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Sample records for respiratory disease morbidity

  1. Respiratory disease related mortality and morbidity on an island of Greece exposed to perlite and bentonite mining dust.

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-10-14

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989-1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction.

  2. Respiratory Disease Related Mortality and Morbidity on an Island of Greece Exposed to Perlite and Bentonite Mining Dust

    Melina Stoltidis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989–1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs, associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction.

  3. In-home air pollution is linked to respiratory morbidity in former smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Aloe, Charles; Paulin, Laura; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N

    2013-05-15

    The effect of indoor air pollutants on respiratory morbidity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in developed countries is uncertain. The first longitudinal study to investigate the independent effects of indoor particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations on COPD morbidity in a periurban community. Former smokers with COPD were recruited and indoor air was monitored over a 1-week period in the participant's bedroom and main living area at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At each visit, participants completed spirometry and questionnaires assessing respiratory symptoms. Exacerbations were assessed by questionnaires administered at clinic visits and monthly telephone calls. Participants (n = 84) had moderate or severe COPD with a mean FEV1 of 48.6% predicted. The mean (± SD) indoor PM(2.5) and NO(2) concentrations were 11.4 ± 13.3 µg/m(3) and 10.8 ± 10.6 ppb in the bedroom, and 12.2 ± 12.2 µg/m(3) and 12.2 ± 11.8 ppb in the main living area. Increases in PM(2.5) concentrations in the main living area were associated with increases in respiratory symptoms, rescue medication use, and risk of severe COPD exacerbations. Increases in NO(2) concentrations in the main living area were independently associated with worse dyspnea. Increases in bedroom NO(2) concentrations were associated with increases in nocturnal symptoms and risk of severe COPD exacerbations. Indoor pollutant exposure, including PM(2.5) and NO(2), was associated with increased respiratory symptoms and risk of COPD exacerbation. Future investigations should include intervention studies that optimize indoor air quality as a novel therapeutic approach to improving COPD health outcomes.

  4. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: disease-specific morbidity survival analysis.

    Babbitt, Christopher J; Cooper, Michael C; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Liao, Eileen; Levine, Glenn K; Randhawa, Inderpal S

    2012-12-01

    Multiple ventilatory strategies for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in children have been advocated, including high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Despite the frequent deployment of HFOV, randomized controlled trials remain elusive and currently there are no pediatric trials looking at its use. Our longitudinal study analyzed the predictive clinical outcome of HFOV in pediatric AHRF given disease-specific morbidity. A retrospective 8-year review on pediatric intensive care unit admissions with AHRF ventilated by HFOV was performed. Primary outcomes included survival, morbidity, length of stay (LOS), and factors associated with survival or mortality. A total of 102 patients underwent HFOV with a 66 % overall survival rate. Survivors had a greater LOS than nonsurvivors (p = 0.001). Mortality odds ratio (OR) for patients without bronchiolitis was 8.19 (CI = 1.02, 65.43), and without pneumonia it was 3.07 (CI = 1.12, 8.39). A lower oxygenation index (OI) after HFOV commencement and at subsequent time points analyzed predicted survival. After 24 h, mortality was associated with an OI > 35 [OR = 31.11 (CI = 3.25, 297.98)]. Sepsis-related mortality was associated with a higher baseline FiO(2) (0.88 vs. 0.65), higher OI (42 vs. 22), and augmented metabolic acidosis (pH of 7.25 vs. 7.32) evaluated 4 h on HFOV (p < 0.05). High-frequency oscillatory ventilation may be safely utilized. It has a 66 % overall survival rate in pediatric AHRF of various etiologies. Patients with morbidity limited to the respiratory system and optimized oxygenation indices are most likely to survive on HFOV.

  5. Morbidity Forecast in Cities: A Study of Urban Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2018-05-29

    In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities.

  6. Childhood respiratory morbidity and cooking practices among ...

    Background: Household air pollution is a leading risk factor for respiratory morbidity and mortality in developing countries where biomass fuel is mainly used for cooking. Materials and Method: A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in a predominantly rural area of Ghana in 2007 to determine the prevalence of ...

  7. The association between gender and pediatric respiratory morbidity.

    Ben-Shmuel, Atar; Sheiner, Eyal; Wainstock, Tamar; Landau, Daniella; Vaknin, Flear; Walfisch, Asnat

    2018-06-26

    To evaluate the association between newborn gender and the risk for later pediatric respiratory morbidity. A population based cohort analysis was performed by comparing the risk of long-term respiratory morbidity (until 18 years of age) according to gender. Respiratory morbidity included hospitalizations involving pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), influenza, and bronchiectasis. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to compare cumulative respiratory morbidity. A Cox proportional hazards model controlled for confounders. During the study period 240 953 newborns met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 118 113 were females (49.0%) and 122 840 were males (51.0%). During the 18 years of follow-up, 13 719 (5.7%) different newborns were hospitalized with respiratory related morbidity. Males had significantly higher rates of respiratory morbidity as compared with females (6.4% vs 4.9% respectively, P respiratory morbidity (log rank P respiratory morbidity while adjusting for gestational age, birthweight, and other confounders (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.25-1.34, P respiratory morbidity, independent of obstetrical characteristics such as gestational age and birthweight. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Defining the Risk and Associated Morbidity and Mortality of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    Paes, Bosco; Fauroux, Brigitte; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Bont, Louis; Checchia, Paul A; Simões, Eric A F; Manzoni, Paolo; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV evidence-a geographical archive of the literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This third publication covers the risk and burden of RSV

  9. Environmental allergies and respiratory morbidities in cystic fibrosis.

    Collaco, Joseph M; Morrow, Christopher B; Green, Deanna M; Cutting, Garry R; Mogayzel, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and progressive lung disease. Although environmental factors account for 50% of the variation in CF lung function, few specific exposures have been identified. Studies using small study samples focusing on environmental allergies in CF have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to examine the role of environmental allergies in upper and lower respiratory tract morbidities in CF. A total of 1,321 subjects with CF were recruited through the U.S. CF Twin-Sibling Study. Questionnaires were used to determine the presence/absence of environmental allergies. Questionnaires, chart review, and U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry data were used to track outcomes. Within the study sample 14% reported environmental allergies. Environmental allergies were associated with a higher risk of sinus disease (adjusted OR: 2.68; P allergies were also associated with a more rapid decline in lung function (additional -1.1%/year; P = 0.001). However, allergies were associated with a later median age of acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.6 years vs. 4.4 years; log rank P = 0.027). The reported use of common allergy medications, anti-histamines and leukotriene inhibitors, did not alter the frequency of respiratory morbidities. Environmental allergies are associated with an increased risk of sinus disease and nasal polyps and a more rapid decline in CF lung function, but may have a protective effect against the acquisition of P. aeruginosa. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations which have implications for more aggressive management of allergies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diet Pattern and Respiratory Morbidity in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Brigham, Emily P; Steffen, Lyn M; London, Stephanie J; Boyce, Danielle; Diette, Gregory B; Hansel, Nadia N; Rice, Jessica; McCormack, Meredith C

    2018-02-15

    Dietary intake is a potential risk factor for respiratory morbidity in adult populations. Few studies capture the effect of diet patterns, representative of combination of nutrients consumed, on respiratory morbidity in combination with objective measures of lung function. To evaluate patterns of dietary intake in relation to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function in a U.S. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study enrolled 15,792 participants from four U.S. communities between 1987-1989 and collected a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess diet. Principal components analysis was applied and patterns representative of "Western" and "Prudent" diet emerged. We investigated associations between dietary pattern and pulmonary assessments including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis, respiratory symptoms, and lung function. Multivariable logistic regression models included quintiles of dietary patterns and potential confounders. Interaction of dietary patterns with obesity, gender, and smoking status was assessed in relation to all outcomes. A "Western" diet pattern was associated with higher odds of COPD, wheeze, cough, phlegm, and worse lung function, whereas a "Prudent" diet pattern was associated with lower odds of COPD, cough, and better lung function. The prevalence of asthma was not related to dietary intake. Dietary pattern was significantly associated with respiratory outcomes in ARIC participants. A "Western" diet was adverse, whereas a "Prudent" diet was beneficially related to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function. Additional studies of dietary pattern in U.S. populations are needed to verify this effect.

  11. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  12. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3......, poisoning and certain other external causes, and other factors influencing health status and contact with health services. It was negatively associated with neoplasm, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease present significant differences...

  13. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  14. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes ...

  15. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  16. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  17. Respiratory morbidity associated with exposure to particulate matter in the environment

    Elkin Martínez. L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it is assumed that prolonged exposure to airborne pollutants in the areas where people live or work can affect their respiratory systems. In order to demand for control measures aimed at protecting the community’s health, it is necessary to provide evidence for this claim. Methods: the respiratory morbidity of people living or working in urban areas of Medellín was analyzed (high particulate matter pollution. The average of PM10 is 60 µg/m3 and then compared with the respiratory morbidity of a matched sample of inhabitants living in the municipalities located in eastern Antioquia (low pollution. The average of PM10 is 30 µg/m3. Results: the groups that were compared were similar with respect to sociodemographic and other potential confounding variables. Upon comparing the two groups, a higher risk of respiratory signs and symptoms can be observed for subjects from the urban areas of Medellín. Nasal congestion, respiratory distress, and cough are the symptoms that occur in sharper contrast with relative risk of 2.60 95% CI (1.93, 3.62; 2.22 95% CI (1.56, 3.15 and 2.14 95% CI (1.63, 2.81 respectively. Conclusion: high pm10 levels as an indicator of air pollution in urban environments where people live and work contribute to a higher risk of respiratory disease. This implies adverse consequences both in economic and social terms. The control of such a situation hence becomes a social and professional priority.

  18. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases.

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-07-07

    Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index), migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  19. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    Ferrari Uta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD, vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index, migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. Results We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. Conclusion In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  20. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  1. Influence of mode of delivery at term on the neonatal respiratory morbidity

    Dehdashtian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory morbidity is an important complication of elective cesarean section. Our objective was to find out the incidence of respiratory distress in term neonates delivered by elective cesarean section and compare it with neonates delivered vaginally. We evaluated one thousands infants delivered by elective cesarean section and normal vaginal delivery for respiratory distress. Among 500 cesarean done, 27 (5.4%) neonates had respiratory distress and among 500 vaginal delivery infants, 8(1.6%) developed respiratory Distress (P<0.001). The odd ratio for neonatal respiratory distress was 3.38, almost threefold higher in cesarean section group than those delivered vaginally. (author)

  2. Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark. SETTING: Obstetric department...... and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea...

  3. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  5. Environmental factors in respiratory disease

    Reid, D D

    1958-01-01

    Absence rates of postmen due to bronchitis was found to be definitely associated with pollution and even more so if the ratio of postmen-postal clerk morbidity is used as an index. Bronchitis morbidity correlated with frequency of heavy fogs but very little with population density or overcrowding. In contrast, infectious diseases showed strong correlation with the latter two but not with fog. Minor infections among younger bronchitics were similar in frequency in all areas but led to more frequent complications and absence from work in older postmen living in polluted areas. Smoking acts synergistically.

  6. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  7. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  8. Gene editing as a promising approach for respiratory diseases.

    Bai, Yichun; Liu, Yang; Su, Zhenlei; Ma, Yana; Ren, Chonghua; Zhao, Runzhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory diseases, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, are dysfunctions of the nasopharynx, the trachea, the bronchus, the lung and the pleural cavity. Symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, such as cough, sneezing and difficulty breathing, may seriously affect the productivity, sleep quality and physical and mental well-being of patients, and patients with acute respiratory diseases may have difficulty breathing, anoxia and even life-threatening respiratory failure. Respiratory diseases are generally heterogeneous, with multifaceted causes including smoking, ageing, air pollution, infection and gene mutations. Clinically, a single pulmonary disease can exhibit more than one phenotype or coexist with multiple organ disorders. To correct abnormal function or repair injured respiratory tissues, one of the most promising techniques is to correct mutated genes by gene editing, as some gene mutations have been clearly demonstrated to be associated with genetic or heterogeneous respiratory diseases. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems are three innovative gene editing technologies developed recently. In this short review, we have summarised the structure and operating principles of the ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems and their preclinical and clinical applications in respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  10. Cat and dog exposure and respiratory morbidities in cystic fibrosis.

    Morrow, Christopher B; Raraigh, Karen S; Green, Deanna M; Blackman, Scott M; Cutting, Garry R; Collaco, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    To understand the triggers that may impact respiratory health in cystic fibrosis (CF), including the effects of pets, because environmental factors contribute to one-half of the variation in lung function in patients with CF. A total of 703 subjects with CF were recruited through the US CF Twin-Sibling Study. Questionnaires were used to determine the presence/absence of cats and dogs in households with a child with CF. Questionnaires, chart review, and US CF Foundation Patient Registry data were used to track respiratory and infection outcomes. Within the sample, 47% of subjects reported owning a dog, and 28% reported owning a cat. After adjustment for demographic factors, dog ownership was not associated with any adverse clinical outcomes, and cat ownership was associated an increased risk in developing nasal polyps (aOR 1.66; P = .024) compared with noncat owners. Subjects who owned both cats and dogs were twice as likely to report wheezing compared with other subjects (aOR: 2.01; P = .009). There were no differences in prevalence and age of acquisition for the common CF respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between cat/dog owners and noncat/dog owners. Cat ownership was associated with a greater frequency of developing nasal polyps and combined cat-dog ownership was associated with a greater rate of wheezing. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and the potential psychosocial benefits of cat and/or dog ownership. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  12. Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory tract infections in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    2017-11-01

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2015 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and shows how the burden of LRI has changed in people of all ages. We estimated LRI mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study called the Cause of Death Ensemble model. We modelled LRI morbidity, including incidence and prevalence, using a meta-regression platform called DisMod-MR. We estimated aetiologies for LRI using two different counterfactual approaches, the first for viral pathogens, which incorporates the aetiology-specific risk of LRI and the prevalence of the aetiology in LRI episodes, and the second for bacterial pathogens, which uses a vaccine-probe approach. We used the Socio-demographic Index, which is a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility, to assess trends in LRI-related mortality. The two leading risk factors for LRI disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), childhood undernutrition and air pollution, were used in a decomposition analysis to establish the relative contribution of changes in LRI DALYs. In 2015, we estimated that LRIs caused 2·74 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2·50 million to 2·86 million) and 103·0 million DALYs (95% UI 96·1 million to 109·1 million). LRIs have a disproportionate effect on children younger than 5 years, responsible for 704 000 deaths (95% UI 651 000-763 000) and 60.6 million DALYs (95ÙI 56·0-65·6). Between 2005 and 2015, the number of deaths due to LRI decreased by 36·9% (95% UI 31·6 to 42·0) in children younger than 5 years, and by 3·2% (95% UI -0·4 to 6·9) in all ages. Pneumococcal pneumonia caused 55·4% of LRI deaths in all ages, totalling 1 517 388 deaths (95% UI 857 940

  13. Daycare attendance and risk for respiratory morbidity among young very low birth weight children.

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2009-11-01

    Daycare attendance and very low birth weight (VLBW, < or =1,500 g) are associated with respiratory morbidity during childhood. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether daycare attendance is associated with even higher risk for respiratory problems among VLBW children. We hypothesized that VLBW children attending daycare, in a private home or daycare center, are at higher risk for respiratory problems than VLBW children not attending daycare. We also investigated whether the effect of daycare is independent or synergistic with respiratory risk resulting from being VLBW, as indicated by having bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a neonate. We conducted a prospective study of VLBW children followed from birth to age 2-3 (N = 715). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between daycare attendance and respiratory problems, adjusting for known neonatal risk factors for poor respiratory outcomes. Attending daycare in either a private home or in a daycare center was significantly associated with higher risk of lower respiratory infections than never attending. Attending a daycare center was also associated with higher risk for wheezy chest, cough without a cold, and respiratory medication use. While having BPD was associated with increased risk for respiratory problems, daycare attendance and BPD were not found to be synergistic risk factors for respiratory problems among VLBW children, but acted independently to increase risk. This implies that the increase in risk for respiratory problems associated with daycare attendance may be similar among VLBW children and those of normal birth weight.

  14. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  15. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  16. Elective caesarean section and respiratory morbidity in the term and near-term neonate

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    in English on elective caesarean section and respiratory morbidity in the newborn. We included studies that compared elective caesarean section to vaginal or intended vaginal delivery, with clear definition of outcome measures and information about gestational age. RESULTS: Nine eligible studies were......-analysis with a pooled risk estimate because of a variety of methodological differences between the studies. The overall risk for respiratory morbidity, however, seemed to increase about 2 to 3 times, though some studies presented much higher risk estimates. A decreasing risk with increasing gestational age was shown...

  17. Effect of Antenatal Steroids on Respiratory Morbidity of Late Preterm Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Ontela, Vijaya; Dorairajan, Gowri; Bhat, Vishnu B; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2018-01-22

    The objective of this article was to study the effect of antenatal dexamethasone on the respiratory morbidity of late preterm newborns. A randomized controlled trial, conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in collaboration with Neonatology department at JIPMER, India. In total, 155 women were studied in each group. Intention to treat analysis and per protocol analysis were done. Overall 31 (10%) newborns were admitted to intensive care unit. The composite respiratory morbidity (defined as respiratory distress syndrome and/or transient tachypnea of newborn) was observed in 64 (41.6%) infants in the study and 56 (36.2%) infants in the control group. On multivariable-adjusted analysis, use of steroids was not found to be associated with decrease in composite respiratory morbidity [adjusted relative risk 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-1.2)]. Antenatal dexamethasone does not reduce the composite respiratory morbidity of babies born vaginally or by emergency cesarean to women with late preterm labor. © The Author(s) [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    Lopez-Velez Rogelio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%, dermatological conditions (12% and respiratory illnesses (8%. There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%, as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%. Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4% accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9% and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several

  19. HEART DISEASE IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    I. V. Babachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between heart disease and infectious pathogens is well known. Despite the high frequency of cardiac pathology in infectious diseases, it is rarely diagnosed because of lack of specific clinical  and  laboratory  symptoms. It is especially  difficult to diagnose in  children. Airborne  infections in the structure of infectious morbidity of children occupy a leading place.The aim of this work was to study the nature of the lesions of the heart  in children suffering from acute infection of the respiratory tract.Materials and  methods: 341 children with acute respiratory infection of moderate severity were surveyed by a method of ECG dispersion mapping. Cardiac  pathology has not previously been determined in these children. Signs of disease of the heart was identified in 76 children (22%. Further study included instrumental (ECG, ECHO-KG,  daily monitoring of ECG, biochemical and  etiological (ELISA, PCR, immunocytochemical research  methods for determining the nature of the damage to the heart and the etiology of the disease.Results. Myocarditis was diagnosed in 2%  of children, a violation of repolarization – in 21%,  heart  rhythm disorders  – in 35%  (AV – blockade in 4%.  Most  often  signs  of heart disease were detected in children with Epstein-Barr virus (32%, streptococcal (28%, cytomegalovirus (25%, herpesvirus type  6 infection (24%. Pathogens from the  group of acute respiratory virus infections were identified in 28%, enterovirus – in  10%,  Haemophilus influenzae – in  10%, Mycoplasma pneumonia – in 10%,  Pneumococcus – in 9%, Chlamydia – in 9%, Parvovirus B19 – in 6%.Conclusion. Sensitive screening test  to  detect cardiac pathology is the method of ECG dispersion mapping. Heart damage in children with respiratory diseases in 60% of cases is associated with  mixed infections. Timely  diagnosis of lesions of the heart in infectious diseases in children allows to adjust the

  20. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  1. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  2. Influence of weather on respiratory and heart disease

    Holland, W W; Spicer, C C; Wilson, J M.G.

    1961-01-01

    Correlation of hospital admissions (patients >15 yr of age with respiratory disease) with temperature and air pollution (smoke concentration) indicate that each had an effect on admissions to London hospitals. Each could exert an independent effect; it was impossible to decide which had the greater effect. Study of RAF morbidity supported meteorological effect but could neither support nor deny effect of pollution (limited data). No correlations were evident for cardiovascular disease.

  3. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    Abe Olugbenga

    and tuberculosis), parasitic lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Methods: A literature search on global warming and respiratory diseases was carried out through the internet .... (COPD) The main factor to consider here is.

  4. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  6. Ethnic variations in morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study.

    Simpson, Colin R; Steiner, Markus Fc; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence of substantial ethnic variations in asthma morbidity and the risk of hospitalisation, but the picture in relation to lower respiratory tract infections is unclear. We carried out an observational study to identify ethnic group differences for lower respiratory tract infections. A retrospective, cohort study. Scotland. 4.65 million people on whom information was available from the 2001 census, followed from May 2001 to April 2010. Hospitalisations and deaths (any time following first hospitalisation) from lower respiratory tract infections, adjusted risk ratios and hazard ratios by ethnicity and sex were calculated. We multiplied ratios and confidence intervals by 100, so the reference Scottish White population's risk ratio and hazard ratio was 100. Among men, adjusted risk ratios for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation were lower in Other White British (80, 95% confidence interval 73-86) and Chinese (69, 95% confidence interval 56-84) populations and higher in Pakistani groups (152, 95% confidence interval 136-169). In women, results were mostly similar to those in men (e.g. Chinese 68, 95% confidence interval 56-82), although higher adjusted risk ratios were found among women of the Other South Asians group (145, 95% confidence interval 120-175). Survival (adjusted hazard ratio) following lower respiratory tract infection for Pakistani men (54, 95% confidence interval 39-74) and women (31, 95% confidence interval 18-53) was better than the reference population. Substantial differences in the rates of lower respiratory tract infections amongst different ethnic groups in Scotland were found. Pakistani men and women had particularly high rates of lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation. The reasons behind the high rates of lower respiratory tract infection in the Pakistani community are now required. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  7. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  8. Respiratory Morbidity among Rice Mill Workers in an Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Rana, Madhab Ch; Naskar, Somnath; Roy, Ramaprasad; Das, Dilip Kr; Das, Soumya

    2018-01-01

    Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure among them adversely affects their respiratory health, which needs to be evaluated. Adequate evidence is still lacking in many parts of India including West Bengal. Burdwan is one of the main rice-producing districts in the state with abundant rice mills. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and pattern of respiratory morbidity and associated background characteristics of rice mill workers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Burdwan municipality area during July-December 2016. Considering 44.2% prevalence, 95% confidence interval, 15% allowable error, 10% non-response, a sample of 252 directly engaged rice mill workers were selected through multistage random sampling. With prior consent, the subjects were interviewed, clinically examined, and underwent spirometry; relevant records were also reviewed using a pre-designed schedule. Any abnormal spirometry finding was considered as respiratory morbidity. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was 40.73% with obstructive and restrictive respiratory morbidity being 24.60% and 16.13%, respectively. Non-use of any protective measure, duration (years) of working in rice mill and average daily working hours were significant predictors of respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity is quite high in the area. Proper health education and provision of personal protective equipments need to be provided.

  9. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    Field, Vanessa; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Caumes, Eric; Jensenius, Mogens; Castelli, Francesco; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Weld, Leisa; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; de Vries, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Weber, Rainer; Cramer, Jakob; Pérignon, Alice; Odolini, Silvia; Carosi, Giampiero; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we

  10. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    Field, V.; Gautret, P.; Schlagenhauf, P.; Burchard, G.D.; Caumes, E.; Jensenius, M.; Castelli, F.; Gkrania-Klotsas, E.; Weld, L.; Lopez-Velez, R.; de Vries, P.; von Sonnenburg, F.; Loutan, L.; Parola, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in

  11. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    . The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...

  12. Respiratory morbidity in very preterm and very low birth weight infants: the first 2 years of life

    Mariana Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life, including recurrent symptoms and frequent hospitalizations, is a common problem in very preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study aiming to describe the respiratory morbidity at 2 years of corrected age for very preterm and VLBW infants and to identify potential risk factors for its development in a Portuguese based population born in a tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2011. Data were collected from patient’s clinical files and using a standardized questionnaire-based clinical interview for parents. A total 59 children were included. Thirteen (22.0% had recurrent respiratory symptoms and 12 (20.3% were using chronic respiratory medication. Health care utilization for respiratory causes was frequent (57.6%, particularly emergency department attendance (50.8%. Twenty seven (45.8% had additional outpatient visits for respiratory causes and hospital admission was necessary for 8 (13.6% patients. Factors associated with increased recurrent respiratory symptoms included maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, umbilical artery flow disturbances, being small for gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage and a weight percentile below 3 at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age. Premature rupture of membranes was negatively associated with respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity at 2 years of age is a common problem in very preterm and VLBW children from our population. Several perinatal and developmental risk factors were identified for respiratory morbidity. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of these factors, as they can lead to changes in healthcare guidelines.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and respiratory morbidity in school age children

    C. Constant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and a major public health problem. Prenatal maternal smoking and post-natal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS lead to dose-dependent decrease in lung function and respiratory morbidity. Influence of different socioeconomic indicators and ETS in the home has also been suggested. Methods: Data on 313 children (52 % male from 4 public schools in Lisbon was analyzed [1st (46 % and 4th graders]. ETS assessment and respiratory symptoms were based on a self-answered questionnaire. All children performed standard spirometry in the school setting and 54 % were acceptable according to ATS/ERS criteria. Descriptive and bivariate analysis of the most relevant variables was done, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted to the variables with clinical/statistical relevance. Results: ETS in the home was found in 41 % (maternal smoking during pregnancy 18 %, smoking mother 32 %, smoking father 38 %. Smoking fathers had lower education and less qualified occupation. Cough was more frequent in children with a smoking mother (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95 %CI, 1.1–4 and wheezing in children with maternal smoking during pregnancy and smoking parents. All differences were significant (p < 0.05. No association was found between parental education and cough/wheeze or ETS and respiratory infections/asthma/decreased spirometric values. Conclusions: Children in Lisbon are frequently exposed to ETS which results in significant respiratory morbidity. Targeted interventions must have social conditions in consideration. In this study, field spirometry was not helpful in early detection of lung function disability in children associated with ETS. Resumo: Introdução: A exposição ao fumo do tabaco (EFT é factor de risco para Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crónica e um problema major de saúde pública. A EFT pré e/ou pós-natal determina

  14. Determinants of noninvasive ventilation success or failure in morbidly obese patients in acute respiratory failure.

    Malcolm Lemyze

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure (ARF is a common life-threatening complication in morbidly obese patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS. We aimed to identify the determinants of noninvasive ventilation (NIV success or failure for this indication.We prospectively included 76 consecutive patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 diagnosed with OHS and treated by NIV for ARF in a 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital.NIV failed to reverse ARF in only 13 patients. Factors associated with NIV failure included pneumonia (n = 12/13, 92% vs n = 9/63, 14%; p<0.0001, high SOFA (10 vs 5; p<0.0001 and SAPS2 score (63 vs 39; p<0.0001 at admission. These patients often experienced poor outcome despite early resort to endotracheal intubation (in-hospital mortality, 92.3% vs 17.5%; p<0.001. The only factor significantly associated with successful response to NIV was idiopathic decompensation of OHS (n = 30, 48% vs n = 0, 0%; p = 0.001. In the NIV success group (n = 63, 33 patients (53% experienced a delayed response to NIV (with persistent hypercapnic acidosis during the first 6 hours.Multiple organ failure and pneumonia were the main factors associated with NIV failure and death in morbidly obese patients in hypoxemic ARF. On the opposite, NIV was constantly successful and could be safely pushed further in case of severe hypercapnic acute respiratory decompensation of OHS.

  15. Determinants of noninvasive ventilation success or failure in morbidly obese patients in acute respiratory failure.

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Taufour, Pauline; Duhamel, Alain; Temime, Johanna; Nigeon, Olivier; Vangrunderbeeck, Nicolas; Barrailler, Stéphanie; Gasan, Gaëlle; Pepy, Florent; Thevenin, Didier; Mallat, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common life-threatening complication in morbidly obese patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). We aimed to identify the determinants of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) success or failure for this indication. We prospectively included 76 consecutive patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 diagnosed with OHS and treated by NIV for ARF in a 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital. NIV failed to reverse ARF in only 13 patients. Factors associated with NIV failure included pneumonia (n = 12/13, 92% vs n = 9/63, 14%; psuccessful response to NIV was idiopathic decompensation of OHS (n = 30, 48% vs n = 0, 0%; p = 0.001). In the NIV success group (n = 63), 33 patients (53%) experienced a delayed response to NIV (with persistent hypercapnic acidosis during the first 6 hours). Multiple organ failure and pneumonia were the main factors associated with NIV failure and death in morbidly obese patients in hypoxemic ARF. On the opposite, NIV was constantly successful and could be safely pushed further in case of severe hypercapnic acute respiratory decompensation of OHS.

  16. The effect of preexisting respiratory co-morbidities on burn outcomes☆

    Knowlin, Laquanda T.; Stanford, Lindsay B.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Burns cause physiologic changes in multiple organ systems in the body. Burn mortality is usually attributable to pulmonary complications, which can occur in up to 41% of patients admitted to the hospital after burn. Patients with preexisting comorbidities such as chronic lung diseases may be more susceptible. We therefore sought to examine the impact of preexisting respiratory disease on burn outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002–2012. Independent variables analyzed included basic demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, TBSA, pre-existing comorbidities, smoker status, length of hospital stay, and days of mechanical ventilation. Bivariate analysis was performed and Cox regression modeling using significant variables was utilized to estimate hazard of progression to mechanical ventilation and mortality. Results There were a total of 7640 patients over the study period. Overall survival rate was 96%. 8% (n=672) had a preexisting respiratory disease. Chronic lung disease patients had a higher mortality rate (7%) compared to those without lung disease (4%, pburn. Given the increasing number of Americans with chronic respiratory diseases, there will likely be a greater number of individuals at risk for worse outcomes following burn. PMID:28341260

  17. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  18. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  20. Respiratory morbidity in twins by birth order, gestational age and mode of delivery.

    Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.

  1. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Abhijeet; Garg, Rajiv; Giridhar, Giridhar B

    2012-10-01

    One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.

  3. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Diego J. Maselli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  4. Sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease

    Bone, Anna E; Hepgul, Nilay; Kon, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field. We contrast assessments of sarcopenia, which consider muscle mass and function, with assessments of frailty, which often additionally consider social, cognitive and psychological domains. Frailty is emerging as an important syndrome in respiratory disease, being strongly associated with poor outcome. We also unpick the relationship between sarcopenia, frailty and skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory disease and reveal these as interlinked but distinct clinical phenotypes. Suggested areas for future work include the application of sarcopenia and frailty models to restrictive diseases and population-based samples, prospective prognostic assessments of sarcopenia and frailty in relation to common multidimensional indices, plus the investigation of exercise, nutritional and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27923981

  5. Asthma disease management and the respiratory therapist.

    Kallstrom, Thomas J; Myers, Timothy R

    2008-06-01

    The role of the respiratory therapist (RT) is expanding with the growing acceptance and use of the disease-management paradigm for managing chronic diseases. RTs are key members of the asthma disease-management team, in acute-care settings, patients' homes, out-patient clinics, emergency departments, and in the community. Utilizing RTs as disease managers allows patients to be treated faster and more appropriately, discharged to home sooner, and decreases hospital admissions. RT are leaders in the emerging field of asthma disease management.

  6. Tuberculosis disease mapping in Kedah using standardized morbidity ratio

    Diah, Ijlal Mohd; Aziz, Nazrina; Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of relative risk estimation that applied to TB data in Kedah using the most common approach, Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). Disease mapping has been recognized as one of the methods that can be used by government and public health in order to control diseases since it can give a clear picture of the risk areas. To get good disease mapping, relative risk estimation is an important issue that need to be considered. TB risk areas will be recognized through the map. From the result, Kulim shows the lowest risk areas of contracting TB while Kota Setar has the highest risk area.

  7. Relationship between the time interval from antenatal corticosteroid administration until preterm birth and the occurrence of respiratory morbidity

    Wilms, Femke F.; Vis, Jolande Y.; Pattinaja, Desiree A. P. M.; Kuin, Rosanna A.; Stam, Monique C.; Reuvers, Janine M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between neonatal respiratory morbidity and the interval between antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) administration and birth. We performed a retrospective cohort study among women who had received ACS and delivered at <34 weeks of gestation. We

  8. Neuromuscular disease and respiratory physiology in children: putting lung function into perspective.

    Fauroux, Brigitte; Khirani, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Neuromuscular diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of the muscle, nerve or neuromuscular junction. The respiratory muscles are rarely spared in neuromuscular diseases even if the type of muscle involvement, severity and time course greatly varies among the different diseases. Diagnosis of respiratory muscle weakness is crucial because of the importance of respiratory morbidity and mortality. Presently, routine respiratory evaluation is based on non-invasive volitional tests, such as the measurement of lung volumes, spirometry and the maximal static pressures, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain in some young children. Other tools or parameters are thus needed to assess the respiratory muscle weakness and its consequences in young children. The measurement of oesogastric pressures can be helpful as they allow the diagnosis and quantification of paradoxical breathing, as well as the assessment of the strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles by means of the oesophageal pressure during a maximal sniff and of the gastric pressure during a maximal cough. Sleep assessment should also be part of the respiratory evaluation of children with neuromuscular disease with at least the recording of nocturnal gas exchange if polysomnography is not possible or unavailable. This improvement in the assessment of respiratory muscle performance may increase our understanding of the respiratory pathophysiology of the different neuromuscular diseases, improve patient care, and guide research and innovative therapies by identifying and validating respiratory parameters. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. The Association of Vitamin D Status with Acute Respiratory Morbidity in Preterm Infants.

    Onwuneme, Chike; Martin, Fidelma; McCarthy, Roberta; Carroll, Aoife; Segurado, Ricardo; Murphy, John; Twomey, Anne; Murphy, Nuala; Kilbane, Mark; McKenna, Malachi; Molloy, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    To assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and outcomes in preterm infants (<32 weeks gestation). Serum 25OHD was measured in mothers and their infants within 24 hours of birth, before the start of enteral vitamin D supplementation, and at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. We evaluated the associations between vitamin D status and various early preterm outcomes. Ninety-four preterm infants and their mothers were included; 92% of the infants had a 25OHD level≤50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL), and 64% had a 25OHD level<30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL). A low 25OHD level (<30 nmol/L) in preterm infants at birth was associated with increased oxygen requirement (P=.008), increased duration of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation during resuscitation at delivery (P=.032), and greater need for assisted ventilation (P=.013). We observed a high prevalence of low 25OHD (<30 nmol/L), and found an association between vitamin D status and acute respiratory morbidity in preterm infants after birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PERSONS WITH HANSEN’S DISEASE

    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of psychiatric co - morbidity and its effect on quality of life in persons with Hansen’s disease. METHOD: The study was conducted on around 80 persons above 18 year age with Hansen’s disease in out - patient department dermatology and i n leprosy home. Participants were diagnosed cases of Hansen’s disease, selected randomly and were evaluated with socio demographic questionnaire, Duke’s general health questionnaire, DSM - 5 self rated level 1 cross cutting symptom measure – adult and WHO - QO L - BREF. The period of data collection was from October 2014 to March 2015. RESULTS: The assessment showed that prevalence of at least one psychiatric co morbidity was 83.75% (67/80 patients and of these 67 patients 18(26.86% have one diagnosis, 26(38.80% have two diagnoses and 23(34.32% have 3 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Among all depression was most prevalent (28.35% mental disorder; followed by anxiety disorder (23.88%. Quality of life was significantly impaired in almost all persons with Hansen’ s disease. CONCLUSION: Persons with Hansen’s disease have significantly high prevalence of mental disorders which have much impact on their quality of life which were under diagnosed and thus remained untreated

  12. Child health in arid areas of Ethiopia: longitudinal study of the morbidity in infectious diseases.

    Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B

    1992-01-01

    We describe the incidence of some childhood infections in drought prone areas of southern Ethiopia. Our results are based on 24 months' biweekly observations of 828 children aged 0-5 years in the pastoralist community of Dubluk and the agricultural community of Elka. An average of 23% of the children in Dubluk and 13% in Elka were sick during any 2-week period. Diarrhoeal diseases represented the main cause of morbidity, but the yearly number of diarrhoeal episodes were lower than previously reported from Ethiopia. Respiratory tract infections and to a lesser extent diarrhoeal diseases, showed highest incidence rates during the main dry season. The highest incidence of lower respiratory tract infections coincided with an outbreak of measles. In Dubluk, children who lived near to the wells had higher incidence rates than those who lived further away, probably reflecting the importance of crowding on transmission rates. In Elka, literacy of mothers was associated with reduced incidence of both diarrhoeal and respiratory tract infections, whereas the use of open pit latrines was associated with increased diarrhoeal incidence. The decline in disease incidence in this region during the last months of our study may reflect an improvement of nutritional status.

  13. [Inpatients days in patients with respiratory diseases and periodontal disease].

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; González-Cruz, Herminia; Casa-Medina, Guillermo; García-Sancho, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process that has been associated with the severity of respiratory diseases. In Mexico a prevalence of 78% was found in population with social security and > 60 years old. The aim of this study is to establish the association between periodontal disease and respiratory diseases according to the inpatient days. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2011. We included hospitalized patients, ≥ 18 years of age, without sedation or intubated. A dentist classified patients into two groups according to the severity of the periodontal disease: mild-to-moderate and severe. We estimated medians of inpatient days by disease and severity. Negative binomial models were adjusted to estimate incidence rate ratios and predicted inpatient days. 3,059 patients were enrolled. The median of observed and predicted inpatient days was higher in the group of severe periodontal disease (p disease, tuberculosis, and influenza had the highest incidence rates ratios of periodontal disease (p periodontal disease is positively -associated with inpatient days of patients with respiratory diseases.

  14. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Morbidly Obese Patient.

    Duke, Meredith C; Farrell, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has mirrored the increase in obesity, and GERD is now recognized as an obesity-related comorbidity. There is growing evidence that obesity, specifically central obesity, is associated with the complications of chronic reflux, including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. While fundoplication is effective in creating a competent gastroesophageal junction and controlling reflux in most patients, it is less effective in morbidly obese patients. In these patients a bariatric operation has the ability to correct both the obesity and the abnormal reflux. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred procedure.

  15. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Morbidity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long-term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance. Available data from register-based and data linkage studies support that metabolic-vascular and thyroid diseases, asthma, migraine, depression and cancer are diagnosed more frequently in PCOS, whereas fracture risk is decreased. Drug prescriptions are significantly more common in PCOS than controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long-term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, Western-style diet and smoking, whereas lifestyle intervention including weight loss may partly or fully resolve the symptoms of PCOS and could improve the long-term prognosis. In this review, the possible implications of increased morbidity for the clinical and biochemical evaluation of patients with PCOS at diagnosis and follow-up is further discussed along with possible modifying effects of medical treatment. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Nanoparticle-based therapy for respiratory diseases

    ADRIANA L. DA SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging science with the potential to create new materials and strategies involving manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale (<100 nm. With size-dependent properties, nanoparticles have introduced a new paradigm in pharmacotherapy – the possibility of cell-targeted drug delivery with minimal systemic side effects and toxicity. The present review provides a summary of published findings, especially regarding to nanoparticle formulations for lung diseases. The available data have shown some benefits with nanoparticle-based therapy in the development of the disease and lung remodeling in respiratory diseases. However, there is a wide gap between the concepts of nanomedicine and the published experimental data and clinical reality. In addition, studies are still required to determine the potential of nanotherapy and the systemic toxicity of nanomaterials for future human use.

  18. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease].

    Bangma, H R; Smit, G P A; Kuks, J B M; Grevink, R G; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2008-10-18

    A 23-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy were diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. The woman had muscle pain, fatigue and bilateral ophthalmoplegia--symptoms consistent with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The boy had aspecific symptoms; eventually, reduced activity of complex 1 was found to be the cause of the mitochondrial respiratory chain disease in the boy and his mother, who had suffered from unexplained fatigue and muscle pain for 15 years. Mitochondrial diseases often involve several organ systems. Diagnosis can be difficult, because laboratory tests such as serum and urinary lactate and creatine kinase have low sensitivity and specificity. Biochemical assessment of muscle biopsy can reveal reduced oxidation ATP synthesis and sometimes specific abnormalities in individual protein complexes. DNA analysis may be helpful in demonstrating mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or deletions. The goal of treatment is to increase mitochondrial ATP production, improve clinical symptoms and enhance stamina. Replacement of the following substances (also referred to as cofactors) may be attempted: co-enzyme Q10, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), riboflavin, thiamine, creatine and carnitine. Evidence regarding the optimal treatment approach is lacking; one usually has to rely on observing effects in the individual patient.

  19. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  20. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  1. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

    Simón Barquera

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  2. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

    Barquera Simón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  3. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong.

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Yy; Li, Liping; Lau, Patrick Wc; Wong, Tze Wai

    2014-02-03

    The chronic health effects from exposure to ambient air pollution are still unclear. This study primarily aims to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities in Chinese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,203 school children aged 8-10 in three districts with different air pollution levels in Hong Kong. Annual means for ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in each district were used to estimate participants' individual exposure. Two questionnaires were used to collect children's respiratory morbidities and other potential risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression was fitted to estimate the risks of air pollution for respiratory morbidities. Compared to those in the low-pollution district (LPD), girls in the high-pollution district (HPD) were at significantly higher risk for cough at night (ORadj. = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.71-2.78) and phlegm without colds (ORadj. = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.74-8.47). In addition, marginal significance was reached for elevated risks for asthma, wheezing symptoms, and phlegm without colds among boys in HPD (adjusted ORs: 1.71-2.82), as well as chronic cough among girls in HPD (ORadj. = 2.03, 95% CI: 0.88-4.70). Results have confirmed certain adverse effects on children's respiratory health from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. PM10 may be the most relevant pollutant with adverse effects on wheezing and phlegm in boys. Both PM10 and NO2 may be contributing to cough and phlegm in girls.

  4. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats.

    Lin, Chung-Hui; Lo, Pei-Ying; Wu, Huey-Dong; Chang, Chinhao; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2018-05-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited. Dogs and cats attending the National Taiwan University Veterinary Hospital were prospectively enrolled over a 12-month period. Questionnaires were collected from pet owners regarding the status of signs of respiratory problem of animals and air pollutants in their homes. Clinical assessment was performed by veterinarians on all animals included in the case-control study and the presence/absence of respiratory disease and diagnoses were recorded. Individual exposure to particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) was estimated in the domestic microenvironment of the animals. Dogs with respiratory disease were more commonly exposed to incense burning than control dogs (30 versus 13%, P = .045), but household PM2.5 level was not different between dogs with and without respiratory disease [median 30.8 μg/m 3 , range 10.8-214.2 versus median 38.2 μg/m 3 , range 5.4-69.4, P = .57]. Signalment factors (age, body weight, and body condition score) instead of IAP factors were associated with respiratory disease in dogs using multivariable logistic regression. In contrast, household PM2.5 level was significantly higher in cats with respiratory disease than in control cats [median 38.6 μg/m 3 , range 17.8-131.2 versus median 27.4 μg/m 3 , range 15.4-70.0, P = .017]. Cats living in households with PM2.5 > 35 μg/m 3 were more likely to have respiratory disease than those living in households with acceptable levels of PM2.5 (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.12-15.27, P = .03). The link between IAP and respiratory disease in dogs is

  5. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  6. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  7. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory diseases in children

    Fatima, S.; Saeed, M.A.; Jafri, S.R.A.; Raza, M.; Kundi, Z.U.; Hyder, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The association of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its pulmonary manifestation is well known however the exact underlying mechanism is unclear. The medical literature is deluged with studies on relationship between Gear and its pulmonary manifestations. The aim of this study was to 1) determine prevalence of GER in children with rLRTI, wheezing and asthma. 2) determine prevalence of asymptomatic respiratory anomalies in children with clinical reflux 3) determine effectiveness of anti-reflux therapy in clinical control of asthma, wheezing and rLRTI. Children were included in the study if they presented either with rLRTI, wheezing, Bronchial asthma or Clinical suspicion of GER without any respiratory symptoms. The GER study comprised esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux and lung aspiration studies. Acquisition and processing were according to predetermined protocol. Segmental and global esophageal transit times, GER according to duration of episode and volume of refluxed liquid, Reflux severity, Gastric retention at 30 minutes, Gastric emptying time, Presence of lung aspiration were calculated for each study. All children underwent Barium studies on a separate day. Clinical follow-up was done every 3 months and GER study was repeated every 6 months up to one year. The patient's therapy was determined by local protocols at discretion of clinicians. GER scintigraphy was performed in 43 patients (age range 5 months -12 years). Gastroesophageal reflux of varying degrees was observed in 10 children (23.25%) in all groups. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to severity of GER. The direct correlation was found between GER and reflux index. The results of GER scintigraphy were compared with Barium studies and results were found to be superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting disease. It was possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to therapy after medical treatment in few cases with help of follow

  9. Effect of transoral tracheal wash on respiratory mechanics in dogs with respiratory disease.

    Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.

  10. Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

    Morrow, Lindsey A; Wagner, Brandie D; Ingram, David A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Cotten, C Michael; Dagle, John; Sontag, Marci K; Mourani, Peter M; Abman, Steven H

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth.

  11. Epidemiology of allergic diseases of the respiratory passages in the Kazakh SSR

    Moshkevich, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    Over a period of 20 years, the authors have been studying the distribution, aetiology and causes of increasing incidence of allergic respiratory diseases in various climatogeographic zones of the Kazakh SSR. Large groups of people living in towns and in the country were examined by various methods. The number of patients seeking advice in health service establishments because of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma was found to increase every year. A number of factors influencing the incidence of disease were pointed out, such as the character of diet, duration of the person's stay, vaccination against brucellosis, pollution of the atmosphere, local flora, climate, and other factors. Morbidity also depended on the methods of studying the epidemiology of respiratory allergoses. The obtained results will help health service authorities in taking specific measures to reduce morbidity from the mentioned pathological condition.

  12. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  13. Respiratory Diseases in Children: studies in general practice

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis covers various aspects of the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of various respiratory symptoms and diseases in children frequently encountered in general practice. These respiratory tract symptoms and diseases can be categorized into symptoms and

  14. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  15. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  16. Personalized Medicine for Chronic Respiratory Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis, Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Diseases, and Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Salzer, Helmut J F; Wassilew, Nasstasja; Köhler, Niklas; Olaru, Ioana D; Günther, Gunar; Herzmann, Christian; Kalsdorf, Barbara; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Terhalle, Elena; Rolling, Thierry; Lange, Christoph; Heyckendorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infectious diseases are causing high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tuberculosis, a major cause of chronic pulmonary infection, is currently responsible for approximately 1.5 million deaths per year. Although important advances in the fight against tuberculosis have been made, the progress towards eradication of this disease is being challenged by the dramatic increase in multidrug-resistant bacilli. Nontuberculous mycobacteria causing pulmonary disease and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are emerging infectious diseases. In contrast to other infectious diseases, chronic respiratory infections share the trait of having highly variable treatment outcomes despite longstanding antimicrobial therapy. Recent scientific progress indicates that medicine is presently at a transition stage from programmatic to personalized management. We explain current state-of-the-art management concepts of chronic pulmonary infectious diseases as well as the underlying methods for therapeutic decisions and their implications for personalized medicine. Furthermore, we describe promising biomarkers and techniques with the potential to serve future individual treatment concepts in this field of difficult-to-treat patients. These include candidate markers to improve individual risk assessment for disease development, the design of tailor-made drug therapy regimens, and individualized biomarker-guided therapy duration to achieve relapse-free cure. In addition, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring to reach optimal drug dosing with the smallest rate of adverse events as well as candidate agents for future host-directed therapies are described. Taken together, personalized medicine will provide opportunities to substantially improve the management and treatment outcome of difficult-to-treat patients with chronic respiratory infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Occupational exposures are associated with worse morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Paulin, Laura M; Diette, Gregory B; Blanc, Paul D; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D; Kanner, Richard E; Belli, Andrew J; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R Graham; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-03-01

    Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (-26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (-3.3; P Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may influence disease burden.

  18. Genetic variability of HVRII mtDNA in cord blood and respiratory morbidity in children

    Schmuczerová, Jana; Brdička, R.; Dostál, Miroslav; Šrám, Radim; Topinka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 666, 1-2 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : mitochondrial DNA * genetic polymorphisms * children morbidity Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  19. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  20. Respiratory morbidity through the first decade of life in a national cohort of children born extremely preterm.

    Skromme, Kaia; Vollsæter, Maria; Øymar, Knut; Markestad, Trond; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2018-03-07

    Advances in perinatal care have markedly increased the prospects of survival for infants born extremely preterm (EP). The aim of this study was to investigate hospitalisation rates and respiratory morbidity from five to 11 years of age in a prospective national cohort of EP children born in the surfactant era. This was a national prospective cohort study of all children born in Norway during 1999 and 2000 with gestational age (GA) respiratory symptoms, and use of asthma medication was obtained by parental questionnaires at 11 years of age. Questionnaires were returned for 232/372 (62%) EP-born and 57/61 (93%) regional term-born controls. Throughout the study period, 67 (29%) EP-born and seven (13%) term-born controls were admitted to hospital (odds ratio (OR) 2.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 6.72). Admissions were mainly due to surgical procedures, with only 12% due to respiratory causes, and were not influenced by neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or low GA(≤ 25 weeks). Respiratory symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication tended to be more common for EP-born, significantly so for medication use and wheeze on exercise. Neonatal BPD was a risk factor for medication use, but not for current wheeze. In multivariate regression models, home oxygen after discharge (OR 4.84, 95% CI: 1.38, 17.06) and parental asthma (OR 4.38, 95% CI: 1.69, 11.38) predicted current asthma, but neither BPD nor low GA were associated with respiratory symptoms at 11 years of age. Hospitalisation rates five to 11 years after EP birth were low, but twice those of term-born controls, and unrelated to neonatal BPD and low GA. Respiratory causes were rare. Respiratory complaints were more common in children born EP, but the burden of symptoms had declined since early childhood.

  1. [Neuromuscular disease: respiratory clinical assessment and follow-up].

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Villa Asensi, J R; Luna Paredes, M C; Osona Rodríguez de Torres, F B; Peña Zarza, J A; Larramona Carrera, H; Costa Colomer, J

    2014-10-01

    Patients with neuromuscular disease are an important group at risk of frequently suffering acute or chronic respiratory failure, which is their main cause of death. They require follow-up by a pediatric respiratory medicine specialist from birth or diagnosis in order to confirm the diagnosis and treat any respiratory complications within a multidisciplinary context. The ventilatory support and the cough assistance have improved the quality of life and long-term survival for many of these patients. In this paper, the authors review the pathophysiology, respiratory function evaluation, sleep disorders, and the most frequent respiratory complications in neuromuscular diseases. The various treatments used, from a respiratory medicine point of view, will be analyzed in a next paper. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of physiotherapy in respiratory diseases during healing stays

    Schneebergerová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Title: Effect of physiotherapy in respiratory diseases during healing stays Objective: The main objective of this work is to analyze the importance of physiotherapy as one of the treatments used in the care of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Method: In the theoretic part of the dissertation anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract, respiratory biomechanics, problems of asthma bronchiale, possibilities of asthma treatment, prevention and improvement of quality of life in child...

  3. Advanced Role of Neutrophils in Common Respiratory Diseases

    Jinping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases, always being a threat towards the health of people all over the world, are most tightly associated with immune system. Neutrophils serve as an important component of immune defense barrier linking innate and adaptive immunity. They participate in the clearance of exogenous pathogens and endogenous cell debris and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases. However, the pathological mechanism of neutrophils remains complex and obscure. The traditional roles of neutrophils in severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis had already been reviewed. With the development of scientific research, the involvement of neutrophils in respiratory diseases is being brought to light with emerging data on neutrophil subsets, trafficking, and cell death mechanism (e.g., NETosis, apoptosis in diseases. We reviewed all these recent studies here to provide you with the latest advances about the role of neutrophils in respiratory diseases.

  4. Role of fluorographic examinations in diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    Vil'derman, A.M.; Tsurkan, E.P.; Moskovchuk, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    Materials are considered on the role of fluorography in diagnosis of posttuberculous changes and chromic respiratory system diseases during total epidemiologic examination of 7791 adults from urban and rural population. A scheme is developed that characterize diagnosed pathology of respiratory organs with references to medical establishments rendering medical supervision and forms of supervision. It is shown that fluorograhic examination of the population provide an early diagnosis of both tuberculosis, neoplastic diseases and nonspecific pulmonary diseases that have no visible clinical symptomatology

  5. Imaging of respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease: A review.

    Harlaar, L; Ciet, P; van der Ploeg, A T; Brusse, E; van der Beek, N A M E; Wielopolski, P A; de Bruijne, M; Tiddens, H A W M; van Doorn, P A

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness frequently occurs in patients with neuromuscular disease. Measuring respiratory function with standard pulmonary function tests provides information about the contribution of all respiratory muscles, the lungs and airways. Imaging potentially enables the study of different respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, separately. In this review, we provide an overview of imaging techniques used to study respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease. We identified 26 studies which included a total of 573 patients with neuromuscular disease. Imaging of respiratory muscles was divided into static and dynamic techniques. Static techniques comprise chest radiography, B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasound, CT and MRI, and are used to assess the position and thickness of the diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles. Dynamic techniques include fluoroscopy, M-mode (motion mode) ultrasound and MRI, used to assess diaphragm motion in one or more directions. We discuss how these imaging techniques relate with spirometric values and whether these can be used to study the contribution of the different respiratory muscles in patients with neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Seasonal temperature variability and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: a population-based cohort study.

    Sun, Shengzhi; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wong, Chit Ming; Lee, Ruby Siu-Yin; Tian, Linwei

    2018-04-05

    Climate change increases global mean temperature and changes short-term (eg, diurnal) and long-term (eg, intraseasonal) temperature variability. Numerous studies have shown that mean temperature and short-term temperature variability are both associated with increased respiratory morbidity or mortality. However, data on the impact of long-term temperature variability are sparse. We aimed to assess the association of intraseasonal temperature variability with respiratory disease hospitalisations among elders. We ascertained the first occurrence of emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in a prospective Chinese elderly cohort of 66 820 older people (≥65 years) with 10-13 years of follow-up. We used an ordinary kriging method based on 22 weather monitoring stations in Hong Kong to spatially interpolate daily ambient temperature for each participant's residential address. Seasonal temperature variability was defined as the SD of daily mean summer (June-August) or winter (December-February) temperatures. We applied Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying exposure of seasonal temperature variability to respiratory admissions. During the follow-up time, we ascertained 12 689 cases of incident respiratory diseases, of which 6672 were pneumonia and 3075 were COPD. The HRs per 1°C increase in wintertime temperature variability were 1.20 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.32), 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31) and 1.41 (1.15 to 1.71) for total respiratory diseases, pneumonia and COPD, respectively. The associations were not statistically significant for summertime temperature variability. Wintertime temperature variability was associated with higher risk of incident respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  8. A study of psychiatric morbidity in patients of peptic ulcer diseases

    Jagpal Singh Klair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.

  9. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    Sandip Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR, parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses.

  10. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  11. Acute exacerbations and deaths in the group of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the city of Lodzin relation to atmospheric pollution

    Swiatczak, J; Olejnik, A

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution episodes (sulfur dioxide and dust) on the morbidity and mortality of a group of people suffering from upper respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease was studied by examining air monitoring data and health statistics (ambulance service records and death certificates) for the city of Lodz. During the month of January in 1971, when the atmospheric pollution reached a 7-year peak, ambulance station statistics revealed the incidnce of acute cardiovascular and respiratory diseases to be at a maximum. The number of deaths from these diseases reached a maximum of 18 on the first day of the episode; on subsequent days, however, the mortalities returned to average.

  12. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens potential novel avenues of therapy to clinicians struggling to treat patients with apparently intractable respiratory complaints. This review provides a description of the airway reflux syndrome, its effects on the lung and current and future therapeutic options. PMID:23251752

  13. Geographic Variation in Morbidity and Mortality of Cerebrovascular Diseases in Korea during 2011-2015.

    Lee, Juyeon; Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Ikhan; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kang, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Jeehye; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Khang, Young-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about within-country variation in morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs). Geographic differences in CVD morbidity and mortality have yet to be properly examined. This study examined geographic variation in morbidity and mortality of CVD, neighborhood factors for CVD morbidity and mortality, and the association between CVD morbidity and mortality across the 245 local districts in Korea during 2011-2015. District-level health care utilization and mortality data were obtained to estimate age-standardized CVD morbidity and mortality. The bivariate Pearson correlation was used to examine the linear relationship between district-level CVD morbidity and mortality Z-scores. Simple linear regression and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate the associations of area characteristics with CVD morbidity, mortality, and discrepancies between morbidity and mortality. Substantial variation was found in CVD morbidity and mortality across the country, with 1074.9 excess CVD inpatients and 73.8 excess CVD deaths per 100,000 between the districts with the lowest and highest CVD morbidity and mortality, respectively. Higher rates of CVD admissions and deaths were clustered in the noncapital regions. A moderate geographic correlation between CVD morbidity and mortality was found (Pearson correlation coefficient = .62 for both genders). Neighborhood level indicators for socioeconomic disadvantages, undersupply of health care resources, and unhealthy behaviors were positively associated with CVD morbidity and mortality and the relative standing of CVD mortality vis-à-vis morbidity. Policy actions targeting life-course socioeconomic conditions, equitable distribution of health care resources, and behavioral risk factors may help reduce geographic differences in CVD morbidity and mortality in Korea. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Morbilidad infantil por causas respiratorias y su relación con la contaminación atmosférica en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México Infant morbidity caused by respiratory diseases and its relation with the air pollution in Juarez City, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Leticia Hernández-Cadena

    2007-02-01

    de control de la contaminación atmosférica para evitar que empeore la situación actual.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of atmospheric pollutants on the respiratory health of children of different age groups in Juarez City, Chihuahua, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on emergency room visits between 1997 and 2001 for respiratory diseases in children less than 17 years old were obtained from hospitals in the Juarez City belonging to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS. Diseases were classified into three groups according to ICD 9th and 10th codes: a upper respiratory diseases, b lower respiratory diseases, and c asthma attacks. This information was stratified by age group (5 years. Daily air pollution data (ozone and PM10 and weather conditions were obtained from the Monitoring Network System in Juarez City. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Generalized Additive Model assuming a Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Ozone concentrations, but not PM10, were statistically associated with emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, mainly among children 5 years old or younger. In this group, an increase of 20 ppb 1-hr maximum for ozone was associated with an increase of 8.3% in the number of emergency room visits for upper respiratory diseases, with a 3-day exposure lag; and an increase of 12.7% in the number of emergency room visits for lower respiratory diseases when considering a 4-day exposure lag in a maximum 8-hr mobile average. The largest effect for the complete sample and for the group 6 to 16 years of age was observed for 3-day lag (5.1% for an increase of 20 ppb 1-hr maximum for ozone. For the 6 to16 year old group we did not find a significant effect. CONCLUSION: The wide range of risk is quite important and might represent a substantial cost for the health system as well as for the society. Our results emphasize the need to implement preventive and control measures for air pollution and avoid the worsening of the present situation.

  15. Health impact assessment of increasing public transport and cycling use in Barcelona: a morbidity and burden of disease approach.

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2013-11-01

    Quantify the health impacts on morbidity of reduced car trips and increased public transport and cycling trips. A health impact assessment study of morbidity outcomes related to replacing car trips in Barcelona metropolitan (3,231,458 inhabitants). Through 8 different transport scenarios, the number of cases of disease or injuries related to physical activity, particulate matter air pollution public transport and cycling trips resulted in annual reductions of 127 cases of diabetes, 44 of cardiovascular diseases, 30 of dementia, 16 minor injuries, 0.14 major injuries, 11 of breast cancer and 3 of colon-cancer, amounting to a total reduction of 302 Disability Adjusted Life Years per year in travelers. The reduction in PM2.5 exposure in the general population resulted in annual reductions of 7 cases of low birth weight, 6 of preterm birth, 1 of cardiovascular disease and 1 of lower respiratory tract infection. Transport policies to reduce car trips could produce important health benefits in terms of reduced morbidity, particularly for those who take up active transportation. © 2013.

  16. Relationship of metabolic alkalosis, azotemia and morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnia.

    Ucgun, Irfan; Oztuna, Funda; Dagli, Canan Eren; Yildirim, Huseyin; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but the effect of metabolic compensation of respiratory acidosis (RA) on mortality is not fully understood. To investigate the relationship between metabolic compensation and mortality in COPD patients with RA. We prospectively investigated all COPD patients with RA admitted to the respiratory intensive care unit between February 2001 and March 2007. Two hundred and thirteen patients (159 male, 54 female; mean age 65 +/- 10.8 years) were divided into three groups (71 patients each) according to base excess (BE) levels: (1) low BE, (2) medium BE, and (3) high BE. H(+) concentration was calculated according to their standard formula and BE was calculated according to the Van Slyke equation. The overall mortality rate was 24.9%. The group mortality rates were 32, 17 and 25% in the low, medium and high BE groups, respectively (p = 0.001). When patients were divided into three groups according to the HCO(3)(-) levels, the group mortality rate was 59.1% in the low HCO(3)(-) group and 19.8% in the high HCO(3)(-) group. Based on univariate analysis, six factors affecting mortality were identified. However, multivariate analysis showed that the levels of serum HCO(3)(-) (p = 0.013; OR: 0.552; CI: 0.345-0.882) and creatinine (p = 0.019; OR: 2.114; CI: 1.132-3.949) had an independent effect. In patients with COPD exacerbation and hypercapnia, the development of sufficient metabolic compensation and adequate renal function significantly decreases mortality. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Incidence of skin and respiratory diseases among Danish hairdressing apprentices

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Majken H.; Winther, Lone; Johnsen, Claus R.

    2017-01-01

    .8% of the hairdressing apprentices had left the trade, and 70.3% of these had left because of health complaints. The most frequently reported reasons for leaving were musculoskeletal pain (47.4%) and skin diseases (47.4%), followed by respiratory symptoms (23.7%). Conclusions: Hairdressing apprentices are at increased......Background: Hairdressing is one of the professions with the highest risk of occupational skin and respiratory diseases. The incidence of these diseases in hairdressing apprentices has been studied only sparsely. Objective: To determine the incidence of skin and respiratory diseases in hairdressing...... apprentices, and to explore whether hairdressing apprentices leave the trade during training because of these diseases. Methods: A 3-year follow-up questionnaire study was conducted among 248 hairdressing apprentices and a control group comprising 816 young adults from the general population. Results...

  19. Effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease

    Ming GUO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function and conscious state of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease (SCVD.  Methods A total of 27 patients with SCVD were divided into control group (N = 17 and observation group (N = 10. Control group received routine drug and rehabilitation treatment, and observation group was added respiratory function training based on routine treatment. The respiratory rate, tidal volume (TV, heart rate, blood pressure and artery oxygen saturation (SaO2 of patients were monitored by breathing machine before and after 4-week treatment. Meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was used to detect arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, oxygenation index, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and pH value. At the same time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was used to evaluate the conscious state of patients.  Results All patients successfully completed 4-week rehabilitation training, without asphyxia, arrhythmia or other adverse events. Compared with before training, the respiratory rate (P = 0.006 and pH value (P = 0.010 were significantly decreased, while SaO2 (P = 0.001, oxygenation index (P = 0.000 and GCS scores (P = 0.004, 0.017 were significantly increased in both groups of patients after training. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on respiratory function indexes and GCS scores after training (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Respiratory function training did not significantly improve the respiratory function and conscious state of patients with SCVD, yet to be further studied. Randomized controlled clinical trials with larger, layered samples and long-term prognosis observation are needed. Examination method of respiratory function of SCVD patients is also a topic to be explored.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.007

  20. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  1. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  2. Genetic Testing for Respiratory Disease: Are We There Yet?

    Peter D Paré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genome project promised a revolution in health care – the development of ‘personalized medicine’, where knowledge of an individual’s genetic code enables the prediction of risk for specific diseases and the potential to alter that risk based on preventive measures and lifestyle modification. The present brief review provides a report card on the progress toward that goal with respect to respiratory disease. Should generalized population screening for genetic risk factors for respiratory disease be instituted? Or not?

  3. Short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory morbidity at Rio de Janeiro--Part II: health assessment.

    Sousa, S I V; Pires, J C M; Martins, E M; Fortes, J D N; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G

    2012-08-01

    The effects of air pollution on health have been studied worldwide. Given that air pollution triggers oxidative stress and inflammation, it is plausible that high levels of air pollutants cause higher number of hospitalisations. This study aimed to assess the impact of air pollution on the emergency hospitalisation for respiratory disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was divided in two parts: Part I specifically addressing the air pollution assessment and Part II addressing the health assessment. Accordingly, this Part II aimed to estimate the association between the concentrations of PM₁₀, SO₂ and CO observed in Rio de Janeiro and the number of emergency hospitalisations at a central hospital due to respiratory diseases. The pollutant concentrations were measured at two different sites in Rio de Janeiro, but the excess relative risks were calculated based on the concentrations observed at one of the sites, where limits were generally exceeded more frequently, between September 2000 and December 2005. A time series analysis was performed using the number of hospitalisations, divided in three categories (children until 1 year old, children aged between 1 and 5 years old and elderly with 65 years old or more) as independent variable, the concentrations of pollutants as dependent variables and temperature, relative humidity, long term trend, and seasonality as confounders. Data were analysed using generalised additive models with smoothing for some of the dependent variables. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalisation for respiratory disease higher than 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in PM₁₀ concentrations for children under 5 years old, of 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in SO₂ for elderly above 65 years old and around 0.1% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in CO for children under 1 year and elderly. Other studies have found associations that are in agreement with the results achieved in this study. The study suggests that the ambient levels of air

  4. Upper respiratory tract infection, heterologous immunisation and meningococcal disease

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Tobi, H.; Dankert, J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an episode of upper respiratory tract infection or heterologous immunisation is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of meningococcal disease, data from 377 cases of meningococcal disease and their household contacts (n = 1124) were analysed by conditional logistic

  5. [Morbidity among forestry workers].

    Rafalski, H; Bernacki, K

    1981-01-01

    The past and presently diagnosed diseases (excluding vibration disease and occupational hearing impairment) were analysed in 1105 sawers operating combustion drive mechanic saws and in 295 controls. The greatest rate, both in the sawers and controls, was that of the diseases of respiratory tract, circulatory system and osseo -- articulo -- muscular system, nervous system and sense organs. These constituted 86% of all diseases that afflicted sawers and controls. No specific general morbidity accompanying vibration disease or occupational hearing impairment was found in the sawers exposed to noise and vibration.

  6. Bovine Respiratory Disease: from clinic to etiologic diagnosis, a short step

    Guyot, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Respiratory Disease, or BRD, are common in young cattle in the first year of life but occurs mainly before 6 months. A peak of incidence is noticed between 2-10 weeks, due to a decline of immunity. BRD is associated with the well-known shipping-fever that may come from cumulative stress. This condition can reach 5-20% case fatality rate and a morbidity rate up to 100%. Most of the time, the treatment administered is effective. In other cases, a relapse within 2 weeks, associated or not...

  7. Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water ...

    1Department of Env ronmental Management and Tox cology, Un vers ty of Agr culture, PMB 2240,. Abeokuta, Ogun .... and a modern sector) that has implications for ... plastered with cement. ..... residents are at–risk of water-borne diseases.

  8. Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?

    Zhu, Tie-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Gang; Meng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    regarding major complications (bleeding, pacemaker, respiratory insufficiency, and renal failure). Moreover, another three studies also found no statistically significant differences in terms of bleeding, pacemaker, wound infection, neurological deficit, pericardial effusion, low cardiac output syndrome and dialysis. In conclusion, there is good evidence to support that tricuspid annuloplasty is a low-risk procedure and concomitant TV repair does not significantly increase the perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  10. Respiratory acidosis

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  11. Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Waugh, Darryn; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Williams, D'Ann L; Paulin, Laura; Saha, Anik; Aloe, Charles M; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    There is limited evidence of the effect of exposure to heat on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, and the interactive effect between indoor heat and air pollution has not been established. To determine the effect of indoor and outdoor heat exposure on COPD morbidity and to determine whether air pollution concentrations modify the effect of temperature. Sixty-nine participants with COPD were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and data from the 601 participant days that occurred during the warm weather season were included in the analysis. Participants completed home environmental monitoring with measurement of temperature, relative humidity, and indoor air pollutants and simultaneous daily assessment of respiratory health with questionnaires and portable spirometry. Participants had moderate to severe COPD and spent the majority of their time indoors. Increases in maximal indoor temperature were associated with worsening of daily Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale scores and increases in rescue inhaler use. The effect was detected on the same day and lags of 1 and 2 days. The detrimental effect of temperature on these outcomes increased with higher concentrations of indoor fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (P pollution concentrations. For patients with COPD who spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor heat exposure during the warmer months represents a modifiable environmental exposure that may contribute to respiratory morbidity. In the context of climate change, adaptive strategies that include optimization of indoor environmental conditions are needed to protect this high-risk group from the adverse health effects of heat.

  12. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  13. Oligonucleotide Therapy for Obstructive and Restrictive Respiratory Diseases

    Wupeng Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology. Corticosteroids have been widely prescribed for the treatment of asthma, COPD, and IPF. However, the effectiveness of corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory drug is limited by steroid resistance in severe asthma, the majority of COPD cases, and pulmonary fibrosis. There is an urgent medical need to develop target-specific drugs for the treatment of these respiratory conditions. Oligonucleotide therapies, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, small interfering RNA (siRNA, and microRNA (miRNA are now being evaluated both pre-clinically and clinically as potential therapeutics. The mechanisms of action of ASO and siRNA are highly target mRNA specific, ultimately leading to target protein knockdown. miRNA has both biomarker and therapeutic values, and its knockdown by a miRNA antagonist (antagomir has a broader but potentially more non-specific biological outcome. This review will compile the current findings of oligonucleotide therapeutic targets, verified in various respiratory disease models and in clinical trials, and evaluate different chemical modification approaches to improve the stability and potency of oligonucleotides for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  14. Household air pollution: a call for studies into biomarkers of exposure and predictors of respiratory disease.

    Rylance, Jamie; Gordon, Stephen B; Naeher, Luke P; Patel, Archana; Balmes, John R; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Rogalsky, Derek K; Martin, William J

    2013-05-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor burning of biomass or coal is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, mostly due to its association with acute respiratory infection in children and chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in adults. Interventions that have significantly reduced exposure to HAP improve health outcomes and may reduce mortality. However, we lack robust, specific, and field-ready biomarkers to identify populations at greatest risk and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions. New scientific approaches are urgently needed to develop biomarkers of human exposure that accurately reflect exposure or effect. In this Perspective, we describe the global need for such biomarkers, the aims of biomarker development, and the state of development of tests that have the potential for rapid transition from laboratory bench to field use.

  15. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  16. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  17. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  18. [Gastro-esophageal reflux and chronic respiratory diseases].

    Dirou, S; Germaud, P; Bruley des Varannes, S; Magnan, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) frequently occurs in association with chronic respiratory diseases although the casual link is not always clear. Several pathophysiological and experimental factors are considered to support a role for GERD in respiratory disease. Conversely, respiratory diseases and bronchodilator treatment can themselves exacerbate GERD. When cough or severe asthma is being investigated, GERD does not need to be systematically looked for and a therapeutic test with proton pump inhibitors is not always recommended. pH impedance monitoring is now the reference diagnostic tool to detect non acid reflux, a form of reflux for which proton pump inhibitor treatment is ineffective. Recent data have shown a potential role of GERD in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation, leading to discussions about the place of surgery in this context. However, studies using pH impedance monitoring are still needed to better understand and manage the association between GERD and chronic respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin A supplementation and childhood morbidity from diarrhea, fever, respiratory problems and anemia in sub-Saharan Africa

    Gebremedhin S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Samson Gebremedhin School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Systematic reviews consistently indicated that vitamin A supplementation (VAS (100,000–200,000 international unit [IU] semiannually to children aged 6–59 months substantially reduces all-cause child mortality. Yet, its effect on morbidity is inconsistent and its contribution to the reduction of anemia has not been sufficiently explored.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between routine VAS (100,000 IU for children aged 6–11 months and 200,000 IU for children aged 1–5 years and the occurrence of common childhood illnesses (fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection [ARI] and anemia in preschool children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: The analysis was made based on the data of 28 demographic and health surveys (DHSs conducted in SSA since 2010. The data of 152,406 children were included. The VAS status in the preceding 6 months and the occurrence of the illnesses in the past 2 weeks were determined based on the information given by the caregivers. The hemoglobin level was determined using a portable photometer. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression model. The outputs were provided using adjusted odds ratio (AOR with the respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs. The practical significance of the association was measured via Cohen’s effect size (d.Results: The coverage of VAS was 56.3% (95% CI: 56.1–56.5. VAS was modestly associated with increased odds of fever (AOR=1.12 [95% CI: 1.09–1.15], diarrhea (AOR=1.09 [95% CI: 1.05–1.13] and ARI (AOR=1.18 [95%: 1.12–1.24]. Conversely, in the supplemented children, the odds of anemia were reduced by 10.1% (95% CI: 7.0–13.1. All the associations translated into trivial effect sizes (d<0.2.Conclusion: VAS is associated with an inconsequential increase in the occurrence of common childhood ailments. Keywords

  20. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  1. 28 CFR 79.65 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.

    2010-07-01

    ... expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) administered and reported in... Program will treat as equivalent to a diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis any diagnosis of “restrictive lung... that the claimant contracted a nonmalignant respiratory disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, fibrosis...

  2. Myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Sode, Birgitte F; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is nominally the most important co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the one with the greatest potential for treatment and prevention to improve the overall prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We assessed the extent...

  3. Deadly Respiratory Disease in Wild Chimpanzees

    2018-04-19

    Dr. Tony Goldberg, Professor of Epidemiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Associate Director for Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Global Health Institute, discusses an outbreak of rhinovirus C in chimpanzees in Uganda.  Created: 4/19/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/19/2018.

  4. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air pollution and respiratory diseases – a problematic risk factor.

    Mihălţan, Florin; Deleanu, Oana; Nemeș, Roxana; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra

    2016-01-01

    Pollution was a neglected factor for years in all the research that took in the viewfinder was examined in the risk factors in of respiratory diseases. Considering the concerns of politicians, scientists, doctors, which have intensified upgraded especially after the last climate “summit”, “summit” climatological we found it necessary to have a review of the effects of pollution, pathogenic mechanisms of interaction, and some diseases strongly influenced by pollutants such as COPD, asthma, bronchialand bronchial and lung cancer.

  6. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  8. Codetection of respiratory syncytial virus in habituated wild western lowland gorillas and humans during a respiratory disease outbreak

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  9. Maternal urogenital schistosomiasis; monitoring disease morbidity by simple reagent strips.

    Oyetunde T Oyeyemi

    used for early detection of urogenital schistosomiasis in endemic areas especially in younger women. However because microhematuria is a condition that occurs during pregnancy and in several other diseases, it is necessary to compliment the diagnosis with other diagnostic tools such as microscopy and serology. Treatment with praziquantel is recommended for the women in their late trimesters after follow up test in order to avert associated adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  11. Hospital Admission for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases Due to Particulate Matter in Ilam, Iran

    Daryanoosh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 µm (PM10 has the most undesired adverse effects on human health. Several studies reported a strong correlation between PM levels and hospital admissions owing to chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives The current study aimed to estimate the effect of PM10 as a primary pollutant on respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in Ilam, Iran, in 2013. Methods PM10 data was taken from the Ilam environmental protection agency. The annual morbidity including hospital admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases due to PM10 exposure were estimated using relative risk (RR and baseline incidence (BI based on world health organization (WHO databases for AirQ2.2.3 model. Results The results showed that the maximum level of PM10 was obtained in summer with a concentration of 491 μg/m3. The cumulative number of excess cases admitted to the hospital for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases were 216 and 84, respectively. Approximately 3.95% of the cases hospitalized due to PM10 occurred during days with concentration levels lower than 20 μg/m3. The highest rate of person-days related to PM10 that led to heath effect among Ahvaz inhabitants was in concentration levels of 40 - 49 µg/m3. Conclusions To reduce the impacts of particulate matter on health status of people in Ilam, necessary training by health systems should be conducted for people, especially those with chronic lung and heart diseases, the elderly and children to reduce their activities on the dusty days.

  12. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  13. Respiratory

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  14. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  15. Parkinson's disease: the reliability of morbidity and mortality statistics in the Russian Federation

    Krivonos O.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the significance of morbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD and mortality in Russian Federation in international comparisons. Material and Methods: In accordance with the purpose of the study the morbidity and mortality were analyzed in the Russian Federation on the basis of volumes "Morbidity in Russia" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in 2009-2012, "Human resources for health care institutions" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in 2012, tables С 51 about the mortality of subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012, data of mortality from Parkinson's disease in different countries in 2011, published by WHO. Results. The analysis of data on the morbidity patterns showed that in the Russian Federation in 2009-2012 there was an increase in general morbidity of adult patients with PD from 75.1 to 87.7 per thousand of populations. The data of primary morbidity in the adult population of the Russian Federation from PD also tend to increase from 8.0 to 8.5 per thousand of populations. The sharp fluctuations of mortality's data were revealed in subject of Russian Federation that was related of unreliable data. Mortality from PD in Russian Federation in 2012 was 0.31 per thousand of populations. Conclusion. The values in the study of general and primary PD's morbidity in the Russian Federation were lower than performance in international comparisons. PD's mortality in Russia was also lower than in other developed countries. Abidance by rules of selecting the primary cause of death (PCOD, confirmed by an automated system, where one of the causes is PD will make mortality statistics of PD reliable and internationally comparable.

  16. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  17. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    Fluge, Gjermund; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Giljam, Marita

    2009-01-01

    Background: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. Methods: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...

  18. Cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: management strategies

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with the general population as shown by epidemiologic studies measuring cardiovascular endpoints, as well as by autopsy, angiographic, and coronary calcification

  19. Cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Management Strategies

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with the general population as shown by epidemiologic studies measuring cardiovascular endpoints, as well as by autopsy, angiographic, and coronary calcification

  20. A comparative study of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases during normal and dusty days in Iran.

    Geravandi, Sahar; Sicard, Pierre; Khaniabadi, Yusef Omidi; De Marco, Alessandra; Ghomeishi, Ali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Dobaradaran, Sina; Hassani, Ghasem; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Shahram

    2017-08-01

    During the last century, most of people around the world moved from communicable to non-communicable diseases, mainly due to air pollution. Air pollutants and dust storm increase risk of morbidity, for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and increase the number of deaths. The city of Ahvaz is considered as the focal point of air pollution and dust storm in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the number of Hospital Admission Respiratory Disease (HARD) including asthma attacks, acute bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to PM 10 by a descriptive study during normal and dust event days in Ahvaz during the time period 2010-2012. The hourly PM 10 data was collected from the Iranian Environmental Protection Agency and Razi hospital. The annual PM 10 mean concentrations reached 282, 288 and 278 μg/m 3 in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The number of HARD attributed to PM 10 was 1438, 1945 and 1393 people, respectively, and the highest number of daily admissions was attributed to the highest daily PM 10 concentration in Ahvaz. The average number of daily HARD during dusty days was higher than normal days, and a significant positive correlation, between the number of hospital admissions and dusty days, was found. Dust had significant impact on HARD in Ahvaz.

  1. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been crosssectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of t...

  2. Respiratory alkalosis may impair the production of vitamin D and lead to significant morbidity, including the fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Lewis, John M; Fontrier, Toinette H; Coley, J Lynn

    2017-05-01

    Hyperventilation caused by physical and/or psychological stress may lead to significant respiratory alkalosis and an elevated systemic pH. The alkalotic pH may in turn suppress the normal renal release of phosphate into the urine, thereby interrupting the endogenous production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). This could cause a shortfall in its normal production, leading to a variety of adverse consequences. It might partially explain the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness, a treatable disease characterized by severe hyperventilation secondary to the hypoxia of high altitude exposure. Milder degrees of hyperventilation due to different forms of stress may produce other conditions which share characteristics with acute mountain sickness. One of these may be the fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic painful disorder for which no satisfactory treatment exists. Should fibromyalgia and acute mountain sickness have a common etiology, may they also share a common form of treatment? Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    General health checks are common elements of health care in some countries. These aim to detect disease and risk factors for disease with the purpose of reducing morbidity and mortality. Most of the commonly used screening tests offered in general health checks have been incompletely studied. Als......, screening leads to increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, which can be harmful as well as beneficial. It is, therefore, important to assess whether general health checks do more good than harm....

  4. Codetection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Habituated Wild Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans During a Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  5. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry.

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-24

    Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  6. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    Gill Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods: Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results: From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion: The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  7. Occupational lung disease survey of respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland.

    McKeagney, T F P; Addley, K; Asanati, K

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory physicians are likely to encounter occupational lung disease (OLD) in their daily practice. To assess the profile of cases being encountered by general respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland (NI) and determine satisfaction with training, confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD. An online survey of all consultant respiratory physicians currently practising in NI. Questions assessed the numbers of new cases seen over the preceding year, case type, satisfaction with specialist registrar training in OLD and degree of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Of the 40 consultants identified, the response rate was 80% (n = 32) with 94% of respondents (n = 30) indicating they had dealt with patients suspected of having occupation-related respiratory symptoms. The most commonly encountered OLDs were pleural plaques (91% of respondents), occupational asthma (88%), asbestosis (84%), non-asbestosis pulmonary fibrosis (76%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (67%) and mesothelioma (66%). Just over one third of consultants (36%, n = 10) indicated a lack of confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD with almost half (48%) dissatisfied with OLD training as a registrar and a further 78% (n = 25) indicating they would value additional training in OLD as a consultant. The majority of respiratory consultants in NI encountered OLD in their day to day practice and half were dissatisfied with their specialist registrar training in OLD and express a lack of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This highlights the need for additional training at both registrar and consultant level. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Pollution and respiratory disease: can diet or supplements help? A review.

    Whyand, T; Hurst, J R; Beckles, M; Caplin, M E

    2018-05-02

    Pollution is known to cause and exacerbate a number of chronic respiratory diseases. The World Health Organisation has placed air pollution as the world's largest environmental health risk factor. There has been recent publicity about the role for diet and anti-oxidants in mitigating the effects of pollution, and this review assesses the evidence for alterations in diet, including vitamin supplementation in abrogating the effects of pollution on asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. We found evidence to suggest that carotenoids, vitamin D and vitamin E help protect against pollution damage which can trigger asthma, COPD and lung cancer initiation. Vitamin C, curcumin, choline and omega-3 fatty acids may also play a role. The Mediterranean diet appears to be of benefit in patients with airways disease and there appears to be a beneficial effect in smokers however there is no direct evidence regarding protecting against air pollution. More studies investigating the effects of nutrition on rapidly rising air pollution are urgently required. However it is very difficult to design such studies due to the confounding factors of diet, obesity, co-morbid illness, medication and environmental exposure.

  9. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  11. Environmental Pollution: Causing High Morbidity and Mortality

    , E. Laho; , G. Koduzi; , D. Osmanlli; , F. Aliu

    2016-01-01

    The environmental pollution which is increasing, it is a concerning issue for the community, and when it comes to big cities like Elbasan this is a hot spot. The relevant experience has shown that the more industrial and urban pollution an area has, the higher the pulmonary morbidity is and more cases of mortality from tumoral diseases are. To investigate and show the morbidity and mortality rate from respiratory diseases, cancer etc In our investigation which is a retrospective statistical r...

  12. Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow......-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory...... symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased...

  13. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus.

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Harish, Yashoda; Hiremath, Shivalingaswamy; Puranik, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs) index. The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18%) whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%), diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%), and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%), in comparison to the controls (6.18%). From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  14. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus

    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18% whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%, diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%, and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%, in comparison to the controls (6.18%. Conclusion: From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  15. Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : assessment of respiratory muscle activity and the benefits of noninvasive ventilation

    Duiverman, Marieke Leontine

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. First, we investigated respiratory muscle function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by surface electromyography. Second, we focused on the benefits of noninvasive ventilation in patients with respiratory failure, both in restrictive pulmonary

  16. Occupational risk factors for chronic respiratory disease in a New Zealand population using lifetime occupational history.

    Hansell, A.; Ghosh, R.E.; Poole, S.; Zock, J.P.; Weatherall, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Travers, J.; Beasley, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Methods: Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire

  17. Adiponectin but not leptin is involved in early hepatic disease in morbidly obese patients.

    Hindle, Anna Katharine; Edwards, Claire; Mendonsa, Alisha; Rojkind, Marcos; McCaffrey, Tim; Fu, Sidney; Brody, Fred

    2010-07-01

    Pathologic changes in the liver are common in morbidly obese patients, and insulin resistance may potentiate the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study investigates the impact of leptin and adiponectin in morbidly obese diabetic and nondiabetic patients with regard to histopathologic changes in the liver. Thirty-seven morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery with liver biopsies were enrolled in the study. Fourteen were diabetic and 23 were nondiabetic. Intraoperative liver tissue was sent for histopathologic analysis and extraneous intraoperative tissue was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was extracted and RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine relative gene expression levels. The data were analyzed using a logarithmic transformation and normalized by 18S ribosome expression. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis with p < or = 0.05 as significant. Adiponectin expression was downregulated 4.4-fold (p < or = 0.05) in liver samples with evidence of inflammation on pathology. When hepatic inflammation was evaluated separately, there were no statistically significant differences in adiponectin levels between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, overall adiponectin levels in hepatic samples of diabetic patients were 3.8-fold higher than those of nondiabetic patients (p < or = 0.05). There were no significant differences in leptin levels regardless of hepatic pathology or diabetic status. This study illustrates that there is a downregulation of adiponectin in morbidly obese patients with inflammatory infiltrates in the liver. Variations in adiponectin levels could be an indicator of disease progression since inflammatory infiltrates are commonly associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in morbidly obese patients. Currently, we are using human myofibroblasts derived from livers of morbidly obese people to further

  18. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Qin Xu

    Full Text Available Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing.Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender.A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%, 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%, 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53% and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%. The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%. The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure.PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  19. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Xu, Qin; Li, Xia; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  20. Respiratory pathology in vibroacoustic disease: 25 years of research

    Nuno A.A. Castelo Branco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory pathology induced by low frequency noise (LFN, <500 Hz, including infrasound is not a novel subject given that in the 1960's, within the context of U.S. and U.S.S.R. Space Programs, other authors have already reported its existence. Within the scope of vibroacoustic disease (VAD, a whole-body pathology caused by excessive exposure to LFN, respiratory pathology takes on specific features. Initially, respiratory pathology was not considered a consequence of LFN exposure; but today, LFN can be regarded as a major agent of disease that targets the respiratory system. The goal of this report is to put forth what is known to date on the clinical signs of respiratory pathology seen in VAD patients. Methods: Data from the past 25 years of research will be taken together and presented. Results: In persons exposed to LFN on the job, respiratory complaints appear after the first 4 years of professional activity. At this stage, they disappear during vacation periods or when the person is removed form his /her workstation for other reasons. With long-term exposure, more serious situations can arise, such as, atypical pleural effusion, respiratory insufficiency, fibrosis and tumours. There is no correlation with smoking habits. In LFN--exposed animal models, morphological changes of the pleura, and loss of the phagocytic ability of pleural mesothelial cells (explaining the atypical pleural effusions. Fibrotic lesions and neo-vascularization were observed along the entire respiratory tract. Fibrosis lesions and neovascularisation were observed throughout the respiratory tract of the animals seen. Pre-malignant lesions, metaplasia e displasia, were also identified. Discussion: LFN is an agent of disease and the respiratory tract is one of its preferential targets. The respiratory pathology associated with VAD needs further in-depth studies in order to achieve a greater understanding, and develop methods of pharmacological intervention

  1. Total thyroidectomy: is morbidity higher for Graves' disease than nontoxic goiter?

    Welch, Kellen C; McHenry, Christopher R

    2011-09-01

    Total thyroidectomy for treatment of Graves' disease is controversial and much of the debate centers on the concern for complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease and determine if it is different than for patients with nontoxic nodular goiter. The rates of life threatening neck hematoma, recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, transient hypocalcemia, and hypoparathyroidism were determined for consecutive patients with Graves' disease treated with total thyroidectomy from 1996 to 2010. Results were compared with patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for nontoxic nodular goiter during the same period, matched for the weight of the excised thyroid gland. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 111 patients with Graves' disease (group I) and 283 patients with nontoxic nodular goiter (group II). Parathyroid autotransplantation was performed in 31(28%) patients in group I and 98 (35%) patients in group II (P = NS). Comparative analysis of morbidity revealed no significant difference in neck hematoma, 0(0%) (I) versus 3(1%) (II); permanent RLN injury, 0(0%) (I) versus 2(1%) (II); and permanent hypoparathyroidism in 1(1%) (I) versus 1 (0.4%) (II) (P = NS). Transient hypocalcemia was more common in patients with Graves' disease, 80(72%) (I) versus 170 (60%) (II) (P Graves' disease; only transient hypocalcemia occurred more often than in patients with nodular goiter. Total thyroidectomy should be presented as a therapeutic option for all patients with Graves' disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Review: An Australian model of care for co-morbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

    Lo, Clement; Zimbudzi, Edward; Teede, Helena; Cass, Alan; Fulcher, Greg; Gallagher, Martin; Kerr, Peter G; Jan, Stephen; Johnson, Greg; Mathew, Tim; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Russell, Grant; Usherwood, Tim; Walker, Rowan; Zoungas, Sophia

    2018-02-05

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two of the most prevalent co-morbid chronic diseases in Australia. The increasing complexity of multi-morbidity, and current gaps in health-care delivery for people with co-morbid diabetes and CKD, emphasise the need for better models of care for this population. Previously, proposed published models of care for co-morbid diabetes and CKD have not been co-designed with stake-holders or formally evaluated. Particular components of health-care shown to be effective in this population are interventions that: are structured, intensive and multifaceted (treating diabetes and multiple cardiovascular risk factors); involve multiple medical disciplines; improve self-management by the patient; and upskill primary health-care. Here we present an integrated patient-centred model of health-care delivery incorporating these components and co-designed with key stake-holders including specialist health professionals, general practitioners and Diabetes and Kidney Health Australia. The development of the model of care was informed by focus groups of patients and health-professionals; and semi-structured interviews of care-givers and health professionals. Other distinctives of this model of care are routine screening for psychological morbidity; patient-support through a phone advice line; and focused primary health-care support in the management of diabetes and CKD. Additionally, the model of care integrates with the patient-centred health-care home currently being rolled out by the Australian Department of Health. This model of care will be evaluated after implementation across two tertiary health services and their primary care catchment areas. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteopetrosis-like disease in a cat with respiratory distress

    Fujita, M.; Takaishi, Y.; Nagae, H.; Watanabe, N.; Hasegawa, D.; Taniguchi, A.; Orima, H.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) were performed in an 8-year-old, spayed female cat with chronic effort respiration at the inspiration phase and stertor. Increased bone opacity in the areas of the head, neck and thorax were observed on radiography. MR images showed no signal intensity on both transverse T1WI and T2WI of the nasal cavity. CT revealed increased bone density and hypertrophy of the nasal turbinate and a narrowed nasal passage. From these results, we concluded this case had osteopetrosis-like disease, and that the respiratory distress was caused by hypertrophy of the nasal turbinate

  4. Expectation to nuclear medicine in the field of respiratory diseases

    Nishimoto, Yukio; Kambe, Masayuki; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an expectation to the nuclear medicine for the early detection of pulmonary function abnormalities. The expectation includes: (1) To fill up the functional and qualitative diagnosis of respiratory diseases, (2) To improve the clinical nuclear laboratory tests by such methods like no effort and no risk for examinee, (3) To detect in the early stage of local pulmonary abnormalities, (4) To develop the clinical nuclear laboratory tests in order to measure some pulmonary functions at the same times and continuously, (5) To simplify the procedures in the clinical nuclear laboratory tests, and (6) To combine the clinical pulmonary function tests and clinical nuclear laboratory tests. (author)

  5. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease for Small Areas Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity

    Peter Congdon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different indicators of morbidity for chronic disease may not necessarily be available at a disaggregated spatial scale (e.g., for small areas with populations under 10 thousand. Instead certain indicators may only be available at a more highly aggregated spatial scale; for example, deaths may be recorded for small areas, but disease prevalence only at a considerably higher spatial scale. Nevertheless prevalence estimates at small area level are important for assessing health need. An instance is provided by England where deaths and hospital admissions for coronary heart disease are available for small areas known as wards, but prevalence is only available for relatively large health authority areas. To estimate CHD prevalence at small area level in such a situation, a shared random effect method is proposed that pools information regarding spatial morbidity contrasts over different indicators (deaths, hospitalizations, prevalence. The shared random effect approach also incorporates differences between small areas in known risk factors (e.g., income, ethnic structure. A Poisson-multinomial equivalence may be used to ensure small area prevalence estimates sum to the known higher area total. An illustration is provided by data for London using hospital admissions and CHD deaths at ward level, together with CHD prevalence totals for considerably larger local health authority areas. The shared random effect involved a spatially correlated common factor, that accounts for clustering in latent risk factors, and also provides a summary measure of small area CHD morbidity.

  7. Severe maternal morbidity due to sepsis: The burden and preventability of disease in New Zealand.

    Lepine, Sam; Lawton, Beverley; Geller, Stacie; Abels, Peter; MacDonald, Evelyn J

    2018-02-20

    Sepsis is a life-threatening systemic condition that appears to be increasing in the obstetric population. Clinical detection can be difficult and may result in increased morbidity via delays in the continuum of patient care. To describe the burden of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) caused by sepsis in New Zealand and investigate the potential preventability. A multidisciplinary expert review panel was established to review cases of obstetric sepsis admitted to intensive care or high-dependency units over an 18 month span in New Zealand. Cases were then analysed for the characteristics of infection and their preventability. Fifty cases met the inclusion criteria, most commonly due to uterine, respiratory or kidney infection. Fifty per cent (25) of these cases were deemed potentially preventable, predominantly due to delays in diagnosis and treatment. A high index of suspicion, development of early recognition systems and multi-disciplinary training are recommended to decrease preventable cases of maternal sepsis. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Heartburn during sleep: a clinical marker of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in morbidly obese patients.

    Fornari, F; Madalosso, C A S; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Gurski, R R

    2009-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and morbid obesity are entities with increasing prevalence. New clinical strategies are cornerstones for their management. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of heartburn during sleep (HDS) and whether this symptom predicts the presence of objective GORD parameters and increased heartburn perception in morbidly obese patients. Ninety-one consecutive morbidly obese patients underwent clinical evaluation, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and oesophageal pH monitoring. HDS was characterized when patients replied positively to the question, 'Does heartburn wake you from sleep?'. A General Score for Heartburn (GSH) ranging between 0 and 5 was assessed with the question 'How bad is your heartburn?'. HDS was reported by 33 patients (36%). More patients with HDS had abnormal acid contact time or reflux oesophagitis than patients without HDS (94%vs 57%, P heartburn preceded by acid reflux in diurnal (39%vs 9%; P heartburn. HDS occurs in a significant minority of patients with morbid obesity and has high positive predictive value for GORD. Symptomatic reflux during the sleep seems to be a marker of increased heartburn perception in this population.

  9. Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats.

    Gray, G. C.; Callahan, J. D.; Hawksworth, A. W.; Fisher, C. A.; Gaydos, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treat...

  10. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, their rising trend can be explained only by changes occurring in the environment and urban air pollution by motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world with a significant effect on respiratory health. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend only on the increased production of air pollution, but rather on atmospheric factors that favor the accumulation of air pollutants at ground level. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity of pollinosis-affected people have also been identified in multiple locations around the world ( Fig. 1). Cite this as D'Amato G, Bergmann KC, Cecchi L, Annesi-Maesano I, Sanduzzi A, Liccardi G, Vitale C, Stanziola A, D'Amato M. Climate change

  11. Impact of nasopharyngeal microbiota on the development of respiratory tract diseases.

    Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the last 15 years using the following key words: "microbiota" or "microbioma" and "nasopharyngeal" or "respiratory" or "nasal" and "children" or "paediatric" or "infant". Analysis of the literature showed that respiratory microbiota can regulate health and disease development in the respiratory tract. Like the gut microbiota, the respiratory microbiota is established at birth, and early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children. Protective and dangerous bacteria have been identified, and this can be considered the base for developing new approaches to diseases that respond poorly to traditional interventions. Reconstitution of missing microbes can be achieved by the administration of pre- and probiotics. Modulation of respiratory microbiota by favouring colonisation of the upper respiratory tract by beneficial commensals can interfere with the proliferation and activity of resident pathobionts and is a possible new measure to reduce the risk of disease. However, further studies are needed because a deeper understanding of these and related issues can be transferred to clinical practice.

  12. Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: an update.

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The rising trend in prevalence of allergic respiratory disease and bronchial asthma, observed over the last decades, can be explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence of biologic, such as allergens, and chemical atmospheric trigger factors able to stimulate the sensitization and symptoms of these diseases. Many studies have shown changes in production, dispersion, and allergen content of pollen and spores because of climate change with an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have a major impact on the biosphere and human environment.Urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Measures of mitigation need to be applied for reducing future impacts of climate change on our planet, but until global emissions continue to rise, adaptation to the impacts of future climate variability will also be required.

  13. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas. PMID:24129116

  14. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    Peter Congdon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care areas.

  15. Spatially interpolated disease prevalence estimation using collateral indicators of morbidity and ecological risk.

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-10-14

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas.

  16. Proton therapy for pediatric cranial tumors: preliminary report on treatment and disease-related morbidities

    McAllister, Bruce; Archambeau, John O.; Nguyen, M. Connie; Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia; Schulte, Reinhard; Alvarez, Ofelia; Bedros, Antranik A.; Kaleita, Thomas; Moyers, Michael; Miller, Daniel; Slater, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Accelerated protons were used in an attempt to limit treatment-related morbidity in children with tumors in or near the developing brain, by reducing the integral dose to adjacent normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Children treated with protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center between August 1991 and December 1994 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-eight children, aged 1 to 18 years, were identified as at risk for brain injury from treatment. Medical records, physical examinations, and correspondence with patients, their parents, and referring physicians were analyzed. The investigators tabulated post-treatment changes in pre-treatment signs and symptoms and made judgments as to whether improvement, no change, or worsening related to disease or treatment had supervened. Magnetic resonance images were correlated with clinical findings and radiographic impressions were tabulated. Results: Follow-up ranged from 7 to 49 months (median 25 months). Four instances of treatment-related morbidity were identified. Forty-one instances of site-specific, disease-related morbidity were identified: 15 improved or resolved and 26 remained unchanged after treatment. Four patients had radiographic evidence of local failure. Three of these patients, including two with high-grade glioma, have died. Conclusion: Early treatment-related morbidity associated with proton therapy is low. Tumor progression remains a problem when treating certain histologies such as high-grade glioma. Escalating the dose delivered to target volumes may benefit children with tumors associated with poor rates of local control. Long-term follow-up, including neurocognitive testing, is in progress to assess integral-dose effects on cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes in children with cranial tumors

  17. Hospital morbidity in the Fiji islands with special reference to the saccharine disease.

    Sorokin, M

    1975-08-23

    The concept of the excessive consumption of carbohydrates as a cause of many diseases of civilisation has previously been proposed under the name of the 'saccharine disease'. A review of the hospital morbidity figures for these diseases in a divisional hospital in the Fiji Islands is presented. The hospital serves a population comprised of Indians and Fijians, suggesting comparison with the province of Natal, South Africa. Indians have a higher incidence of diabetes melitus, myocardial infarction, duodenal ulcer, acute appendicitis, gallstones, renal stones and eclampsia. Their diets differ mainly in the higher consumption of refined fibre-depleted carbohydrates, and it is suggested that the association is compatible with the concept of the "saccharine disease".

  18. Prevalence and Morbidity of Undiagnosed Celiac Disease From a Community-based Study

    Choung, Rok Seon; Larson, Scott A.; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; King, Katherine S.; Larson, Joseph J.; Lahr, Brian D.; Poland, Gregory A.; Camilleri, Michael J.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about the prevalence and burden of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than 50 years old. We determined the prevalence and morbidity of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than 50 years in a community. Methods We tested sera from 31,255 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (younger than 50 years old) without a prior diagnosis of celiac disease assay using an assay for immunoglobulin A (IgA) against tissue transglutaminase (tTG); in subjects with positive test results, celiac disease was confirmed using an assay for endomysial IgA. We performed a nested case–control study to compare the proportion of comorbidities between undiagnosed cases of celiac disease and age- and sex-matched seronegative controls (1:2). Medical records were abstracted to identify potential comorbidities. Results We identified 338 of 30,425 adults with positive results from both serologic tests. Based on this finding, we estimated the prevalence of celiac disease to be 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0%–1.2%); 8 of 830 children tested positive for IgA against tTG (1.0%, 95% CI, 0.4%–1.9%). No typical symptoms or classic consequences of diagnosed celiac disease (diarrhea, anemia, or fracture) were associated with undiagnosed celiac disease. Undiagnosed celiac disease was associated with increased rates of hypothyroidism (odds ratio, 2.2; Pceliac disease at 5 years after testing was 10.8% in persons with undiagnosed celiac disease vs 0.1% in seronegative persons (PCeliac disease status was not associated with overall survival. Conclusions Based on serologic tests of a community population for celiac disease, we estimated the prevalence of undiagnosed celiac disease to be 1%. Undiagnosed celiac disease appeared to be clinically silent and remained undetected, but long-term outcomes have not been determined. PMID:27916669

  19. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  20. European surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Leach, Heather; Walker, Caray A; Le Poder, Sophie; Decaro, Nicola; Rusvai, Miklos; Egberink, Herman; Rottier, Peter; Fernandez, Mireia; Fragkiadaki, Eirini; Shields, Shelly; Brownlie, Joe

    2017-12-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs. Disease occurrence and severity were significantly reduced in dogs vaccinated against classic CIRD agents, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), but substantial proportions (65.7%; 201/306) of vaccinated dogs remained affected. CRCoV and CnPnV were highly prevalent across the different dog populations, with overall seropositivity and detection rates of 47% and 7.7% for CRCoV, and 41.7% and 23.4% for CnPnV, respectively, and their presence was associated with increased occurrence and severity of clinical disease. Antibodies to CRCoV had a protective effect against CRCoV infection and more severe clinical signs of CIRD but antibodies to CnPnV did not. Involvement of M. cynos and influenza A in CIRD was less apparent. Despite 45% of dogs being seropositive for M. cynos, only 0.9% were PCR positive for M. cynos. Only 2.7% of dogs were seropositive for Influenza A, and none were positive by PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    2011-05-18

    ... NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from...

  2. The role of vitamin D in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other respiratory diseases.

    García de Tena, Jaime; El Hachem Debek, Abdulkader; Hernández Gutiérrez, Cristina; Izquierdo Alonso, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in the extraosseous effects of vitamin D. In this article, we review the physiology of vitamin D, the physiopathological effects associated with vitamin D deficit and the available evidence on its etiopathogenic role in respiratory diseases. Given the pleiotropic actions of vitamin D, it is biologically plausible that the deficit of this vitamin could play a pathogenic role of in the development of various respiratory diseases. However, the many epidemiological studies that have shown an association between low vitamin D levels and a higher risk of developing various respiratory diseases or a poorer prognosis if they do appear, were unable to show causality. Post-hoc analyses of some clinical trials, particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, appear to suggest that some patient subtypes may benefit from correction of a vitamin D deficit. In this respect, it would be interesting to determine if the interindividual differences found in the effect of vitamin D deficit and responses to correcting this deficit could be explained by the genetic variants involved in vitamin D metabolism. Ultimately, only appropriately designed clinical trials will determine whether 25-OHD supplements can prevent or improve the course of the various respiratory diseases in which an epidemiological association between prognosis and vitamin D deficit has been described. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. An observational study of PM10 and hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease in Tasmania, Australia 1992-2002.

    Mészáros, D; Markos, J; FitzGerald, D G; Walters, E H; Wood-Baker, R

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter below 10 µ (PM10) has been a major concern in the Tamar Valley, Launceston, where wood heaters are extensively used. We examined the relationship between PM10 levels, meteorological variables, respiratory medications and hospital admissions for respiratory disease over the decade 1992-2002. PM10 levels were provided by the Department of Primary Industry Water, Parks and Environment, and meteorological variables from the Bureau of Meteorology. We obtained hospital discharge codes for the Launceston General Hospital. Poisson regression was used for statistical analyses. Mean daily PM10 levels declined from 50.7 to 16.5 μg/m(3). Hospitalisations for asthma decreased from 29 to 21 per month, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increased and bronchitis/bronchiolitis remained unchanged. We found a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM10 to be associated with a 4% increase in admissions for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis (p0.05), but no association with asthma or COPD was found. All respiratory diseases showed seasonal patterns of hospitalisation. This is the first long-term study in Australia to demonstrate an association between PM10 levels and respiratory diseases. Reducing exposure to PM10 may decrease hospital admissions for respiratory diseases. Better preventive measures, including sustained public health initiatives to combat air pollution, are required to reduce respiratory morbidity.

  4. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care--an international series: Pakistan.

    Yusuf, Mohammed Osman

    2009-03-01

    Pakistan has a population exceeding 160 million. Communicable diseases remain the most important health problem in Pakistan, with non-communicable diseases and injuries comprising a quarter of all deaths. The government provides a multi-tiered healthcare system, from the Basic Health Unit at the village level, ranging up to the tertiary care teaching hospitals in the larger cities. These facilities are accessible to all, and are usually free or highly subsidised. Patients have the choice to see a private or government GP, a specialist, or an alternative medicine healer. The current National Health Policy focusses mainly on prevention of communicable diseases, as well as improving primary and secondary health care services. Only 6% of 13 to 14 year olds are medically diagnosed as having asthma, and more than half report symptoms of rhinitis. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis in patients over 65 is 14% and 6% in rural females and males, respectively, and 9% (with no sex difference) in urban areas. The higher rates of chronic bronchitis observed in females in rural areas may be attributed to high levels of indoor air pollution due to cooking over smoking fires. It is estimated that 36% of adult males, and 9% of females, smoke, and the cigarette consumption per person per year in Pakistan is among the highest in South Asia. Pakistan is ranked 7th among the 22 highest tuberculosis disease burden countries in the world. In 2006 the number of all TB cases was 76,668 compared to 97,245 in 2004. It is estimated that 70-80,000 people are infected with HIV, but only 3,000 AIDS cases have been reported so far. The incidence of acute respiratory infections in children varies, and is a common cause of morbidity. In adults, it is estimated that pneumonia may affect as many as 2.8 million Pakistanis. Patients usually can access their local GPs or alternative medical practitioners with relative ease. In villages in remote areas, access to government-run health care facilities

  5. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    Fluge, G; Olesen, H V; Gilljam, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. METHODS: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...... patients were detected in the Danish CF cohort. Patients diagnosed with untreated CD reported symptoms typical of both CF and CD (poor weight gain, loose and/or fatty stools, fatigue, irritability, abdominal pain). They improved after introduction of a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic screening...

  6. Air pollution and other local factors in respiratory disease

    Fairbairn, A S; Reid, D D

    1958-01-01

    A study was conducted of civil servants, principally postmen, to standardize social class and pay in morbidity and mortality correlations with air pollution. This group was also compared with the general population. Frequency of winter fog was related to severe chronic bronchitis in both groups studied. Bronchitis absence rate among postmen working outdoors in areas of high presumptive air pollution was higher than that of indoor male workers. Colds and sore throats show the same selective incidence. There was a steady rise in bronchitis rate with age among postmen whereas that of indoor male workers increased only after age 45. Lung cancer apparently was not related to air pollution. The urban factor in infectious diseases could be the increased chance of contact. Uncontrolled factors in this type of study include: difference in morale, individual-job type selection, job criteria, and sick leave and retirement policy.

  7. Non-vascular interventional therapy for respiratory diseases

    Ji Hongjian; Chen Liping; Wang Hui; Cheng Yongde

    2009-01-01

    To review the recent literature relating to non-vascular interventional therapy of respiratory diseases. Metal airway stent insertion can immediately relieve tracheobronchial obstruction and improve pulmonary function. However, as there is a high occurrence of the restenosis after stent insertion, it should be very careful to use metal stenting to treat the benign airway obstruction. Compared with traditional lung volume reduction surgery in treating severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction appears to be effective, safe and less invasive, although its clinical usefullness need to be further proved. Endoscopic occlusion of bronchial fistula represents an effective alternative to surgical treatment. Percutaneous lung biopsy under ultrasound or CT guidance has been applied successfully in the management of both benign and malignant lesions. (authors)

  8. Identification of a novel nidovirus in an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Uccellini, Lorenzo; Ossiboff, Robert J; de Matos, Ricardo E C; Morrisey, James K; Petrosov, Alexandra; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Jain, Komal; Hicks, Allison L; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Tokarz, Rafal; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, Walter Ian

    2014-08-08

    Respiratory infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in reptiles; however, the causative agents are only infrequently identified. Pneumonia, tracheitis and esophagitis were reported in a collection of ball pythons (Python regius). Eight of 12 snakes had evidence of bacterial pneumonia. High-throughput sequencing of total extracted nucleic acids from lung, esophagus and spleen revealed a novel nidovirus. PCR indicated the presence of viral RNA in lung, trachea, esophagus, liver, and spleen. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of intracellular, intracytoplasmic viral nucleic acids in the lungs of infected snakes. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 1,136 amino acid segment of the polyprotein suggests that this virus may represent a new species in the subfamily Torovirinae. This report of a novel nidovirus in ball pythons may provide insight into the pathogenesis of respiratory disease in this species and enhances our knowledge of the diversity of nidoviruses.

  9. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-02-11

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  10. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana.

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Aborigo, Raymond A; Oduro, Abraham R; Asoala, Victor; Awine, Timothy; Amenga-Etego, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0-59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI), or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44), 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90), and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87) increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0-5). Similarly, children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97), 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83), and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59) times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0-5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73) compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27). A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91), while a unit change in the women's attitude towards sex index was associated with 14

  11. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana

    Dickson A. Amugsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. Objectives: To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0–59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI, or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results: Children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44, 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90, and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87 increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0–5. Similarly, children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97, 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83, and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59 times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0–5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73 compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27. A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91, while a unit

  12. Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement.

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie; Frossard, Nelly; Guignabert, Christophe; Inman, Mark; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Maes, Tania; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin; Uhlig, Stefan; White, Eric; Witzenrath, Martin; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Crestani, Bruno; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, Gisli; Joos, Guy; Magnan, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Maus, Ulrich A; Reinhold, Petra; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Richeldi, Luca; Kolb, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models. Focus was put on their specific benefits and limitations. This will result in more efficient use of resources and greater reduction in the numbers of animals employed, thereby enhancing the ethical standards and translational capacity of experimental research.The task force statement addresses general issues of experimental research (ethics, species, sex, age, ex vivo and in vitro models, gene editing). The statement also includes research recommendations on modelling asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung infections, acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension.The task force stressed the importance of using multiple models to strengthen validity of results, the need to increase the availability of human tissues and the importance of standard operating procedures and data quality. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  13. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  14. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids.

  15. The Effect of Renal Transplantation on Respiratory Muscle Strength in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    Tavana, Sasan; Mirzaei, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory involvement in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is attributed to protein calorie imbalance that is caused by the disease process, and hemodialysis and is generally referred to as uremic myopathy. This results in calcification of respiratory muscles such as diaphragm and intercostal muscles. There are limited data about respiratory muscle strength in patients with CKD. We intended to evaluate the effect of kidney ...

  16. Impact of NOx Emission Reduction Policy on Hospitalizations for Respiratory Disease in New York State

    To date, only a limited number of studies have examined the impact of ambient pollutant policy on respiratory morbidities. This accountability study examined the effect of a regional pollution control policy, namely, the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) nitrogen oxides ...

  17. Effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children with infantile-onset Pompe disease and respiratory muscle weakness.

    Jones, Harrison N; Crisp, Kelly D; Moss, Tronda; Strollo, Katherine; Robey, Randy; Sank, Jeffrey; Canfield, Michelle; Case, Laura E; Mahler, Leslie; Kravitz, Richard M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness is a primary therapeutic challenge for patients with infantile Pompe disease. We previously described the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training (RMT) regimen in two adults with late-onset Pompe disease; both demonstrated marked increases in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in response to RMT. However, the use of RMT in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease has not been previously reported. We report the effects of an intensive RMT program on maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) using A-B-A (baseline-treatment-posttest) single subject experimental design in two pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease. Both subjects had persistent respiratory muscle weakness despite long-term treatment with alglucosidase alfa. Subject 1 demonstrated negligible to modest increases in MIP/MEP (6% increase in MIP, d=0.25; 19% increase in MEP, d=0.87), while Subject 2 demonstrated very large increases in MIP/MEP (45% increase in MIP, d=2.38; 81% increase in MEP, d=4.31). Following three-month RMT withdrawal, both subjects maintained these strength increases and demonstrated maximal MIP and MEP values at follow-up. Intensive RMT may be a beneficial treatment for respiratory muscle weakness in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease.

  18. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J

    2016-06-06

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons' early life, are expected to be effective and successful.

  19. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    Qing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful.

  20. Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review.

    Ayrle, Hannah; Mevissen, Meike; Kaske, Martin; Nathues, Heiko; Gruetzner, Niels; Melzig, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-06-06

    Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves ≤ 35%; piglets ≤ 50%) and for respiratory diseases (calves ≤ 80%; piglets ≤ 40%). Despite a highly diverse etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, treatment with antimicrobials is often the first-line therapy. Multi-antimicrobial resistance in pathogens results in international accordance to strengthen the research in novel treatment options. Medicinal plants bear a potential as alternative or additional treatment. Based on the versatile effects of their plant specific multi-component-compositions, medicinal plants can potentially act as 'multi-target drugs'. Regarding the plurality of medicinal plants, the aim of this systematic review was to identify potential medicinal plant species for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation in calves and piglets. Based on nine initial sources including standard textbooks and European ethnoveterinary studies, a total of 223 medicinal plant species related to the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases was identified. A defined search strategy was established using the PRISMA statement to evaluate 30 medicinal plant species starting from 20'000 peer-reviewed articles published in the last 20 years (1994-2014). This strategy led to 418 references (257 in vitro, 84 in vivo and 77 clinical trials, thereof 48 clinical trials in veterinary medicine) to evaluate effects of medicinal plants and their efficacy in detail. The findings indicate that the most promising candidates for gastrointestinal diseases are Allium sativum L., Mentha x piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L.; for diseases of the respiratory tract Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Thymus vulgaris L. and Althea officinalis L. were found most promising, and Echinacea purpurea (L

  1. Respirable antisense oligonucleotides: a new drug class for respiratory disease

    Tanaka Makoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respirable antisense oligonucleotides (RASONs, which attenuate specific disease-associated mRNAs, represent a new class of respiratory therapeutics with considerable potential. RASONs overcome previous obstacles that have impeded the development of antisense therapeutics targeting diseases in other organ systems. RASONs are delivered directly to the target tissue via inhalation; their uptake seems to be enhanced by cationic properties inherent in pulmonary surfactant, and, because of the markedly different target properties of mRNA and proteins, they can have very long durations of effect compared with traditional drugs targeting the protein of the same gene. RASONs contain chemical modifications that decrease their degradation by cellular nucleases. However, total insensitivity to nucleases is probably not an optimal design criterion for RASONs, because moderate nuclease sensitivity can prevent their systemic delivery, decreasing the potential for systemic toxicity. EPI-2010 is a 21-mer phosphorothioate RASON that attenuates bronchoconstriction, inflammation and surfactant depletion in preclinical models of human asthma, has a duration of effect of seven days, and seems to undergo minimal systemic delivery.

  2. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs

  3. The Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Kidney Disease In An HIV Infected Cohort In Puerto Rico

    Mayor, Angel M.; Dworkin, Mark; Quesada, Luis; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nephropathy in HIV-infected patients has been associated with progression to AIDS and death. The virus, several co-morbid conditions and certain medications may contribute to the development and progression of kidney disease. Methods This study analyzed data collected from HIV-infected persons enrolled in a HIV registry in Puerto Rico during January 1998 through September 2006. Demographic factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings at enrollment, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescriptions were compared between patients with and without kidney disease. Death status and cause of death by December 2006 were also evaluated and compared. Results The study included 1,283 subjects, 69.0% male, 39.7% injecting drug users, 19.5% hepatitis C infected, 6.5% with diabetes mellitus (DM-II), 11.6% had hypertension (HTN) and 9.0% had kidney disease. Patients with kidney disease had significantly higher (pPuerto Ricans HIV-infected patients with nephropathy. Kidney disease preventive strategies that include aggressive control of HIV-infection and chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are recommend as an approach to reduce this health disparity. PMID:20521408

  4. Locoregional symptoms in patients with de novo metastatic prostate cancer: Morbidity, management, and disease outcome.

    Patrikidou, Anna; Brureau, Laurent; Casenave, Julien; Albiges, Laurence; Di Palma, Mario; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Baumert, Hervé; Blanchard, Pierre; Bossi, Alberto; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Massard, Christophe; Fizazi, Karim; Blanchet, Pascal; Loriot, Yohann

    2015-05-01

    The paradigm change observed over the last few years in several solid tumors emphasizes the value of locoregional treatment in the presence of metastatic disease, currently ignored in de novo prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the effect of the primary tumor that is left untreated on prostate cancer-specific morbidity and mortality, time to castration resistance, and overall survival (OS). We performed a bicentric cohort study. The overall population included de novo metastatic CaP managed at the Genito-Urinary Oncology Unit of the Gustave Roussy Institute and the Urology Clinic of the University Hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre, France. Descriptive statistical and outcome analyses were performed in the overall cohort and also separately in the N+M0 and M+subgroups. The overall cohort included 263 patients. Approximately two-thirds of patients (64%) presented with locoregional symptoms at diagnosis, and 78% throughout the disease. Of the symptomatic patients, 59% required a locoregional procedure. Median OS of patients with locoregional symptoms at diagnosis was shorter than in those who were asymptomatic (47 vs. 86 mo, P = 0.0007); this difference was maintained in the N+M0 and M+subgroups. Median OS and time to castration resistance showed a nonsignificant trend in favor of patients undergoing a locoregional treatment at diagnosis. The presence of symptoms due to locoregional disease in de novo metastatic CaP entails significant morbidity and even mortality and requires active management. Randomized prospective trials are needed to evaluate the role of initial definite locoregional treatment in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatic chemerin mRNA in morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Kajor, Maciej; Kukla, Michał; Waluga, Marek; Liszka, Łukasz; Dyaczyński, Michał; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Żądło, Dominika; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Chapuła, Mateusz; Kostrząb-Zdebel, Anna; Bułdak, Rafał J; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Hartleb, Marek

    The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic chemerin mRNA, serum chemerin concentration, and immunohistochemical staining for chemerin and and chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1) in hepatic tissue in 56 morbidly obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to search for a relationship with metabolic and histopathological features. Chemerin mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, chemerin, and CMKLR1 immunohistochemical expression with specific antibodies, while serum chemerin concentration was assessed with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum chemerin concentration reached 874.1 ±234.6 ng/ml. There was no difference in serum chemerin levels between patients with BMI steatosis, and definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver chemerin mRNA was observed in all included patients and was markedly, but insignificantly, higher in those with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, hepatocyte ballooning, greater extent of steatosis, and definite NASH. Hepatic chemerin mRNA might be a predictor of hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and NAFLD activity score (NAS) but seemed not to be a primary driver regulating liver necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis. The lack of association between serum chemerin and hepatic chemerin mRNA may suggest that adipose tissue but not the liver is the main source of chemerin in morbidly obese women.

  6. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions.

    Hendryx, Michael; Zullig, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N=235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14-1.30), angina or CHD (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  7. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  8. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: The Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study

    Dong, Guang-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Qian, Zhengmin, E-mail: zqian2@slu.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Wang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Ma, Wenjun [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510300 (China); Chen, Weiqing [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Xaverius, Pamela K.; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Ray, Asheesh [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110014 (China); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Chang, Jen-Jen [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of residential home characteristics and home environmental risk factors on respiratory diseases in Chinese women. Therefore, this study sought to determine the association between residential home features, domestic pets, home renovation and other indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory health outcomes of Chinese women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a study sample of 30,780 Chinese women aged 23 to 49 from 25 districts of seven cities in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Information on respiratory health, residential characteristics, and indoor air pollution sources was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: The odds of respiratory diseases were higher for those who lived near the main road, or near ambient air pollution sources. Pet-keeping was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.09–1.81) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.18–3.64). Additionally, humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.07–1.94). Home renovation in recent 2 years was associated with increased likelihood of allergic rhinitis (POR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.17–1.64). Conclusion: Home renovation and residential home environmental risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese women. - Highlights: • Relatively few significant associations were observed. • Pet ownership was associated with increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis. • Home renovation was associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis in women. • Humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis in women.

  9. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: The Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Chen, Weiqing; Xaverius, Pamela K.; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Ray, Asheesh; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Emo, Brett; Chang, Jen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of residential home characteristics and home environmental risk factors on respiratory diseases in Chinese women. Therefore, this study sought to determine the association between residential home features, domestic pets, home renovation and other indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory health outcomes of Chinese women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a study sample of 30,780 Chinese women aged 23 to 49 from 25 districts of seven cities in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Information on respiratory health, residential characteristics, and indoor air pollution sources was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: The odds of respiratory diseases were higher for those who lived near the main road, or near ambient air pollution sources. Pet-keeping was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.09–1.81) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.18–3.64). Additionally, humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.07–1.94). Home renovation in recent 2 years was associated with increased likelihood of allergic rhinitis (POR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.17–1.64). Conclusion: Home renovation and residential home environmental risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese women. - Highlights: • Relatively few significant associations were observed. • Pet ownership was associated with increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis. • Home renovation was associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis in women. • Humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis in women

  10. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic antibodies: A new era in the treatment of respiratory diseases?

    Sécher, T; Guilleminault, L; Reckamp, K; Amanam, I; Plantier, L; Heuzé-Vourc'h, N

    2018-05-04

    Respiratory diseases affect millions of people worldwide, and account for significant levels of disability and mortality. The treatment of lung cancer and asthma with therapeutic antibodies (Abs) is a breakthrough that opens up new paradigms for the management of respiratory diseases. Antibodies are becoming increasingly important in respiratory medicine; dozens of Abs have received marketing approval, and many more are currently in clinical development. Most of these Abs target asthma, lung cancer and respiratory infections, while very few target chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - one of the most common non-communicable causes of death - and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we review Abs approved for or in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory diseases. We notably highlight their molecular mechanisms, strengths, and likely future trends. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory disease in hospitalized adult patients in a tertiary care center].

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; González-Cruz, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    Severe periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process associated with systemic diseases. To determine the prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory diseases among hospitalized patients at the Institute of Respiratory Diseases "Ismael Cosio Villegas" (INER) in 2011. A cross-sectional study was developed. The severe periodontal disease was diagnosed by the Department of Stomatology. The International Classification of Diseases 10th revision was used. A multinomial logistic was fit to estimate relative-risk. Three thousand and fifty-nine patients were included; 772/3,059 (25.2%) had severe periodontal disease. After controlling for age, sex, inpatient days, death, and socioeconomic status, the infectious respiratory diseases that were significantly associated with severe periodontal disease were: HIV/AIDS (RR: 10.6; 95% CI: 9.1-23.3; p abscess (RR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6-7.8; p = 0.002). Lung cancer and pleural diseases were also significantly associated with severe periodontal disease. High prevalence of severe periodontal disease was observed in the different respiratory diseases. Severe periodontal disease was associated with both infectious and non-infectious respiratory diseases. It is important to study an oral health intervention.

  13. Two-stage Bayesian model to evaluate the effect of air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases using drug prescriptions.

    Blangiardo, Marta; Finazzi, Francesco; Cameletti, Michela

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollutant concentration is known to be associated with respiratory problems which can translate into higher morbidity and mortality rates. The link between air pollution and population health has mainly been assessed considering air quality and hospitalisation or mortality data. However, this approach limits the analysis to individuals characterised by severe conditions. In this paper we evaluate the link between air pollution and respiratory diseases using general practice drug prescriptions for chronic respiratory diseases, which allow to draw conclusions based on the general population. We propose a two-stage statistical approach: in the first stage we specify a space-time model to estimate the monthly NO2 concentration integrating several data sources characterised by different spatio-temporal resolution; in the second stage we link the concentration to the β2-agonists prescribed monthly by general practices in England and we model the prescription rates through a small area approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MORBIDITY RATE OF RETARDEDNESS AND CNS ORGANIC DISEASES AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE BRYANSK REGION BORN AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dynamics of morbidity rate of oligophrenia and CNS organic diseases for the population born in the Bryansk region after the Chernobyl accident. Two regions were taken for the detailed analysis: contaminated - Novozybkov and not contaminated - Zhukov. 518 patient medical records were analyzed in the contaminated region and 359 ones in not contaminated. It is revealed that morbidity indicators for the radioactive contaminated territories are significantly higher than for the not contaminated territories.

  15. Compliance with therapy in children with respiratory diseases.

    Schöni, M H; Horak, E; Nikolaizik, W H

    1995-01-01

    Compliance with medical treatment was evaluated in 89 children and adolescents with respiratory diseases using two methods of assessment: a double blinded covert recording of the use of an air compressor for nebulization of drugs and the determination of theophylline levels in serum. In the covert monitoring of inhalation the overall compliance with the prescribed medication was 47.6%. In the open randomized theophylline trial, 56%-71% of the patients (according to uncontrolled or controlled intake of the drug) received a dosage of theophylline which was too low to achieve a sufficient serum level in the range of 10-20 mg/l. This, however, was also due to the fact that in 72% of the cases physicians prescribed doses which were substantially below the recommended amount of drug according to age and weight. It is, therefore, concluded that compliance of medication is based on the patients adherence to the medication, to the efficacy of the drug itself and the attitude of the physician.

  16. Ebola virus disease: Effects of respiratory protection on healthcare workers

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa sends an alarming message to all countries in the world, to increase the level of coordination and application of preventive measures globally to avoid a disastrous epidemic in the World, as the current situation in West Africa is critical especially after the World Health Organization increased the alarming level to an emergency in public health all over the world. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are important because they can readily spread within a hospital or mortuary setting, there is no effective cure or vaccine, they have a high mortality rate and they are difficult to recognize and diagnose rapidly. WHO has recommended respiratory protection for HCWs performing certain tasks such as aerosol-generating procedures, laboratory procedures, and autopsies. Particulate respirators are designed to help reduce the wearer’s exposure to certain airborne particles. The most effective way to block aerosolized particles is to use either a half-face or a full-face respirator. HCWs still need shoe covers, a full face respirator and latex or nitrile gloves to decrease the risk of Ebola virus contamination.

  17. Skin ulcers related to chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical findings and associated morbidity.

    Jachiet, M; de Masson, A; Peffault de Latour, R; Rybojad, M; Robin, M; Bourhis, J-H; Xhaard, A; Dhedin, N; Sicre de Fontbrune, F; Suarez, F; Barete, S; Parquet, N; Nguyen, S; Ades, L; Rubio, M-T; Wittnebel, S; Bagot, M; Socié, G; Bouaziz, J-D

    2014-07-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health classification of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), skin ulcers after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are recorded as having the maximal severity score but published data are scarce. To describe skin ulcers related to cGVHD with an emphasis on clinical findings, associated morbidity, management and evolution. A multicentre retrospective analysis was carried out of patients with a diagnosis of cGVHD skin ulcers. All 25 patients included in the study had sclerotic skin cGVHD and 21 had lichenoid skin lesions associated with the sclerotic skin lesions. Thirteen patients had severe cGVHD without considering the skin, because of the involvement of an extracutaneous organ by cGVHD. The median time from HSCT to the onset of ulcers was 44 months. In addition to scleroderma, initial skin lesions at the site of ulcers were bullous erosive lichen in 21 patients and bullous erosive morphoea in four patients. Fifteen patients had an inaugural oedema. Ulcers were mostly bilateral with a predilection for the lower limbs. They were frequently colonized but few infections occurred. Four patients died during a median follow-up period of 55 months. Chronic graft-versus-host disease skin ulcers occur in patients with sclerodermatous skin cGVHD, are associated with severe cGVHD, often start with bullous lichenoid lesions or bullous morphoea and seem to cause more morbidity than mortality, given the low rate of mortality observed in our series of patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Plasma cytokine expression is associated with cardiac morbidity in chagas disease.

    Giovane Rodrigo Sousa

    Full Text Available The expression of immune response appears to be associated with morbidity in Chagas disease. However, the studies in this field have usually employed small samples of patients and statistical analyses that do not consider the wide dispersion of cytokine production observed in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma cytokine levels in well-defined clinical polar groups of chagasic patients divided into categories that better reflect the wide cytokine profile and its relationship with morbidity. Patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi were grouped as indeterminate (IND and cardiac (CARD forms ranging from 23 to 69 years of age (mean of 45.6±11.25. The IND group included 82 individuals, ranging from 24 to 66 years of age (mean of 39.6±10.3. The CARD group included 94 patients ranging from 23 to 69 years of age (mean of 48±12.52 presenting dilated cardiomyopathy. None of the patients have undergone chemotherapeutic treatment, nor had been previously treated for T. cruzi infection. Healthy non-chagasic individuals, ranging from 29 to 55 years of age (mean of 42.6±8.8 were included as a control group (NI. IND patients have a higher intensity of interleukin 10 (IL-10 expression when compared with individuals in the other groups. By contrast, inflammatory cytokine expression, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, proved to be the highest in the CARD group. Correlation analysis showed that higher IL-10 expression was associated with better cardiac function, as determined by left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular diastolic diameter values. Altogether, these findings reinforce the concept that a fine balance between regulatory and inflammatory cytokines represents a key element in the establishment of distinct forms of chronic Chagas disease.

  19. Co-morbidity and polypharmacy in Parkinson's disease: insights from a large Scottish primary care database.

    McLean, Gary; Hindle, John V; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease is complicated by comorbidity and polypharmacy, but the extent and patterns of these are unclear. We describe comorbidity and polypharmacy in patients with and without Parkinson's disease across 31 other physical, and seven mental health conditions. We analysed primary health-care data on 510,502 adults aged 55 and over. We generated standardised prevalence rates by age-groups, gender, and neighbourhood deprivation, then calculated age, sex and deprivation adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for those with PD compared to those without, for the prevalence, and number of conditions. Two thousand six hundred forty (0.5%) had Parkinson's disease, of whom only 7.4% had no other conditions compared with 22.9% of controls (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.43, 95% 0.38-0.49). The Parkinson's group had more conditions, with the biggest difference found for seven or more conditions (PD 12.1% vs. controls 3.9%; aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.84-2.35). 12 of the 31 physical conditions and five of the seven mental health conditions were significantly more prevalent in the PD group. 44.5% with Parkinson's disease were on five to nine repeat prescriptions compared to 24.5% of controls (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.53) and 19.2% on ten or more compared to 6.2% of controls (aOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.15). Parkinson's disease is associated with substantial physical and mental co-morbidity. Polypharmacy is also a significant issue due to the complex nature of the disease and associated treatments.

  20. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DUE TO AIDS: A STUDY OF BURDEN OF DISEASE AT A MUNICIPAL LEVEL

    Jane DA SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of measuring the burden of disease involves aggregating morbidity and mortality components into a single indicator, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY, to measure how much and how people live and suffer the impact of a disease. Objective: To estimate the global burden of disease due to AIDS in a municipality of southern Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was conducted in 2009 to examine the incidence and AIDS-related deaths among the population residing in the city of Tubarao, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data from the Mortality Information System in the National Health System was used to calculate the years of life lost (YLL due to premature mortality. The calculation was based on the difference between a standardized life expectancy and age at death, with a discount rate of 3% per year. Data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases were used to calculate the years lived with disability (YLD. The DALY was estimated by the sum of YLL and YLD. Indicator rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants, distributed by age and gender. Results: A total of 131 records were examined, and a 572.5 DALYs were estimated, which generated a rate of 593.1 DALYs/100,000 inhabitants. The rate among men amounted to 780.7 DALYs/100,000, whereas among women the rate was 417.1 DALYs/100,000. The most affected age groups were 30-44 years for men and 60-69 years for women. Conclusion: The burden of disease due to AIDS in the city of Tubarao was relatively high when considering the global trend. The mortality component accounted for more than 90% of the burden of disease.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  3. Study Design and Interim Outcomes of Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease COPD Biobank.

    Lu, Wenju; Zheng, Zeguang; Chen, Xindong; Tan, Hui; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zili; Zheng, Jinping; Chen, Rongchang; Zhang, Chenting; Xu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yuqin; Yang, Quan; Xiong, Mingmei; Guo, Meihua; Zhou, Qipeng; Tang, Chun; Wang, Yingfeng; Ye, Jinmei; Li, Defu; Shu, Jiaze; Tan, Shu; Xu, Chuyi; Wang, Yan; Lai, Ning; Yang, Kai; Lu, Jiachun; Ran, Pixin; Zhong, Nanshan

    2016-01-01

    GIRD COPD Biobank is a multicenter observational study blood-based database with local characteristics, in order to investigate the causes, risk factors, pathogenesis, prevalence patterns and trends of COPD and promote new pathogenic insights in China. We enrolled 855 clinically COPD patients and 660 controls with normal lung function. Extensive data collection has been undertaken with questionnaires, clinical measurements, and collection and storage of blood specimens, following Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). All surveys had similar quality controls, supervisions, and training of the investigator team. Since September 2010, a total of 1515 subjects (1116 [73.7%] males; 855 [56.4%] diagnosed with COPD) were enrolled. Analyses of the design and interim results of the GIRD COPD Biobank Study identified patients with COPD were older, lower educational level, a longer history of pack-year smoking, less in kitchen fan usage, X-ray exposure, and history of disease (P < 0.01 for all); Most of the COPD subjects belonged to moderately severe or worse, stratified according to Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI); COPD patients had relatively more co-morbidities than controls; Environmental hazard exposures might be the main contributors to the reported respiratory symptoms; Cold air, haze, and influenza acted the top three factors to induce respiratory symptoms in both COPD cases and controls. The GIRD COPD Biobank Study has the potential to provide substantial novel insights into the genetics, biomarkers, environmental and lifestyle aspects of COPD. It is expected to provide new insights for pathogenesis and the long-term progression of COPD.

  4. Pattern of respiratory diseases in children presenting to the paediatric emergency unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu: a case series report.

    Oguonu, Tagbo; Adaeze Ayuk, Chikaodinaka; Edelu, Benedict Onyeka; Ndu, Ikenna Kingsley

    2014-06-10

    Respiratory diseases are one of the causes of childhood morbidity and mortality as well as hospitalization globally. The patterns of different respiratory illnesses in several parts of the world have been reported but there are few on the combined burden of the diseases. Determination of the burden of respiratory diseases as a group will help ascertain their collective impact on the health systems in order to develop intervention measures. Data from case notes of children with respiratory diseases admitted to the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria over a six year period were extracted. Age, gender, admission rates, types of respiratory illness, duration of admission, season of presentation and outcome were analysed. Descriptive and inferential (Chi square) statistics were used to describe the various disease types and ascertain association of the disease outcome, seasonal pattern with the types of diseases. Of the total of 8974 children admissions, 2214 (24.7%) were due to respiratory diseases. The mean age of all the children with respiratory diseases was 3.3 years (SD 3.9). Communicable diseases were the common cause of admission cases throughout the seasons, p < 0.001. The highest admission rates were for pneumonia, (34.0%), acute bronchial asthma, (27.7%) and rhinosinusitis (14.6%) p < 0.001. The frequency of respiratory disease decreases with age and children less than five years of age and of low socio-economic status were commonly affected, p=0.01. The median duration of hospital stay was two days [range 1 to 8 days], children less than five years old and those of low socio-economic status, spent more than four days (p=0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The all-cause mortality was 0.5% (11/2214) of which 81.8% (9/11) was due to pneumonia. Respiratory diseases constitute a significant burden of childhood illnesses in our centre. Efforts are required to reduce the impact as part of the steps towards the achievement of the Millennium

  5. Stimulation of Respiratory Motor Output and Ventilation in a Murine Model of Pompe Disease by Ampakines.

    ElMallah, Mai K; Pagliardini, Silvia; Turner, Sara M; Cerreta, Anthony J; Falk, Darin J; Byrne, Barry J; Greer, John J; Fuller, David D

    2015-09-01

    Pompe disease results from a mutation in the acid α-glucosidase gene leading to lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory insufficiency is common, and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment, enzyme replacement, has limited effectiveness. Ampakines are drugs that enhance α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor responses and can increase respiratory motor drive. Recent work indicates that respiratory motor drive can be blunted in Pompe disease, and thus pharmacologic stimulation of breathing may be beneficial. Using a murine Pompe model with the most severe clinical genotype (the Gaa(-/-) mouse), our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that ampakines can stimulate respiratory motor output and increase ventilation. Our second objective was to confirm that neuropathology was present in Pompe mouse medullary respiratory control neurons. The impact of ampakine CX717 on breathing was determined via phrenic and hypoglossal nerve recordings in anesthetized mice and whole-body plethysmography in unanesthetized mice. The medulla was examined using standard histological methods coupled with immunochemical markers of respiratory control neurons. Ampakine CX717 robustly increased phrenic and hypoglossal inspiratory bursting and reduced respiratory cycle variability in anesthetized Pompe mice, and it increased inspiratory tidal volume in unanesthetized Pompe mice. CX717 did not significantly alter these variables in wild-type mice. Medullary respiratory neurons showed extensive histopathology in Pompe mice. Ampakines stimulate respiratory neuromotor output and ventilation in Pompe mice, and therefore they have potential as an adjunctive therapy in Pompe disease.

  6. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan

    Santus Pierachille; Russo Antonio; Madonini Enzo; Allegra Luigi; Blasi Francesco; Centanni Stefano; Miadonna Antonio; Schiraldi Gianfranco; Amaducci Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. Methods We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association bet...

  7. The role of the local microbial ecosystem in respiratory health and disease.

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2015-08-19

    Respiratory tract infections are a major global health concern, accounting for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young children and elderly individuals. Traditionally, highly common bacterial respiratory tract infections, including otitis media and pneumonia, were thought to be caused by a limited number of pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. However, these pathogens are also frequently observed commensal residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) and form-together with harmless commensal bacteria, viruses and fungi-intricate ecological networks, collectively known as the 'microbiome'. Analogous to the gut microbiome, the respiratory microbiome at equilibrium is thought to be beneficial to the host by priming the immune system and providing colonization resistance, while an imbalanced ecosystem might predispose to bacterial overgrowth and development of respiratory infections. We postulate that specific ecological perturbations of the bacterial communities in the URT can occur in response to various lifestyle or environmental effectors, leading to diminished colonization resistance, loss of containment of newly acquired or resident pathogens, preluding bacterial overgrowth, ultimately resulting in local or systemic bacterial infections. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding niche-specific upper respiratory microbiota profiles within human hosts and the changes occurring within these profiles that are associated with respiratory infections. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Polyomavirus from Nasal Swabs of Pigs with Respiratory Disease.

    Hause, Ben M; Smith, Catherine; Bishop, Brian; Stewart, Chelsea; Simonson, Randy

    2018-04-26

    Metagenomic sequencing of pooled nasal swabs from pigs with unexplained respiratory disease identified a large number of reads mapping to a previously uncharacterized porcine polyomavirus. Sus scrofa polyomavirus 2 was most closely related to betapolyomaviruses frequently detected in mammalian respiratory samples. Copyright © 2018 Hause et al.

  9. PROGRAM RATIONALE OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION IN CHILDREN WITH FREQUENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    A. V. Deryusheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex clinical and laboratory examination of 146 children aged 2—3 years attending kindergarten were presented. The leading predictors of frequent respiratory disease: disturbance of microbiocenosis oropharyngeal mucosa, immunoglobulins decrease, respiratory allergic pathology were established and scientifically substantiated. The results obtained prove the main directions of therapeutic and preventive measures.

  10. Resource allocation and the burden of co-morbidities among patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a leading cause of mortality, and associated with increased healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. In several countries, morbidity-based systems have changed the way resources are allocated in general practice. In primary care, fee......-for-services tariffs are often based on political negotiation rather than costing systems. The potential for comprehensive measures of patient morbidity to explain variation in negotiated expenditures for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has not previously been examined. The aim of this study...... is to analyze fee-for-service expenditure of patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease visiting Danish general practice clinics and further to assess what proportion of fee-for-service expenditure variation was explained by patient morbidity and general practice clinic characteristics...

  11. Mortality from Respiratory Diseases Associated with Opium Use – A Population Based Cohort Study

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharavi, Samad; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results During the follow-up period 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 95% CI; 3.13 (2.42-4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61-5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. never use (Ptrendopium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18-3.25) and 3.71 (2.76-4.96), respectively. Conclusion Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID:27885167

  12. [Study of etiologic factors of infectious diseases of respiratory tract in school-age children during period of remission of a respiratory disease].

    Maĭorov, R V; Chereshneva, M V; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Detect features of microflora of upper respiratory tract on the example of flora of palatine tonsils and level of antibodies against intracellular parasites as markers of etiologic factors of respiratory infections in school-age children in remission period. 466 children from frequently and episodically ill groups were examined. Bacteriologic study of smears from the surface of palatine tonsils was carried out in all the children. By using EIA with the corresponding commercial test systems IgG level against Herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human respiratory syncytial virus was determined in blood sera according to instruction manual. During remission period of infectious process in the structure of microflora of upper respiratory tract in frequently ill children characteristic differences from their episodically ill peers were detected. In children with frequent respiratory infections a higher occurrence of antibodies against intracellular causative agents of these diseases was also detected. In the group of frequently ill, a direct correlation between frequency of infectious diseases of respiratory tract and occurrence of carriage of pathogenic and opportunistic microorgan isms as well as increase of antibodies against Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus, C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae was detected. Higher occurrence ofintra- and extra-cellular infectious agents as well as their associations may be considered as one of the reasons of insufficient effectiveness of prophylaxis measures in frequently ill children.

  13. Exonic variants associated with development of aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases.

    Seung-Woo Shin

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD is one phenotype of asthma, often occurring in the form of a severe and sudden attack. Due to the time-consuming nature and difficulty of oral aspirin challenge (OAC for AERD diagnosis, non-invasive biomarkers have been sought. The aim of this study was to identify AERD-associated exonic SNPs and examine the diagnostic potential of a combination of these candidate SNPs to predict AERD. DNA from 165 AERD patients, 397 subjects with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, and 398 normal controls were subjected to an Exome BeadChip assay containing 240K SNPs. 1,023 models (210-1 were generated from combinations of the top 10 SNPs, selected by the p-values in association with AERD. The area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves was calculated for each model. SNP Function Portal and PolyPhen-2 were used to validate the functional significance of candidate SNPs. An exonic SNP, exm537513 in HLA-DPB1, showed the lowest p-value (p = 3.40×10-8 in its association with AERD risk. From the top 10 SNPs, a combination model of 7 SNPs (exm537513, exm83523, exm1884673, exm538564, exm2264237, exm396794, and exm791954 showed the best AUC of 0.75 (asymptotic p-value of 7.94×10-21, with 34% sensitivity and 93% specificity to discriminate AERD from ATA. Amino acid changes due to exm83523 in CHIA were predicted to be "probably damaging" to the structure and function of the protein, with a high score of '1'. A combination model of seven SNPs may provide a useful, non-invasive genetic marker combination for predicting AERD.

  14. Integrating co-morbid depression and chronic physical disease management: identifying and resolving failures in self-regulation.

    Detweiler-Bedell, Jerusha B; Friedman, Michael A; Leventhal, Howard; Miller, Ivan W; Leventhal, Elaine A

    2008-12-01

    Research suggests that treatments for depression among individuals with chronic physical disease do not improve disease outcomes significantly, and chronic disease management programs do not necessarily improve mood. For individuals experiencing co-morbid depression and chronic physical disease, demands on the self-regulation system are compounded, leading to a rapid depletion of self-regulatory resources. Because disease and depression management are not integrated, patients lack the understanding needed to prioritize self-regulatory goals in a way that makes disease and depression management synergistic. A framework in which the management of co-morbidity is considered alongside the management of either condition alone offers benefits to researchers and practitioners and may help improve clinical outcomes.

  15. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans: Mental Health Diagnoses are Associated with Respiratory Disease Diagnoses.

    Slatore, Christopher G; Falvo, Michael J; Nugent, Shannon; Carlson, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    Many veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have concomitant respiratory conditions and mental health conditions. We wanted to evaluate the association of mental health diagnoses with respiratory disease diagnoses among post-deployment veterans. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans who were discharged from the military or otherwise became eligible to receive Veterans Health Administration services. The primary exposure was receipt of a mental health diagnosis and the primary outcome was receipt of a respiratory diagnosis as recorded in the electronic health record. We used multivariable adjusted logistic regression to measure the associations of mental health diagnoses with respiratory diagnoses and conducted several analyses exploring the timing of the diagnoses. Among 182,338 post-deployment veterans, 14% were diagnosed with a respiratory condition, 77% of whom had a concomitant mental health diagnosis. The incidence rates were 5,363/100,000 person-years (p-y), 587/100,000 p-y, 1,450/100,000 p-y, and 233/100,000 p-y for any respiratory disease diagnosis, bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive lung disease diagnoses, respectively, after the date of first Veterans Health Administration utilization. Any mental health diagnosis was associated with increased odds for any respiratory diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.37-1.46). The association of mental health diagnoses and subsequent respiratory disease diagnoses was stronger and more consistent than the converse. Many Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans are diagnosed with both respiratory and mental illnesses. Comprehensive plans that include care coordination with mental health professionals and treatments for mental illnesses may be important for many veterans with respiratory diseases.

  16. Contrasting patterns of hot spell effects on morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases in the Czech Republic, 1994–2009

    Hanzlíková, Hana; Plavcová, Eva; Kynčl, J.; Kříž, B.; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2015), s. 1673-1684 ISSN 0020-7128 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1985 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hot spells * cardiovascular disease * cerebrovascular disease * ischaemic heart disease * mortality * morbidity * Central Europe Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00484-015-0974-1

  17. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, pdisease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  18. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Karla Kristine Dames da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm as well as values for the inspiration (Zi and expiration cycles (Ze at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi and expiration (Zbe, respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p90%. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2 this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3 the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. FEATURES OF THE MICROBIOME OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    A. V. Shabaldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the metagenome of the upper respiratory tract in children showed the presence of five major bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Were revealed population differences in the distribution of weights of the above listed phyla, but subject to the dominance of the Firmicutes. Proved the role of environmental factors and time of year for representation in these biotopes of the phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Recurrent respiratory infections, hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring, secretory middle ear infections in children is associated with carriage of Haemophilus (H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, Gemella (G. haemolysans, G. morbillorum, G. sanguinis, Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. intermedius, S. agalactiae. 

  20. High rates of respiratory symptoms and airway disease in mental health inpatients in a tertiary centre.

    Burke, Andrew J; Hay, Karen; Chadwick, Alex; Siskind, Dan; Sheridan, Judith

    2018-04-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have a lower life expectancy due in part to a higher prevalence of cardiac and metabolic disease. Less is known of the prevalence of respiratory disease in this group. This cross-sectional, observational study aimed to assess the prevalence of symptoms associated with respiratory disease in patients admitted to an inpatient mental health unit. A convenience sample of 82 inpatients had a structured interview and questionnaire completed. The questionnaire included self-reported diagnoses of common diseases and screening questions designed to detect respiratory disease and sleep disordered breathing. Targeted spirometry was performed on the basis of symptoms and smoking status. Patients reported high rates of respiratory symptoms, including wheezing (38%) and dyspnoea (44%); 52% of patients reported daily tobacco use. Productive cough was significantly associated with tobacco use (P disease (COPD) of whom six did not have a formal diagnosis of COPD previously. People with SMI have high rates of respiratory symptoms with a high prevalence of COPD on spirometry. Half of the COPD cases were not previously diagnosed, suggesting a hidden burden of respiratory disease in patients with SMI. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  2. Mortality from respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associations with environmental quality.

    Respiratory infections (RI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been identified by the World Health Organization as conditions which may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. We examined the associations between environmental quality and U.S. county m...

  3. [Detection of respiratory tract diseases among rural population during the team-work mass screening].

    Abramson, E Z; Galkin, V B; Stepanova, G Ia

    1990-01-01

    A screening complex for the examination of the rural population has been worked out to detect bronchopulmonary pathology and form groups of risk for respiratory diseases. The complex of methods included compulsory questionnaires and ++fluoro-functional examination, spirometry if indicated and bacterial tests. Out of 1, 131 persons examined, 328 were found to have respiratory diseases. Chronic non-specific respiratory diseases were detected in 103 subjects, including 62 of them having obstructive bronchitis. A risk group developing chronic non-specific respiratory diseases, including 202 persons with disturbed ventilation activity of the lungs, post-tuberculous inadequate changes and other pathology. Pulmonary tuberculosis was registered in 7 subjects. The given data indicate the necessity of a complex examination of the population.

  4. Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.

    Bowler, Russell P; Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A A; Santorico, Stephanie A; Make, Barry J; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John E; Washko, George R; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J Michael; Hersh, Craig P; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K; van Beek, Edwin J R; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD.

  5. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  6. Current possibilities of anti-inflammatory therapy in children with acute respiratory diseases

    E. E. Lokshina; O. V. Zaytseva

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives an update on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory diseases, the basis for which is inflammation of the airway mucosal lining. It reflects the results of a comparative clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride used in the combination therapy for respiratory diseases in children. The findings allow one to recommend the use of fenspiride to treat this condition in children.

  7. Current possibilities of anti-inflammatory therapy in children with acute respiratory diseases

    E. E. Lokshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an update on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory diseases, the basis for which is inflammation of the airway mucosal lining. It reflects the results of a comparative clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride used in the combination therapy for respiratory diseases in children. The findings allow one to recommend the use of fenspiride to treat this condition in children.

  8. Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats

    Lappin, M. R.; Blondeau, J.; Boothe, D.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available...... veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats....

  9. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  10. A study on a relationship between prevalence of respiratory disease and air pollution in two areas

    五島,正規

    2000-01-01

    There have been many studies on the relationship between prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease and air pollution. This study was conducted by organized efforts of a regional medical association. Every member of the association reported the numbers of patients with respiratory diseases such as asthmatic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and bronchial asthma, and the total number of patients who consulted him/her. The former report was conducted in K city, and this study was of the Y ar...

  11. Statistical Methodological Issues in Studies of Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease.

    Hyndman, R.J.; Erbas, B.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown short term associations between levels of air pollution and respiratory disease in countries of diverse populations, geographical locations and varying levels of air pollution and climate. The aims of this paper are: (1) to assess the sensitivity of the observed pollution effects to model specification, with particular emphasis on the inclusion of seasonally adjusted covariates; and (2) to study the effect of air pollution on respiratory disease...

  12. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  13. Differential susceptibility according to gender in the association between air pollution and mortality from respiratory diseases

    Oliveira,Marcio Sacramento de; Leon,Antônio Ponce de; Mattos,Inês Echenique; Koifman,Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the association between air pollution and deaths from respiratory diseases, considering differential susceptibility according to gender. The authors used daily deaths from respiratory diseases (ICD-10, J00-J99), PM10, SO2, and O3 levels, and meteorological indicators in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2006. The association was estimated by Poisson regression using generalized additive models, where the increase in risk of deaths f...

  14. Burden of Respiratory Disease in Korea: An Observational Study on Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, COPD, and Rhinosinusitis.

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ahn, Hae Ryun; Park, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Jong Woong; Nam, Gui Hyun; Hong, Soon Kwan; Kim, Mee Ja; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Lin, Horng Chyuan; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Baidya, Santwona; Wang, De Yun; Cho, Sang Heon

    2016-11-01

    The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study is a cross-sectional, observational one which has used a standard protocol to examine the disease and economic burden of allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and rhinosinusitis across the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we report on symptoms, healthcare resource use, work impairment, and associated costs in Korea. Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants and their treating physician completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, healthcare resource use, and work productivity and activity impairment. Costs included direct medical cost and indirect cost associated with lost work productivity. The study enrolled 999 patients. Patients were often diagnosed with multiple respiratory disorders (42.8%), with asthma/AR and AR/rhinosinusitis the most frequently diagnosed combinations. Cough or coughing up phlegm was the primary reason for the medical visit in patients with a primary diagnosis of asthma and COPD, whereas nasal symptoms (watery runny nose, blocked nose, and congestion) were the main reasons in those with AR and rhinosinusitis. The mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US$8,853 (SD 11,245) per patient. Lost productivity due to presenteeism was the biggest contributor to costs. Respiratory disease has a significant impact on disease burden in Korea. Treatment strategies for preventing lost work productivity could greatly reduce the economic burden of respiratory disease.

  15. Sarcopenia is a Predictor of Surgical Morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Pedersen, Mark; Cromwell, John; Nau, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of operative morbidity and mortality. The impact of sarcopenia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been evaluated. This study assessed the role of sarcopenia on operative outcomes in IBD. A retrospective review of American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data of patients with IBD was completed. Records were abstracted for comorbidities and perioperative complications. The Hounsfield unit average calculation was used from preoperative computed tomography (CT). Criteria for sarcopenia were based on the lowest 25th percentile. Complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Statistical analysis was completed using SAS. There were 178 patients included. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be older (P = 0.001), have hypertension (odds ratio = 2.23), and be diabetic (5.27). In those patients younger than 40 years, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of complications. This subset was significantly more likely to have a normal or elevated body mass index. In this population, the average age of sarcopenic patients is increased from those who do not meet criteria. Among patients younger than 40 years, sarcopenia affects surgical outcomes. Assessment of sarcopenia can be used to improve preoperative management and describe risks before surgery in patients with IBD.

  16. Wearable technology: role in respiratory health and disease.

    Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In the future, diagnostic devices will be able to monitor a patient's physiological or biochemical parameters continuously, under natural physiological conditions and in any environment through wearable biomedical sensors. Together with apps that capture and interpret data, and integrated enterprise and cloud data repositories, the networks of wearable devices and body area networks will constitute the healthcare's Internet of Things. In this review, four main areas of interest for respiratory healthcare are described: pulse oximetry, pulmonary ventilation, activity tracking and air quality assessment. Although several issues still need to be solved, smart wearable technologies will provide unique opportunities for the future or personalised respiratory medicine.

  17. Modern features of infants’ feeding and its impact on respiratory diseases

    Duka K.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of infants’ feeding connected with the incidence of respiratory diseases. Rationality and duration of breast feeding does not cause doubts. But unfortunately today, only 60-80% of children under the age of 6 months are exclusively breastfed. Naturally, this causes impact on disease incidence of such children. Formation of bronchopulmonary pathology is of particular interest. The basis of modern research is the concept of programmed impact of nutrition in early childhood on health in lateryears. We have determined the dependence of respiratory diseases incidence in children of early age on duration of exclusively breast feeding. Not only frequent respiratory diseases, but formation of bronchitis, pneumonia or other complications of their course is of importance. The study included questioning of mothers and children under 7 years of age, clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations in the hospital in case of respiratory disease. All studies were conducted in accordance with the characteristics of diet quality of the child in the first year of life with the following biostatistical processing. 601 children aged from 3 months to 7 years were examined. It was found that the duration of breast feeding in the region is 89% only to the age of 6-months, and up to 1 year the percentage of breastfed children reduces to 38%. This affected the resistance of children to respiratory infections, especially in the first year of life. Children exclusively breastfed up to 1 year suffer from respiratory diseases 1-2 times per year. In children over one year of age breast feeding does not affect the frequency of respiratory pathology. Increase of respiratory diseases frequency in children aged 3-5 years is due to attending preschool institutions and increasing contacts between children, which significantly reduces their resistance.

  18. Sleep apnoea in Australian men: disease burden, co-morbidities, and correlates from the Australian longitudinal study on male health

    Chamara Visanka Senaratna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common disorder with under-rated clinical impact, which is increasingly being recognised as having a major bearing on global disease burden. Men are especially vulnerable and become a priority group for preventative interventions. However, there is limited information on prevalence of the condition in Australia, its co-morbidities, and potential risk factors. Methods We used data from 13,423 adult men included in the baseline wave of Ten to Men, an Australian national study of the health of males, assembled using stratified cluster sampling with oversampling from rural and regional areas. Those aged 18–55 years self-completed a paper-based questionnaire that included a question regarding health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea, physical and mental health status, and health-related behaviours. Sampling weights were used to account for the sampling design when reporting the prevalence estimates. Odds ratios were used to describe the association between health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea and potential correlates while adjusting for age, country of birth, and body-mass index (BMI. Results Prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea increased from 2.2 % in age 18–25 years to 7.8 % in the age 45–55 years. Compared with those without sleep apnoea, those with sleep apnoea had significantly poorer physical, mental, and self-rated health as well as lower subjective wellbeing and poorer concentration/remembering (p < 0.001 for all. Sleep apnoea was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.001, unemployment (p < 0.001, asthma (p = 0.011, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (p = 0.002, diabetes (p < 0.001, hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.001, hypertension (p < 0.001, heart attack (p < 0.001, heart failure (p < 0.001, angina (p < 0.001, depression (p < 0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder (p

  19. 76 FR 30366 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2011...

  20. Morbidity associated with heparin therapy in spinal surgery patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Sawakami, Kimihiko; Ishikawa, Seiichi; Ito, Takui

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate morbidity associated with heparin therapy in spinal surgery patients. The management of patients on anticoagulant therapy who undergo spinal surgery is becoming a common clinical problem. Although guidelines for the management of gastrointestinal endoscopy patients on heparin therapy have been published, spinal surgery may lead to specific complications, especially because of heparin therapy. However, only few studies have examined the clinical significance of heparin therapy in spinal surgery patients. The subjects of this study were 116 consecutive patients who were on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. This says that all of the patients were receiving heparin or another anticoagunt. The patients were divided into 2 groups: a group that received heparin therapy before and after surgery (H group, n=25) and a group that did not receive heparin therapy (NH group, n=91). The results of clinical examinations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the 2 groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in baseline data. Comorbidities in both groups included valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation, angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, and cerebral infarction. Mean intraoperative and postoperative blood loss in the H group were 324 ml and 536 ml, respectively, and the corresponding values in the NH group were 431 ml and 449 ml, respectively. MRI of all patients was performed within 10 days after surgery and T2-weighted images in the axial plane were examined for evidence of an epidural hematoma. Although the proportion of patients with an epidural hematoma, detected by MRI was higher in the H group than in the NH group (71% vs. 64%), none of the patients in either group required revision surgery because of intolerable pain or muscle weakness. Thrombocytopenia and skin necrosis were observed as complications of the heparin therapy in 1 patient in the H group (4%). The rate of

  1. Morbidity from ischemic heart disease in workers at a stainless steel welding factory

    Bjørn Hilt

    2009-10-01

    sensitivityand a high specificity for the outcome variables “chest pain on exercise” and “angina pectoris”, whilefor “myocardial infarction” both the sensitivity and the specificity of the answers given were high.To investigate whether there was an increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases (CVDamong welders and other workers at a stainless steel welding factory, and, if so, to see whether morbiditycould be linked to specific exposure factors.

  2. Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease

    Erles, Kerstin; Toomey, Crista; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2003-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease was carried out in a large rehoming kennel. Tissue samples taken from the respiratory tract of diseased dogs were tested for the presence of coronaviruses using RT-PCR with conserved primers for the polymerase gene. Sequence analysis of four positive samples showed the presence of a coronavirus with high similarity to both bovine and human coronavirus (strain OC43) in their polymerase and spike genes, whereas there was a low similarity to comparable genes in the enteric canine coronavirus. This canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) was detected by RT-PCR in 32/119 tracheal and 20/119 lung samples, with the highest prevalence being detected in dogs with mild clinical symptoms. Serological analysis showed that the presence of antibodies against CRCV on the day of entry into the kennel decreased the risk of developing respiratory disease

  3. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease

    Pedersen, N. E.; Rasmussen, L. S.; Petersen, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. METHODS: In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused...... and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. CONCLUSION: Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent......BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override...

  4. Air pollution and hospitalization for respiratory diseases among ...

    Results: The result of statistical modeling using gener-alized linear Poisson regression showed that PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations had statistically significant positive association with number of respira-tory admissions of children. Conclusion: This study confirms the findings of previ-ous studies about the ...

  5. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  6. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens.

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and asthma, are common diseases with a prevalence of 30-40% worldwide and are thus of great global public health importance. Allergic inflammation may influence the immunity against infections, so atopic individuals could be susceptible to respiratory infections. No previous population-based study has addressed the relation between atopy and respiratory infections in adulthood. We assessed the relation between atopic disease, specific IgE antibodies and the occurrence of upper and lower respiratory infections in the past 12 months among working-aged adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1008 atopic and non-atopic adults 21-63 years old was conducted. Information on atopic diseases, allergy tests and respiratory infections was collected by a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens were measured in serum. Adults with atopic disease had a significantly increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI; including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted risk ratio (RR 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 3.52 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted RR 1.55 (1.14, 2.10. The risk of LRTIs increased with increasing level of specific IgE (linear trend P = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that working-aged adults with atopic disease experience significantly more LRTIs and URTIs than non-atopics. The occurrence of respiratory infections increased with increasing levels of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens, showing a dose-response pattern with LRTIs. From the clinical point of view it is important to recognize that those with atopies are a risk group for respiratory infections, including more severe LRTIs.

  7. Lower Frequency of co-Morbid Medical Disorders Related to Poor Impulse Control in Parkinson's than Alzheimer's Disease.

    Saito, Erin K; Diaz, Natalie; Morrow, Julia; Chung, Julia; McMurtray, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with progressive degeneration of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons that are involved in reward-based behavior learning, including rewarding effects of food consumption and drugs of abuse. The importance of this pathway in development of addictive behaviors led us to hypothesize that medical disorders related to poor impulse control may occur less frequently among patients with Parkinson's disease than those with other progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients treated for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease in a community based clinic during a two-year period. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) estimated from logistic regression models, adjusted for differences in gender distribution between the groups. A total of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease and 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease were included. Patients with Parkinson's disease were less likely to have either past substance use (adjusted OR = 0.035, 95% CI = 0.009 - 0.130) or presence of co-morbid medical conditions related to poor dietary choices (adjusted OR = 0.157, 95% CI = 0.062 - 0.397). Co-morbid medical conditions related to poor impulse control occur less frequently among those with Parkinson's disease than those with Alzheimer's disease. These findings are consistent with dysfunction of dopamine dependent pathways involved in addiction during the presymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease and support a biological basis for addiction.

  8. Leptospirosis disease mapping with standardized morbidity ratio and Poisson-Gamma model: An analysis of Leptospirosis disease in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Che Awang, Aznida; Azah Samat, Nor

    2017-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a disease caused by the infection of pathogenic species from the genus of Leptospira. Human can be infected by the leptospirosis from direct or indirect exposure to the urine of infected animals. The excretion of urine from the animal host that carries pathogenic Leptospira causes the soil or water to be contaminated. Therefore, people can become infected when they are exposed to contaminated soil and water by cut on the skin as well as open wound. It also can enter the human body by mucous membrane such nose, eyes and mouth, for example by splashing contaminated water or urine into the eyes or swallowing contaminated water or food. Currently, there is no vaccine available for the prevention or treatment of leptospirosis disease but this disease can be treated if it is diagnosed early to avoid any complication. The disease risk mapping is important in a way to control and prevention of disease. Using a good choice of statistical model will produce a good disease risk map. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the relative risk for leptospirosis disease based initially on the most common statistic used in disease mapping called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) and Poisson-gamma model. This paper begins by providing a review of the SMR method and Poisson-gamma model, which we then applied to leptospirosis data of Kelantan, Malaysia. Both results are displayed and compared using graph, tables and maps. The result shows that the second method Poisson-gamma model produces better relative risk estimates compared to the SMR method. This is because the Poisson-gamma model can overcome the drawback of SMR where the relative risk will become zero when there is no observed leptospirosis case in certain regions. However, the Poisson-gamma model also faced problems where the covariate adjustment for this model is difficult and no possibility for allowing spatial correlation between risks in neighbouring areas. The problems of this model have

  9. Respiratory Home Health Care

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  10. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    Maasoumeh Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS, pollutant standards index (PSI measurements, and remote Sensing (RS technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  11. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009.

    Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Ramesht, Mohammad Hossein; Zohary, Moein; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Rashidi, Zeinab; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2013-12-01

    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  12. Intelligent postoperative morbidity prediction of heart disease using artificial intelligence techniques.

    Hsieh, Nan-Chen; Hung, Lun-Ping; Shih, Chun-Che; Keh, Huan-Chao; Chan, Chien-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an advanced minimally invasive surgical technology that is helpful for reducing patients' recovery time, postoperative morbidity and mortality. This study proposes an ensemble model to predict postoperative morbidity after EVAR. The ensemble model was developed using a training set of consecutive patients who underwent EVAR between 2000 and 2009. All data required for prediction modeling, including patient demographics, preoperative, co-morbidities, and complication as outcome variables, was collected prospectively and entered into a clinical database. A discretization approach was used to categorize numerical values into informative feature space. Then, the Bayesian network (BN), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM) were adopted as base models, and stacking combined multiple models. The research outcomes consisted of an ensemble model to predict postoperative morbidity after EVAR, the occurrence of postoperative complications prospectively recorded, and the causal effect knowledge by BNs with Markov blanket concept.

  13. Progress in Vaccine-Preventable and Respiratory Infectious Diseases-First 10 Years of the CDC National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, 2006-2015.

    Schuchat, Anne; Anderson, Larry J; Rodewald, Lance E; Cox, Nancy J; Hajjeh, Rana; Pallansch, Mark A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Jernigan, Daniel B; Wharton, Melinda

    2018-07-01

    The need for closer linkages between scientific and programmatic areas focused on addressing vaccine-preventable and acute respiratory infections led to establishment of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During its first 10 years (2006-2015), NCIRD worked with partners to improve preparedness and response to pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory infections, provide an evidence base for addition of 7 newly recommended vaccines, and modernize vaccine distribution. Clinical tools were developed for improved conversations with parents, which helped sustain childhood immunization as a social norm. Coverage increased for vaccines to protect adolescents against pertussis, meningococcal meningitis, and human papillomavirus-associated cancers. NCIRD programs supported outbreak response for new respiratory pathogens and oversaw response of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Other national public health institutes might also find closer linkages between epidemiology, laboratory, and immunization programs useful.

  14. Morbidity Profile and Seasonal Variation of Diseases in a Primary Health Center in Kanpur District: A Tool for the Health Planners

    Ranjeeta Kumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the morbidity profile of patients being treated at the Primary Health Center, their distribution according to gender, and the seasonal trend of diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was done retrospectively using secondary data, over a period of 1 year from June 2007 to July 2008, at the OPD of the Primary Health Center at Patara in Kanpur District, India. The study was aimed to study the pattern of diseases according to the classification provided by the Government of India. The data were collected from the OPD registers of the consultant medical officer, and the diagnosis was classified into communicable diseases, nutritional and metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, obstetric complications, and other diseases including injuries. Results: A total of 6838 patients had been treated at the OPD, which included 2707 males and 4131 females. It was observed that, while communicable diseases constituted about half of the total burden of the diseases with skin infections being the commonest; the non-communicable diseases constituted about one-fifth of the total disease burden. Significant gender differences were evident in the prevalence of certain diseases such as worm infestation, acute respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, reproductive tract infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastritis, arthritis/gout, falls/injuries/fractures, anemia, pyrexia of unknown origin, and snake bite. Most of the diseases were observed to have a seasonal variation, with the communicable and infectious diseases peaking in the monsoon months. Surprisingly, the non-communicable diseases such as gastritis and falls and injuries also showed a seasonal variation. Conclusion: Many diseases have a seasonal variation and the burden of these diseases could be reduced if we devise measures to detect the changes in their trend through the implementation of surveillance programs in this part

  15. Infectious respiratory disease outbreaks and pregnancy: occupational health and safety concerns of Canadian nurses.

    Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.

  16. Respiratory muscle function and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

    Charususin, Noppawan; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Von Leupoldt, Andreas; Reijnders, Thomas; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Langer, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and contributes to dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Improving dynamic function of respiratory muscles during exercise might help to reduce symptoms and improve exercise capacity. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to 1) summarize physiological mechanisms linking respiratory muscle dysfunction to dyspnea and exercise limitation; 2) provide an overview of available therapeutic approaches to better maintain load-capacity balance of respiratory muscles during exercise; and 3) to summarize current knowledge on potential mechanisms explaining effects of interventions aimed at optimizing dynamic respiratory muscle function with a special focus on inspiratory muscle training. Expert commentary: Several mechanisms which are potentially linking improvements in dynamic respiratory muscle function to symptomatic and functional benefits have not been studied so far in COPD patients. Examples of underexplored areas include the study of neural processes related to the relief of acute dyspnea and the competition between respiratory and peripheral muscles for limited energy supplies during exercise. Novel methodologies are available to non-invasively study these mechanisms. Better insights into the consequences of dynamic respiratory muscle dysfunction will hopefully contribute to further refine and individualize therapeutic approaches in patients with COPD.

  17. Noninvasive Respiratory Management of Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Bach, John R

    2017-08-01

    This review article describes definitive noninvasive respiratory management of respiratory muscle dysfunction to eliminate need to resort to tracheotomy. In 2010 clinicians from 22 centers in 18 countries reported 1,623 spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis users of noninvasive ventilatory support (NVS) of whom 760 required it continuously (CNVS). The CNVS sustained their lives by over 3,000 patient-years without resort to indwelling tracheostomy tubes. These centers have now extubated at least 74 consecutive ventilator unweanable patients with DMD, over 95% of CNVS-dependent patients with SMA1, and hundreds of others with advanced neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) without resort to tracheotomy. Two centers reported a 99% success rate at extubating 258 ventilator unweanable patients without resort to tracheotomy. Patients with myopathic or lower motor neuron disorders can be managed noninvasively by up to CNVS, indefinitely, despite having little or no measurable vital capacity, with the use of physical medicine respiratory muscle aids. Ventilator-dependent patients can be decannulated of their tracheostomy tubes.

  18. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    GI Skoufi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  19. Quality of Care for Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases: Data for Accreditation Plan in Primary Healthcare.

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena

    There are scarce reports in the literature on factors affecting the assessment of the quality of care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Such information is relevant in the accreditation process on implementing the healthcare. The study group consisted of 133 adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases and 125 adult patients with chronic non-respiratory diseases. In the present study, the level of satisfaction from healthcare provided by the primary healthcare unit, disease acceptance, quality of life, health behaviors, and met needs were examined, as well as associations between variables with the use of correspondence analysis. The results are that in patients with chronic respiratory diseases an increase in satisfaction depends on the improvement of well-being in the mental sphere. The lack of problems with obtaining a referral to a specialist and a higher level of fulfilled needs also have a positive effect. Additionally, low levels of satisfaction should be expected in those patients with chronic respiratory diseases who wait for an appointment in front of the office for a long time, report problems with obtaining a referral to additional tests, present a low level of health behaviors, and have a low index of benefits.

  20. Occupational risk factors for chronic respiratory disease in a New Zealand population using lifetime occupational history.

    Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Poole, Suzanne; Zock, Jan-Paul; Weatherall, Mark; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Travers, Justin; Beasley, Richard

    2014-03-01

    To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire information, including a lifetime occupational history. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with self-reported exposure to hairdressing, paint manufacturing, insecticides, welding, detergents and with ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix-assessed gases/fumes exposure. The strongest association was for hairdressing (odds ratio 6.91; 95% confidence interval: 2.02 to 23.70). Cumulative exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher FEV₁% (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) predicted. Analyses were limited by relatively small numbers of cases. Increased risks of objectively defined respiratory disease, which have been previously documented, were not seen. Nevertheless, the study suggested increased risk of respiratory symptoms with various occupational exposures as well as likely healthy worker effect.

  1. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...

  2. Association between air pollution and general practitioner visits for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong

    Wong, TW; Tam, W; Wun, YT; Wong, CM; Yu, ITS; Wong, AHS

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the relation between air pollution and general practitioner (GP) consultations in Asia. Clinic attendance data from a network of GPs were studied, and the relationship between daily GP consultations for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and non-URTI respiratory diseases and daily air pollutant concentrations measured in their respective districts was examined. Methods: A time series study was performed in 2000-2002 using data on daily patient cons...

  3. Mortality from respiratory diseases associated with opium use: a population-based cohort study.

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharravi, Abdolsamad; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50 045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. During the follow-up period, 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to non-malignant aetiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted HR 95% CI 3.13 (2.42 to 4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61 to 5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use versus never use (P trend respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18 to 3.25) and 3.71 (2.76 to 4.96), respectively. Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Chronic respiratory disease, inhaled corticosteroids and risk of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis.

    Andréjak, Claire; Nielsen, Rikke; Thomsen, Vibeke Ø; Duhaut, Pierre; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2013-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increase the risk of pneumonia. Few data are available on the association of these risk factors with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. This study examined chronic respiratory diseases and ICS use as risk factors in a population-based case-control study encompassing all adults in Denmark with microbiologically confirmed NTM pulmonary disease between 1997 and 2008. The study included 10 matched population controls per case. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute adjusted ORs for NTM pulmonary disease with regard to chronic respiratory disease history. Overall, chronic respiratory disease was associated with a 16.5-fold (95% CI 12.2 to 22.2) increased risk of NTM pulmonary disease. The adjusted OR for NTM disease was 15.7 (95% CI 11.4 to 21.5) for COPD, 7.8 (95% CI 5.2 to 11.6) for asthma, 9.8 (95% CI 2.03 to 52.8) for pneumoconiosis, 187.5 (95% CI 24.8 to 1417.4) for bronchiectasis, and 178.3 (95% CI 55.4 to 574.3) for tuberculosis history. ORs were 29.1 (95% CI 13.3 to 63.8) for patients with COPD on current ICS therapy and 7.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 16.8) for patients with COPD who had never received ICS therapy. Among patients with COPD, ORs increased according to ICS dose, from 28.1 for low-dose intake to 47.5 for high-dose intake (more than 800 μg/day). The OR was higher for fluticasone than for budesonide. Chronic respiratory disease, particularly COPD treated with ICS therapy, is a strong risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease.

  5. Morbimortalidade em doença falciforme Morbidity-mortality in sickle cell disease

    Paulo Roberto Juliano Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A alta morbimortalidade referida na doença falciforme (DF levou-nos a estudar o perfil epidemiológico e respectivas intercorrências clínicas dos pacientes atendidos no Hemocentro Regional (HR e Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade (HC-U, de 1998 a 2007. Estudo retrospectivo de 151 pacientes, avaliados quanto a: idade, gênero, cor da pele, procedência, diagnóstico, causa de atendimento no HR, causa e tempo de internação no HC-U e a causa e a idade em caso de óbito. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva simples. A média de idade foi de 17,7 anos, 52,4% eram do gênero feminino, 58,2% procediam da cidade de Uberaba e em 92,2% dos prontuários não foram encontrados relatos sobre a cor da pele. A anemia falciforme representou 82,5% dos casos. Dos 910 atendimentos no HR e 589 internações no HC-U, a crise dolorosa afebril foi a causa mais frequente em ambas as instituições (61,9% e 25,3%, respectivamente. A idade média dos 11 óbitos foi de 33,5 anos, sendo apenas um em menor de 10 anos e a falência de múltiplos órgãos a causa mais frequente. O perfil epidemiológico mostra predomínio de crianças e adultos jovens, sexo feminino e genótipo SS. As taxas de internação no HC-U, de atendimento no HR e a baixa média de idade ao óbito confirmam a alta morbidade e mortalidade da DF. Contudo, o grande número de crianças sem intercorrências e/ou internações reflete a eficácia das medidas preventivas propiciadas pelo diagnóstico precoce implantado nos últimos 10 anos.The high morbidity-mortality rates in sickle cell disease (SCD led us to study the epidemiological profile and respective clinical complications of patients seen at a Regional Blood Center (HR and a University Clinical Hospital (HC-U between 1998 and 2007. In a retrospective study, 151 patients were evaluated regarding age, gender, skin color, origin, diagnosis, reason of visit to HR or reason and length of stay in the HC-U, and cause and age in cases of

  6. Clinical Characteristic and Outcome of Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Krystle Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (ALRTI is the leading cause of deaths in children under 5 years of age worldwide, and has high morbidity and mortality in children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD. The objective of this study was to obtain the incidence, clinical characteristic, and outcome of ALRTI children with CHD. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted from January 2007–December 2011 to medical record of child patients with ALRTI and CHD in the Department of Child Health of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung. The diagnosis of CHD was determined by echocardiography. The collected data was analyzed and presented in percentage shown in tables. Results : From 3,897 children who had ALRTI, there were 149 children with CHD (3.8%, with 11.4% of whom founded with recurrent episodes. This happened often in girls than boys with quite similar ratio of 1.37: 1.The majority of children (80% was under 1 year old of age, 72.5% with malnutrition, and 24.8% with severe malnutrition. Clinical symptoms mostly found were difficulty of breathing (98%, fever (85.2%, cough (75.2%, and runny nose (63.1%. The most common types of CHD were Patent Ductus Arteriosus (47.6%, followed by Ventricular Septal Defect (47%. Bronchopneumonia (86.6% was the common type of ALRTI. The length of stay was mostly less than 10 days (70.5%. From all the children 43.7% had complications, and 6.7% died. Conclusions: The ALRTI in children with CHD is not common and has good outcome. The majority for CHD lesions are Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Ventricular Septal Defect while for ALRTI is Bronchopneumonia.

  7. Detection of canine pneumovirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward J; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-12-01

    Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relationship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Within the pet dog population, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall estimated seroprevalence of 50% (n = 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n = 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n = 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P respiratory disease than those that did not seroconvert (P respiratory disease than immunologically naive dogs (P respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratory disease compared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P disease prevention strategy.

  8. Canadian Practice Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Respiratory Specialist Physician Perception Versus Patient Reality

    Paul Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common respiratory condition and the fourth leading cause of death in Canada. Optimal COPD management requires patients to participate in their care and physician knowledge of patients’ perceptions of their disease.

  9. The Association Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis : A Systematic Review

    San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; Helder, Herman M.; Lindeman, Robbert-Jan S.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: Antireflux therapy is incorporated in many treatment protocols for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) because gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) is thought to worsen the disease course of RRP. It is unclear if GERD really aggravates the disease course. The aims of this

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and respiratory disease in children

    Shazia, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is: to identify any possible relationship between recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and GER, to identify any possible relationship between asthma and GER, to determine the prevalence of GER in children suffering from RLRTI and bronchial asthma, and to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of different GER diagnostic modalities. Thirty children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and bronchial asthma were evaluated for possible presence of the GER. Radionuclide gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed in all these 30 patients (age range 6 months - 10 years). Patients also underwent ultrasonography and/or barium swallow or fluoroscopy on separate day. Patients were grouped according to presenting coinplaints and investigative modalities. Group A was the patients of RLRTI, which underwent GER scintigraphy, barium studies and ultrasonography. Group B patients were patients with bronchial asthma who underwent all 3 investigations. Group C was patients with RLRTI who under went GER scintigraphy and barium studies only. Patients with bronchial asthma who underwent barium studies and GER scintigraphy were included in group D. Group E and F were patients with RLRTI and bronchial asthma who underwent ultrasonography and GER scintigraphy only respectively. For each group, reflux index was calculated in all positive patients. GER reflux of varying degrees was observed in 20 % patients. The severity of the clinical symptoms was directly proportional to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux index was positively correlating with clinical symptoms as well. When compared with other investigative modalities employed GER scintigraphy was found to be more superior in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Objective assessment of gastroesophageal reflux with the help of GER scintigraphy is feasible and is superior to other modalities and it should be employed much more frequently as an initial investigative procedure

  11. Beyond Critical Congenital Heart Disease: Newborn Screening Using Pulse Oximetry for Neonatal Sepsis and Respiratory Diseases in a Middle-Income Country.

    Jawin, Vida; Ang, Hak-Lee; Omar, Asma; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Studies on pulse oximetry screening for neonatal sepsis and respiratory disease in a middle-income country are lacking. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry is an effective and life-saving strategy in developed countries. While most studies have reported false-positive results during CCHD screening, they have not elaborated on the detected disease types. We studied the effectiveness and outcomes of pulse oximetry newborn screening for non-cardiac hypoxemic diseases such as neonatal sepsis, respiratory diseases, and CCHD in a middle-income country. In a pilot study performed at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, all apparently healthy term newborns, delivered at UMMC were screened pre-discharge using pulse oximetry. Echocardiography was performed for newborns that had positive screening results on two separate occasions, 1-h apart. Newborns with normal echocardiograms were evaluated and treated for other non-cardiac diseases. Fifteen of 5247 term newborns had positive screening results. The median age at screening was 20 h. Thirteen newborns (0.24%) had significant non-cardiac diseases: sepsis (n = 2) and respiratory diseases (n = 11) that required hospitalization and treatment. The remaining two newborns with normal antenatal ultrasonograms had positive screening test and confirmed to have CCHD. Another 18 newborns with negative screening test were later admitted for treatment of sepsis (n = 16) and penumonia (n = 2). All newborns were treated and alive at the end of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of pulse oximetry screening for non-cardiac diseases were 42% and 99.9% respectively, and 100% and 99.7% for CCHD, respectively. Routine pulse oximetry screening test was effective in identifying newborns with CCHD and other hypoxemia illnesses, which may led to potential life-threatening condition. This study showed that the expanded use of pulse oximetry has immediate implications for low

  12. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Gemma Aragonès

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS and steatohepatitis (NASH cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients.We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30 and morbidly obese women (n = 97 with or without NAFLD.We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis.These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH.

  13. Advances in Remote Respiratory Assessments for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Baroi, Sidney; McNamara, Renae J; McKenzie, David K; Gandevia, Simon; Brodie, Matthew A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality. Advances in remote technologies and telemedicine provide new ways to monitor respiratory function and improve chronic disease management. However, telemedicine does not always include remote respiratory assessments, and the current state of knowledge for people with COPD has not been evaluated. Systematically review the use of remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD, including the following questions: What devices have been used? Can acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) be predicted by using remote devices? Do remote respiratory assessments improve health-related outcomes? The review protocol was registered (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049333). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COMPENDEX databases were searched for studies that included remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD. A narrative synthesis was then conducted by two reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Forced expiratory volume assessed daily by using a spirometer was the most common modality. Other measurements included resting respiratory rate, respiratory sounds, and end-tidal carbon dioxide level. Remote assessments had high user satisfaction. Benefits included early detection of AECOPD, improved health-related outcomes, and the ability to replace hospital care with a virtual ward. Remote respiratory assessments are feasible and when combined with sufficient organizational backup can improve health-related outcomes in some but not all cohorts. Future research should focus on the early detection, intervention, and rehabilitation for AECOPD in high-risk people who have limited access to best care and investigate continuous as well as intermittent monitoring.

  14. Association between polymorphic markers of IL-10 gene and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children living under technogenic pressure

    Lyudmila Borisovna Masnavieva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of infant morbidity. Disturbances of functioning of the immune system play an important role in their development. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a key regulator of the immune response. Mononucleotide substitutions at positions (-1082, (-819 and (-592 of IL-10 gene results in low level of the protein production. Our purpose was to study the associations between polymorphic markers of IL-10 gene and chronic respiratory diseases in children living under conditions of anthropogenic pressure. 189 adolescents living in a city with high levels of air pollution and 82 from a city with a moderate level of contamination were examined. Children with chronic upper airway pathology in remission were identified. Blood samples from all children were tested for allelic variants -1082G / A, -592C / A, -819C / T of IL-10 gene in. Analysis of associations between polymorphic variants and the presence of chronic respiratory diseases was conducted. The -592C allele of IL-10 gene was less common among children with chronic diseases of the respiratory tract living in conditions of moderate air pollution than in the healthy comparison group. Similar association has not been established in thr group of children living in conditions of high air pollution. Thus, the C allele of the polymorphic -592C/A locus marks resistance to the development of a chronic disease of the upper respiratory tract in children living in conditions of moderate air pollution, while in conditions of high level of pollution contribution of genetic factors in its development is leveled.

  15. In-hospital Mortality due to Respiratory Diseases in the Provincial Hospital of Cienfuegos. 2010-2014

    Liuva Leyva Rodríguez; Orlando Morera Álvarez; Daylin Madruga Jiménez; Heidy Caridad Cordero Cabrera; Reinaldo José Pino Blanco

    2016-01-01

    Background: in-hospital mortality is a health indicator commonly used as a measure of quality of care. Respiratory diseases are a major cause of deaths in hospitals. Objective: to describe mortality from respiratory diseases at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive study of all patients over 18 years old who died from respiratory diseases in the hospital of Cienfuegos from 2010 to 2014 was conducted. The variables analyzed were: age,...

  16. Epidemiological estimates of Respiratory diseases in the hospital population, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Tayyaba Sultana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A cross sectional study was conducted in two types of respiratory patients in hospital population. It was found that tuberculosis (T.B was the most common type (29.66% followed by the asthma (28.08% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (11.31%. Average age of diagnosis was 42.15 ± 0.65 years and average age at present 47.99 ± 0.70 years. Age group 51-60 years was more prone to this disease (21.13%. Most of the patients were married (80.06%. The highest representation of patients with respiratory diseases was observed in 1st birth order (30.36% followed by 2nd (26.49% and 3rd (18.45%, while the lowest was in 10th birth order (0.40%. Tuberculosis, asthma and COPD are the most prevalent types of respiratory diseases. Respiratory diseases were more common in males, in first birth order and in people of age group 51-60 years. This disease was more common in married, unemployed, less educated, and lower socioeconomic status people. Socioeconomic status and urban and rural living had a profound effect on the onset of disease.

  17. Association between daily mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and air pollution in Taiwan.

    Liang, Wen-Miin; Wei, Hsing-Yu; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the effects of air pollutants on disease and mortality. However, the results remain inconsistent and inconclusive. We thought that the impact of different seasons or ages of people may explain these differences. Measurement of the five pollutants (particulate matter or =65 group). Data on daily mortality caused by respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and all other causes including the two aforementioned was collected by the Taiwan Department of Health (DOH). A time-series regression model was used to analyze the relative risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases due to air pollution in the summer and winter seasons. Risk of death from all causes and mortality from cardiovascular diseases during winter was significantly positively correlated with levels of SO(2), CO, and NO(2) for both groups of subjects and additionally with PM(10) for the elderly (> or =65 years old) group. There were significant positive correlations with respiratory diseases and levels of O(3) for both groups. However, the only significant positive correlation was with O(3) (RR=1.283) for the elderly group during summer. No other parameters showed significance for either group. Our findings contribute to the evidence of an association between SO(2), CO, NO(2), and PM(10) and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, especially among elderly people during the winter season.

  18. Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study.

    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan Krishna; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala Devi

    2014-10-23

    Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study is a three year longitudinal population based study. Here we present the baseline survey report which aims to investigate various risk factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal. This baseline survey is a population based cross sectional study. The investigation was conducted in a district from each of the following regions: Terai, Hill and Mountain. The Village Development Committees (VDCs) from each district were selected by random sampling. Three Community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular signs in children. They conducted a house to house survey in their respected districts examining the children and gathering a standardized set of data variables. Children with abnormal vision or ocular signs were then further examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10950 children aged 0-10 years (5403 from Terai, 3204 from the hills, 2343 from the mountains) were enrolled in the study. However 681 (6.2%) were non responders. The male to female ratio was 1.03. The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was 3.7% (95% CI of 3.4%-4%) and blindness was 0.07% (95% CI of 0.02%-0.12%). Ocular morbidity was more prevalent in the mountain region whereas blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region.Children from the Terai region were more likely to suffer from congenital ocular anomalies compared to the other regions. Children whose mother smoked, drank alcohol, or was illiterate were significantly afflicted with ocular diseases (p Blindness was more prevalent in children who suffered from a systemic illness. Females and under-nourished children were more likely to have ocular morbidity and blindness. It was found that childhood blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region, the undernourished, females and in those with co-morbid systemic illnesses. This study strongly suggests that prevention of childhood

  19. Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold

    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks, a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada. Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections, residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics. Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1% showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6–34.7, asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1–25.8 and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7–21.2. After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01–1.55 and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37–2.11, but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85–1.36. Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01. University students report a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and respiratory infections. A common indoor hazard, residential dampness or mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university

  20. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

    Tatiane Morais Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3 and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0 per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6 per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies.

  1. Disease management for co-morbid depression and anxiety in diabetes mellitus

    Stoop, Corinne H; Spek, Viola R M; Pop, Victor J M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common co-morbid health problems in patients with type 2 diabetes. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor glycaemic control and increased risk of poor vascular outcomes and higher mortality rates. Results of previous studies have shown that in ...

  2. [The genetic component of chronic respiratory diseases in workers of foundry productions].

    Loskutov, D V; Khamitova, R Ya

    Review of the literature shows that currently there is an accumulation of data on the genetic determination of individual susceptibility to adverse industrial factors. Material of the research were high molecular DNA samples isolated from epithelial mouth scrapings in 99 foundry workers. Study of polymorphic variants of interleukin genes was performed by means of the analysis ofproducts of amplification of specific regions of the genome. Homozygous genotype TNF-a (-308A/G) was established to increase the relative risk of shaping of chronic respiratory diseases: with AA alleles - by 6.4 times and GG alleles - by 2.4 times, while the heterozygous genotype (AG) decreases - by 1. 9 times. Polymorphism of gene IL-1β (+3953 T / C) had no significance for the development of respiratory disease. Genotyping interleukins, involved in the inflammatory responses of the bronchopulmonary tract, can be considered as an element ofprimary prevention in industries with a high risk for shaping of respiratory diseases.

  3. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS ...

  4. The epidemiology of noncommunicable respiratory disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and North Africa.

    Ahmed, Rana; Robinson, Ryan; Mortimer, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major and increasing global health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that NCDs represent 63% of all global deaths of which 3.9 million are due to chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in particular. COPD is now the third most common cause of death globally; 90% of these deaths occur in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). COPD affects 329 million people, almost 5% of the world's population. In addition, asthma affects 334 million people, again representing almost 5% of the world's population. There is limited literature published on the epidemiology of COPD and Asthma from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Both diseases are under-diagnosed and underestimated in both SSA and MENA regions. The burden of COPD in sub-Saharan Africa is disputed and reports offer variable prevalence estimates, ranging from 4.1% to almost 22.2%. SSA and MENA countries report similar mortality rates from COPD of 18 per 100,000 population (2001 data). Asthma is a less common cause of death than COPD but is a major cause of morbidity; WHO estimates that there are 250,000 deaths per year from asthma, mainly in LMICs and it remains in the top twenty causes of disability in children globally. Risk factors for CRD are genetic and environmental; the latter dominated by air pollution exposures including tobacco smoke, household air pollution, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures.

  5. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  6. Lost life years due to premature mortality caused by diseases of the respiratory system.

    Maniecka-Bryła, Irena; Paciej-Gołębiowska, Paulina; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Bryła, Marek

    2018-06-04

    In Poland, as in most other European countries, diseases of the respiratory system are the 4th leading cause of mortality; they are responsible for about 8% of all deaths in the European Union (EU) annually. To assess the socio-economic aspects of mortality, it has become increasingly common to apply potential measures rather than conventionally used ratios. The aim of this study was to analyze years of life lost due to premature deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system in Poland from 1999 to 2013. The study was based on a dataset of 5,606,516 records, obtained from the death certificates of Polish residents who died between 1999 and 2013. The information on deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system, i.e., coded as J00-J99 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10), was analyzed. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) indicator was used in the study. In the years 1999-2013, the Polish population suffered 280,519 deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system (4.69% of all deaths). In the period analyzed, a gradual decrease in the standardized death rate was observed - from 46.31 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1999 to 41.02 in 2013. The dominant causes of death were influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47). Diseases of the respiratory system were the cause of 4,474,548.92 lost life years. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per person (SEYLLp) was 104.72 per 10,000 males and 52.85 per 10,000 females. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per death (SEYLLd) for people who died due to diseases of the respiratory system was 17.54 years of life on average for men and 13.65 years on average for women. The use of the SEYLL indicator provided significant information on premature mortality due to diseases of the respiratory system, indicating the fact that they play a large role in the health status of the Polish

  7. Impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases in children with recurrent wheezing or asthma.

    Esposito, Susanna; Galeone, Carlotta; Lelii, Mara; Longhi, Benedetta; Ascolese, Beatrice; Senatore, Laura; Prada, Elisabetta; Montinaro, Valentina; Malerba, Stefano; Patria, Maria Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2014-08-07

    Air pollution has many negative health effects on the general population, especially children, subjects with underlying chronic disease and the elderly. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of traffic-related pollution on the exacerbation of asthma and development of respiratory infections in Italian children suffering from asthma or wheezing compared with healthy subjects and to estimate the association between incremental increases in principal pollutants and the incidence of respiratory symptoms. This prospective study enrolled 777 children aged 2 to 18 years (375 with recurrent wheezing or asthma and 402 healthy subjects). Over 12 months, parents filled out a daily clinical diary to report information about respiratory symptoms, type of medication used and healthcare utilization. Clinical data were combined with the results obtained using an air pollution monitoring system of the five most common pollutants. Among the 329 children with recurrent wheezing or asthma and 364 healthy subjects who completed follow-up, children with recurrent wheezing or asthma reported significantly more days of fever (p=0.005) and cough (ppollution and the development of asthma exacerbations and respiratory infections in children born to atopic parents and in those suffering from recurrent wheezing or asthma. These findings suggest that environmental control may be crucial for respiratory health in children with underlying respiratory disease.

  8. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Involved in Severe Acute Respiratory Disease in Northern Italy during the Pandemic and Postpandemic Period (2009–2011

    Elena Pariani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009 pandemic, international health authorities recommended monitoring severe and complicated cases of respiratory disease, that is, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We evaluated the proportion of SARI/ARDS cases and deaths due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection and the impact of other respiratory viruses during pandemic and postpandemic period (2009–2011 in northern Italy; additionally we searched for unknown viruses in those cases for which diagnosis remained negative. 206 respiratory samples were collected from SARI/ARDS cases and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR/PCR to investigate influenza viruses and other common respiratory pathogens; also, a virus discovery technique (VIDISCA-454 was applied on those samples tested negative to all pathogens. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus was detected in 58.3% of specimens, with a case fatality rate of 11.3%. The impact of other respiratory viruses was 19.4%, and the most commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus/enterovirus and influenza A(H3N2. VIDISCA-454 enabled the identification of one previously undiagnosed measles infection. Nearly 22% of SARI/ARDS cases did not obtain a definite diagnosis. In clinical practice, great efforts should be dedicated to improving the diagnosis of severe respiratory disease; the introduction of innovative molecular technologies, as VIDISCA-454, will certainly help in reducing such “diagnostic gap.”

  9. Air pollution and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: A multi-city case crossover study.

    Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Kousha, Termeh; Castner, Jessica; Dales, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease exacerbations and emergencies. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient air pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory conditions in nine districts across the province of Ontario in Canada. Health, air pollutant (PM 2.5 , NO 2 , O 3 , and SO 2 ), and meteorological data were retrieved from April 2004 to December 2011. Respiratory diseases were categorized as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including bronchiectasis) and acute upper respiratory diseases. A case-crossover design was used to test the associations between ED visits and ambient air pollutants, stratified by sex and season. For COPD among males, positive results were observed for NO 2 with lags of 3-6 days, for PM 2.5 with lags 1-8, and for SO 2 with lags of 4-8 days. For COPD among females, positive results were observed for O 3 with lags 2-4 days, and for SO 2 among lags of 3-6 days. For upper respiratory disease emergencies among males, positive results were observed for NO 2 (lags 5-8 days), for O 3 , (lags 0-6 days), PM 2.5 (all lags), and SO 2 (lag 8), and among females, positive results were observed for NO 2 for lag 8 days, for O 3 , PM 2.5 among all lags. Our study provides evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and increased risk of ED visits for upper and lower respiratory diseases in an environment where air pollutant concentrations are relatively low. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acoustics based assessment of respiratory diseases using GMM classification.

    Mayorga, P; Druzgalski, C; Morelos, R L; Gonzalez, O H; Vidales, J

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present a method utilizing lung sounds for a quantitative assessment of patient health as it relates to respiratory disorders. In order to accomplish this, applicable traditional techniques within the speech processing domain were utilized to evaluate lung sounds obtained with a digital stethoscope. Traditional methods utilized in the evaluation of asthma involve auscultation and spirometry, but utilization of more sensitive electronic stethoscopes, which are currently available, and application of quantitative signal analysis methods offer opportunities of improved diagnosis. In particular we propose an acoustic evaluation methodology based on the Gaussian Mixed Models (GMM) which should assist in broader analysis, identification, and diagnosis of asthma based on the frequency domain analysis of wheezing and crackles.

  11. Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

    Thaís Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD or heart disease (HD. Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively. All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003; smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001; and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001. No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92. Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.

  12. Association between Smokefree Legislation and Hospitalizations for Cardiac, Cerebrovascular and Respiratory Diseases: A Meta-Analysis

    Tan, Crystal E.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Smokefree legislation is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death from these diseases. Methods and Results Random effects meta-analysis was conducted by law comprehensiveness to determine the relationship between smokefree legislation and hospital admission or death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases. Studies were identified using a systematic search for studies published before November 30, 2011 using Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase and references in identified papers. Change in hospital admissions (or deaths) in the presence of a smokefree law, duration of follow-up, and law comprehensiveness (workplaces only; workplaces and restaurants; or workplaces, restaurants, and bars) were recorded. Forty-five studies of 33 smokefree laws with median follow-up of 24 months (range 2–57 months) were included. Comprehensive smokefree legislation was associated with significantly lower rates of hospital admissions (or deaths) for all 4 diagnostic groups: coronary events (RR .848, 95% CI .816–.881), other heart disease (RR .610, 95% CI .440–.847), cerebrovascular accidents (RR .840, 95% CI .753–.936), and respiratory disease (RR .760, 95% CI .682–.846). The difference in risk following comprehensive smokefree laws does not change with longer follow-up. More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk. Conclusions Smokefree legislation was associated with a lower risk of smoking-related cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, with more comprehensive laws associated with greater changes in risk. PMID:23109514

  13. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  14. State of progress in treating cystic fibrosis respiratory disease

    Flume Patrick A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the discovery of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF, there has been tremendous progress in the care of patients with this disease. New therapies have entered the market and are part of the standard treatment of patients with CF, and have been associated with marked improvement in survival. Now there are even more promising therapies directed at different components of the pathophysiology of this disease. In this review, our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of lung disease in patients with CF is described, along with the current treatment of CF lung disease, and the therapies in development that offer great promise to our patients.

  15. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  16. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  17. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  18. Trends and Patterns of Differences in Chronic Respiratory Disease Mortality Among US Counties, 1980-2014.

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W; Morozoff, Chloe; Shirude, Shreya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-09-26

    Chronic respiratory diseases are an important cause of death and disability in the United States. To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by county from chronic respiratory diseases. Validated small area estimation models were applied to deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics and population counts from the US Census Bureau, National Center for Health Statistics, and Human Mortality Database to estimate county-level mortality rates from 1980 to 2014 for chronic respiratory diseases. County of residence. Age-standardized mortality rates by county, year, sex, and cause. A total of 4 616 711 deaths due to chronic respiratory diseases were recorded in the United States from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2014. Nationally, the mortality rate from chronic respiratory diseases increased from 40.8 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 39.8-41.8) deaths per 100 000 population in 1980 to a peak of 55.4 (95% UI, 54.1-56.5) deaths per 100 000 population in 2002 and then declined to 52.9 (95% UI, 51.6-54.4) deaths per 100 000 population in 2014. This overall 29.7% (95% UI, 25.5%-33.8%) increase in chronic respiratory disease mortality from 1980 to 2014 reflected increases in the mortality rate from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by 30.8% [95% UI, 25.2%-39.0%], from 34.5 [95% UI, 33.0-35.5] to 45.1 [95% UI, 43.7-46.9] deaths per 100 000 population), interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis (by 100.5% [95% UI, 5.8%-155.2%], from 2.7 [95% UI, 2.3-4.2] to 5.5 [95% UI, 3.5-6.1] deaths per 100 000 population), and all other chronic respiratory diseases (by 42.3% [95% UI, 32.4%-63.8%], from 0.51 [95% UI, 0.48-0.54] to 0.73 [95% UI, 0.69-0.78] deaths per 100 000 population). There were substantial differences in mortality rates and changes in mortality rates over time among counties, and geographic patterns differed by cause. Counties with the highest mortality rates were found primarily in central Appalachia

  19. Shared early origins of cardiovascular and respiratory development

    Eising, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are often studied separately, but there is growing awareness that these diseases are closely linked. In this thesis we focused on two non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, which form a large contribution of the total morbidity and mortality of

  20. Climate Change and the Impact on Respiratory and Allergic Disease: 2018.

    Demain, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-24

    The purpose of this paper is to review allergic respiratory disease related to indoor and outdoor exposures and to examine the impact of known and projected changes in climate. The global burden of disease directly attributed to climate change is very difficult to measure and becomes more challenging when the capacity of humans to adapt to these changes is taken into consideration. Allergic respiratory disease, such as asthma, is quite heterogenous, though closely associated with environmental and consequently immunologic interaction. Where is the tipping point? Our climate has been measurably changing for the past 100 years. It may indeed be the most significant health threat of the twenty-first century, and consequently tackling climate change may be the greatest health opportunity. The impacts of climate change on human health are varied and coming more into focus. Direct effects, such as heatwaves, severe weather, drought, and flooding, are apparent and frequently in the news. Indirect or secondary effects, such as changes in ecosystems and the impact on health, are less obvious. It is these changes in ecosystems that may have the greatest impact on allergic and respiratory diseases. This review will explore some ways that climate change, current and predicted, influences respiratory disease. Discussion will focus on changing pollen patterns, damp buildings with increased mold exposure, air pollution, and heat stress.

  1. Notes on atmospheric pollution and respiratory diseases in Milan during the winters of 1969-1970-1971

    Alessio, R

    1973-01-01

    Studies on the effects of air pollution on the respiratory tract are reviewed, and an epidemiological survey conducted in Milan, Italy, during the winters of 1969, 1970, and 1971 on 5708 hospitalized patients is presented. In this patient material, bronchopneumopathy accounted for 28 percent. Significant correlation between the respiratory morbidity and the increased air pollution levels, especially the sulfur dioxide and dust concentrations, was established. The reduction of the ambient temperature was accompanied by an increase in the SO/sub 2/ and dust concentrations, and indirectly by a reduction in the rate of recovery of the patients. Studies on the effects of air pollution on the respiratory tract revealed irritation of the respiratory mucosa, bronchial spasms, edema, granulocyte infiltration and sometimes hemorrhge of the bronchial mucosa, hypersecretion, inversion of the direction of fibrillation of the ciliary epithelium, and aggravation of preexisting respiratory affections by SO/sub 2/. Nitrogen oxides, ozone, and automotive exhaust increased the susceptibility of rats to Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  2. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan.

    Santus, Pierachille; Russo, Antonio; Madonini, Enzo; Allegra, Luigi; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano; Miadonna, Antonio; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Amaducci, Sandro

    2012-10-18

    Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between air pollution levels and ERAs for acute respiratory conditions. The effects of air pollutants were investigated at lag 0 to lag 5, lag 0-2 and lag 3-5 in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for daily weather variables. An increase in ozone (O(3)) levels at lag 3-5 was associated with a 78% increase in the number of ERAs for asthma, especially during the warm season. Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) proved to be a risk factor for pneumonia at lag 0-2 and in the warm season increased the risk of ERA by 66%. A significant association was found between ERAs for COPD exacerbation and levels of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), CO, nitrate dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). The multipollutant model that includes all pollutants showed a significant association between CO (26%) and ERA for upper respiratory tract diseases at lag 0-2. For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, only CO (OR 1.19) showed a significant association. Exposure to environmental pollution, even at typical low levels, can increase the risk of ERA for acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of obstructive lung diseases in the general population.

  3. Role of long term antibiotics in chronic respiratory diseases.

    Suresh Babu, K; Kastelik, J; Morjaria, J B

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in the management of respiratory disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD. In those conditions long-term antibiotics can be delivered as nebulised aerosols or administered orally. In CF, nebulised colomycin or tobramycin improve lung function, reduce number of exacerbations and improve quality of life (QoL). Oral antibiotics, such as macrolides, have acquired wide use not only as anti-microbial agents but also due to their anti-inflammatory and pro-kinetic properties. In CF, macrolides such as azithromycin have been shown to improve the lung function and reduce frequency of infective exacerbations. Similarly macrolides have been shown to have some benefits in COPD including reduction in a number of exacerbations. In asthma, macrolides have been reported to improve some subjective parameters, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation; however have no benefits on lung function or overall asthma control. Macrolides have also been used with beneficial effects in less common disorders such as diffuse panbronchiolitis or post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In this review we describe our current knowledge the use of long-term antibiotics in conditions such as CF, non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD together with up-to-date clinical and scientific evidence to support our understanding of the use of antibiotics in those conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Ground-clearing fires in the amazon and respiratory disease].

    Gonçalves, Karen dos Santos; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-06-01

    The intentional burning of forest biomass commonly known as "ground-clearing fires" is an age-old and widespread practice in the country and is seen as a major contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases. However, global awareness of their potential impact is relatively recent. The occurrence of large ground-clearing fires in the Brazilian and international scenarios drew attention to the problem, but the measures taken to prevent and/or control the fires are still insufficient. In the Amazon region, with distinct geographical and environmental features from the rest of the country, with its historic process of land occupation, every year the ground-clearing fires expose larger portions of the population making them vulnerable to its effects. In this context, this non-systematic review presents the papers written over the past five years about the fires in the Brazilian Amazon and respiratory illness. The main objective is to provide information for managers and leaders on environmental issues about the problems related to biomass burning in the Amazon region.

  5. Targeting MicroRNA Function in Respiratory Diseases: Mini-review

    Steven eMaltby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognised as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g. for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer, no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic. In this mini-review, we review the current knowledge on miRNA expression and function in respiratory diseases, intervention strategies to target miRNA function and considerations specific to respiratory diseases. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been reported in a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These include alterations in isolated lung tissue, as well as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and peripheral blood or serum. The observed alterations in easily accessible body fluids (e.g. serum have been proposed as new biomarkers that may inform disease diagnosis and patient management. In a subset of studies, miRNA-targeted interventions also improved disease outcomes, indicating functional roles for altered miRNA expression in disease pathogenesis. In fact, direct administration of miRNA-targeting molecules to the lung has yielded promising results in a number of animal models. The ability to directly administer compounds to the lung holds considerable promise and may limit potential off-target effects and side effects caused by the systemic administration required to treat other diseases.

  6. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease and associated Pontiac fever morbidity in office workers, Dublin, June-July 2008.

    Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires\\' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires\\' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever.

  7. Non-linear increase of respiratory diseases and their costs under severe air pollution.

    Shen, Ying; Wu, Yiyun; Chen, Guangdi; Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Baojing; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-05-01

    China is experiencing severe and persistent air pollution, with concentrations of fine particulate matters (PM 2.5 ) reaching unprecedentedly high levels in many cities. Quantifying the detrimental effects on health and their costs derived from high PM 2.5 levels is crucial because of the unsolved challenges to mitigate air pollution in the following decades. Using the daily monitoring data on PM 2.5 concentrations and clinic visits, we found a non-linear increase of respiratory diseases, but not for other diseases (e.g., digestive diseases) under severe air pollution. We found an increase of respiratory diseases by 1% for each 10 μg m -3 increase in PM 2.5 when the annual average daily PM 2.5 concentration was less than 50 μg m -3 ; while this ratio was doubled (around 2%) with the daily PM 2.5 concentration larger than 50 μg m -3 . Under severe air pollution (PM 2.5 concentration >150 μg m -3 ), the respiratory diseases increased by over 50% compared to that in clean days. Children are more sensitive to the severe air pollution. The increase of clinic visits, especially for adults, was observed mainly in bigger (>500 beds) hospitals. Re-allocating medical resources (e.g., doctors) from big hospitals to community hospitals can benefit the respiratory patients due to air pollution. The total medical cost of clinic visits of respiratory diseases derived from PM 2.5 pollution was estimated at 17.2-57.0 billion Yuan in 2014 in China, accounting for 0.5-1.6% of national total health expenditure. Because these medical costs only represent a small part of total health cost derived from air pollution, the reduction of associated health costs would be an important co-benefit of implementation of air pollution preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

    Torres Juan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease.

  9. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register...

  11. Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.

    Leung, Kathy; Jit, Mark; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T

    2017-08-11

    The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires. Participants using paper questionnaires reported more contacts and longer contact duration than those using online questionnaires. Participants reported 13 person-hours of contact and 8 contacts per day on average, which decreased over age but increased with household size, years of education and income level. Prolonged and frequent contacts, and contacts at home, school and work were more likely to involve physical contacts. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups. We evaluated the characteristics of social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong. Our findings could help to improve the design of future social contact surveys, parameterize transmission models of respiratory infectious diseases, and inform intervention strategies based on model outputs.

  12. Closed genomes of seven histophilus somni isolates from beef calves with bovine respiratory disease complex

    Histophilus somni is a fastidious gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic Pasteurellacea that affects multiple organ systems and is one of the principle bacterial species contributing to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feed yard cattle. Here we present seven closed genomes isolated from...

  13. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study.

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhang, Nuofu; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP increase of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right ventricular (RV) diameter (>20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17-5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51-3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) were independent risk factors. PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases.

  14. Anti-Aspergillus Activities of the Respiratory Epithelium in Health and Disease

    Margherita Bertuzzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory epithelia fulfil multiple roles beyond that of gaseous exchange, also acting as primary custodians of lung sterility and inflammatory homeostasis. Inhaled fungal spores pose a continual antigenic, and potentially pathogenic, challenge to lung integrity against which the human respiratory mucosa has developed various tolerance and defence strategies. However, respiratory disease and immune dysfunction frequently render the human lung susceptible to fungal diseases, the most common of which are the aspergilloses, a group of syndromes caused by inhaled spores of Aspergillus fumigatus. Inhaled Aspergillus spores enter into a multiplicity of interactions with respiratory epithelia, the mechanistic bases of which are only just becoming recognized as important drivers of disease, as well as possible therapeutic targets. In this mini-review we examine current understanding of Aspergillus-epithelial interactions and, based upon the very latest developments in the field, we explore two apparently opposing schools of thought which view epithelial uptake of Aspergillus spores as either a curative or disease-exacerbating event.

  15. The European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) : recruitment methods and strategies

    Lofdahl, CG; Postma, DS; Laitinen, LA; Ohlsson, SV; Pauwels, RA; Pride, NB

    The European Respiratory Society's study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) is a multicentre study performed initially in 12 countries to assess the effect of 3 years' treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on lung function decline in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  16. Respiratory disease in relation to outdoor air pollution in Kanpur, India.

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Schindler, Martin; Sharma, Mukesh; Behera, Sailesh N; Katiyar, Kamlesh; Dikshit, Onkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on respiratory disease in Kanpur, India, based on data from 2006. Exposure to air pollution is represented by annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from 11 source categories, established as a geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory in 2 km × 2 km grid. Respiratory disease is represented by number of patients who visited specialist pulmonary hospital with symptoms of respiratory disease. The results showed that (1) the main sources of air pollution are industries, domestic fuel burning, and vehicles; (2) the emissions of PM per grid are strongly correlated to the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x); and (3) there is a strong correlation between visits to a hospital due to respiratory disease and emission strength in the area of residence. These results clearly indicate that appropriate health and environmental monitoring, actions to reduce emissions to air, and further studies that would allow assessing the development in health status are necessary.

  17. The Environmental Domain of Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    The literature lacks reports on the role played by the Environmental domain of quality of life (QoL) in care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Such information has a high potential for implementation in modern medicine based on a 'tailor-made' holistic healthcare model. The purpose of this study was to determine the components that shape the Environmental domain of QoL in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The study group consisted of 305 adult patients (median age 65 years) with at least one chronic respiratory disease. The greatest contribution to a high value of QoL in the Environmental domain among patients with chronic respiratory diseases was made by the coexistence of high QoL levels in other domains and in satisfaction with QoL. Programs for preventing a decline in QoL in the Environmental domain should include patients with low scores for the above variables as well as those with a low level of education, those who have not shown an improvement in their psychological well-being in the past 12 months, those with a low level of positive mental attitudes or healthy eating habits, a low Camberwell index, and low levels of overall pro-health behavior.

  18. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000–3)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the short‐term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000–3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short‐term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time‐series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1 760 000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52 928 for LRD and 74 845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator. PMID:17182644

  19. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000-3).

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the short-term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000-3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short-term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time-series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1,760,000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52,928 for LRD and 74,845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator.

  20. John Hutchinson, 1811-1861: the first respiratory disease epidemiologist.

    Speizer, Frank E

    2011-05-01

    In 1844, before a large medical audience in London, John Hutchinson demonstrated the use of measurements of pulmonary function to predict disease. In contrast to standard practice at that time, he conducted an epidemiological investigation that would have been acceptable by today's standards, in which he examined over 2000 people and contrasted healthy and diseased cases. His data clearly indicated how, what he called, "vital capacity" predicted disease. Exploring the history of this young Victorian-era physician is both humbling and instructive for the modern epidemiologist, who has the advantages of the successes of ever more rapid, computer-based, technical approaches to evaluate existing data sources, and fewer opportunities to actually collect primary data from large number of patients using physiologic tools.

  1. A Case Study of Respiratory Disease in a Veal Calf Operation

    Palechek, Neil P.; Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Perry, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a central Alberta veal operation, after production capacity had been increased fourfold. Mortality rate reached 24.6% despite agressive antibiotic therapy. A review of the records revealed a cyclical disease pattern in each room. Weekly cleaning of occupied calf rooms was correlated with the disease pattern. Aerosols generated by a high pressure sprayer appeared to trigger transmission of respiratory pathogens in malnourished neonatal calves. Disease occurrence decreased and profitability increased sixfold after the introduction of the following measures: 1) discontinuing the use of the high pressure washer in the occupied calf rooms, 2) feeding calves a better quality milk replacer with supplemental milk for the poorest calves, 3) sale-yard calf purchases were abandoned in favor of direct buying. PMID:17422807

  2. Atypical pestivirus and severe respiratory disease in calves, Europe.

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Cirone, Francesco; Cordioli, Paolo; Camero, Michele; Sciarretta, Rossana; Losurdo, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-08-01

    In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.

  3. Functional connectivity and information flow of the respiratory neural network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Yu, Lianchun; De Mazancourt, Marine; Hess, Agathe; Ashadi, Fakhrul R; Klein, Isabelle; Mal, Hervé; Courbage, Maurice; Mangin, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Breathing involves a complex interplay between the brainstem automatic network and cortical voluntary command. How these brain regions communicate at rest or during inspiratory loading is unknown. This issue is crucial for several reasons: (i) increased respiratory loading is a major feature of several respiratory diseases, (ii) failure of the voluntary motor and cortical sensory processing drives is among the mechanisms that precede acute respiratory failure, (iii) several cerebral structures involved in responding to inspiratory loading participate in the perception of dyspnea, a distressing symptom in many disease. We studied functional connectivity and Granger causality of the respiratory network in controls and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), at rest and during inspiratory loading. Compared with those of controls, the motor cortex area of patients exhibited decreased connectivity with their contralateral counterparts and no connectivity with the brainstem. In the patients, the information flow was reversed at rest with the source of the network shifted from the medulla towards the motor cortex. During inspiratory loading, the system was overwhelmed and the motor cortex became the sink of the network. This major finding may help to understand why some patients with COPD are prone to acute respiratory failure. Network connectivity and causality were related to lung function and illness severity. We validated our connectivity and causality results with a mathematical model of neural network. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy involving the modulation of brain activity to increase motor cortex functional connectivity and improve respiratory muscles performance in patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2736-2754, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treating respiratory viral diseases with chemically modified, second generation intranasal siRNAs.

    Barik, Sailen

    2009-01-01

    Chemically synthesized short interfering RNA (siRNA) of pre-determined sequence has ushered a new era in the application of RNA interference (RNAi) against viral genes. We have paid particular attention to respiratory viruses that wreak heavy morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinically significant ones include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) and influenza virus. As the infection by these viruses is clinically restricted to the respiratory tissues, mainly the lungs, the logical route for the application of the siRNA was also the same, i.e., via the nasal route. Following the initial success of intranasal siRNA against RSV, second-generation siRNAs were made against the viral polymerase large subunit (L) that were chemically modified and screened for improved stability, activity and pharmacokinetics. 2'-O-methyl (2'-O-Me) and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro (2'-F) substitutions in the ribose ring were incorporated in different positions of the sense and antisense strands and the resultant siRNAs were tested with various transfection reagents intranasally against RSV. Based on these results, we propose the following consensus for designing intranasal antiviral siRNAs: (i) modified 19-27 nt long double-stranded siRNAs are functional in the lung, (ii) excessive 2'-OMe and 2'-F modifications in either or both strands of these siRNAs reduce efficacy, and (iii) limited modifications in the sense strand are beneficial, although their precise efficacy may be position-dependent.

  6. Chronic respiratory disease among the elderly in South Africa: any association with proximity to mine dumps?

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-04-03

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors such as air pollution from mine dumps, increase the risk of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between proximity to mine dumps and prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in people aged 55 years and older. Elderly persons in communities 1-2 km (exposed) and 5 km (unexposed), from five pre-selected mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Province, in South Africa were included in a cross-sectional study. Structured interviews were conducted with 2397 elderly people, using a previously validated ATS-DLD-78 questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council. Exposed elderly persons had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases than those who were unexposed., Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that living close to mine dumps was significantly associated with asthma (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.20 - 2.05), chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.74; 95 CI: 1.25 - 2.39), chronic cough (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.58 - 2.57), emphysema (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11 - 2.77), pneumonia (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.77) and wheeze (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.73 - 2.54). Residing in exposed communities, current smoking, ex-smoking, use of paraffin as main residential cooking/heating fuel and low level of education emerged as independent significant risk factors for chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. This study suggests that there is a high level of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases among elderly people in communities located near to mine dumps in South Africa.

  7. Risk of Unsuccessful Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Heterogeneous Neuromuscular Diseases: A Retrospective Study

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nanaura, Hitoki; Kinugawa, Kaoru; Uchihara, Yuto; Ohara, Hiroya; Eura, Nobuyuki; Syobatake, Ryogo; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Kiriyama; Sugie, Kazuma; Ueno, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    If invasive ventilation can be avoided by performing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), the disease can be effectively managed. It is important to clarify the characteristics of patients with neuromuscular diseases in whom initial NIV is likely to be unsuccessful. We studied 27 patients in stable neuromuscular condition who initially received NIV to manage fatal ARF to identify differences in factors immediately before the onset of ARF a...

  8. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  9. Impact of concomitant laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and hiatal hernia repair on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in morbidly obese patients.

    Garg, Harshit; Vigneshwaran, Balasubiramaniyan; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Ahuja, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of hiatal hernia repair (HHR) on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in morbidly obese patients with hiatus hernia undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). It is a retrospective study involving ten morbidly obese patients with large hiatus hernia diagnosed on pre-operative endoscopy who underwent LSG and simultaneous HHR. The patients were assessed for symptoms of GERD using a Severity symptom score (SS) questionnaire and anti-reflux medications. Of the ten patients, five patients had GERD preoperatively. At the mean follow-up of 11.70 ± 6.07 months after surgery, four patients (80%) showed complete resolution while one patient complained of persistence of symptoms. Endoscopy in this patient revealed resolution of esophagitis indicating that the persistent symptoms were not attributable to reflux. The other five patients without GERD remained free of any symptom attributable to GERD. Thus, in all ten patients, repair of hiatal hernia (HH) during LSG led to either resolution of GERD or prevented any new onset symptom related to GER. In morbidly obese patients with HH with or without GERD undergoing LSG, repair of the hiatus hernia helps in amelioration of GERD and prevents any new onset GER. Thus, the presence of HH should not be considered as a contraindication for LSG.

  10. Impact of concomitant laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and hiatal hernia repair on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in morbidly obese patients

    Harshit Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of hiatal hernia repair (HHR on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD in morbidly obese patients with hiatus hernia undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study involving ten morbidly obese patients with large hiatus hernia diagnosed on pre-operative endoscopy who underwent LSG and simultaneous HHR. The patients were assessed for symptoms of GERD using a Severity symptom score (SS questionnaire and anti-reflux medications. Results: Of the ten patients, five patients had GERD preoperatively. At the mean follow-up of 11.70 ± 6.07 months after surgery, four patients (80% showed complete resolution while one patient complained of persistence of symptoms. Endoscopy in this patient revealed resolution of esophagitis indicating that the persistent symptoms were not attributable to reflux. The other five patients without GERD remained free of any symptom attributable to GERD. Thus, in all ten patients, repair of hiatal hernia (HH during LSG led to either resolution of GERD or prevented any new onset symptom related to GER. Conclusion: In morbidly obese patients with HH with or without GERD undergoing LSG, repair of the hiatus hernia helps in amelioration of GERD and prevents any new onset GER. Thus, the presence of HH should not be considered as a contraindication for LSG.

  11. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  12. Study To Build Method For Analyzing Some Component Of Airborne Which Cause Respiratory Disease

    Vo Thi Anh; Nguyen Thuy Binh; Vuong Thu Bac; Ha Lan Anh; Nguyen Hong Thinh; Duong Van Thang; Nguyen Mai Anh; Vo Tuong Hanh

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol sampler is located at the top of the three floors building of INST. The amount of PM particle and components such as black carbon; chemical elements; violated organic compounds and microorganisms are analyzed by appropriate methods. Using the method of regression and analysis of variance ANOVA to find out correlation between there pollution components and patients treated at the Department of Respiratory in Hanoi E-Hospital. It shown that microorganisms, benzene, toluene, element sulfur and element silica have effects on monthly number of patients treated respiratory diseases at the E-Hospital. (author)

  13. A double-blind trial of a new inactivated, trivalent, intra-nasal anti-influenza vaccine in general practice: relationship between immunogenicity and respiratory morbidity over the winter of 1997-98.

    Kiderman, A; Furst, A; Stewart, B; Greenbaum, E; Morag, A; Zakay-Rones, Z

    2001-02-01

    Influenza is responsible for considerable morbidity not only among older people but in younger age groups as well. However, most large-scale anti-influenza vaccination campaigns are still aimed principally at the elderly using injectable vaccines. Until now there has been much less emphasis on targeting younger populations or using intra-nasal vaccines in mass anti-influenza immunisation programmes. To assess the immunogenicity of a new inactivated intra-nasal anti-influenza vaccine and to measure its effect on respiratory morbidity in a volunteer general practice population. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using the new vaccine was carried out over the winter of 1997-98 on 274 healthy patients aged 12-60 from three Israeli general practices, 182 in the vaccine group and 92 in the placebo group. Following vaccination the changes in the antigen levels and episodes of respiratory illness in the vaccine and placebo groups were measured. Protective antibody levels occurred after a single dose of vaccine [influenza H1N1, 41% immune pre-vaccination to 73% post-vaccination; influenza H3N2, 35-66%; influenza B, 27-64%]. Between January and March 1998, when influenza activity was at a peak in Israel, the average number of respiratory illness events in the vaccine group [14 events/100 subjects per month] was significantly less than in the placebo group [22 events/100 subjects per month]; similarly, the average number of respiratory illness days in the vaccine group over the same period [69 days/100 subjects per month] was significantly less than in the placebo group [117 days/100 subjects per month]. The new vaccine possessed significant immunogenicity and was associated with a significant reduction in respiratory morbidity among a group of healthy older children and adults. Since intra-nasal vaccines are simpler to administer and more acceptable to the public than injections the vaccine's potential for use in routine anti-influenza vaccination

  14. Information system for diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    Abramov, G. V.; Korobova, L. A.; Ivashin, A. L.; Matytsina, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    An information system is for the diagnosis of patients with lung diseases. The main problem solved by this system is the definition of the parameters of cough fragments in the monitoring recordings using a voice recorder. The authors give the recognition criteria of recorded cough moments, audio records analysis. The results of the research are systematized. The cough recognition system can be used by the medical specialists to diagnose the condition of the patients and to monitor the process of their treatment.

  15. The morbidity and associated risk factors of cancer in chronic liver disease patients with diabetes mellitus: a multicenter field survey.

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Seike, Masataka; Ide, Yasushi; Mizuta, Toshihiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Nakamuta, Makoto; Sata, Michio

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with various cancers; however, little is known of the relationship between cancer and diabetes in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the morbidity and associated factors of cancer, including the use of anti-diabetics, in CLD patients with diabetes. We performed a multicenter survey in 2012 and 478 CLD patients with diabetes were enrolled (age 64.3 ± 12.1 years, female/male 187/291). A frequency analysis of cancer and antidiabetic use was performed. Independent factors for cancer were analyzed using logistic regression and decision-tree analysis. The morbidity of cancer was 33.3%. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extra-hepatic cancer were diagnosed in 24.7 and 11.3% of enrolled patients, respectively. The frequency of antidiabetic use was 66.5%. Of prescribed antidiabetics, 39% were dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors; however, their use was not significantly associated with cancer. In contrast, the use of exogenous insulin (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.16-4.21, P = 0.0165) and sulfonylurea (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.05-3.97, P = 0.0353) were independently associated with HCC and extra-hepatic cancer, respectively. In decision-tree analysis, exogenous insulin and sulfonylurea were also identified as a divergence factor for HCC and extra-hepatic cancer, respectively. We found a high morbidity of not only HCC, but also extra-hepatic cancer in CLD patients with diabetes. We also showed a possible association between the use of antidiabetics and the morbidity of cancer. Thus, a large-scale cohort study is needed to establish a therapeutic strategy for diabetes to suppress carcinogenesis in CLD patients.

  16. Aromaphytobalneotherapy in Treatment and Prophylaxis of Frequent Respiratory Infections in Children with Chronic and Disabling Diseases

    O. M. Konova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In children with chronic pathologies, co-occurring frequent respiratory infections of a prolonged course obstructs and reduce the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, and adversely affect the adaptation reserves. Hydrotherapeutic factors are widely used for the prevention of colds in children from the first days of life. Addition to the water of medicinal and phytoaromatic preparations increases their efficiency. For patients with chronic pathology, when prescribing balneotherapeutic factors for treatment and prophylaxis of respiratory infections, it is important to take into account the potential risk of adverse effects on the symptoms of the underlying disease. Researches in patients with orthopedic, chronic gastroenterological diseases, spastic forms of cerebral palsy, with co-occurring frequent respiratory infections of a prolonged course in history revealed that addition of medicinal baths based on phytoaromatic preparation, containing eucalyptus oil, to the rehabilitation complex is an effective method of preventing and stopping initial symptoms of respiratory infections. It also contributes to the adaptation reserves of the organism, without adversely affecting the course of the underlying disease.

  17. Association of fine particles with respiratory disease mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Chang, Xuhong; Zhou, Liangjia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Short-time exposure to high levels of fine particles (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) may trigger respiratory disease, but this association has not been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify the short-time exposure to fine particles on respiratory disease mortality. Published articles were obtained from electronic databases and a validity assessment was used. The meta-analysis was conducted with the incorporation of good-quality studies. After applying the inclusion criteria, 9 articles were included in the study. The methodological qualities of the published studies were good, and every study achieved a score of 3. Fine particles were significantly associated with an increase in respiratory mortality risk (for every 10 μg/m3 increment, rate difference [RD]=1.32%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95%-1.68%; p=.000). These findings indicate that short-time exposure to fine particles could increase the risk of respiratory disease mortality.

  18. Air Quality Awareness Among U.S. Adults With Respiratory and Heart Disease.

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Boehmer, Tegan K; Damon, Scott A; Sircar, Kanta D; Wall, Hilary K; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Zahran, Hatice S; Garbe, Paul L

    2018-05-01

    Poor air quality affects respiratory and cardiovascular health. Information about health risks associated with outdoor air quality is communicated to the public using air quality alerts. This study was conducted to assess associations of existing respiratory and heart disease with three aspects of air quality awareness: awareness of air quality alerts, discussing with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure when walking, biking, or exercising outdoors. During 2014-2016, a total of 12,599 U.S. adults participated in summer waves of the ConsumerStyles surveys and self-reported asthma, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, and each aspect of air quality awareness. In 2017, associations between each health condition and air quality awareness were estimated using log binomial and multinomial regression. Overall, 49% of respondents were aware of air quality alerts, 3% discussed with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and 27% always/usually avoided busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure. Asthma was associated with increased prevalence of awareness of air quality alerts (prevalence ratio=1.11, 95% CI=1.04, 1.20), discussing with a health professional (prevalence ratio=4.88, 95% CI=3.74, 6.37), and always/usually avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure (prevalence ratio=1.13, 95% CI=1.01, 1.27). Heart disease was not associated with air quality awareness. Existing respiratory disease, but not heart disease, was associated with increased air quality awareness. These findings reveal important opportunities to raise awareness of air quality alerts and behavior changes aimed at reducing air pollution exposure among adults at risk of exacerbating respiratory and heart diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Assessment of a strategy for the control of respiratory diseases in children

    Pereira Julio Cesar Rodrigues

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A programme for the control of respiratory diseases in children was conceived for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986. Its progress thereafter and the epidemiology of the diseases concerned are examined. Apart from an inquiry into the 64 existing State local health authorities, a sample of 18,255 cases of children assisted by the programme at different levels, including both in-patient and outpatient care, is analysed. Each case record included information about identification (child, doctor and health facility, reasons for calling, diagnoses made and outcome of treatment. Further data were also sought from hospitals and from State mortality records. The programme was found to be poorly implemented in the State but, where implemented, it showed itself capable of resolving problems (only 0.5% of the cases could not be handled as also of changing ongoing trends (more than 50% reduction in hospital admission rates. Individual assessment of each item of the programme indicated its bottlenecks. Regarding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases, it is observed that the major burden to health services comes from children aged less than five, and that the most important diseases are wheezing illnesses and pneumonia. Morevoer, they were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.000 so that a child in the community presenting wheezing diseases is 5 times more likely to develop pneumonia than a child with any other respiratory diagnosis. Similarly, among the under five deaths it was found that the risk for pneumonia is 3 times greater for children who died presenting wheezing diseases than it is for children with any other sort of diagnosis. In conclusion, the programme is deemed to be efficient and effective but its efficacy is marred by administrative flaws. The successful control of respiratory problems in childhood is related to a proper appreciation of the importance of wheezing diseases.

  20. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  1. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    in relation to asthma, chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and lung function level at examination 2 (1981-1983) or lung function decline established from examinations 1 (1976-1978) to 2 using 4 measures (FEV(1) slope, FEV(1) relative slope, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine......BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976......, the increasing trend in the HR (95% CI) by quartiles of the FEV(1) slope reached a maximum of 3.77 (2.76-5.15) for males, 6.12 (4.63-8.10) for females, and 4.14 (1.57-10.90) for never-smokers. Significant increasing trends were also observed for mortality, with females at higher risk. CONCLUSION: Lung function...

  2. Investments in respiratory infectious disease research 1997-2010: a systematic analysis of UK funding.

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Hayward, Andrew C; Lipman, Marc C; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-26

    Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and development value chain. The UK. Institutions that host and carry out infectious disease research. The total amount spent and number of studies with a focus on several different respiratory pathogens or diseases, and to correlate these against the global burden of disease; also the total amount spent and number of studies relating to the type of science, the predominant funder in each category and the mean and median award size. We identified 6165 infectious disease studies with a total investment of £2·6 billion. Respiratory research received £419 million (16.1%) across 1192 (19.3%) studies. The Wellcome Trust provided greatest investment (£135.2 million; 32.3%). Tuberculosis received £155 million (37.1%), influenza £80 million (19.1%) and pneumonia £27.8 million (6.6%). Despite high burden, there was relatively little investment in vaccine-preventable diseases including diphtheria (£0.1 million, 0.03%), measles (£5.0 million, 1.2%) and drug-resistant tuberculosis. There were 802 preclinical studies (67.3%) receiving £273 million (65.2%), while implementation research received £81 million (19.3%) across 274 studies (23%). There were comparatively few phase I-IV trials or product development studies. Global health research received £68.3 million (16.3%). Relative investment was strongly correlated with 2010 disease burden. The UK predominantly funds preclinical science. Tuberculosis is the most studied respiratory disease. The high global burden of pneumonia-related disease warrants greater investment than it has historically received. Other priority areas include antimicrobial resistance (particularly within

  3. Prevention of Pneumococcal Infection in Children with Chronic Diseases of the Nasopharynx Reduces the Incidence of Other Respiratory Tract Infections: Results of a Comparative Prospective Study

    V. P. Vavilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A promising approach to solving the problem of widespread infections of the respiratory tract in children is the use ofspecific prophylaxis against the pneumococcus.Objective: Our aim was to examine the clinical efficacy of PCV13 of children with chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx and the changes of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract.Methods: We have evaluated the incidence of respiratory tract and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. Research period: January 2011 — January 2015. Upper airway function examination included cytologic analysis — counting the main cell populations ratio in the common cytoplasm, lysozym activity and secretory immunoglobulin of class A (sIgA in nasal secretions.Results: The study involved 876 children 2–5 years old. Main group (PCV13 amounted to 448 patients, and the control group (unvaccinated 428. Annual dynamic observation showed a significant reduction of acute morbidity by 2 times (p < 0.001, pneumonia by 2.4 times (p = 0.042, acute bronchitis by 2.5 times (p = 0.008, concomitant ENT pathology (acute otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic sinusitis by 2.2 times (p = 0.001 and 2.3 times (p = 0.004, respectively. There was a positive effect of vaccination on the level of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract (lysozyme, sIgA, the somatic cell count in nasal secretions.Conclusion: PCV13 vaccination reduces the risk of developing acute respiratory infections and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. This is against the background of recovery in the levels of factors of local immunity.

  4. Recent advances in delivery mechanisms for aerosol therapy during pediatric respiratory diseases.

    Wu, Yue'E; Zhang, Chonglin; Zhen, Qing

    2018-04-01

    The treatment of pediatric surgery diseases via utilization of aerosol delivery mechanisms is in progress for the betterment of pediatric care. Over the years, aerosol therapy has come to play an integral role in the treatment of pediatric respiratory diseases. Inhaled aerosol agents such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and mucolytics are commonly delivered to spontaneously breathing pediatric patients with a tracheostomy. Administering therapeutic inhaled aerosols to pediatric patients is challenging. The pediatric population ranges in age, which means patients with different airway sizes, breathing patterns, and cooperation levels. These patient-related factors impact the deposition of aerosol drugs in the lungs. The present review article will discuss the recent advancements in the delivery mechanisms for aerosol therapy in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases.

  5. Global increases in allergic respiratory disease: the possible role of diesel exhaust particles.

    Peterson, B; Saxon, A

    1996-10-01

    Reading this article will enable the readers to recognize and evaluate i e potential relationship between allergic respiratory disease and polyaromatic hydrocarbons as air pollutants from industrial and automotive fuel sources. In this article we review the long-term trends in the prevalence of allergic airway diseases (rhinitis and asthma). We then examine the epidemiologic and other research data relating to the role that hydrocarbon fuel emissions may have had on allergic respiratory disease. Published literature on the relationship between specific air pollutants and trends in allergic respiratory disease were reviewed. Reports of research on pollutant effects on allergic antibody (IgE) were also studied. In both cases, the Melvyl-Medline database since 1975 was used for literature searches. Older references were identified from the bibliographies of relevant articles and books and with the help of the rare books collection at UCLA's Louis M. Darling Biomedical library. Examination of the historical record indicates that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma have significantly increased in prevalence over the past two centuries. Although the reasons for this increase are not fully elucidated, epidemiologic data suggest that certain pollutants such as those produced from the burning of fossil fuels may have played an important role in the prevalence changes. Also important are studies showing that diesel exhaust, a prototypical fossil fuel, is able to enhance in vitro and in vivo IgE production. Increased levels of the compounds resulting from fossil fuel combustion may be partly responsible for the increased prevalence of allergic respiratory disease. If the nature of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they exacerbate allergic disease can be identified, steps can be taken to reduce the production or the impact of these allergy producing compounds.

  6. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections.

  7. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    McCurdy, BR

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  8. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity.

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on respiratory quotient of infants with chronic lung disease.

    Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Jantarabenjakul, Watsamon; Sirimongkol, Pathama; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2015-01-01

    To compare the respiratory quotient in infants with chronic lung disease before and after receiving a modular diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content. Infants with chronic lung disease from the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were enrolled and assessed for nutritional status, severity of chronic lung disease and dietary intake. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a custom-made airtight canopy with O2 and CO2 sensors. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated from VCO2/VO2 during the period they were fed low carbohydrates (37% of total calories) for at least 24 hours vs. a standard diet (47% carbohydrate). These two formulas were similar in terms of caloric density and protein content. Each patient received at least 100-150 kcal/ kg/day during the study period. Respiratory quotients of the same patient receiving the two diets were compared by using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 14 patients (median age 7 months, range 1-26 months) were recruited. Twelve children had weight for age Z-score below-2SD. Their median weight for age Z-score, length for age Z-score and weight for length Z-score were -2.89, -3.08 and -1.24, respectively. The median RQ measured during the low carbohydrate diet was 0.96 (interquartile range 0.95-0.97), significantly lower than the median RQ during the standard diet, which was 1.04 (0.97-1.10). However, the respiratory rate revealed no significant difference. Two participants with underlying gastroesophageal reflux disease showed higher RQ after low carbohydrate formula feeding, which might be a result of hypersecretion due to its high fat content. Diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content can reduce the RQ in infants with chronic lung disease compared to the standard enteral formula. A 10-percent reduction of carbohydrate content may provide a sizeable effect in this group of patients. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of this finding requires further investigation.

  10. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-05-01

    In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of "havae vabai". "Havae vabai" is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword "havae vabai" were reviewed in Noor digital library. The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in "havae vabai" is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden.

  11. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus.

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Layton, Marylee L; Ossiboff, Robert J; Parker, John S L; Dubovi, Edward J; Stenglein, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation. Clinical signs included oral mucosal reddening, abundant mucus secretions, open-mouthed breathing, and anorexia. Histologic lesions included chronic-active mucinous rhinitis, stomatitis, tracheitis, esophagitis and proliferative interstitial pneumonia. Control snakes remained negative and free of clinical signs throughout the experiment. Our findings establish a causal relationship between nidovirus infection and respiratory disease in ball pythons and shed light on disease progression and transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors for return to work for those with occupational respiratory disease: clinical and structural factors.

    Zoeckler, Jeanette M; Cibula, Donald A; Morley, Christopher P; Lax, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Few occupational researchers have examined "return to work" among patients with work-related respiratory diseases. In addition, prior studies have emphasized individual patient characteristics rather than a more multi-dimensional approach that includes both clinical and structural factors. A retrospective chart review identified patients with occupational respiratory diseases in the Occupational Health Clinical Center, Syracuse, NY between 1991 and 2009. We assessed predictors of work status using an exploratory, sequential mixed methods research design, multinomial (n = 188) and Cox regressions (n = 130). The findings suggest that patients with an increased number of diagnoses, non-union members, and those who took more than a year before clinical presentation had significantly poorer work status outcomes, after adjusting for age, education level, and relevant diagnoses. Efforts to prevent slow return to work after developing occupational respiratory disease should recognize the importance of timely access to occupational health services, disease severity, union membership, and smoking status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in skin diseases: A comparison of alopecia areata and psoriasis

    Sagar B Karia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA and psoriasis are associated with various psychiatric comorbidities. Both greatly affect the quality of life (QOL of patients and psychiatric comorbidities can further worsen it. Thus there is need to recognise psychiatric comorbidities and treat them in these patients. Aims: To determine the psychiatric morbidity and the QOL in these patients to study the factors affecting them. Methodology: 50 patients each of psoriasis and AA were included. 50 people accompanying these patients served as control group. They were diagnosed for psychiatric disorders by clinical interview. Scales used were severity of alopecia tool for AA, psoriasis area and severity index for psoriasis, WHO-QOL scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety and depression. Results: 22% and 38% patients in AA and psoriasis group respectively suffered from psychiatric disorder, depression was present in 18% and 24% of patients and 4% and 12% had anxiety disorders in respective groups. The control group had only 6% of psychiatric comorbidities. QOL scores had negative correlation with Hamilton-A, Hamilton-D and severity of psoriasis scores and they were statistically significant but not with severity of AA. Conclusion: Thus AA and psoriasis patients had more prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and it had bearing on their QOL.

  14. Vaccine Induced Herd Immunity for Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in a Low-Income Country Setting.

    Timothy M Kinyanjui

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is globally ubiquitous, and infection during the first six months of life is a major risk for severe disease and hospital admission; consequently RSV is the most important viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in young children. Development of vaccines for young infants is complicated by the presence of maternal antibodies and immunological immaturity, but vaccines targeted at older children avoid these problems. Vaccine development for young infants has been unsuccessful, but this is not the case for older children (> 6 m. Would vaccinating older children have a significant public health impact? We developed a mathematical model to explore the benefits of a vaccine against RSV.We have used a deterministic age structured model capturing the key epidemiological characteristics of RSV and performed a statistical maximum-likelihood fit to age-specific hospitalization data from a developing country setting. To explore the effects of vaccination under different mixing assumptions, we included two versions of contact matrices: one from a social contact diary study, and the second a synthesised construction based on demographic data. Vaccination is assumed to elicit an immune response equivalent to primary infection. Our results show that immunisation of young children (5-10 m is likely to be a highly effective method of protection of infants (<6 m against hospitalisation. The majority benefit is derived from indirect protection (herd immunity. A full sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling of the parameter space shows that our results are robust to model structure and model parameters.This result suggests that vaccinating older infants and children against RSV can have a major public health benefit.

  15. Morbidity of ischemic heart disease in early breast cancer 15-20 years after adjuvant radiotherapy

    Gyenes, G.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Fornander, T.; Carlens, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiac side effects, primarily the occurrence of ischemic heart disease, in symptom-free patients with early breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. Thirty-seven survivors of a former randomized study of early breast cancer were examined. Twenty patients irradiated pre- or postoperatively for left sided disease (study group patients) were compared with 17 controls who were either treated for right sided disease, or were nonirradiated patients. Radiotherapy was randomized in the original study; either tangential field 60 Co, or electron-therapy was delivered. Echocardiography and bicycle ergometry stress test with 99m Tc SestaMIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were carried out and the patients' major risk factors for ischemic heart disease were also listed. Our results showed a significant difference between the scintigraphic findings of the two groups. Five of the 20 study group patients (25%), while none of the 17 controls exhibited some kind of significant defects on scintigraphy, indicating ischemic heart disease (p < 0.05). No deterioration in left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic function could be detected by echocardiography. Radiotherapy for left sided breast cancer with the mentioned treatment technique may present as an independent risk factor in the long-term development of ischemic heart disease, while left ventricular dysfunction could not be related to the previous irradiation. The authors emphasize the need to optimize adjuvant radiotherapy for early breast cancer by considering the dose both to the heart as well as the cancer. 39 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Respiratory muscle training with enzyme replacement therapy improves muscle strength in late - onset Pompe disease.

    Jevnikar, Mitja; Kodric, Metka; Cantarutti, Fabiana; Cifaldi, Rossella; Longo, Cinzia; Della Porta, Rossana; Bembi, Bruno; Confalonieri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. This deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of muscle tissue causing progressive muscular weakness particularly of the respiratory system. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in slowing down disease progression in infants. Despite the large number of studies describing the effects of physical training in juvenile and adult late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). There are very few reports that analyze the benefits of respiratory muscle rehabilitation or training. The effectiveness of respiratory muscle training was investigated using a specific appliance with adjustable resistance (Threshold). The primary endpoint was effect on respiratory muscular strength by measurements of MIP and MEP. Eight late-onset Pompe patients (aged 13 to 58 years; 4 female, 4 male) with respiratory muscle deficiency on functional respiratory tests were studied. All patients received ERT at the dosage of 20 mg/kg/every 2 weeks and underwent training with Threshold at specified pressures for 24 months. A significant increase in MIP was observed during the follow-up of 24 month: 39.6 cm H 2 O (+ 25.0%) at month 3; 39.5 cm H 2 O (+ 24.9%) at month 6; 39.1 cm H 2 O (+ 23.7%) at month 9; 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 18.2%) at month 12; and 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 17.8%) at month 24. Median MEP values also showed a significant increase during the first 9 months: 29.8 cm H 2 O, (+ 14.3%) at month 3; 31.0 cm H 2 O (+ 18.6) at month 6; and 29.5 cm H 2 O (+ 12.9) at month 9. MEP was then shown to be decreased at months 12 and 24; median MEP was 27.2 cm H 2 O (+ 4.3%) at 12 months and 26.6 cm H 2 O (+ 1.9%) at 24 months. The FVC remain stable throughout the study. An increase in respiratory muscular strength was demonstrated with Threshold training when used in combination with ERT.

  17. Mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather.

    Agha, Mickey; Price, Steven J; Nowakowski, A Justin; Augustine, Ben; Todd, Brian D

    2017-04-20

    Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease. We recorded deaths of 17 turtles that showed clinical signs of upper respiratory disease among 76 adult turtles encountered in Berea, Kentucky (USA), in 2014. Of the 17 mortalities, 11 occurred approximately 14 d after mean environmental temperature dropped 2.5 SD below the 3 mo mean. Partial genomic sequencing of the major capsid protein from 1 sick turtle identified a ranavirus isolate similar to frog virus 3. Turtles that lacked clinical signs of disease had significantly higher body temperatures (23°C) than sick turtles (21°C) during the mass mortality, but sick turtles that survived and recovered eventually warmed (measured by temperature loggers). Finally, there was a significant negative effect of daily environmental temperature deviation from the 3 mo mean on survival, suggesting that rapid decreases in environmental temperature were correlated with mortality. Our results point to a potential role for environmental temperature variation and body temperature in disease progression and mortality risk of eastern box turtles affected by upper respiratory disease. Given our findings, it is possible that colder or more variable environmental temperatures and an inability to effectively thermoregulate are associated with poorer disease outcomes in eastern box turtles.

  18. Prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease in Brazil.

    Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease granted to employees, as well as the number of lost workdays and costs resulting from those in Brazil between 2003 and 2004. Cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Unified System of Benefits of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security (INSS, Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social) and the Brazilian Social Registry Database. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and type of economic activity, as well as type, duration and cost of benefits, were compiled. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1.3% of the total number of temporary social security benefits granted by INSS, with a prevalence rate of 9.92 (per 10,000 employment contracts). Females and individuals older than 50 years of age were the most affected. Non-work-related benefits were more common than were work-related benefits. The most prevalent diseases were pneumonia, asthma and COPD, followed by laryngeal and vocal cord diseases. The most prevalent types of economic activity were auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities. The mean duration of benefits was 209.68 days, with a mean cost of R$ 4,495.30 per occurrence. Respiratory diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leave (mean, 296.72 days) and greater cost (mean, R$ 7,105.74). The most prevalent diseases were airway diseases and pneumonia. Workers from auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities were the most affected. Diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leaves and resulted in greater costs.

  19. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report.

    McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi

    2008-08-05

    Pulmonary siderosis secondary to the inhalation of iron compounds is a rare condition which, despite striking radiological and histopathological features, has not traditionally been associated with symptoms or functional impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of exertional breathlessness. He had worked as an engineer for 20 years where he did a significant amount of welding but always wore a face shield. Clinical, radiological and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary siderosis, with associated fibrosis, most likely related to his occupational welding history. Our report illustrates that symptomatic respiratory disease due to mild peribronchiolar fibrosis can occur with pulmonary siderosis despite wearing a mask. Furthermore, it reinforces the need for all clinicians to compile a detailed occupational history in individuals presenting with breathlessness.

  20. Sugammadex use in difficult intubation due to ankylosing spondylitis and severe restrictive respiratory disease

    Yakup Tomak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe anesthesia management of a 50-year-old man scheduled for thoracic spinal reconstruction, presenting with severe restrictive respiratory disease and difficult airway due to ankylosing spondilitis. The patient was unable to extend his head, had difficulty in breathing and sleeping in supine position due to thoracal deformities. The patient was intubated using intubating laryngeal mask airway to overcome the difficulties of limited mouth opening and head extension. He was extubated following administration of sugammadex to obtain optimal conditions in terms of respiratory muscle function and to prevent hypersecretion and bronchospasm. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 398-400Key words: Restrictive lung disease, airway management, laryngeal masks, sugammadex, ankylosing spondylitis

  1. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Jörg Langbein

    Full Text Available Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  2. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Langbein, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  3. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries—The neglected role of outdoor cooking

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world’s leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards. PMID:28658290

  4. Disease spectrum and management of children admitted with acute respiratory infection in Viet Nam.

    Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-06-01

    To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Full-genome analysis of a canine pneumovirus causing acute respiratory disease in dogs, Italy.

    Nicola Decaro

    Full Text Available An outbreak of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD associated to canine pneumovirus (CnPnV infection is reported. The outbreak occurred in a shelter of the Apulia region and involved 37 out of 350 dogs that displayed cough and/or nasal discharge with no evidence of fever. The full-genomic characterisation showed that the causative agent (strain Bari/100-12 was closely related to CnPnVs that have been recently isolated in the USA, as well as to murine pneumovirus, which is responsible for respiratory disease in mice. The present study represents a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of CnPnV and its association with CIRD in dogs. Further studies will elucidate the pathogenicity and epidemiology of this novel pneumovirus, thus addressing the eventual need for specific vaccines.

  6. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influenza and other respiratory viruses: standardizing disease severity in surveillance and clinical trials.

    Rath, Barbara; Conrad, Tim; Myles, Puja; Alchikh, Maren; Ma, Xiaolin; Hoppe, Christian; Tief, Franziska; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Kisler, Bron; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2017-06-01

    Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3.13; S.D. 3.89; range: 0 to 18.79). Expert commentary: The ViVI Score was correlated with risk of antibiotic use as well as need for hospitalization and intensive care. The ViVI Score was used to track children with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus infections and is fully compliant with regulatory data standards. The ViVI Disease Severity Score mobile application allows physicians to measure disease severity at the point-of care thereby taking clinical trials to the next level.

  8. Postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction: pathophysiology and preventive strategies.

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Meyer, Matthew J; Eikermann, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are responsible for significant increases in hospital cost as well as patient morbidity and mortality; respiratory muscle dysfunction represents a contributing factor. Upper airway dilator muscles functionally resist the upper airway collapsing forces created by the respiratory pump muscles. Standard perioperative medications (anesthetics, sedatives, opioids, and neuromuscular blocking agents), interventions (patient positioning, mechanical ventilation, and surgical trauma), and diseases (lung hyperinflation, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea) have differential effects on the respiratory muscle subgroups. These effects on the upper airway dilators and respiratory pump muscles impair their coordination and function and can result in respiratory failure. Perioperative management strategies can help decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction. Such strategies include minimally invasive procedures rather than open surgery, early and optimal mobilizing of respiratory muscles while on mechanical ventilation, judicious use of respiratory depressant anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents, and noninvasive ventilation when possible.

  9. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou, China

    Tao, Yan; Mi, Shengquan; Zhou, Shuhong; Wang, Shigong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    Lanzhou is among the most seriously air-polluted cities in China as a whole, due to its unique topography, climate, industrial structure and so on. We studied the relationship between different air pollution and respiratory hospitalizations from 2001 to 2005, the total of respiratory hospital admissions were 28,057. The data were analyzed using Poisson regression models after controlling for the long time trend for air pollutants, the “day of week” effect and confounding meteorological factors. Three air pollutants (PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 ) had a lag effect, the lag was 3–5 days for PM 10 , 1–3 days for SO 2 and 1–4 days for NO 2 . The relative risks were calculated for increases in the inter-quartile range of the pollutants (139 μg/m 3 in PM 10 , 61 μg/m 3 in SO 2 and 31 μg/m 3 in NO 2 ). Results showed that there were significant associations between air pollutants and respiratory hospital admissions, and stronger effects were observed for females and aged ≥65 yrs in Lanzhou. -- There were significant associations between air pollutants and respiratory diseases with lag effect, and the aged and female people are more vulnerable to air pollutants. -- Highlights: • We assess the association between different air pollutants and respiratory diseases in 2001–2005. • The associations are significant and show a lag effect. • The lag was 3–5 days for PM 10 , 1–3 days for SO 2 and 1–4 days for NO 2

  10. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  11. Quality Assessment of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Respiratory Diseases in China: A Systematic Appraisal.

    Jiang, Mei; Liao, Li-Yue; Liu, Xiao-Qing; He, Wei-Qun; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Hao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-09-01

    There has been a significant increase in the publication of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for respiratory diseases in China. However, little is known about the quality and potential impacts of these CPGs. Our objective was to critically evaluate the quality of Chinese CPGs for respiratory diseases that were published in peer-reviewed medical journals. A systematic search of scientific literature published between 1979 and 2013 was undertaken to identify and select CPGs that were related to respiratory diseases. Four Chinese databases (the Chinese Biomedical Literature database [CBM], the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], the VIP database, and the WANFANG database) were used. The quality of eligible guidelines was assessed independently by four reviewers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. The overall agreement among reviewers was evaluated using an intraclass correlation coefficient. A total of 109 guidelines published in 27 medical journals from 1979 to 2013 were evaluated. The overall agreement among reviewers was considered good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.838; 95% CI, 0.812-0.862). The scores of the six AGREE domains were low: 57.3% for scope and purpose (range, 4.2%-80.5%), 23.8% for stakeholder involvement (range, 2.8%-54.2%), 7.7% for rigor of development (range, 0%-27.1%), 59.8% for clarity and presentation (range, 22.2%-80.6%), 10.9% for applicability (range, 0%-22.9%), and 0.6% for editorial independence (range, 0%-16.7%). Scores for all guidelines were below 60%, and only three guidelines (2.8%) were recommended for clinical practice with modifications. The quality of the guidelines was low, and stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, applicability, and editorial independence should be considered in the future development of CPGs for respiratory diseases in China.

  12. Correlation Between Occurrence and Deterioration of Respiratory Diseases and Air Pollution Within the Legally Permissible Limits.

    Trnjar, Kristina; Pintarić, Sanja; Mornar Jelavić, Marko; Nesek, Višnja; Ostojić, Jelena; Pleština, Sanja; Šikić, Aljoša; Pintarić, Hrvoje

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the unknown effect of air pollutants on the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory diseases in the area with a humid continental climate. This retrospective study included 5868 patients with respiratory symptomatology (upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), pneumonia, acute bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma) admitted to emergency department (ED). The number of patients, values of meteorological parameters (mean daily values of air temperature pressure and relative humidity) and concentrations of air pollution particles (≤10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were collected during a two-year ( July 2008 - June 2010) period. There were 1839 (31.3%), 1712 (29.2%), 1313 (22.4%), 614 (10.5%) and 390 (6.6%) patients with pneumonia, COPD, URTI, acute bronchitis and asthma, respectively. The mean daily concentrations of NO2 (25.9 (1.7-89.7) μg/m3), O3 (47.1 (4.7-135.4) μg/m3) and PM10 particles (25.7 (4.6-146.6) μg/m3) were below the legally defined thresholds. Among other results, the occurrence of respiratory diseases showed positive Spearman's correlation with the values of air humidity (days 0-3, r=0.15 to 0.19), PM10(days 0-3, r=0.10 to 0.13) and NO2 concentrations (day 0, r=0.11), and negative correlation with the values of air temperature (days 0-3, r=-0.36 to -0.34), pressure (day 0, r=-0.10) and O3 concentrations (days 0-3, r=-0.21 to -0.22) (prespiratory diseases showed correlation with weather conditions and air pollutants despite the legally permitted values in the region with a humid continental climate.

  13. Measuring the burden of arboviral diseases: the spectrum of morbidity and mortality from four prevalent infections

    Bashir Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, arthropod-borne virus infections are increasingly common causes of severe febrile disease that can progress to long-term physical or cognitive impairment or result in early death. Because of the large populations at risk, it has been suggested that these outcomes represent a substantial health deficit not captured by current global disease burden assessments. Methods We reviewed newly available data on disease incidence and outcomes to critically evaluate the disease burden (as measured by disability-adjusted life years, or DALYs caused by yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. We searched available literature and official reports on these viruses combined with the terms "outbreak(s," "complication(s," "disability," "quality of life," "DALY," and "QALY," focusing on reports since 2000. We screened 210 published studies, with 38 selected for inclusion. Data on average incidence, duration, age at onset, mortality, and severity of acute and chronic outcomes were used to create DALY estimates for 2005, using the approach of the current Global Burden of Disease framework. Results Given the limitations of available data, nondiscounted, unweighted DALYs attributable to YFV, JEV, CHIKV, and RVFV were estimated to fall between 300,000 and 5,000,000 for 2005. YFV was the most prevalent infection of the four viruses evaluated, although a higher proportion of the world's population lives in countries at risk for CHIKV and JEV. Early mortality and long-term, related chronic conditions provided the largest DALY components for each disease. The better known, short-term viral febrile syndromes caused by these viruses contributed relatively lower proportions of the overall DALY scores. Conclusions Limitations in health systems in endemic areas undoubtedly lead to underestimation of arbovirus incidence and related complications. However, improving

  14. Major Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Their Correlations.

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn

    2016-09-01

    To identify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and correlations of major chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) among the adult population living in Chiang Mai. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in municipal areas of Chiang Mai. All clinical relevant data collected by face-to-face interview was confirmed by pulmonologists. The chest radiographic findings and post-bronchodilator spirometry were done in all subjects. The aeroallergen skin test and rhinoscopy were performed in all chronic rhinitis and asthma subjects. Five hundred seventy four subjects with mean age 52.9±10.0 years, 59.6% female, and 37.5% smokers were recruited. The prevalence of overall CRDs was 59.2%. Chronic rhinitis was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease (n = 239, 41.6%), followed by asthma (n = 58, 10.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 21, 3.7%). The most common abnormal pulmonary function test was restrictive lung disorders (n = 53, 9.6%). Asthma subjects were determined to be more allergic than chronic rhinitis subjects (58.1% vs. 39.9%, p-value = 0.033). Regarding the disease severity, 14.9% of chronic rhinitis and 10.3% of asthma subjects were classified as moderate to severe degree, whereas 81% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects were classified as moderate to very severe degrees. In asthma patients, there were positive association with chronic rhinitis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.0, p-value Chiang Mai population was significantly high with overlapped respiratory symptoms and varying disease severity. Additionally, chronic rhinitis had correlation with asthma but not with COPD.

  15. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  16. The annual cost of not breastfeeding in Indonesia: the economic burden of treating diarrhea and respiratory disease among children (recommendation.

    Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Pitriyan, Pipit; Walters, Dylan

    2018-01-01

    In Indonesia, 96% of children (recommendations. Breastfeeding provides protective benefits such as reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea and pneumonia/respiratory disease (PRD). This study estimates the potential economic impact of not breastfeeding according to recommendation in Indonesia based on infants suffering from attributable diarrhea and PRD. A cost analysis examined both the healthcare system costs and non-medical costs for children (recommendation from literatures to extrapolate the financial burden of treatment. The healthcare system cost due to not breastfeeding according to recommendation was estimated at US$118 million annually. The mean healthcare system cost and out of pocket costs was US$11.37 and US$3.85 respectively. This cost consists of US$88.64 million of provider costs and US$29.98 million of non-medical patient costs. The cost of not breastfeeding according to recommendation is potentially high, therefore the Indonesian government needs to invest in breastfeeding protection, promotion and support as the potential healthcare system cost savings are significant. As suggested by other studies, the long term cost due to cognitive losses of providing not breastfeeding according to recommendation should also be taken into account to provide a complete understanding of the economic impact of not breastfeeding according to recommendation.

  17. Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Gadre, Shruti K; Duggal, Abhijit; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Krishnan, Sudhir; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zell, Katrina; Guzman, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation.A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2-7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2-9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7-22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P respiratory failure. A 1-unit increase in the APACHE III score was associated with a 1% decrease and having an active cancer was associated

  18. Association between exposure to particulate matter and hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children

    Cesar, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter and hospitalization for respiratory disease. It was an ecological time series study with daily indicators of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children up to 10 years old, living in Piracicaba, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. A generalized additive Poisson regression model was used. The relative risks were RR = 1.008; 95%CI 1.001;1.016 for lag 1 and RR = 1.009; 95%CI 1.001;1.017 for lag 3. The increment of 10 μg/m3in particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter implies increase in relative risk of between 7.9 and 8.6 percentage points. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter was associated with hospitalization for respiratory disease in children. PMID:24626559

  19. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights

    Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L.

    2018-01-01

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. PMID:29555754

  1. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights.

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L

    2018-04-03

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. China’s Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model

    Qilong Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China’s economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM2.5. Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results: It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions: Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables.

  3. China's Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model.

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying; Niu, Xueting

    2017-09-18

    Background : Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China's economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods : Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM 2.5 . Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results : It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM 2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions : Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables.

  4. China’s Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying; Niu, Xueting

    2017-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China’s economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM2.5. Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results: It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions: Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables. PMID:28927016

  5. Co-morbidity of migraine and Ménière's disease -- is allergy the link?

    Sen, Purushotham; Georgalas, Christos; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of migraine and allergy in patients with Ménière's disease (MD) compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We tested the hypothesis that if migraine and MD is linked by allergy, then allergy should be more prevalent in patients with MD and migraine compared

  6. Utility of the ELF Test for Detecting Steatohepatitis in Morbid Obese Patients with Suspicion of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    López, Iria Cebreiros; Aroca, Florentina Guzmán; Bernal, Maria Dolores Frutos; Mompeán, Juan Antonio Luján; Bernal, Águeda Bas; Martínez, Antonio Miguel Hernández; Barba, Enrique Martínez; Velasco, Jose Antonio Noguera; Paricio, Pascual Parilla

    2017-09-01

    Morbid obese patients have a high rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is related to the progression and poor evolution of chronic hepatopathy in NAFLD, so that its detection makes it possible to identify the subjects who are most at risk in order to prioritize treatment. The ELF test (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test; Siemens Diagnostics, NY, USA) has been assessed for its capacity to detect fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, but its capacity for diagnosing NASH has not been checked. Our objective is to determine the utility of the ELF test for detecting NASH in morbid obese patients with suspected NAFLD. ELF values were determined in a cohort of obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery with suspected NAFLD. Liver biopsy was used as the reference standard. The values of ELF were significantly higher in patients with NASH (p = 0.002) and in those who presented with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.047). An ELF cut-off point of 8.72 allows the detection of patients with NASH with a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 74.1% (AUC = 0.742, p = 0.002). The ELF test is efficient for the identification of obese patients with NAFLD and early signs of steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

  7. Delay in treatment of biliary disease during pregnancy increases morbidity and can be avoided with safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Muench, J; Albrink, M; Serafini, F; Rosemurgy, A; Carey, L; Murr, M M

    2001-06-01

    Recent reports indicate that laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy is safe. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether delays in definitive treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis increase morbidity. We reviewed the records of 16 women who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy between 1992 and 1999. Mean age was 24 +/- 5 years (mean +/- standard error). Symptom onset was during the first trimester in nine patients, second trimester in six patients, and third trimester in one patient. Patients had abdominal pain (93%), nausea (93%), emesis (80%), and fever (66%) for a median of 45 days (range 1-195 days) before cholecystectomy. Nine of 11 women who underwent cholecystectomy more than 5 weeks after onset of symptoms experienced recurrent attacks necessitating 15 hospital admissions and four emergency room visits. Moreover four women who developed symptoms in the first and second trimesters but whose operations were delayed to the third trimester had 11 hospital admissions and four emergency room visits; three of those four (75%) women developed premature contractions necessitating tocolytics. Cholecystectomy was completed laparoscopically in 14 women. There was no hospital infant or maternal mortality or morbidity. We recommend prompt laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnant women with symptomatic biliary disease because it is safe and it reduces hospital admissions and frequency of premature labor.

  8. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Gemma Aragonès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3 in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18, simple steatosis (SS, n = 20, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17. Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  9. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  10. Collaboration between specialties for respiratory allergies in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11.

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises; Linzer, Jeffrey F; Chalmers, Robert J G; Demoly, Pascal

    2017-02-10

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) has been grouping the allergic and hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract under topographic distribution, regardless of the underlying mechanisms, triggers or concepts currently in use for allergic and hypersensitivity conditions. In order to strengthen awareness and deliberate the creation of the new "Allergic or hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract" section of the ICD-11, we here propose make the building process public. The new frame has been constructed to cover the gaps previously identified and was based on consensus academic reports and ICD-11 principles. Constant and bilateral discussion was kept with relevant groups representing specialties and resulted in proposals submission into the ICD-11 online platform. The "Allergic or hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract" section covers 64 entities distributed across five main categories. All the 79 proposals submitted resulted from an intensive collaboration of the Allergy working group, relevant Expert working groups and the WHO ICD governance. The establishment of the ICD-11 "Allergic or hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract" section will allow the dissemination of the updated concepts to be used in clinical practice by many different specialties and health professionals.

  11. [Prevalence and risk factors of respiratory viral infection in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Du, X B; Ma, X; Gao, Y; Wen, L F; Li, J; Wang, Z Z; Liu, S

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Methods: Eighty patients with exacerbations of COPD and 50 stable COPD patients were recruited. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for a range of 18 different respiratory viruses using PCR. Results: Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 18 episodes (22.5%) . The most common virus was rhinovirus (33.3%), followed by coronavirus(27.8%), parainfluenza(22.2%), metapneumovirus(11.1%) and influenza virus B(5.6%). The prevalence of viral infection was 8% in the stable COPD patients. In multivariate regression analysis fever was found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 4.99, 95% CI 1.51-16.48, P =0.008). Conclusion: Viral respiratory pathogens were more often detected in respiratory specimens from hospitalized patients with AECOPD than those with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common infecting agent identified. The symptom of fever was associated with viral detection.

  12. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    Yingying Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT. Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents.

  13. Eicosanoids and Respiratory Viral Infection: Coordinators of Inflammation and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Mary K. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are frequent causes of respiratory infection, and viral respiratory infections are significant causes of hospitalization, morbidity, and sometimes mortality in a variety of patient populations. Lung inflammation induced by infection with common respiratory pathogens such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus is accompanied by increased lung production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, lipid mediators with a wide range of effects on host immune function. Deficiency or pharmacologic inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene production often results in a dampened inflammatory response to acute infection with a respiratory virus. These mediators may, therefore, serve as appealing therapeutic targets for disease caused by respiratory viral infection.

  14. Shift work and cardiovascular disease - pathways from circadian stress to morbidity.

    Puttonen, Sampsa; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer

    2010-03-01

    In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we need to verify the pathways from the former to the latter. This paper aims to review the current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance, and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioral changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.

  15. Hippocampal sclerosis of aging, a prevalent and high-morbidity brain disease

    Smith, Charles D.; Abner, Erin L.; Wilfred, Bernard J.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Neltner, Janna H.; Baker, Michael; Fardo, David W.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jellinger, Kurt A.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a causative factor in a large proportion of elderly dementia cases. The current definition of HS-Aging rests on pathologic criteria: neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal formation that is out of proportion to AD-type pathology. HS-Aging is also strongly associated with TDP-43 pathology. HS-Aging pathology appears to be most prevalent in the oldest-old: autopsy series indicate that 5–30 % of nonagenarians have HS-Aging pathology. Among prior studies, differences in study design have contributed to the study-to-study variability in reported disease prevalence. The presence of HS-Aging pathology correlates with significant cognitive impairment which is often misdiagnosed as AD clinically. The antemortem diagnosis is further confounded by other diseases linked to hippocampal atrophy including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and cerebrovascular pathologies. Recent advances characterizing the neurocognitive profile of HS-Aging patients have begun to provide clues that may help identify living individuals with HS-Aging pathology. Structural brain imaging studies of research subjects followed to autopsy reveal hippocampal atrophy that is substantially greater in people with eventual HS-Aging pathology, compared to those with AD pathology alone. Data are presented from individuals who were followed with neurocognitive and neuroradiologic measurements, followed by neuropathologic evaluation at the University of Kentucky. Finally, we discuss factors that are hypothesized to cause or modify the disease. We conclude that the published literature on HS-Aging provides strong evidence of an important and under-appreciated brain disease of aging. Unfortunately, there is no therapy or preventive strategy currently available. PMID:23864344

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Finkelstein1, Eunme Cha1, Steven M Scharf 21Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USARationale: Recent studies described association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In their analysis none of these studies accounted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and patient comorbidities simultaneously.Objective: To study whether COPD diagnosis is an independent risk factor for CVD. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years and older (N = 18,342 from the sample adult file of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included in the analysis. Chi-squared tests and odds ratios (OR were utilized to compare the data. Multiple logistic regression was employed to analyze the association between COPD and CVD with simultaneous control for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race, marital status, education, income, health behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and patient comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity. The analysis employed NHIS sampling weights to generate data representative of the entire US population.Results: The COPD population had increased prevalence of CVD (56.5% vs 25.6%; P < 0.0001. Adjusted logistic regression showed that COPD patients (N = 958 were at higher risk of having coronary heart disease (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.5, angina (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6–2.7, myocardial infarction (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8, stroke (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1, congestive heart failure (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.8–5.5, poor circulation in lower extremities (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 2.0–3.0, and arrhythmia (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0–2.8. Overall, the presence of COPD increased the odds of having CVD by a factor of

  17. Serum C-reactive protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with bacterial respiratory diseases.

    Viitanen, S J; Laurila, H P; Lilja-Maula, L I; Melamies, M A; Rantala, M; Rajamäki, M M

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute-phase protein in dogs. Serum concentrations are low in healthy animals, but increase rapidly after inflammatory stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate CRP concentrations in various respiratory diseases of dogs and to determine if CRP can be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of bacterial respiratory diseases. A total of 106 privately owned dogs with respiratory diseases (17 with bacterial tracheobronchitis [BTB], 20 with chronic bronchitis [CB], 20 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy [EBP], 12 with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [CIPF], 15 with cardiogenic pulmonary edema [CPE], and 22 with bacterial pneumonia [BP]) and 72 healthy controls. The study was conducted as a prospective cross-sectional observational study. CRP was measured in serum samples. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic imaging, and selected diagnostic methods such as cytological and microbiological analysis of respiratory samples, echocardiography, and histopathology. Dogs with BP had significantly higher CRP concentrations (median, 121 mg/L; interquartile range, 68-178 mg/L) than dogs with BTB (23, 15-38, P = .0003), CB (13, 8-14, P < .0001), EBP (5, 5-15, P < .0001), CIPF (17, 10-20, P < .0001), or CPE (19, 13-32, P < .0001) and healthy controls (14, 8-20, P < .0001). Dogs with BTB had significantly higher CRP concentrations than dogs with CB (P = .001) or EBP (P < .0001) and healthy controls (P = .029). These results indicate that CRP has potential for use as an additional biomarker, especially in the diagnostics of BP. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Social position and mortality from respiratory diseases in males and females

    Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    ). Although smoking rates were inversely associated with the level of education, the social gradient was not affected by adjustment for smoking. In males, but not in females, there was an additional effect of other indicators of social position, i.e. employment grade (white collar versus blue collar...... disease, which is independent of smoking and is stronger in males. Social disadvantage is a potentially avoidable cause of death from respiratory disease and further research is needed to explain the excess risk in the socioeconomically disadvantaged....

  19. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    Sasaki, Hideo; Noma, Koji; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1986-01-01

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    Kazankov, Konstantin; Tordjman, Joan; Møller, Holger Jon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a specific marker of macrophage activation. We aimed to measure sCD163 in morbidly obese patients with varying degrees of NAFLD before and after bariatric surgery (BS...... (NAS), Kleiner fibrosis score, and the fatty liver inhibition of progression (FLIP) algorithm. In a subset, CD163 immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for CD163 mRNA were performed. RESULTS: sCD163 was higher in patients with NAS ≥ 5 compared with those with NAS ...). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and biochemical data, and plasma sCD163 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, of 196 patients were collected preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after BS leading to significant weight loss. Peroperative liver biopsies were assessed for the NAFLD Activity Score...

  1. Chronic Respiratory Diseases in the Regions of Northern Russia: Epidemiological Distinctions in the Results of a National Population Study.

    Gambaryan, Marine H; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Deev, Alexander D; Drapkina, Oxana M

    2017-07-26

    The aim of the study is to investigate the epidemiological situation regarding chronic respiratory diseases in populations that inhabit different climatic-geographical regions of Russia, and to develop targeted programs for prevention of these diseases. (1) a comparative analysis of the standardized mortality data in Russia and other selected regions of the Russian North using the European standard for respiratory diseases, in a population aged 25-64; and (2) data from a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study, with subjects from three different climatic-geographical regions of Russia. (1) the respiratory disease-related mortality rates in the majority of Russian Northern regions were much higher compared to the national average. Although death rates from chronic lower respiratory diseases were higher among the Northern regions and in the whole of Russia relative to the countries of European Union (EU), the cause of death in the populations of the Northern regions tend to be lower respiratory infections and pneumonia; and (2) despite the absence of any significant differences in the prevalence of smoking, the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (COPD) is significantly higher in Far North Yakutsk compared to the other two regions in this study-Chelyabinsk and Vologda. The status of hyperborean had the highest chance of a significant contribution to COPD and cardiorespiratory pathology among all other risk factors. The results revealed a need for effective targeted strategies for primary and secondary prevention of chronic respiratory diseases for the populations of the Northern regions of Russia. The revealed regional distinctions regarding the prevalence of, and mortality from, chronic respiratory diseases should be taken into consideration when designing integrated programs for chronic non-communicable disease prevention in these regions.

  2. Pollution and respiratory consequences--Have we done enough?

    Mihălţan, Florin; Danciu, Lucia; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Pollution is the second major cause for many respiratory diseases, after smoking. For every country it is a challenging problem to diminish the exposure of their citizens. The authors are discussing the history of progressing of pollution in different countries, the interactions with some respiratory diseases, the influence on mortality and morbidity and the strategies in developing and developed countries for diminishing the level of the polluted particles.

  3. Dysregulation of the HPA axis as a core pathophysiology mediating co-morbid depression in neurodegenerative diseases

    Xin eDu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of prodromal manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. These affective symptoms may be observed many years before the core diagnostic symptoms of the neurological condition. It is becoming more apparent that depression is a significant modifying factor of the trajectory of disease progression, and even treatment outcomes. It is therefore crucial that we understand the potential pathophysiologies related to the primary condition, which could contribute to the development of depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key neuroendocrine signaling system involved in physiological homeostasis and stress response. Disturbances of this system lead to severe hormonal imbalances, and the majority of such patients also present with behavioural deficits and/or mood disorders. Dysregulation of the HPA axis is also strongly implicated in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Consistent with this, anti-depressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have been shown to alter HPA axis activity. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding HPA axis pathology in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, differentiating between prodromal and later stages of disease progression where possible. Both clinical and preclinical evidence will be examined, but we highlight animal model studies as being particularly useful for uncovering novel mechanisms of pathology related to co-morbid mood disorders. Finally, we purpose utilizing the pre-clinical evidence to better inform prospective, intervention studies.

  4. Pasteurella testudinis associated with respiratory disease and septicaemia in leopard (Geochelone pardalis and other tortoises in South Africa

    M.M. Henton

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded isolates of Pasteurella testudinis from South African tortoises kept in captivity is presented. P. testudinis was found in association with respiratory disease in affected animals.

  5. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    George Cosmin Nadas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders (nasal discharge aged 6 to 9 weeks in 2 series, using sterile swabs. Samples were initially inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar following the characteristics of the colonies and microscopic examination that enabled the identification of bacterial species. Isolated strains were used to flood Mueller-Hinton agar to carry out sensitivity testing. The antibiotics tested were represented by: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Florfenicol, Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Penicillin G, Cefquinone, Tulathromycin, Ceftiofur, Tylosin and Cephalotin. Results: Genus Streptococcus have been identified in 23 samples, followed by Staphylococcus identified in 14 samples, and Bacillus spp., in 10 nasal swabs; The most common bacteria associations were represented by Streptococcus-Staphylococcus, Streptococcus-Staphylococcus-Bacillus, and Streptococcus-E.coli. The most efficient antibiotic was Cefquinome (Cobactan, followed by Penicillin G and Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav; the least effective antibiotics were Florfenicol and Tulathromycin. Conclusions: The study carried out on nasal discharge samples collected from calves with respiratory disorders and their antimicrobial profile testing led to the following conclusions: 1 Low susceptibility to Florfenicol is caused by previous treatments when this molecule was excessively used and without prior sensitivity testing. 2 Cefquinome may represent an emergency therapeutic antibiotic for respiratory

  7. A Comparative Study of Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors for Adverse Outcome in Patients Hospitalised with Acute Respiratory Disease Due to MERS Coronavirus or Other Causes.

    Musa A Garbati

    Full Text Available Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR. Health care workers (HCW with MERS were compared with MERS patients who were not health care workers. One hundred and fifty nine patients were eligible for inclusion. Forty eight tested positive for MERS CoV, 44 (92% being hospital acquired infections and 23 were HCW. There were 111 MERS-CoV negative patients with acute respiratory illnesses included in this study as "negative controls". Patient with confirmed MERS-CoV infection were not clinically distinguishable from those with negative MERS-CoV RT-PCR results although diarrhoea was commoner in MERS patients. A high level of suspicion in initiating laboratory tests for MERS-CoV is therefore indicated. Variables associated with adverse outcome were older age and diabetes as a co-morbid illness. Interestingly, co-morbid illnesses other than diabetes were not significantly associated with poor outcome. Health care workers with MERS had a markedly better clinical outcome compared to non HCW MERS patients.

  8. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Hussein Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood, fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks, incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM. PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP, those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease.

  9. High frequency analysis of cough sounds in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases.

    Kosasih, K; Abeyratne, U R; Swarnkar, V

    2012-01-01

    Cough is a common symptom in a range of respiratory diseases and is considered a natural defense mechanism of the body. Despite its critical importance in the diagnosis of illness, there are no golden methods to objectively assess cough. In a typical consultation session, a physician may briefly listen to the cough sounds using a stethoscope placed against the chest. The physician may also listen to spontaneous cough sounds via naked ears, as they naturally propagate through air. Cough sounds carry vital information on the state of the respiratory system but the field of cough analysis in clinical medicine is in its infancy. All existing cough analysis approaches are severely handicapped by the limitations of the human hearing range and simplified analysis techniques. In this paper, we address these problems, and explore the use of frequencies covering a range well beyond the human perception (up to 90 kHz) and use wavelet analysis to extract diagnostically important information from coughs. Our data set comes from a pediatric respiratory ward in Indonesia, from subjects diagnosed with asthma, pneumonia and rhinopharyngitis. We analyzed over 90 cough samples from 4 patients and explored if high frequencies carried useful information in separating these disease groups. Multiple regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 77-82% at high frequencies (15 kHz-90 kHz) indicating that they carry useful information. When the high frequencies were combined with frequencies below 15kHz, the R(2) performance increased to 85-90%.

  10. Confronting the effects of smoking and air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases

    Jedrychowski, W; Krzyzanowski, M W; Wojtyniak, B

    1985-08-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to compare the effects of outdoor and indoor air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases measured in the prospective study of chronic chest diseases among the inhabitants of Cracow, Poland. The 5-year follow-up study covered a probability sample of 4355 adult inhabitants. Data on respiratory symptoms and lung function in addition to variables related to environmental and socioeconomic factors were included. To assess the separate and joint effects of the chosen environmental factors on chronic chest problems, the multiple logistic regression analysis has been carried out. As expected, smoking habit was the strongest single of the factors related to the persistence of the respiratory symptoms. The effect of smoking was more marked in men than in women and this can be attributed to longer duration of smoking and more cigarettes smoked daily by men. Out of all considered adverse occupational factors only chemicals increased the risk of chronic bronchitis in men while dust increased the risk of exacerbations in women. The data showed a significant decrease in risk of exacerbations among the women who used a gas stove for cooking. The study also confirmed the harmful effect of smoking on lung function. Against this particular background the importance of variable temperature combined with ambient air pollution appeared to have rather strong detrimental biologic impact.

  11. How to adapt the pulmonary rehabilitation programme to patients with chronic respiratory disease other than COPD

    Anne E. Holland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnoea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, peripheral muscle dysfunction and mood disorders are common features of many chronic respiratory disorders. Pulmonary rehabilitation successfully treats these manifestations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and emerging evidence suggests that these benefits could be extended to other chronic respiratory conditions, although adaptations to the standard programme format may be required. Whilst the benefits of exercise training are well established in asthma, pulmonary rehabilitation can also provide evidence-based interventions including breathing techniques and self-management training. In interstitial lung disease, a small number of trials show improved exercise capacity, symptoms and quality of life following pulmonary rehabilitation, which is a positive development for patients who may have few treatment options. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, exercise training is safe and effective if patients are stable on medical therapy and close supervision is provided. Pulmonary rehabilitation for bronchiectasis, including exercise training and airway clearance techniques, improves exercise capacity and quality of life. In nonsmall cell lung cancer, a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach is required to ensure the success of pulmonary rehabilitation following surgery. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes provide important and underutilised opportunities to improve the integrated care of people with chronic respiratory disorders other than COPD.

  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  13. Characteristics of respiratory tract disease in horses inoculated with equine rhinitis A virus.

    Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hewson, Joanne; Shewen, Patricia; Nagy, Eva; Viel, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection. 8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV. PROCEDURES-Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables. ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later. Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.

  14. Comparison of chest radiography and static respiratory compliance in the assessment of the severity of pulmonary diseases in newborns with respiratory distress

    Lischka, A.; Coradello, H.; Simbruner, G.; Popow, C.

    1984-01-01

    In 55 newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) we compared chest radiographs and static respiratory compliance to see which of the two methods would best characterize the severity of pulmonary disease. There was a significant correlation between radiological score and compliance (rsub(s)=-0.5776, n=55, p=0.001). Healthy newborns, newborns with RDS who did not need artificial ventilation and those newborns who needed respirator treatment had significantly different values of radiological score and compliance. RDS may be differentiated into groups of diagnoses. New-borns with HMD could be separated from those with wet lung syndrome or aspiration pneumonia by analyzing the radiogram or measuring the compliance. When survivors are compared with those newborns who died, the static respiratory compliance alone could predict the final outcome. (orig.)

  15. Seasonal mortality variations of cardiovascular, respiratory and malignant diseases in the City of Belgrade

    Stanišić-Stojić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine seasonal variations in mortality resulting from cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancer, as well as to provide a review of environmental factors underlying such phenomenon. The herein presented study was conducted on the territory of Belgrade based on the data on daily mortality rates obtained from the Institute of Public Health in Belgrade for the period 2009-2014, as well as the data on annual mortality rates provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia for the period 2000-2014. The analysis of mortality variations was performed by the use of Theil-Sen method, smooth trend method and cubic spline interpolation, whereas desriptive tools, such as winter/summer ratio and dissimilarity index, were used to examine the seasonal pattern. According to the Institute of Public Health, over 113430 deaths were registered in Belgrade area for the period 2009-2014, out of which 53.25% is attributed to cardiovascular diseases, 4.01% to respiratory diseases and 27.50% to cancer. The annual mortality rates caused by cardiovascular diseases and cancer on the territory of Belgrade are among the highest ranking in Europe. The leading causes of death in the observed period included: cardiomyopathy, heart attack and stroke with accompanying complications, breast cancer in women, prostate and colorectal cancer in men, lung and bronchus cancer for both genders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular and respiratory mortality rates are significantly higher among people aged 65 and over, whereas more than one third of deaths caused by cancer is observed among younger people aged between 45 and 64 years. Research results show that seasonal variations were most pronounced in mortality resulting from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, with highest mortality rates recorded in February and March and lowest during the summer season. Also, the number of deaths due to

  16. Mortality among subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma at two respiratory disease clinics in Ontario

    Finkelstein, Murray M; Chapman, Kenneth R; McIvor, R Andrew; Sears, Malcolm R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common; however, mortality rates among individuals with these diseases are not well studied in North America. OBJECTIVE: To investigate mortality rates and risk factors for premature death among subjects with COPD. METHODS: Subjects were identified from the lung function testing databases of two academic respiratory disease clinics in Hamilton and Toronto, Ontario. Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the Ontario mortality registry between 1992 and 2002, inclusive. Standardized mortality ratios were computed. Poisson regression of standardized mortality ratios and proportional hazards regression were performed to examine the multivariate effect of risk factors on the standardized mortality ratios and mortality hazards. RESULTS: Compared with the Ontario population, all-cause mortality was approximately doubled among subjects with COPD, but was lower than expected among subjects with asthma. The risk of mortality in patients with COPD was related to cigarette smoking, to the presence of comorbid conditons of ischemic heart disease and diabetes, and to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease severity scores. Individuals living closer to traffic sources showed an elevated risk of death compared with those who lived further away from traffic sources. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates among subjects diagnosed with COPD were substantially elevated. There were several deaths attributed to asthma among subjects in the present study; however, overall, patients with asthma demonstrated lower mortality rates than the general population. Subjects with COPD need to be managed with attention devoted to both their respiratory disorders and related comorbidities. PMID:22187688

  17. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    Johnson, Reed F. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A. [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Yellayi, Srikanth [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Solomon, Jeffrey [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bohannon, Jordan K.; Janosko, Krisztina B.; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Blaney, Joseph E. [Office of the Scientific Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log{sub 10} PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease.

  18. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    Johnson, Reed F.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Yellayi, Srikanth; Solomon, Jeffrey; Bohannon, Jordan K.; Janosko, Krisztina B.; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt; Blaney, Joseph E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log 10 PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease

  19. Short-term effects of air pollution on lower respiratory diseases and forecasting by the group method of data handling

    Zhu, Wenjin; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhang, Wenyu; Sun, Donghuai

    2012-05-01

    Risk of lower respiratory diseases was significantly correlated with levels of monthly average concentration of SO2; NO2 and association rules have high lifts. In view of Lanzhou's special geographical location, taking into account the impact of different seasons, especially for the winter, the relations between air pollutants and the respiratory disease deserve further study. In this study the monthly average concentration of SO2, NO2, PM10 and the monthly number of people who in hospital because of lower respiratory disease from January 2001 to December 2005 are grouped equidistant and considered as the terms of transactions. Then based on the relational algebraic theory we employed the optimization relation association rule to mine the association rules of the transactions. Based on the association rules revealing the effects of air pollutants on the lower respiratory disease, we forecast the number of person who suffered from lower respiratory disease by the group method of data handling (GMDH) to reveal the risk and give a consultation to the hospital in Xigu District, the most seriously polluted district in Lanzhou. The data and analysis indicate that individuals may be susceptible to the short-term effects of pollution and thus suffer from lower respiratory diseases and this effect presents seasonal.

  20. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  1. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  2. Community matrons as problem-solvers for people living with multi-co-morbid disease.

    Randall, Sue; Thunhurst, Colin; Furze, Gill

    2016-12-02

    Working with patients in their own homes gives community matrons an advantage of seeing patients in the context of their everyday lives. This allows comprehensive assessment of need with an aim of promoting health or promoting stability for people living with chronic disease. Complex issues are resolved through problem-solving and this can result in patients being maintained in their own homes and thus in reduced unplanned hospitalisation. Data were collected from participants using semi-structured interviews and audio diaries. The sample comprised professionals: CMs (n=21), managers (n=4), former commissioners (n=2) and GPs (n=3); and patients (n=10) and their family carers (n=5). In this article, data from community matrons is discussed. Community matrons often drew on the social determinants model of health to problem solve and to create meaningful strategies that work for patients in their care. Raising awareness of the high-level skills of community matrons and promoting appreciation of the importance of a social determinants model of health is important in explaining why nurses are such a crucial element of the primary health care workforce.

  3. Extensive respiratory chain defects in inhibitory interneurones in patients with mitochondrial disease

    Lax, Nichola Z.; Grady, John; Laude, Alex; Chan, Felix; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; Gorman, Grainne; Whittaker, Roger G.; Ng, Yi; Cunningham, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Mitochondrial disorders are among the most frequently inherited cause of neurological disease and arise due to mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Currently, we do not understand the specific involvement of certain brain regions or selective neuronal vulnerability in mitochondrial disease. Recent studies suggest γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)‐ergic interneurones are particularly susceptible to respiratory chain dysfunction. In this neuropathological study, we assess the impact of mitochondrial DNA defects on inhibitory interneurones in patients with mitochondrial disease. Methods Histochemical, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays were performed on post‐mortem brain tissue from 10 patients and 10 age‐matched control individuals. We applied a quantitative immunofluorescent method to interrogate complex I and IV protein expression in mitochondria within GABAergic interneurone populations in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices. We also evaluated the density of inhibitory interneurones in serial sections to determine if cell loss was occurring. Results We observed significant, global reductions in complex I expression within GABAergic interneurones in frontal, temporal and occipital cortices in the majority of patients. While complex IV expression is more variable, there is reduced expression in patients harbouring m.8344A>G point mutations and POLG mutations. In addition to the severe respiratory chain deficiencies observed in remaining interneurones, quantification of GABAergic cell density showed a dramatic reduction in cell density suggesting interneurone loss. Conclusions We propose that the combined loss of interneurones and severe respiratory deficiency in remaining interneurones contributes to impaired neuronal network oscillations and could underlie development of neurological deficits, such as cognitive impairment and epilepsy, in mitochondrial disease. PMID:25786813

  4. A Holistic Approach to Climate and Health Research: Respiratory and Infectious Diseases

    Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.

  5. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  6. Diagnosis and epidemiology of respiratory system diseases due to plant dusts

    Goscicki, J.W.; Indulski, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Of the respiratory tract diseases - byssinosis - i.e. the disease diagnosed in textile industry workers has aroused interest and controversies for many years. In Western Europe Countries the USA, Egypt and Pakistan this disease was diagnosed in more than half of the workers employed at cotton processing. Epidemiological data imply that in Eastern and Middle Europe few authors diagnose byssinosis in the population exposed to vegetable dusts. In the Soviet Union, the greatest cotton producer in the world, processing the greatest amounts of this raw material in the textile industry, medical examinations carried out in different centres did not show byssinosis symptoms in textile workers, that would apply to Schilling's criteria. Vegetable dusts inherent in agricultural and food industry largely promote the occurrence of nonspecific respiratory tract diseases. They are diagnosed as chronic bronchitis, which at dusted workstations are the mean cause of sickness absenteeism. The preventive activities aimed at the reduction of hazardous effects of dust upon organism would consist mostly in application of technical measures, i.e. technological processes hermetization and ventilation and only in scarce cases - in the use of good antidust personal protective measures.

  7. The clinical impact of contemporary stress echocardiography in morbid obesity for the assessment of coronary artery disease.

    Shah, Benoy N; Zacharias, Konstantinos; Pabla, Jatinder S; Karogiannis, Nikolaos; Calicchio, Francesca; Balaji, Gothandaraman; Alhajiri, Abdalla; Ramzy, Ihab S; Elghamaz, Ahmed; Gurunathan, Sothinathan; Khattar, Rajdeep S; Senior, Roxy

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive cardiac imaging may suffer from poor image quality in morbidly obese individuals. This study aimed to determine the clinical value of contemporary stress echocardiography (SE) in morbidly obese patients referred for assessment of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This prospective, multicentre observational study was conducted in two district hospitals and one tertiary centre in London, UK. Individuals with body mass index ≥35 kg/m(2) referred for SE were evaluated. The percentage of patients with obstructive CAD on coronary angiography, following abnormal SE, was assessed. Patient outcomes were determined with follow-up for the composite end-point of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction and late revascularisation. Over a 13-month period, 209 morbidly obese patients underwent SE, and contrast agent was used in 96% of patients. A diagnostic result was obtained in 200/209 (96%) patients. Of 32 (15%) patients with inducible ischaemia, 25 underwent angiography, 22 (88%) had corresponding significant CAD and, of these, 16 (77%) underwent revascularisation. Conversely, only 2/157 patients (1.3%) with normal SE underwent angiography, and none underwent revascularisation. Over a mean follow-up period of 17.8±5.4 months, there were nine events. The annualised cardiac event rate after a normal SE was 0.95%. Events were more frequent in patients with inducible ischaemia versus those without ischaemia (5/32 (15.6%) vs 4/153 (2.6%); p=0.002). Ejection fraction <50% (HR 9.5; 95% CI 2.4 to 38.0; p=0.002) and inducible ischaemia (HR 9.4; 95% CI 2.5 to 35.8; p=0.001) were predictors of outcome on univariable Cox regression analysis. Contemporary SE has excellent feasibility and positive predictive value and resulted in appropriate risk stratification of symptomatic patients with significant obesity. A normal SE portends an excellent outcome over the short-intermediate term in this high-risk patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  8. Ball python nidovirus: a candidate etiologic agent for severe respiratory disease in Python regius.

    Stenglein, Mark D; Jacobson, Elliott R; Wozniak, Edward J; Wellehan, James F X; Kincaid, Anne; Gordon, Marcus; Porter, Brian F; Baumgartner, Wes; Stahl, Scott; Kelley, Karen; Towner, Jonathan S; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2014-09-09

    A severe, sometimes fatal respiratory disease has been observed in captive ball pythons (Python regius) since the late 1990s. In order to better understand this disease and its etiology, we collected case and control samples and performed pathological and diagnostic analyses. Electron micrographs revealed filamentous virus-like particles in lung epithelial cells of sick animals. Diagnostic testing for known pathogens did not identify an etiologic agent, so unbiased metagenomic sequencing was performed. Abundant nidovirus-like sequences were identified in cases and were used to assemble the genome of a previously unknown virus in the order Nidovirales. The nidoviruses, which were not previously known to infect nonavian reptiles, are a diverse order that includes important human and veterinary pathogens. The presence of the viral RNA was confirmed in all diseased animals (n = 8) but was not detected in healthy pythons or other snakes (n = 57). Viral RNA levels were generally highest in the lung and other respiratory tract tissues. The 33.5-kb viral genome is the largest RNA genome yet described and shares canonical characteristics with other nidovirus genomes, although several features distinguish this from related viruses. This virus, which we named ball python nidovirus (BPNV), will likely establish a new genus in Torovirinae subfamily. The identification of a novel nidovirus in reptiles contributes to our understanding of the biology and evolution of related viruses, and its association with lung disease in pythons is a promising step toward elucidating an etiology for this long-standing veterinary disease. Ball pythons are popular pets because of their diverse coloration, generally nonaggressive behavior, and relatively small size. Since the 1990s, veterinarians have been aware of an infectious respiratory disease of unknown cause in ball pythons that can be fatal. We used unbiased shotgun sequencing to discover a novel virus in the order Nidovirales that was

  9. Evaluation of disease and viral biomarkers as triggers for therapeutic intervention in respiratory mousepox - an animal model of smallpox.

    Parker, Scott; Chen, Nanhai G; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Hruby, Dennis; Jordan, Robert; Lanier, Randall; Painter, George; Painter, Wesley; Sagartz, John E; Schriewer, Jill; Mark Buller, R

    2012-04-01

    The human population is currently faced with the potential use of natural or recombinant variola and monkeypox viruses as biological weapons. Furthermore, the emergence of human monkeypox in Africa and its expanding environs poses a significant natural threat. Such occurrences would require therapeutic and prophylactic intervention with antivirals to minimize morbidity and mortality of exposed populations. Two orally-bioavailable antivirals are currently in clinical trials; namely CMX001, an ether-lipid analog of cidofovir with activity at the DNA replication stage and ST-246, a novel viral egress inhibitor. Both of these drugs have previously been evaluated in the ectromelia/mousepox system; however, the trigger for intervention was not linked to a disease biomarker or a specific marker of virus replication. In this study we used lethal, intranasal, ectromelia virus infections of C57BL/6 and hairless SKH1 mice to model human disease and evaluate exanthematous rash (rash) as an indicator to initiate antiviral treatment. We show that significant protection can be provided to C57BL/6 mice by CMX001 or ST-246 when therapy is initiated on day 6 post infection or earlier. We also show that significant protection can be provided to SKH1 mice treated with CMX001 at day 3 post infection or earlier, but this is four or more days before detection of rash (ST-246 not tested). Although in this model rash could not be used as a treatment trigger, viral DNA was detected in blood by day 4 post infection and in the oropharyngeal secretions (saliva) by day 2-3 post infection - thus providing robust and specific markers of virus replication for therapy initiation. These findings are discussed in the context of current respiratory challenge animal models in use for the evaluation of poxvirus antivirals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    Giancarlo Pesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men or increasing (in women, the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  11. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction

    Andell, Pontus; Koul, Sasha; Martinsson, Andreas; Sundström, Johan; Jernberg, Tomas; Smith, J Gustav; James, Stefan; Lindahl, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2014-01-01

    Aim To gain a better understanding of the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long-term mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and identify areas where the clinical care for these patients may be improved. Methods Patients hospitalised for MI between 2005 and 2010 were identified from the nationwide Swedish SWEDEHEART registry. Patients with MI and a prior COPD hospital discharge diagnosis were compared to patients with MI without a prior COPD hospital discharge diagnosis for the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality at 1 year after MI. Secondary endpoints included rates of reinfarction, new-onset stroke, new-onset bleeding and new-onset heart failure at 1 year. Results A total of 81 191 MI patients were included, of which 4867 (6%) had a COPD hospital discharge diagnosis at baseline. Patients with COPD showed a significantly higher unadjusted 1-year mortality (24.6 vs 13.8%) as well as a higher rate of reinfarction, new-onset bleeding and new-onset heart failure post-MI. After adjustment for potential confounders, including comorbidities and treatment, the patients with COPD still showed a significantly higher 1-year mortality (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.21) as well as a higher rate of new-onset heart failure (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.47), whereas no significant association between COPD and myocardial reinfarction or new-onset bleeding remained. Conclusions In this nationwide contemporary study, patients with COPD frequently had an atypical presentation, less often underwent revascularisation and less often received guideline-recommended secondary preventive medications of established benefit. Prior COPD was associated with a higher 1-year mortality and a higher risk of subsequent new-onset heart failure after MI. The association seems to be mainly explained by differences in background characteristics, comorbidities and treatment, although a minor part might be explained by COPD in itself. Improved in-hospital MI

  12. Increased vocal intensity due to the Lombard effect in speakers with Parkinson's disease: simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory strategies.

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T; Huber, Jessica E; Richardson, Kelly; Kamphaus, Jennifer; DeCicco, Devan; Darling, Meghan; Fulcher, Katrina; Sussman, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether speakers with hypophonia, secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD), would increases their vocal intensity when speaking in a noisy environment (Lombard effect). The other objective was to examine the underlying laryngeal and respiratory strategies used to increase vocal intensity. Thirty-three participants with PD were included for study. Each participant was fitted with the SpeechVive™ device that played multi-talker babble noise into one ear during speech. Using acoustic, aerodynamic and respiratory kinematic techniques, the simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms used to regulate vocal intensity were examined. Significant group results showed that most speakers with PD (26/33) were successful at increasing their vocal intensity when speaking in the condition of multi-talker babble noise. They were able to support their increased vocal intensity and subglottal pressure with combined strategies from both the laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms. Individual speaker analysis indicated that the particular laryngeal and respiratory interactions differed among speakers. The SpeechVive™ device elicited higher vocal intensities from patients with PD. Speakers used different combinations of laryngeal and respiratory physiologic mechanisms to increase vocal intensity, thus suggesting that disease process does not uniformly affect the speech subsystems. Readers will be able to: (1) identify speech characteristics of people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (2) identify typical respiratory strategies for increasing sound pressure level (SPL), (3) identify typical laryngeal strategies for increasing SPL, (4) define the Lombard effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of a respiratory rehabilitation programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Prunera-Pardell, María Jesús; Padín-López, Susana; Domenech-Del Rio, Adolfo; Godoy-Ramírez, Ana

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary respiratory rehabilitation (RR) programme in patients with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pre the RR programme, at the end of the programme and one year after the RR, measuring changes in ability to exercise (walking test), effort tolerance(forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) and health-related quality of life. Quasi-experimental single group design. We included patients diagnosed with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stages III and IV of the GOLD classification) who entered the rehabilitation programme for the years 2011 and 2012. Demographic data, questionnaires on general health-related quality of life (SF-36) and specific to respiratory patients (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire), FEV1% and exercise capacity test (running test 6minutes) were collected. Data were collected before the RR programme, at the end of the RR programme and a year after completing the program. No significant differences in FEV1% values were observed. Regarding exercise capacity, an increase in distance walked in the walking test was noted, which changed significantly after training, 377±59.7 to 415±79 m after one year (P<.01). A statistically significant improvement in mean scores of HRQoL was observed, except for the emotional role dimension of the SF-36 questionnaire. A pulmonary rehabilitation programme for 8 weeks improved the exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life of patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms, and allergic diseases: Four repeated surveys from 1993-2014.

    Brozek, Grzegorz; Lawson, Joshua; Szumilas, Dawid; Zejda, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Published data shows different prevalence trends depending on the region of Europe. The aim of the study was to analyze time trends of the frequency of the respiratory symptoms and allergic diseases in school children (Silesia, Poland) over the last 21 years. We compared the results of four population-based surveys performed in a town of Chorzow in 1993, 2002, 2007 and 2014 in children aged 7-10 years. All four studies had the same study protocol, recruitment (cluster, school-based sampling), questionnaire (WHO respiratory health questionnaire) and the same principal investigator The surveys included 1130 children in 1993, 1421 children in 2002, 1661 children in 2007 and 1698 in 2014. The results covered a 21 year span and showed a statistically significant (p increase in the prevalence of the following physician-diagnosed disorders (1993-2002-2007-2014): asthma (3.4%-4.8%-8.6%-12,6%); allergic rhinitis (4.3%-11.9%-15.9%-13.9%); atopic dermatitis (3.6%-7.9%-12.0%-13.9%); allergic conjunctivitis (4.3%-7.9%-8.3%-7.9%); A simultaneous increasing trend (p increased proportion of treated children (51.3%-51.3%-69.5%-60.7%) and a lower frequency of presenting current symptoms. Our findings are in line with the concept of a real increase in the occurrence of asthma and allergic disease in children. The pattern involves not only physician-diagnosed allergic diseases but also occurrence of symptoms related to respiratory disorders. Diagnosed asthma is better treated and better controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated respiratory and palliative care may improve outcomes in advanced lung disease

    Natasha Smallwood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The unaddressed palliative care needs of patients with advanced, nonmalignant, lung disease highlight the urgent requirement for new models of care. This study describes a new integrated respiratory and palliative care service and examines outcomes from this service. The Advanced Lung Disease Service (ALDS is a long-term, multidisciplinary, integrated service. In this single-group cohort study, demographic and prospective outcome data were collected over 4 years, with retrospective evaluation of unscheduled healthcare usage. Of 171 patients included, 97 (56.7% were male with mean age 75.9 years and 142 (83.0% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ALDS patients had severely reduced pulmonary function (median (interquartile range (IQR forced expiratory volume in 1 s 0.8 (0.6–1.1 L and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide 37.5 (29.0–48.0 % pred and severe breathlessness. All patients received nonpharmacological breathlessness management education and 74 (43.3% were prescribed morphine for breathlessness (median dose 9 mg·day−1. There was a 52.4% reduction in the mean number of emergency department respiratory presentations in the year after ALDS care commenced (p=0.007. 145 patients (84.8% discussed and/or completed an advance care plan. 61 patients died, of whom only 15 (24.6% died in an acute hospital bed. While this was a single-group cohort study, integrated respiratory and palliative care was associated with improved end-of-life care and reduced unscheduled healthcare usage.

  16. Active Video Games as a Training Tool for Individuals With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Butler, Stacey J; Lee, Annemarie L; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2018-02-26

    Exercise is an effective treatment for reducing symptom severity and improving quality of life for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Active video games offer a new and enjoyable way to exercise and have gained popularity in a rehabilitation setting. However, it is unclear whether they achieve comparable physiological and clinical effects as traditional exercise training. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that included an active video game component as a form of exercise training and a comparator group in chronic respiratory disease. Two assessors independently reviewed study quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and extracted data for exercise capacity, quality of life, and preference of exercise model. Six studies were included in this review. Because of the heterogeneity of the populations, study designs, length of intervention, and outcome measures, meta-analysis could not be performed. Active video game training resulted in comparable training maximal heart rate and dyspnea levels to those achieved when exercising using a treadmill or cycle (n = 5). There was insufficient evidence (n = 3) to determine whether active video game training improved exercise capacity as measured by 6-min walk test or treadmill endurance walking. Although the quality of evidence was low, in a small number of studies active video games induced peak heart rates and dyspnea levels comparable with traditional exercise training. Larger and longer-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the impact of video game training for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  17. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: A Rare Chronic Disease, Difficult to Treat, with Potential to Lung Cancer Transformation: Apropos of Two Cases and a Brief Literature Review

    Stamatis Katsenos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP, which is caused exclusively by human papilloma virus (HPV, is a rare condition characterized by recurrent growth of benign papillomata in the respiratory tract. The papillomata can occur anywhere in the aerodigestive tract but most frequently in the larynx, affecting both children and adults. The management of this entity remains still challenging since no specific definitive treatment exists. Nevertheless, novel surgical interventions as well as several adjuvant therapies have shown promising results in the long-term palliative management of this debilitating disease. Despite its mostly benign nature, RRP may cause significant morbidity and mortality because of its unpredictable clinical course and especially its tendency, albeit infrequent, for malignant transformation. In this article, we present two patients with RRP; one underwent bronchoscopic laser ablation in combination with inhaled interferon-alpha administration that led to a long-term regression of the disease while the other patient was diagnosed with transformation to squamous cell lung carcinoma with fatal outcome. We include a review of the current literature with special emphasis on RRP management and the potential role of HPV in the development of lung cancer.

  18. Chronic respiratory disease in adults treated for tuberculosis in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Osman, R K; Mortimer, K; Bjune, G; El Sony, A I

    2016-09-01

    Background: Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the global CRD epidemic collides with the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in many low- and middle-income country settings, the risk of TB-associated CRD is not well described in countries with a high burden of TB. Methods: We recruited 136 patients with a history of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) from the TB clinic at Omdurman Teaching Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan, and 136 age- and sex-matched community controls, between 28 July 2013 and 30 December 2013. Data were collected using standardised questionnaires and spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator. Results: The mean age of the subjects with previous PTB and controls was respectively 44.0 years (SD 8.5) and 44.5 years (SD 8.6), with 27.2% females in both groups. Chronic respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough (OR 6.67, 95%CI 2.98-14.90, P de tuberculose (TB) dans de nombreux pays à revenu faible ou moyen, le risque de MRC associée à la TB n'est pas bien décrit dans les pays durement frappés par la TB. Méthodes : Nous avons recruté 136 patients ayant des antécédents de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif dans le service de pneumologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Omdurman à Khartoum, Soudan, et 136 témoins de la communauté, appariés sur l'âge et le sexe, entre le 28 juillet 2013 et le 30 décembre 2013. Les données ont été recueillies grâce à des questionnaires standardisés ainsi qu'à une spirométrie avant et après bronchodilatateur. Résultats : L'âge moyen des cas et des témoins a été de 44,0 ans (DS 8,5) et 44,5 ans (DS 8,61), respectivement, avec 27,2% de femmes dans les deux groupes. Des symptômes respiratoires chroniques comme une toux chronique (OR 6,67 ; IC95% 2,98-14,90 ; P de TBP après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Conclusion : Les caractéristiques cliniques des MRC sont fortement associées à des ant

  19. 99Tcm-Technegas and krypton-81 m ventilation scintigraphy: a comparison in known respiratory disease

    James, J.M.; Lloyd, J.J.; Leahy, B.C.; Church, S.; Hardy, C.C.; Shields, R.A.; Prescott, M.C.; Testa, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The new radiopharmaceutical 99 Tc m -Technegas, a suspension of ultrafine technetium-99m labelled carbon particles, produces high-quality images of ventilation and has the advantage of continuous availability. Technegas was compared with krypton-81m gas in 40 patients with a variety of established respiratory diseases. Disparities were seen in five patients in five diagnostic groups and may be a consequence of differing physical properties of the two agents and the different inhalation techniques used. In addition, on the Technegas images, (1) Hot spots were seen in 50% of patients, particularly in those with a degree of airways obstruction; (2) preferential basal deposition of activity was seen in 30%, particularly in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Both features were significantly associated with parameters of pulmonary function indicating obstructive lung disease in the former case and restrictive lung disease in the latter. (author)

  20. Interactions of GST Polymorphisms in Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory Diseases and Allergies.

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Perret, Jennifer L; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from recently published original studies investigating how glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms modify the impact of air pollution on asthma, allergic diseases, and lung function. Current studies in epidemiological and controlled human experiments found evidence to suggest that GSTs modify the impact of air pollution exposure on respiratory diseases and allergies. Of the nine articles included in this review, all except one identified at least one significant interaction with at least one of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), or glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) genes and air pollution exposure. The findings of these studies, however, are markedly different. This difference can be partially explained by regional variation in the exposure levels and oxidative potential of different pollutants and by other interactions involving a number of unaccounted environment exposures and multiple genes. Although there is evidence of an interaction between GST genes and air pollution exposure for the risk of respiratory disease and allergies, results are not concordant. Further investigations are needed to explore the reasons behind the discordancy.

  1. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

    Sriskantharajah, Srividya; Hamblin, Nicole; Worsley, Sally; Calver, Andrew R; Hessel, Edith M; Amour, Augustin

    2013-03-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized in their pathogenesis by chronic inflammation in the airways. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), a lipid kinase expressed predominantly in leukocytes, is thought to hold much promise as a therapeutic target for such inflammatory conditions. Of particular interest for the treatment of severe respiratory disease is the observation that inhibition of PI3Kδ may restore steroid effectiveness under conditions of oxidative stress. PI3Kδ inhibition may also prevent recruitment of inflammatory cells, including T lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as the release of proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and proteolytic enzymes. In addition, targeting the PI3Kδ pathway could reduce the incidence of pathogen-induced exacerbations by improving macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance. In this review, we discuss the potential and highlight the unknowns of targeting PI3Kδ for the treatment of respiratory disease, focusing on recent developments in the role of the PI3Kδ pathway in inflammatory cell types believed to be critical to the pathogenesis of COPD. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Certainties and Uncertainties Facing Emerging Respiratory Infectious Diseases: Lessons from SARS

    Yee-Chun Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Every emerging infectious disease is a challenge to the whole of mankind. There are uncertainties regarding whether there will be a pandemic, if it will be caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, when or where it will occur, how imminent or how severe it will be. No one can accurately predict if and when a given virus will become a pandemic virus. Pandemic prevention strategies must be based on preparing for the unexpected and being capable of reacting accordingly. There is growing evidence that infection control measures were helpful in containment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS as well as avian influenza. Compliance of standard infection control measures, intensive promotion of hand and respiratory hygiene, vigilance and triage of patients with febrile illness, and specific infection control measures are key components to contain a highly contagious disease in hospital and to protect healthcare workers, patients and visitors. The importance of standard precautions for any patient and cleaning and disinfection for the healthcare environment cannot be overemphasized. SARS illustrated dramatically the potential of air travel and globalization for the dissemination of an emerging infectious disease. To prevent the potential serious consequences of pandemic influenza, timely implement