not developed for regulatory risk assessment, there is great potential and a variety of ecological models in the published literature. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  16. Radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1984, Part II c Radioactivity control in the environment of the RA reactor, Meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Nikolic, R.; Stevanovic, M.

    1984-01-01

    During 1984, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from December 1983 - November 1984. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment

  17. Thermal overload protection for electric motors on safety-related motor-operated valves: Generic Issue II.E.6.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, O.

    1988-06-01

    NRC regulatory positions, as stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106, Revision 1, have been identified by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) as potential contributors to valve motor burnout. AEOD is particularly concerned about the allowed policy of bypassing thermal overload devices during normal or accident conditions. Regulatory Guide 1.106 favors compromising the function of thermal overload devices in favor of completing the safety-related action of valves. The purpose of this study was to determine if the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 1.106 is appropriate and, if not, to recommend the necessary changes. This report describes thermal overload devices commonly used to protect safety-related valve operator motors. The regulatory guidelines stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106 along with the limitations of thermal overload protection are discussed. Supplements and alternatives to thermal overload protection are also described. Findings and conclusions of several AEOD reports are discussed. Information obtained from the standard review plan, standard technical specifications, technical specifications from representative plants, and several papers are cited

  18. Developmental status of bioassays in genetic toxicology: a report of Phase II of the US Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusick, D; Auletta, A

    1985-01-01

    The Gene-Tox Program was structured around two phases of genetic test data evaluation. The first phase consisted of 36 Work Group reports, each evaluating the results and performance of a specific bioassay. The second phase consisted of a plan to summarize the information provided by the Work Groups. The Gene-Tox Coordinating Committee was to be responsible for Phase II, and several subgroups were assigned specific goals in implementing this analysis. This report deals with Goal I which is to identify the developmental status of the individual bioassays reviewed by the Gene-Tox Work Groups in the first phase of the Program. 5 references, 6 tables.

  19. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis On this page: What ... find additional information about RRP? What is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis? Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease ...

  20. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  1. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  3. Respiratory viruses in young South African children with acute lower respiratory infections and interactions with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalay, Alicia A; Abbott, Salome; Sikazwe, Chisha; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Bizzintino, Joelene; Zhang, Guicheng; Laing, Ingrid; Chidlow, Glenys R; Smith, David W; Gern, James; Goldblatt, Jack; Lehmann, Deborah; Green, Robin J; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) is the most common respiratory virus and has been associated with frequent and severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The prevalence of RV species among HIV-infected children in South Africa is unknown. To describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including RV species, associated with HIV status and other clinical symptoms in children less than two years of age with and without ALRI in Pretoria, South Africa. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 105 hospitalized ALRI cases and 53 non-ALRI controls less than two years of age. HIV status was determined. Common respiratory viruses were identified by PCR, and RV species and genotypes were identified by semi-nested PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses. Respiratory viruses were more common among ALRI cases than controls (83.8% vs. 69.2%; p=0.041). RV was the most commonly identified virus in cases with pneumonia (45.6%) or bronchiolitis (52.1%), regardless of HIV status, as well as in controls (39.6%). RV-A was identified in 26.7% of cases and 15.1% of controls while RV-C was identified in 21.0% of cases and 18.9% of controls. HIV-infected children were more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia than bronchiolitis (pinfected cases (n=15) compared with 30.6% of HIV-uninfected cases (n=85, p=0.013), and was identified more frequently in bronchiolitis than in pneumonia cases (43.8% vs. 12.3%; pinfection may be protective against RSV and bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The ICRP task group respiratory tract model - an age-dependent dosimetric model for general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.; Birchall, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection has developed a revised dosimetric model for the respiratory tract. Papers outlining the model, and describing each aspect of it were presented at the Third International Workshop on Respiratory Tract Dosimetry (Albuquerque 1-3 July 1990), the Proceedings of which were recently published in Radiation Protection Dosimetry Volume 38 Nos 1-3 (1991). Since the model had not changed substantially since the Workshop at Albuquerque, only a summary of the paper presented at Schloss Elmau is included in these Proceedings. (author)

  5. IMPREGNATED FIBROUS CHEMOSORBENTS OF ACID GASES FOR RESPIRATORY PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review is dedicated to the analysis of scientific works carried out in Physico- Chemical Institute of Environment and Human Protection (Odessa, Ukrainie and directed to the development of import-substituting sorption-filtering materials for respiratory purposes – impregnated fibrous chemisorbents (IFCS of acid gases, which are manufactured using standard equipment, as well as affordable and inexpensive chemical reagents and carriers of domestic origin. The process of chemisorption of sulphur dioxide by hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA modified nonwoven fibrous material resulted acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of HMTA to form aminomethanesulfonic acid and toxic formaldehyde. The IFCS with HMTA carried was recommended to use for air purification only from SiF4, HF, HCl and Cl2. Chemisorption of sulphur dioxide by fibrous materials impregnated by ethanolamines (monoethanolamine, diethanomamine, triethanomamine and N-methylethanolamine and polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA occurs only in the presence of “free” water with formation of “onium” sulphites, hydrosulphites and pyrosulphites. IFCS-PEPA (dynamic activity is 1,38 mmol(SO2/g are not inferior to the protective characteristics of IFCS with Na2CO3, HMTA, ethanolamines and the best foreign ionexchange fibrous chemisorbents brand VION and FIBAN (dynamic activity is 0,263 ÷0,422 mmol(SO2/g under conditions of respirators actual use (jAGM = 60 ÷ 90 %, TAGM = 297 K, VAGM = 2,0 sm/s, СSO2 = 20 ÷ 1000 mg/g3, QPEPA = 3,45 mmol/g. It is recommended to use the condensation products of primary alkylamines with formaldehyde (with large molar masses than the bases, complex compounds of amines with 3d-metals (Ni(II and Cu(II, salts of amine with aminoacids (glycine and polybasic acids (orthophosphoric acid (pKa1 = 2,12 and citric acid (pKa1 = 3,13 for manufacturing of IFCS of acid gases The IFCS with indication of dynamic absorptive capacity “wearing” (IVKS-I was developed.

  6. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  7. Systemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination in Cattle Promotes Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells at the Respiratory Tract and Triggers Local Anamnestic Responses upon Aerosol Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Di Giacomo, S; Bucafusco, D; Schammas, J M; Malacari, D; Barrionuevo, F; Capozzo, A V; Rodríguez, L L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2015-09-01

    works studied the local immunity induced by FMD vaccines at the respiratory mucosa, and local responses induced in vaccinated animals after aerosol infection have not been described yet. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that systemic FMD vaccination (i) induced the early presence of active antigen-specific ASC along the respiratory tract and (ii) prompted a rapid local antibody response in the respiratory mucosa, triggered upon oronasal challenge and congruent with a memory B-cell response. This information may help to understand novel aspects of protective responses induced by current FMD vaccines as well as to provide alternative parameters to establish protection efficiency for new vaccine developments. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  9. Mena/VASP and αII-Spectrin complexes regulate cytoplasmic actin networks in cardiomyocytes and protect from conduction abnormalities and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Peter M; Merkel, Carla J; Offner, Kristin; Abeßer, Marco; Ullrich, Melanie; Fischer, Tobias; Bayer, Barbara; Wagner, Helga; Gambaryan, Stepan; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Adham, Ibrahim M; Linke, Wolfgang A; Feller, Stephan M; Fleming, Ingrid; Renné, Thomas; Frantz, Stefan; Unger, Andreas; Schuh, Kai

    2013-08-12

    In the heart, cytoplasmic actin networks are thought to have important roles in mechanical support, myofibrillogenesis, and ion channel function. However, subcellular localization of cytoplasmic actin isoforms and proteins involved in the modulation of the cytoplasmic actin networks are elusive. Mena and VASP are important regulators of actin dynamics. Due to the lethal phenotype of mice with combined deficiency in Mena and VASP, however, distinct cardiac roles of the proteins remain speculative. In the present study, we analyzed the physiological functions of Mena and VASP in the heart and also investigated the role of the proteins in the organization of cytoplasmic actin networks. We generated a mouse model, which simultaneously lacks Mena and VASP in the heart. Mena/VASP double-deficiency induced dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities. In wild-type mice, Mena and VASP specifically interacted with a distinct αII-Spectrin splice variant (SH3i), which is in cardiomyocytes exclusively localized at Z- and intercalated discs. At Z- and intercalated discs, Mena and β-actin localized to the edges of the sarcomeres, where the thin filaments are anchored. In Mena/VASP double-deficient mice, β-actin networks were disrupted and the integrity of Z- and intercalated discs was markedly impaired. Together, our data suggest that Mena, VASP, and αII-Spectrin assemble cardiac multi-protein complexes, which regulate cytoplasmic actin networks. Conversely, Mena/VASP deficiency results in disrupted β-actin assembly, Z- and intercalated disc malformation, and induces dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities.

  10. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  12. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

  13. Respiratory alkalosis in children with febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Hauck, Sarah; Henning, Stephan; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kaila, Kai

    2011-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events in children. FS are suggested to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying FS remain unclear. Using an animal model of experimental FS, it was demonstrated that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis with consequent brain alkalosis and seizures. Here we examine the acid-base status of children who were admitted to the hospital for FS. Children who were admitted because of gastroenteritis (GE), a condition known to promote acidosis, were examined to investigate a possible protective effect of acidosis against FS. We enrolled 433 age-matched children with similar levels of fever from two groups presented to the emergency department. One group was admitted for FS (n = 213) and the other for GE (n = 220). In the FS group, the etiology of fever was respiratory tract infection (74.2%), otitis media (7%), GE (7%), tonsillitis (4.2%), scarlet fever (2.3%) chickenpox (1.4%), urinary tract infection (1.4%), postvaccination reaction (0.9%), or unidentified (1.4%). In all patients, capillary pH and blood Pco(2) were measured immediately on admission to the hospital. Respiratory alkalosis was found in children with FS (pH 7.46 ± 0.04, [mean ± standard deviation] Pco(2) 29.5 ± 5.5 mmHg), whereas a metabolic acidosis was seen in all children admitted for GE (pH 7.31 ± 0.03, Pco(2) 37.7 ± 4.3 mmHg; p respiratory alkalosis, irrespective of the severity of the underlying infection as indicated by the level of fever. The lack of FS in GE patients is attributable to low pH, which also explains the fact that children with a susceptibility to FS do not have seizures when they have GE-induced fever that is associated with acidosis. The present demonstration of a close link between FS and respiratory alkalosis may pave the way for further clinical studies and attempts to design novel therapies for the treatment of FS by controlling the

  14. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  15. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Simoni, Marzia; Norback, Dan; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Viegi, Giovanni; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Data on respiratory effects of indoor air pollution in elderly are scanty. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on adverse respiratory effects of indoor air pollution in individuals aged over 65 years, by presenting existing epidemiological evidence. Using MEDLINE database through PubMed, we identified relevant publications published between 1991 and 2011 in English on respiratory health effects of indoor air pollution in elderly (>65 years). A total of 61 studies were found and after application of the inclusion criteria: (i) epidemiologic studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 1991 and December 2011, (ii) study population with age over or equal 65 years, and (iii) outcome of respiratory symptoms and disease with the exclusion of lung cancer, 33 relevant publications were selected. Most of them showed significant relationships between exposure to major indoor air pollutants and various short-term and long-term respiratory health outcomes such as wheezing, breathlessness, cough, phlegm, asthma, COPD, lung cancer and more rarely lung function decline. The most consistent relationship is found between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Further studies in the elderly population are needed in order to define causal relationships between exposures to indoor air pollution and underlying mechanisms in this sub-population.

  16. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  17. The TRPC1 Ca2+-permeable channel inhibits exercise-induced protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krout, Danielle; Schaar, Anne; Sun, Yuyang; Sukumaran, Pramod; Roemmich, James N; Singh, Brij B; Claycombe-Larson, Kate J

    2017-12-15

    The transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel found in key metabolic organs and tissues, including the hypothalamus, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Loss of TRPC1 may alter the regulation of cellular energy metabolism resulting in insulin resistance thereby leading to diabetes. Exercise reduces insulin resistance, but it is not known whether TRPC1 is involved in exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. The role of TRPC1 in adiposity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases has not yet been determined. Our results show that TRPC1 functions as a major Ca 2+ entry channel in adipocytes. We have also shown that fat mass and fasting glucose concentrations were lower in TRPC1 KO mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) (45% fat) diet and exercised as compared with WT mice fed a HF diet and exercised. Adipocyte numbers were decreased in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of TRPC1 KO mice fed a HF diet and exercised. Finally, autophagy markers were decreased and apoptosis markers increased in TRPC1 KO mice fed a HF diet and exercised. Overall, these findings suggest that TRPC1 plays an important role in the regulation of adiposity via autophagy and apoptosis and that TRPC1 inhibits the positive effect of exercise on type II diabetes risk under a HF diet-induced obesity environment.

  18. Community Respiratory Viruses as a Cause of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Following Suppressive Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Shalaby, L.; Kandil

    2005-01-01

    Community respiratory viruses are an important cause of respiratory disease in the immunocompromised patients with cancer. To evaluate the occurrence and clinical significance of respiratory virus infections in hospitalized cancer patients at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during anticancer treatment, we studied cases that developed episodes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with LRTI were studied clinically, radiologically, and microbiologically. Sputum cultures were done and an immunofluorescence search for IgM antibodies of influenza A and B, parainfluenza serotypes 1,2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnettii, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were performed on serum samples of patients. The main presenting symptom was cough and expectoration. Hematologic malignancy was the underlying disease in 86.6% of cases. Blood cultures were positive in II patients (36.6%) only. Sputum cultures revealed a bacterial pathogen in [3 cases and fungi in 3; whereas viral and atypical bacterial lgM antibodies were detected in 13 and 4 patients; respectively. Influenza virus was the commonest virus detected, being of type B in 4 cases, type A in one case and mixed A and B in another 5 cases; followed by RSV in 5 patients. Taken together, bacteria were identified as a single cause of LRTI in 10 cases, viruses in 6, fungi in 3 and mixed causes in 7. Still, there were 4 undiagnosed cases. This study showed that respiratory viruses are common in LRTI, either as a single cause or mixed with bacterial pathogens. in hospitalized cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic study of patients with hematologic malignancies. Also, it must be emphasized that early CT chest is crucial as a base-line prior to initiation of anti-fungal or anti-viral therapy. In cancer patients with a

  19. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  20. Focus radiation protection; Schwerpunkt Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2016-07-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  1. In-Flight Aeroelastic Stability of the Thermal Protection System on the NASA HIAD, Part II: Nonlinear Theory and Extended Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Dowell, Earl H.; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Conical shell theory and a supersonic potential flow aerodynamic theory are used to study the nonlinear pressure buckling and aeroelastic limit cycle behavior of the thermal protection system for NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator. The structural model of the thermal protection system consists of an orthotropic conical shell of the Donnell type, resting on several circumferential elastic supports. Classical Piston Theory is used initially for the aerodynamic pressure, but was found to be insufficient at low supersonic Mach numbers. Transform methods are applied to the convected wave equation for potential flow, and a time-dependent aerodynamic pressure correction factor is obtained. The Lagrangian of the shell system is formulated in terms of the generalized coordinates for all displacements and the Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to derive the governing differential-algebraic equations of motion. Aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations and buckling deformations are calculated in the time domain using a Runge-Kutta method in MATLAB. Three conical shell geometries were considered in the present analysis: a 3-meter diameter 70 deg. cone, a 3.7-meter 70 deg. cone, and a 6-meter diameter 70 deg. cone. The 6-meter configuration was loaded statically and the results were compared with an experimental load test of a 6-meter HIAD. Though agreement between theoretical and experimental strains was poor, the circumferential wrinkling phenomena observed during the experiments was captured by the theory and axial deformations were qualitatively similar in shape. With Piston Theory aerodynamics, the nonlinear flutter dynamic pressures of the 3-meter configuration were in agreement with the values calculated using linear theory, and the limit cycle amplitudes were generally on the order of the shell thickness. The effect of axial tension was studied for this configuration, and increasing tension was found to decrease the limit cycle amplitudes when the circumferential

  2. EASI graphics - Version II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of the Version II of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples. 5 references, 15 figures, 6 tables

  3. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46% and cough (n: 52, 14.98% were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%, chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%, and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01% . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91% by chi-square test (P: 0.001. To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged.

  4. Fatores de risco e proteção à infecção respiratória aguda em lactentes Factores de riesgo y protección de la infección respiratoria aguda en lactantes Risk and protective factors of acute respiratory infections in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Cachulo Lopes

    2009-12-01

    embarazo (n=42, y el tercero la recibía en el posparto inmediato (n=45. Las infecciones presumiblemente causadas por el pneumococo en los lactantes fueron acompañadas a los tres y seis meses de vida y colectadas muestras de nasofaringe. Fueron investigados factores de riesgo como: fumadores en el domicilio, otros niños en el domicilio y amamantamiento materno exclusivo. RESULTADOS: La vacuna pneumocóccica polisacarídica no mostró protección contra infecciones causadas por pneumococo. Sin embargo, el amamantamiento materno exclusivo hasta los seis meses protegió los lactantes contra las infecciones respiratorias (OR=7,331. La colonización de la nasofaringe por pneumococo a los tres o seis meses aumentó la probabilidad de infecciones respiratorias (OR=2,792. CONCLUSIONES: Lactantes amamantados exclusivamente con leche materna hasta los seis meses son significativamente protegidos contra infecciones por pneumococos, independientemente de la vacunación pneumocóccica.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of maternal pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the risk and protective factors for acute respiratory infections in infants. METHODS: Nested cross-sectional study of a clinical trial evaluating children of 139 women selected in a public prenatal care unit in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from 2005 to 2006. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: non-immunized (n=46; immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in the last trimester of pregnancy (n=42; and immunized with the vaccine immediately after childbirth (n=45. Infants were followed up for infections presumably caused by pneumococcus at the age of three and six months and nasopharyngeal samples were collected. Risk factors such as smokers living in the same household, siblings and exclusive maternal breastfeeding were investigated. RESULTS: The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine did not provide protection against pneumococcus infections. However, exclusive maternal

  5. Radiation protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOuld, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

  6. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  7. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-02-04

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case that non lung protective ventilator settings are applied. Measurement of respiratory mechanics in BD patients, as well as assessment of their evolution during mechanical ventilation, may lead to preclinical lung injury detection early enough, allowing thus the selection of the appropriate ventilator settings to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in BD patients along with the underlying mechanisms, and to translate the evidence of animal and clinical studies into therapeutic implications regarding the mechanical ventilation of these critically ill patients.

  8. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  9. Organization of measures on protection of population and territories against weapons of mass destruction: brief analysis of laboratory control and conditions of personnel protective means of respiratory organs in the Republic of Tajikistan; Organizatsiya meropriyatiy po zashite naseleniya i territoriy ot oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya; kratkiy analiz laborotornogo kotrolya i sostoyaniya sredstv individual'noy zashiti organov dikhaniya v Respublike Tadzhikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalov, D. D.; Makhmadov, T. F.; Stotskiy, D. F. [Committee of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe (Tajikistan)

    2010-07-01

    population and territory protection from mass-destruction weapon. Organization of actions on population and territory protection is caused on geographical location of Tajikistan. There is a number of some states near Tajikistan that have nuclear weapon: India, China, Pakistan. The basic actions for protection of the population and territories from weapons of mass destruction are: maintenance and accumulation of means of an individual defense, creation of stocks; creation and restoration of protective constructions of a civil defense; evacuation actions planning; restoration of system of monitoring and the laboratory control of a civil defense of Republic Tajikistan; according to the Government Regulation N 527 and dated on 31{sup st} of October, 2008 the 'Emergency situations and civil defense system development 2009-2014' Program was adopted. According to the Plan of the events within this Programme Committee of emergency situations and civil defense under the Government of Republic of Tajikistan provides a stage-by-stage realization of the actions for protection of population and territories from mass-destruction weapon. One of the important actions is provision and accumulation of the means of personal protection, keeping of this means. The means of personal protections are laboratory tested by the specialists of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense. Analytical data of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense allows making some conclusions concerning experienced storage of the means of personal protection. A general analysis of laboratory test indicates that: laboratory tests of filtering boxes indicate the preservation of air flow resistance and waterproof due to the adherence to the rules of keeping; laboratory tests of the front parts of the gas masks and their hardness and waterproof, and the waterproof of the valves show that the front part is dependent on meteorological character of the region of storage at long-term keeping

  10. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN TO HIGH-RISK INFANTS AND YOUNG-CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROOTHUIS, [No Value; SIMOES, EAF; LEVIN, MJ; HALL, CB; LONG, CE; RODRIGUEZ, WJ; ARROBIO, J; MEISSNER, HC; FULTON, DR; WELLIVER, RC; TRISTRAM, DA; SIBER, GR; PRINCE, GA; VANRADEN, M; HEMMING, VG

    1993-01-01

    Background. Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common

  11. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  12. Fifty Years of Research in ARDS. Respiratory Mechanics in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, William R; Chen, Lu; Amato, Marcelo B P; Brochard, Laurent J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a multifactorial lung injury that continues to be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, although lifesaving, is associated with new iatrogenic injury. Current best practice involves the use of small Vt, low plateau and driving pressures, and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure. Collectively, these interventions are termed "lung-protective ventilation." Recent investigations suggest that individualized measurements of pulmonary mechanical variables rather than population-based ventilation prescriptions may be used to set the ventilator with the potential to improve outcomes beyond those achieved with standard lung protective ventilation. This review outlines the measurement and application of clinically applicable pulmonary mechanical concepts, such as plateau pressures, driving pressure, transpulmonary pressures, stress index, and measurement of strain. In addition, the concept of the "baby lung" and the utility of dynamic in addition to static measures of pulmonary mechanical variables are discussed.

  13. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  14. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, John W; Thornburg, Natalie J; Blum, David L; Kuhn, Sam J; Crowe Jr, James E; Wright, David W

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response. (paper)

  15. Cow's milk and immune function in the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Perdijk, Olaf; Splunter, van, Marloes; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Brugman, Sylvia; Neerven, van, Joost

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow's milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow's milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these f...

  16. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Unlimited Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Maintenance of long - term immunological memory against pathogens is crucial for the rapid...highly expressed in memory B cells in mice, and Atg7 is required for maintenance of long - term memory B cells needed to protect against influenza...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0361 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Farrah

  17. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-08

    Nov 8, 2008 ... Pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation were analysed with ... dioxide production (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE), respiratory rate. (fR) and .... Protective masks typically have a dead space of 150 - 500 ml and flow resistance of 8.0. - 10.0 cm H2O∙l-1∙s-1 compared with 70 - 150 ml dead space and 0.6 -.

  18. Rehabilitation of patients admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S

    1998-07-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to be of benefit to clinically stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on some physiologic variables in COPD patients recovering from an episode of acute respiratory failure. A prospective, randomized study. A respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). Eighty COPD patients recovering from an episode of acute respiratory failure were randomized in a 3:1 fashion to receive stepwise pulmonary rehabilitation (group A, n=60 patients) or standard medical therapy (group B, n=20 patients). Improvements in exercise tolerance, sense of breathlessness, respiratory muscle function, and pulmonary function test values were measured, respectively, by exercise capacity (6-minute walking distance [6MWD]), dyspnea score (Visual Analog Scale [VAS]), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Group A received pulmonary rehabilitation that consisted of passive mobilization (step I), early deambulation (step II), respiratory and lower skeletal muscle training (step III), and if the patients were able, complete lower extremity training on a treadmill (step IV). Group B received standard medical therapy plus a basic deambulation program. Sixty-one of 80 patients were mechanically ventilated at admission to the unit and most of them were bedridden. Twelve of the 60 group A patients and 4 of the 20 group B patients died during their RICU stay, and 9 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation at home after their discharge. The total length of RICU stay was 38+/-14 days for patients in group A versus 33.2+/-11 days for those in group B. Most patients from both groups regained the ability to walk, either unaided or aided. At discharge, 6 MWD results were significantly improved (p respiratory failure and who, in most cases, required mechanical ventilation benefited from comprehensive early

  19. Tei index in neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Anwer Attia Khattab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular compromise is a common complication of neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Tei index is a Doppler-derived index for the assessment of overall left ventricular function that combines systolic and diastolic time intervals. Aim: Assess the role of MPI versus cardiac troponin I as early indicator of hypoxic cardiac damage in neonates with respiratory distress or perinatal asphyxia. The present work was conducted on forty neonates, 15 with neonatal respiratory distress (group I, 15 with perinatal asphyxia (group II, and 10 apparently healthy neonates as a control (group III. All have: Detailed history-thorough clinical examination-Plain X-ray-ECG-Two dimensional, M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic examination with the measurement of both myocardial performance index (MPI of the right and left ventricle-Serum cardiac troponin I. Results: There was statistically significant increase in serum cardiac troponin I in groups I and II than group III. Left and right ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI were increased in group I and II than the control group. No correlation between Tei index and each of postnatal age, apgar score at 5-min, heart rate, serum cardiac troponin I, ejection fraction and fractional shortening, but there was direct relationship between MPI and LVEDD and inverse relationship between MPI and each of EF% and FS%. But there was significant correlation between L.V. MPI and gestational age. Conclusion: Tei index was higher in neonates with respiratory distress and neonates with perinatal asphyxia than in normal neonates despite normal or even increased ejection fraction which indicates that these patients may have subclinical ventricular dysfunction which should be followed up carefully.

  20. Primary prevention: exposure reduction, skin exposure and respiratory protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Henneberger, P.K.; Redlich, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Interventions for the primary prevention of occupational asthma have been reported in the medical literature, understanding the effectiveness of these efforts could help future interventions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of controlling work

  1. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increa...

  2. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  3. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The potential of heliox as a therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults and children: a descriptive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J. P.; Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Preckel, Benedikt; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    In neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and acute RDS (ARDS) mechanical ventilation is often necessary to manage hypoxia, whilst protecting the lungs through lower volume ventilation and permissive hypercapnia. Mechanical ventilation can, however, induce or aggravate the lung injury caused

  5. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  6. Respiratory correlated cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Zijp, Lambert; Remeijer, Peter; Herk, Marcel van

    2005-01-01

    A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner integrated with a linear accelerator is a powerful tool for image guided radiotherapy. Respiratory motion, however, induces artifacts in CBCT, while the respiratory correlated procedures, developed to reduce motion artifacts in axial and helical CT are not suitable for such CBCT scanners. We have developed an alternative respiratory correlated procedure for CBCT and evaluated its performance. This respiratory correlated CBCT procedure consists of retrospective sorting in projection space, yielding subsets of projections that each corresponds to a certain breathing phase. Subsequently, these subsets are reconstructed into a four-dimensional (4D) CBCT dataset. The breathing signal, required for respiratory correlation, was directly extracted from the 2D projection data, removing the need for an additional respiratory monitor system. Due to the reduced number of projections per phase, the contrast-to-noise ratio in a 4D scan reduced by a factor 2.6-3.7 compared to a 3D scan based on all projections. Projection data of a spherical phantom moving with a 3 and 5 s period with and without simulated breathing irregularities were acquired and reconstructed into 3D and 4D CBCT datasets. The positional deviations of the phantoms center of gravity between 4D CBCT and fluoroscopy were small: 0.13±0.09 mm for the regular motion and 0.39±0.24 mm for the irregular motion. Motion artifacts, clearly present in the 3D CBCT datasets, were substantially reduced in the 4D datasets, even in the presence of breathing irregularities, such that the shape of the moving structures could be identified more accurately. Moreover, the 4D CBCT dataset provided information on the 3D trajectory of the moving structures, absent in the 3D data. Considerable breathing irregularities, however, substantially reduces the image quality. Data presented for three different lung cancer patients were in line with the results obtained from the phantom study. In

  7. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  8. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  9. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  10. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  12. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Borisova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. Design of the research. We have examined 70 children aged 2–16, who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=32 with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n=38 with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Methods. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Results. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0–1; in group II, it was in the 3–7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. Conclusion. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  13. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Irina V; Smirnova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. We have examined 70 children aged 2-16 , who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n = 32) with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n = 38) with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0-1; in group II, it was in the 3-7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  14. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...

  15. LUDEP 1. 0, a personal computer program to implement the new ICRP respiratory tract model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, N.S.; Birchall, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently approved a new model of the human respiratory tract. This model has been designed to represent realistically the deposition and biokinetic behaviour of inhaled radionuclides, and to calculate doses to the respiratory tract. In order to examine the practical application and radiological implications of the new model, a Personal Computer program has been developed. LUDEP 1.0 is a user-friendly program for the IBM-compatible PC which enables the user to calculate doses to the respiratory tract and to other organs. (author).

  16. Variable Ventilation Improved Respiratory System Mechanics and Ameliorated Pulmonary Damage in a Rat Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluri-Martins, André; Moraes, Lillian; Santos, Raquel S; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2017-01-01

    intercellular adhesion molecule-1 compared to NV, with no significant differences between VV and NV. Compared to VCV, VV increased the expression of surfactant protein-D, suggesting protection from type II epithelial cell damage. In conclusion, in this experimental lung ischemia-reperfusion model, VV improved respiratory system elastance and reduced lung damage compared to VCV.

  17. Variable Ventilation Improved Respiratory System Mechanics and Ameliorated Pulmonary Damage in a Rat Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. M. Rocco

    2017-05-01

    adhesion molecule-1 compared to NV, with no significant differences between VV and NV. Compared to VCV, VV increased the expression of surfactant protein-D, suggesting protection from type II epithelial cell damage. In conclusion, in this experimental lung ischemia-reperfusion model, VV improved respiratory system elastance and reduced lung damage compared to VCV.

  18. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  19. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-12-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed.

  20. Epidemiologic analysis of respiratory viral infections among Singapore military servicemen in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Fai; Koh, Wee-Hong Victor; Kan, Clement; Dua, Poh-Choo Alethea; Lim, Ai-Sim Elizabeth; Liaw, Chin-Wen Jasper; Gao, Qiu-Han; Chng, Jeremiah; Lee, Vernon J; Tan, Boon-Huan; Loh, Jin-Phang

    2018-03-12

    Respiratory illnesses have been identified as a significant factor leading to lost training time and morbidity among Singapore military recruits. A surveillance programme has been put in place to determine etiological agents responsible for febrile, as well as afebrile respiratory illnesses in a military camp. The goal of the study is to better understand the epidemiology of these diseases and identify potential countermeasures to protect military recruits against them. From Jan 2016 - Jan 2017, a total of 2647 respiratory cases were enrolled into the surveillance programme. The cases were further stratified into Febrile Respiratory Illness (FRI, with body temperature > 37.5 °C) or Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI, with body temperature respiratory diseases in military focused largely on FRI cases. With the expanded surveillance to ARI cases, this study allows unbiased evaluation of the impact of respiratory disease pathogens among recruits in a military environment. The results show that several pathogens have a much bigger role in causing respiratory diseases in this cohort.

  1. Evaluation of Personal Chemical Vapor Protection for Patrol and Tactical Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedele, Paul D; Lake, William L; Arca, Victor J; Marshall, Stephen M; Mitchell, David B

    2002-01-01

    ... functions in law enforcement. Various Level C, impermeable and charcoal impregnated, vapor-absorptive, air-permeable protective clothing ensembles, worn with the MSA Millenium respiratory protective mask/butyl hood, and seven-mil...

  2. One more brick in the wall of protective ventilation in surgical patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Roberto Rabello; Serpa Neto, Ary

    2015-01-01

    On June 14, 2015, Ladha and colleagues published an article in the BMJ entitled "Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: hospital based registry study", which investigated the effects of intraoperative protective ventilation on major

  3. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  4. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  5. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  6. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  7. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  8. Reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbrother, D.B.; Lesniak, L.M.; Orgera, E.G.

    1977-10-01

    The report describes the reactor protection system (RPS-II) designed for use on Babcock and Wilcox 145-, later 177-, and 205-fuel assembly pressurized water reactors. In this system, relays in the trip logic have been replaced by solid state devices. A calculating module for the low DNBR, pump status, and offset trip functions has replaced the overpower trip (based on flow and imbalance), the power/RC pump trip, and the variable low-pressure trip. Included is a description of the changes from the present Oconee-type reactor protection system (RPS-I), a functional and hardware description of the calculating module, a description of the software programmed in the calculating module, and a discussion of the qualification program conducted to ensure that the degree of protection provided by RPS-II is not less than that provided by previously licensed systems supplied by B and W

  9. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  10. Prevention of Respiratory Distress After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dolina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of different methods for preventing respiratory distress after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It shows the advantages of use of noninvasive assisted ventilation that ensures excessive positive pressure in the respiratory contour, its impact on external respiratory function, arterial blood gases, oxygen transport and uptake. A scheme for the prevention of respiratory diseases applying noninvasive assisted ventilation is given.

  11. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  12. Microbial flora variations in the respiratory tract of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cangemi de Gutierrez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A stable microbial system in the respiratory tract acts as an important defense mechanism against pathogenic microorganisms. Perturbations in this system may allow pathogens to establish. In an ecological environment such as the respiratory tract, there are many diverse factors that play a role in the establishment of the indigenous flora. In the present work we studied the normal microbial flora of different areas of the respiratory tract of mice and their evolution from the time the mice were born. Our interest was to know which were the dominant groups of microorganisms in each area, which were the first capable of colonizing and which dominated over time to be used as probiotic microorganisms. Our results show that Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacilli and strict anaerobic microorganisms were the last ones to appear in the bronchia, while aerobic and Gram positive cocci were present in all the areas of the respiratory tract. The number of facultative aerobes and strict anaerobes were similar in the nasal passage, pharynx instilled and trachea, but lower in bronchia. The dominant species were Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, followed by S. epidermidis, Lactobacilli and S. cohnii I which were present on every studied days but at different proportions. This paper is the first part of a research topic investigating the protective effect of the indigenous flora against pathogens using the mice as an experimental model.

  13. Evasion of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Respiratory Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storisteanu, Daniel M L; Pocock, Joanna M; Cowburn, Andrew S; Juss, Jatinder K; Nadesalingam, Angalee; Nizet, Victor; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2017-04-01

    The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone- and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Since the discovery of NETs over a decade ago, evidence that "NET evasion" might act as an immune protection strategy among respiratory pathogens, including group A Streptococcus, Bordetella pertussis, and Haemophilus influenzae, has been growing, with the majority of these studies being published in the past 2 years. Evasion strategies fall into three main categories: inhibition of NET release by down-regulating host inflammatory responses; degradation of NETs using pathogen-derived DNases; and resistance to the microbicidal components of NETs, which involves a variety of mechanisms, including encapsulation. Hence, the evasion of NETs appears to be a widespread strategy to allow pathogen proliferation and dissemination, and is currently a topic of intense research interest. This article outlines the evidence supporting the three main strategies of NET evasion-inhibition, degradation, and resistance-with particular reference to common respiratory pathogens.

  14. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: eye and face protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In all work places where hazards of various kinds are present and the same cannot be totally controlled by engineering methods, suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be used. There are several types of eye and face protection devices available in the market and it is important that employees use the proper type for the particular job. The main classes of eye and face protection devices required for the industrial operations are as follows: (a) eye protection devices which includes: (i) safety goggles (ii) safety spectacles (iii) safety clipons and eye and face protection devices which are (i) eye shield, (ii) face shield, (iii) wire mesh screen guard. Guide lines for selecting appropriate ear and face protection equipment for nuclear installations are given. (M.K.V.). 4 annexures, 1 appendix

  15. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  16. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  17. Ultra-protective tidal volume: how low should we go?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Eduardo LV; Amato, Marcelo BP

    2013-01-01

    Applying tidal volumes of less than 6 mL/kg might improve lung protection in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a recent article, Retamal and colleagues showed that such a reduction is feasible with conventional mechanical ventilation and leads to less tidal recruitment and overdistension without causing carbon dioxide retention or auto-positive end-expiratory pressure. However, whether the compensatory increase in the respiratory rate blunts the lung protection remains une...

  18. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  19. Extracorporeal respiratory support in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira

    2017-01-01

    In patients with severe respiratory failure, either hypoxemic or hypercapnic, life support with mechanical ventilation alone can be insufficient to meet their needs, especially if one tries to avoid ventilator settings that can cause injury to the lungs. In those patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which is also very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the blood, can provide life support, allowing the application of protective lung ventilation. In this review article, we aim to explore some of the most relevant aspects of using ECMO for respiratory support. We discuss the history of respiratory support using ECMO in adults, as well as the clinical evidence; costs; indications; installation of the equipment; ventilator settings; daily care of the patient and the system; common troubleshooting; weaning; and discontinuation. RESUMO Em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória grave (hipoxêmica ou hipercápnica), o suporte somente com ventilação mecânica pode ser insuficiente para suas necessidades, especialmente quando se tenta evitar o uso de parâmetros ventilatórios que possam causar danos aos pulmões. Nesses pacientes, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, oxigenação extracorpórea por membrana), que também é muito eficaz na remoção de dióxido de carbono do sangue, pode manter a vida, permitindo o uso de ventilação pulmonar protetora. No presente artigo de revisão, objetivamos explorar alguns dos aspectos mais relevantes do suporte respiratório por ECMO. Discutimos a história do suporte respiratório por ECMO em adultos; evidências clínicas; custos; indicações; instalação do equipamento; parâmetros ventilatórios; cuidado diário do paciente e do sistema; solução de problemas comuns; desmame e descontinuação.

  20. Respiratory Therapy for Acute Lung Lesion, by Using Biphasic Positive Pressure Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Marchenkov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To comparatively study the efficiency of respiratory support in patients with acute lung lesion, by applying BIPAP, SIMV, and aIPPV.Subjects. Twenty-six patients with acute lung lesion whose pattern included acute respiratory distress syndrome (n=16, pneumonia (и=6, and pneumonitis (n=4 were examined. The severity of disease was 18 to 21 APACHE II scale score.Results. The use of BIPAP leads to a better adaptation of a patient to respiratory support, to a reduction in the number of used myorelaxants and sedatives, and to improvement of gas exchange in the lung and diminishes the negative impact of artificial ventilation on hemodynamics. As compared with other types of assisted ventilation, BIPAP accelerates transfer from total respiratory support to spontaneous breathing.

  1. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, occurs when carbon dioxide production exceeds elimination via the lung and is mainly owing to alveolar hypoventilation. Concurrent increases in Paco 2 , decreases in pH and compensatory increases in blood HCO 3 - concentration are associated with respiratory acidosis. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic, with initial metabolic compensation to increase HCO 3 - concentrations by intracellular buffering. Chronic respiratory acidosis results in longer lasting increases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - . Alveolar hypoventilation and resulting respiratory acidosis may also be associated with hypoxemia, especially evident when patients are inspiring room air (20.9% O 2 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  3. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  5. Oestrogen influences on mitochondrial gene expression and respiratory chain activity in cortical and mesencephalic astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, G W; Beyer, C; Arnold, S

    2008-07-01

    The regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism plays an essential role in the central nervous system (CNS). Abnormalities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain often accompany neurodegenerative diseases. This makes mitochondria a perfect target for strategies of cellular protection against toxic compounds and pathological conditions. Steroid hormones, such as oestrogen, are well-known to fulfil a protective role in the brain during ischaemic and degenerative processes. Because astrocytes function as the major energy supplier in the CNS, we have analysed oestrogen effects on the mitochondrial respiratory chain of this cell type. In our studies, we applied semi- and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene expression and polarographic measurements of the respiratory chain activity of mitochondria. We observed that structural and functional properties were regulated dependent on the oestrogen exposure time and the brain region, but independent of the nuclear oestrogen receptors. We could demonstrate that long-term oestrogen exposure increases the subunit gene expression of respiratory chain complexes and the mitochondrial DNA content, thereby indicating an up-regulation of the amount of mitochondria per cell together with an increase of mitochondrial energy production. This could represent an important indirect mechanism by which long-term oestrogen exposure protects neurones from cell death under neurotoxic conditions. On the other hand, we observed short-term effects of oestrogen on the activity of mitochondrial, proton-pumping respiratory chain complexes. In astrocytes from the cortex, respiratory chain activity was decreased, whereas it was increased in astrocytes from the mesencephalon. An increased production of reactive oxygen species would be the consequence of an increased respiratory chain activity in mesencephalic astrocytes. This could explain the different efficiencies of oestrogen-mediated short-term protection in distinct brain

  6. Internal radiation dose calculations with the INREM II computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Killough, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code, INREM II, was developed to calculate the internal radiation dose equivalent to organs of man which results from the intake of a radionuclide by inhalation or ingestion. Deposition and removal of radioactivity from the respiratory tract is represented by the Internal Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group Lung Model. A four-segment catenary model of the gastrointestinal tract is used to estimate movement of radioactive material that is ingested, or swallowed after being cleared from the respiratory tract. Retention of radioactivity in other organs is specified by linear combinations of decaying exponential functions. The formation and decay of radioactive daughters is treated explicitly, with each radionuclide in the decay chain having its own uptake and retention parameters, as supplied by the user. The dose equivalent to a target organ is computed as the sum of contributions from each source organ in which radioactivity is assumed to be situated. This calculation utilizes a matrix of dosimetric S-factors (rem/μCi-day) supplied by the user for the particular choice of source and target organs. Output permits the evaluation of components of dose from cross-irradiations when penetrating radiations are present. INREM II has been utilized with current radioactive decay data and metabolic models to produce extensive tabulations of dose conversion factors for a reference adult for approximately 150 radionuclides of interest in environmental assessments of light-water-reactor fuel cycles. These dose conversion factors represent the 50-year dose commitment per microcurie intake of a given radionuclide for 22target organs including contributions from specified source organs and surplus activity in the rest of the body. These tabulations are particularly significant in their consistent use of contemporary models and data and in the detail of documentation

  7. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  8. Recurrent Respiratory Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yurochko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers a problem of recurrent respiratory infections (RRI in children. Their description, risk factors, diagnostic algorithm have been dwelt. A special attention is paid to the treatment. An optimal antibiotic in RRI of bacterial genesis is a high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (registered as Augmentin™ ES in Ukraine, the efficacy of which is 94.6–96.3 % according to different data.

  9. Acute respiratory failure in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Soubra Said; Guntupalli Kalapalatha

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma is a condition that is managed in the outpatient setting in most patients, the poorly controlled and severe cases pose a major challenge to the health-care team. Recognition of the more common insidious and the less common rapid onset "acute asphyxic" asthma are important. The intensivist needs to be familiar with the factors that denote severity of the exacerbation. The management of respiratory failure in asthma, including pharmacologic and mechanical ventilation, are discus...

  10. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  11. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair. PMID:8711665

  12. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair.

  13. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  14. Is Overall Mortality the Right Composite Endpoint in Clinical Trials of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Jesús; Martínez, Domingo; Mosteiro, Fernando; Ambrós, Alfonso; Añón, José M; Ferrando, Carlos; Soler, Juan A; Montiel, Raquel; Vidal, Anxela; Conesa-Cayuela, Luís A; Blanco, Jesús; Arrojo, Regina; Solano, Rosario; Capilla, Lucía; Del Campo, Rafael; Civantos, Belén; Fernández, María Mar; Aldecoa, César; Parra, Laura; Gutiérrez, Andrea; Martínez-Jiménez, Chanel; González-Martín, Jesús M; Fernández, Rosa L; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2018-06-01

    Overall mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a composite endpoint because it includes death from multiple causes. In most acute respiratory distress syndrome trials, it is unknown whether reported deaths are due to acute respiratory distress syndrome or the underlying disease, unrelated to the specific intervention tested. We investigated the causes of death after contracting acute respiratory distress syndrome in a large cohort. A secondary analysis from three prospective, multicenter, observational studies. A network of multidisciplinary ICUs. We studied 778 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with lung-protective ventilation. None. We examined death in the ICU from individual causes. Overall ICU mortality was 38.8% (95% CI, 35.4-42.3). Causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome modified the risk of death. Twenty-three percent of deaths occurred from refractory hypoxemia due to nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome. Most patients died from causes unrelated to acute respiratory distress syndrome: 48.7% of nonsurvivors died from multisystem organ failure, and cancer or brain injury was involved in 37.1% of deaths. When quantifying the true burden of acute respiratory distress syndrome outcome, we identified 506 patients (65.0%) with one or more exclusion criteria for enrollment into current interventional trials. Overall ICU mortality of the "trial cohort" (21.3%) was markedly lower than the parent cohort (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43-0.70; p respiratory distress syndrome patients are not directly related to lung damage but to extrapulmonary multisystem organ failure. It would be challenging to prove that specific lung-directed therapies have an effect on overall survival.

  15. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  16. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  17. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  18. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  19. [Protective effect of GnRH analogues on the reproductive capacity of women with neoplasia or autoimmune disease who require chemotherapy. Final results of a phase ii clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris-Martínez, José M; Trillo-Urrutia, Lourdes; Gómez-Cabeza, Juan José; Encabo-Duró, Gloria

    2016-02-05

    In order to avoid the toxic effect of chemotherapy, it has been proposed to use GnRH agonist analogues (GnRHa) to inhibit the depletion of ovarian follicles. Nevertheless, there is controversy about its effectiveness. This clinical trial has been conducted with the aim to assess the protective effect of GnRH analogues on the reproductive capacity of women with malignancies or autoimmune diseases, which require chemotherapy. Open phase ii single-center clinical trial. During chemotherapy, a total of 5 doses of GnRH antagonist analogue at a dose interval of 3 days and/or a monthly dose of GnRHa were administered. Hormonal determinations prior to the start of the CT treatment were conducted during treatment and at the end of it. The inclusion of patients was prematurely concluded when incorporating the determination of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a parameter for assessing the ovarian reserve. Out of 38 patients, 23 (60.5%, 95%CI 43.4-76.0) had AMH values below normal following completion of treatment. An intermediate analysis was carried out observing that while most patients were recovering the menstrual cycle (86.6% 95%CI 71.9-95.6), they had reduced levels of AMH. Although most patients recovered their menstrual cycles, the ovarian reserve, assessed by the concentration of AMH, decreased in many patients. Therefore, we can conclude that the concomitant treatment of chemotherapy and GnRH analogues does not preserve the loss of follicular ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  1. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  2. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Whitesell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the groups when evaluating the more physiol. complex I and II linked OXPHOS capacity. These findings indicate that chronic hyperglycemia results in an elevated intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in both soleus and, at varying degree, plantaris muscle, findings that are consistent with human T1DM...

  3. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  4. MODERN OPPORTUNITIES OF INTERFERON THERAPY AT INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Chebotareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new dosing scheme for the preparation VIFERON®, rectal suppositories for infants of II, III and IV groups of health was suggested. The application of the scheme has resulted in a more pronounced clinical and immunological effects at treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections compared to the previously used sc heme. 

  5. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L

    1999-01-01

    reductase was inhibited by antimycin, implying the presence of a classical pathway from complex II to complex III in this bacterium. The presence of NADH-fumarate reductase (FRD) was demonstrated in H. pylori and fumarate could reduce H2O2 production from NADH, indicating fumarate to be an endogenous......-dependent respiration was significantly stronger than NADH-dependent respiration, indicating that this is a major respiratory electron donor in H. pylori. Fumarate and malonate exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. The activity of succinate-cytochrome c...

  6. Monitoring of pulmonary mechanics in acute respiratory distress syndrome to titrate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Eleonora, Carlesso; Caironi, Pietro

    2005-06-01

    This paper reviews recent findings regarding the respiratory mechanics during acute respiratory distress syndrome as a tool for tailoring its ventilatory management. The pressure-volume curve has been used for many years as a descriptor of the respiratory mechanics in patients affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome. The use of the sigmoidal equation introduced by Venegas for the analysis of the pressure-volume curve seems to be the most rigorous mathematical approach to assessing lung mechanics. Increasing attention has been focused on the deflation limb for titration of positive end-expiratory pressure. Based on physiologic reasoning, a novel parameter, the stress index, has been proposed for tailoring a safe mechanical ventilation, although its clinical impact has still to be proved. Evidence has confirmed that a variety of underlying pathologies may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, making unrealistic any attempt to unify the ventilatory approach. Although extensively proposed to tailor mechanical ventilation during acute respiratory distress syndrome, there is no evidence that the pressure-volume curve may be useful in setting a lung-protective strategy in the presence of different potentials for recruitment. The Venegas approach should be the standard analysis of pressure-volume curves. In any patient, the potential for recruitment should be assessed, as a basis for tailoring the most effective mechanical ventilation. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential use of the pressure-volume curve to guide a lung-protective ventilatory strategy.

  7. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  8. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  9. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  10. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHLOROPICRIN AND IMPACT OF SORBED WATER STEAM ON PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloropicrin is a chemical substance that has a very toxic effect. Exerts its effect on the respiratory system. Causes pulmonary edema and difficult breathing and suffocating effect. Respiratory protection may be carried into execution respiratory filters. On the protective power filter based on active coal affects adsorbed water vapor. This paper presents the results of the adsorption of water vapor on activated carbon from 5% to 25%. Was used for the experiment apparatus for dynamic adsorption, the results showed that the humidity of 5% coal provides most power protection, while humidity of 25% minimum protective power.

  11. Dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence in cement mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A; Azeem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Aijaz A; Ghori, G Moinudin; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Feisal Subhan, Mirza Muhammad

    2006-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of respiratory muscles is a reliable method of assessing the ventilatory muscle function, but still its use has not been fully utilized to determine the occupational and environmental hazards on respiratory muscles. Therefore, EMG of intercostal muscles was performed to determine the dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence. Matched cross-sectional study of EMG in 50 non-smoking cement mill workers with an age range of 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of cement dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. EMG was performed by using surface electrodes and chart recorder. Significant reduction was observed in number of peaks (p competence and stratification of results shows a dose-effect of years of exposure in cement mill.

  12. A new sampler for simulating aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Yi Yanling; Chen Bo; Liu Haikuan

    2008-01-01

    For estimation of the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract, a new sampler consisting of three different configurations of sampling heads was developed. The deposition fractions of aerosols on the wire screens inside the sampling heads were calculated with the fan model of filtration theory. The deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the respiratory tract were calculated with the lung dose evaluation program (LUDEP) developed by National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as references. In general indoor and mine environments, the deviation between the deposition fractions of attached aerosol on the wire screens designed in this study and its reference values in the respiratory tract is less than 5%. It is possible to accurately estimate the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract through mimic measurements of radon progeny collected with the new sampler. (authors)

  13. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  14. Impact of implementing an exclusively dedicated respiratory isolation room in a Brazilian tertiary emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rômulo Rebouças; Borges, Marcos Carvalho; Neves, Fábio Fernandes; Vidal de Moura Negrini, Bento; Colleto, Francisco Antonio; Romeo Boullosa, José Luiz; Camila de Miranda Cardoso, Maria; Pazin-Filho, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Occupational risk due to airborne disease challenges healthcare institutions. Environmental measures are effective but their cost-effectiveness is still debatable and most of the capacity planning is based on occupational rates. Better indices to plan and evaluate capacity are needed. To evaluate the impact of installing an exclusively dedicated respiratory isolation room (EDRIR) in a tertiary emergency department (ED) determined by a time-to-reach-facility method. A group of patients in need of respiratory isolation were first identified--group I (2004; 29 patients; 44.1±3.4 years) and the occupational rate and time intervals (arrival to diagnosis, diagnosis to respiratory isolation indication and indication to effective isolation) were determined and it was estimated that adding an EDRIR would have a significant impact over the time to isolation. After implementing the EDRIR, a second group of patients was gathered in the same period of the year--group II (2007; 50 patients; 43.4±1.8 years) and demographic and functional parameters were recorded to evaluate time to isolation. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender and inhospital respiratory isolation room availability were obtained. Implementing an EDRIR decreased the time from arrival to indication of respiratory isolation (27.5±9.3 × 3.7±2.0; p=0.0180) and from indication to effective respiratory isolation (13.3±3.0 × 2.94±1.06; p=0.003) but not the respiratory isolation duration and total hospital stay. The impact on crude isolation rates was very significant (8.9 × 75.4/100.000 patients; p<0.001). The HR for effective respiratory isolation was 26.8 (95% CI 7.42 to 96.9) p<0.001 greater for 2007. Implementing an EDRIR in a tertiary ED significantly reduced the time to respiratory isolation.

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine efficacy in ferrets: whole killed virus and adenovirus-vectored vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Raymond H; Petric, Martin; Lawrence, David J; Mok, Catherine P Y; Rowe, Thomas; Zitzow, Lois A; Karunakaran, Karuna P; Voss, Thomas G; Brunham, Robert C; Gauldie, Jack; Finlay, B Brett; Roper, Rachel L

    2008-09-01

    Although the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak was controlled, repeated transmission of SARS coronavirus (CoV) over several years makes the development of a SARS vaccine desirable. We performed a comparative evaluation of two SARS vaccines for their ability to protect against live SARS-CoV intranasal challenge in ferrets. Both the whole killed SARS-CoV vaccine (with and without alum) and adenovirus-based vectors encoding the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) protein induced neutralizing antibody responses and reduced viral replication and shedding in the upper respiratory tract and progression of virus to the lower respiratory tract. The vaccines also diminished haemorrhage in the thymus and reduced the severity and extent of pneumonia and damage to lung epithelium. However, despite high neutralizing antibody titres, protection was incomplete for all vaccine preparations and administration routes. Our data suggest that a combination of vaccine strategies may be required for effective protection from this pathogen. The ferret may be a good model for SARS-CoV infection because it is the only model that replicates the fever seen in human patients, as well as replicating other SARS disease features including infection by the respiratory route, clinical signs, viral replication in upper and lower respiratory tract and lung damage.

  16. An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Eric AF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children. Currently there are several vaccine and immunoprophylaxis candidates against RSV in the developmental phase targeting active and passive immunization. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against RSV relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results In the case of candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV, the experts expressed very low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability and low cost of development; moderate levels of optimism regarding the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and acceptance to end users for the interventions; and high levels of optimism regarding impact on equity and acceptance to health workers. While considering the candidate vaccines targeting pregnant women, the panel expressed low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability, answerability and low development cost

  17. An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Harish; Verma, Vasundhara R; Theodoratou, Evropi; Zgaga, Lina; Huda, Tanvir; Simões, Eric A F; Wright, Peter F; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

    2011-04-13

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children. Currently there are several vaccine and immunoprophylaxis candidates against RSV in the developmental phase targeting active and passive immunization. We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against RSV relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their "collective optimism" towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. In the case of candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV, the experts expressed very low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability and low cost of development; moderate levels of optimism regarding the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and acceptance to end users for the interventions; and high levels of optimism regarding impact on equity and acceptance to health workers. While considering the candidate vaccines targeting pregnant women, the panel expressed low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability, answerability and low development cost; moderate levels of optimism for likelihood of efficacy

  18. Mask-wearing and respiratory infection in healthcare workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0% of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5% subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49] and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.092.72], but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.280.76], wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91] or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]. The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.

  19. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gloria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs, we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement

  20. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND SMOKING HABITS OF SENIOR INDUSTRIAL STAFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Susan H.; Wood, C. H.; Schilling, R. S. F.

    1965-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the smoking habits of 224 industrial `executives' aged 30 to 69 years in Social Classes I and II were ascertained by means of the Medical Research Council's questionnaire on respiratory symptoms; 31% had persistent cough, 25% had persistent phlegm, and 21% were short of breath on hurrying or going up a hill; 9% had had one or more chest illnesses in the past three years lasting for about a week, and 4% had `chronic bronchitis'—defined as persistent phlegm and one or more chest illnesses in the past three years; 67% were smokers, 21% smoking more than 25 cigarettes (or equivalent tobacco) per day; another 20% had stopped smoking. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness was closely related to smoking habit. Data for those aged 40 to 59 years are compared with that obtained from London Transport Board workers and a sample of the population studied by the College of General Practitioners. The latter was further analysed and suggests that the prevalence of cough and phlegm is more closely related to the amount smoked than to social class. The prevalence of chest illness is probably more closely related to social class and less to the amount smoked. It is suggested that, although smoking may initiate irritative respiratory symptoms, the precursors of bronchitis, additional factors are important in causing progression to disabling or fatal chronic bronchitis. PMID:14278803