WorldWideScience

Sample records for respiratory control ratios

  1. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  2. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  3. Prediction of tonic parasympathetic cardiac control using respiratory sinus arrhythmia: the need for respiratory control

    GROSSMAN, P.; Karemaker, J.; Wieling, W.

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has received much attention in recent years due to the large body of evidence indicating that variations in this phenomenon represent alterations in parasympathetic cardiac control. Although it appears that respiratory sinus arrhythmia is mediated by vagal

  4. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups means absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space.

  5. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  6. 13C/12C natural abundance ratios as an indicator of changes in plant respiratory pathways

    Smith, B.N.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in metabolism which involve a shift in endogenous respiratory substrate can be detected from isotopic ratios of respired CO 2 . Various plant tissues including seedlings, flowers and storage tissues, which during development or in response to environmental stimulus experience a change in metabolism, have been examined. Respiratory CO 2 was collected in a series of traps from a stream of CO 2 -free air. Biochemical fractions were combusted at 800 0 C and the CO 2 recovered for analysis. Samples were then analyzed on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Due to large isotopic differences between lipid and carbohydrate fractions, change from one to the other as respiratory substrate can be detected. Storage starch in potato tuber seems not to be utilized for respiration until the stimulus for new growth is received. Similarly, the time of onset of lipid utilization in fatty seeds can be detected during germination. Flowering in the Araceae involves a great burst of carbohydrate-base respiration followed by a shift to lipid metabolism. The endogenous source of ethylene in peanuts and the extent of CO 2 refixation during photorespiration has also been estimated by this technique

  7. Respiratory

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  8. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  9. Influence of Low Peak Respiratory Exchange Ratio on Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Lee, Ki Hoon; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Sang Jae

    2016-12-01

    To compare and analyze the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in two groups based on the peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER peak ) 1.1 values using the exercise tolerance test (ETT) results, and to investigate the reasons for early termination of ETT. Patients with acute coronary syndrome who participated in CR exercise training were selected and all subjects underwent 6 weeks of CR exercise training. ETT was performed on a treadmill using a Modified Bruce Protocol before and after CR exercise training. According to the result of the first ETT, the subjects were divided into two groups: those with an RER peak ≥1.1 (n=33) and those with an RER peak rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and RPP (rate pressure product) at stage 3 decreased in both the RER peak means that patients with a lower exercise tolerance could also benefit from the effects of CR. Thoughtful consideration to identify the direct and indirect causes for the early termination of ETT would be necessary to improve the efficiency of CR.

  10. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic rate as predictors of weight gain : the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging

    Seidell, J C; Muller, D C; Sorkin, J D; Andres, R.

    The authors followed 775 men (aged 18-98 years) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study in Aging for an average of ten years. Resting metabolic rate and fasting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured by indirect calorimetry on their first visit and related to subsequent weight

  11. A comparison of volume control and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Guldager, Henrik; Nielsen, Soeren L; Carl, Peder; Soerensen, Mogens B

    1997-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a new mode of ventilation (pressure-regulated volume control; PRVC) is associated with improvements in respiratory mechanics and outcome when compared with conventional volume control (VC) ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. We conducted a randomised, prospective, open, cross over trial on 44 patients with acute respiratory failure in the general intensive care unit of a university hospital. After a stabiliz...

  12. Effect of Intermittent Hypercapnia on Respiratory Control in Rat Pups

    Steggerda, Justin A.; Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; Wilson, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Preterm infants are subject to fluctuations in blood gas status associated with immature respiratory control. Intermittent hypoxia during early postnatal life has been shown to increase chemoreceptor sensitivity and destabilize the breathing pattern; however, intermittent hypercapnia remains poorly studied. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypercapnia results in altered respiratory control, we examined the effects of daily exposure to intermittent hypercapnia on the ventilatory response to subsequent hypercapnic and hypoxic exposure in neonatal rat pups. Exposure cycles consisted of 5 min of intermittent hypercapnia (5% CO2, 21% O2, balance N2) followed by 10 min of normoxia. Rat pups were exposed to 18 exposure cycles each day for 1 week, from postnatal day 7 to 14. We analyzed diaphragm electromyograms (EMGs) from pups exposed to subsequent acute hypercapnic (5% CO2) and hypoxic (12% O2) challenges. In response to a subsequent hypercapnia challenge, there was no significant difference in the ventilatory response between control and intermittent hypercapnia-exposed groups. In contrast, intermittent hypercapnia-exposed rat pups showed an enhanced ventilatory response to hypoxic challenge with an increase in minute EMG to 118 ± 14% of baseline versus 107 ± 13% for control pups (p < 0.05). We speculate that prior hypercapnic exposure may increase peripheral chemoreceptor response to subsequent hypoxic exposures and result in perturbed neonatal respiratory control. PMID:19752577

  13. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan.

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Zhao, Yun; Hiramatsu, Tetsuo; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-26

    To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women), aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory function. Information on demographics, lifestyle characteristics and habitual food consumption was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Total soy consumption was positively correlated with observed lung function measures. The mean soy intake was significantly higher among controls (59.98, SD 50.23 g/day) than cases (44.84, SD 28.5 g/day). A significant reduction in COPD risk was evident for highest versus lowest quartile of daily intake of total soybean products, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.392, 95% CI 0.194-0.793, p for trend 0.001. Similar decreases in COPD risk were associated with frequent and higher intake of soy foods such as tofu and bean sprouts, whereas respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with high consumption of soy foods, especially for breathlessness (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.982-0.996). Increasing soy consumption was associated with a decreased risk of COPD and breathlessness.

  14. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Investigating parameters participating in the infant respiratory control system attractor.

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, any participating parameter in a non-linear system represents the dynamics of the whole system. Taken's time delay embedding theory provides the fundamental basis for allowing non-linear analysis to be performed on physiological, time-series data. In practice, only one measurable parameter is required to be measured to convey an accurate representation of the system dynamics. In this paper, the infant respiratory control system is represented using three variables-a digitally sampled respiratory inductive plethysmography waveform, and the derived parameters tidal volume and inter-breath interval time series data. For 14 healthy infants, these data streams were analysed using recurrence plot analysis across one night of sleep. The measured attractor size of these variables followed the same qualitative trends across the nights study. Results suggest that the attractor size measures of the derived IBI and tidal volume are representative surrogates for the raw respiratory waveform. The extent to which the relative attractor sizes of IBI and tidal volume remain constant through changing sleep state could potentially be used to quantify pathology, or maturation of breathing control.

  16. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  17. Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio

    Mcgroarty, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.

  18. Effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections: open randomised controlled trial.

    Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract

  19. The Probability of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome as a Function of Gestational Age and Lecithin/Sphingomyelin Ratio

    St. Clair, Caryn; Norwitz, Errol R.; Woensdregt, Karlijn; Cackovic, Michael; Shaw, Julia A.; Malkus, Herbert; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Illuzzi, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to define the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) as a function of both lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and gestational age. Amniotic fluid L/S ratio data were collected from consecutive women undergoing amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity at Yale-New Haven Hospital from January 1998 to December 2004. Women were included in the study if they delivered a live-born, singleton, nonanomalous infant within 72 hours of amniocentesis. The probability of RDS was modeled using multivariate logistic regression with L/S ratio and gestational age as predictors. A total of 210 mother-neonate pairs (8 RDS, 202 non-RDS) met criteria for analysis. Both gestational age and L/S ratio were independent predictors of RDS. A probability of RDS of 3% or less was noted at an L/S ratio cutoff of ≥3.4 at 34 weeks, ≥2.6 at 36 weeks, ≥1.6 at 38 weeks, and ≥1.2 at term. Under 34 weeks of gestation, the prevalence of RDS was so high that a probability of 3% or less was not observed by this model. These data describe a means of stratifying the probability of neonatal RDS using both gestational age and the L/S ratio and may aid in clinical decision making concerning the timing of delivery. PMID:18773379

  20. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  1. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  3. Alternative Observers for SI Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Control

    Hendricks, Elbert; Poulsen, Jannik; Olsen, Mads Bruun

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work it has been shown that a nonlinear observer based on the use of the manifold pressure state equation and a nonlinear fuel film compensator can maintain accurate A/F ratio control during both steady state and transient operation. This observer may be called a manifold absolute pres...... engine control system designer with a variety of robust control systems which can easily be made redundant in order to satisfy newer engine emissions and diagnosis requirements and legislation...

  4. Optimal control problem in correlation between smoking and epidemic of respiratory diseases

    Aldila, D.; Apri, M.

    2014-02-01

    Smoking appears to be a risk factor that may increase the number of different pulmonary infections. This link is likely to be mediated by smoking adverse effects on the respiratory defenses. A mathematical model to describe correlation between the number of smokers and its effect on the number of infected people suffer from respiratory disease like influenza is constructed in this paper. Promotion of healthy life is accounted in the model as an optimal control problem to reduce the number of smokers. In this work, the transition rates from smokers to non-smokers and from non-smokers to smokers are regarded as the control variables. Assuming the control variables are constant, equilibrium points of the model can be obtained analytically. The basic reproductive ratio as the endemic threshold is taken from the spectral radius of the next-generation matrix. Using numerical simulation, we show that the healthy life promotion can reduce the number of infected person significantly by reducing the number of smokers. Furthermore, different initial conditions to show different situations in the field are also simulated. It is shown that a large effort to increase the transition rate from smokers to non-smokers and to reduce the transition from non-smokers to smokers should be applied in the endemic reduction scenario.

  5. Should Controls With Respiratory Symptoms Be Excluded From Case-Control Studies of Pneumonia Etiology? Reflections From the PERCH Study.

    Higdon, Melissa M; Hammitt, Laura L; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Driscoll, Amanda J; Karron, Ruth A; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Zeger, Scott L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    Many pneumonia etiology case-control studies exclude controls with respiratory illness from enrollment or analyses. Herein we argue that selecting controls regardless of respiratory symptoms provides the least biased estimates of pneumonia etiology. We review 3 reasons investigators may choose to exclude controls with respiratory symptoms in light of epidemiologic principles of control selection and present data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study where relevant to assess their validity. We conclude that exclusion of controls with respiratory symptoms will result in biased estimates of etiology. Randomly selected community controls, with or without respiratory symptoms, as long as they do not meet the criteria for case-defining pneumonia, are most representative of the general population from which cases arose and the least subject to selection bias. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  7. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan, E-mail: aravinds@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: erath@iitk.ac.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    2017-04-15

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)

  8. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)

  9. Fault Tolerance Automotive Air-Ratio Control Using Extreme Learning Machine Model Predictive Controller

    Pak Kin Wong; Hang Cheong Wong; Chi Man Vong; Tong Meng Iong; Ka In Wong; Xianghui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Effective air-ratio control is desirable to maintain the best engine performance. However, traditional air-ratio control assumes the lambda sensor located at the tail pipe works properly and relies strongly on the air-ratio feedback signal measured by the lambda sensor. When the sensor is warming up during cold start or under failure, the traditional air-ratio control no longer works. To address this issue, this paper utilizes an advanced modelling technique, kernel extreme learning machine (...

  10. Prevalence and clinical significance of respiratory viruses and bacteria detected in tuberculosis patients compared to household contact controls in Tanzania: a cohort study.

    Mhimbira, F; Hiza, H; Mbuba, E; Hella, J; Kamwela, L; Sasamalo, M; Ticlla, M; Said, K; Mhalu, G; Chiryamkubi, M; Schindler, C; Reither, K; Gagneux, S; Fenner, L

    2018-03-23

    To describe the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in tuberculosis (TB) patients and in their household contact controls, and to determine the clinical significance of respiratory pathogens in TB patients. We studied 489 smear-positive adult TB patients and 305 household contact controls without TB with nasopharyngeal swab samples within an ongoing prospective cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2013 and 2015. We used multiplex real-time PCR to detect 16 respiratory viruses and seven bacterial pathogens from nasopharyngeal swabs. The median age of the study participants was 33 years; 61% (484/794) were men, and 21% (168/794) were HIV-positive. TB patients had a higher prevalence of HIV (28.6%; 140/489) than controls (9.2%; 28/305). Overall prevalence of respiratory viral pathogens was 20.4% (160/794; 95%CI 17.7-23.3%) and of bacterial pathogens 38.2% (303/794; 95%CI 34.9-41.6%). TB patients and controls did not differ in the prevalence of respiratory viruses (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.00, 95%CI 0.71-1.44), but respiratory bacteria were less frequently detected in TB patients (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53-0.94). TB patients with both respiratory viruses and respiratory bacteria were likely to have more severe disease (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.4; p 0.011). TB patients with respiratory viruses tended to have more frequent lung cavitations (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 0.93-2.7; p 0.089). Respiratory viruses are common for both TB patients and household controls. TB patients may present with more severe TB disease, particularly when they are co-infected with both bacteria and viruses. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of volume control and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Guldager, Henrik; Nielsen, Soeren L; Carl, Peder; Soerensen, Mogens B

    1997-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a new mode of ventilation (pressure-regulated volume control; PRVC) is associated with improvements in respiratory mechanics and outcome when compared with conventional volume control (VC) ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. We conducted a randomised, prospective, open, cross over trial on 44 patients with acute respiratory failure in the general intensive care unit of a university hospital. After a stabilization period of 8 h, a cross over trial of 2 × 2 h was conducted. Apart from the PRVC/VC mode, ventilator settings were comparable. The following parameters were recorded for each patient: days on ventilator, failure in the assigned mode of ventilation (peak inspiratory pressure > 50 cmH2O) and survival. Results: In the crossover trial, peak inspiratory pressure was significantly lower using PRVC than with VC (20 cmH2O vs 24 cmH2O, P < 0.0001). No other statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: Peak inspiratory pressure was significantly lower during PRVC ventilation than during VC ventilation, and thus PRVC may be superior to VC in certain patients. However, in this small group of patients, we could not demonstrate that PRVC improved outcome. PMID:11056699

  12. Respiratory system

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  13. Control and prevention of healthcare-associated tuberculosis: the role of respiratory isolation and personal respiratory protection.

    Humphreys, H

    2007-05-01

    Although the prevalence of tuberculosis continues to decline in most developed countries, the risk of healthcare-associated tuberculosis, remains for patients or healthcare staff. Outbreaks of healthcare-associated tuberculosis are usually associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment, or the care of patients in sub-optimal facilities. The control and prevention of tuberculosis in hospitals is best achieved by three approaches, namely administrative (early investigation diagnosis, etc.), engineering (physical facilities e.g. ventilated isolation rooms) and personal respiratory protection (face sealing masks which are filtered). Recent guidelines on the prevention of tuberculosis in healthcare facilities from Europe and the USA have many common themes. In the UK, however, negative pressure isolation rooms are recommended only for patients with suspected multi-drug resistant TB and personal respiratory protection, i.e. filtered masks, are not considered necessary unless multi-drug resistant TB is suspected, or where aerosol-generating procedures are likely. In the US, the standard of care for patients with infectious tuberculosis is a negative pressure ventilated room and the use of personal respiratory protection for all healthcare workers entering the room of a patient with suspected or confirmed tuberculosis. The absence of clinical trials in this area precludes dogmatic recommendations. Nonetheless, observational studies and mathematical modelling suggest that all measures are required for effective prevention. Even when policies and facilities are optimal, there is a need to regularly review and audit these as sometimes compliance is less than optimal. The differences in recommendations may reflect the variations in epidemiology and the greater use of BCG vaccination in the UK compared with the United States. There is a strong argument for advising ventilated facilities and personal respiratory protection for the care of all patients with tuberculosis, as

  14. Infection prevention and control measures for acute respiratory infections in healthcare settings: an update.

    Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.

  15. Household air pollution, chronic respiratory disease and pneumonia in Malawian adults: A case-control study.

    Jary, Hannah R; Aston, Stephen; Ho, Antonia; Giorgi, Emanuele; Kalata, Newton; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Mallewa, Jane; Peterson, Ingrid; Gordon, Stephen B; Mortimer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Four million people die each year from diseases caused by exposure to household air pollution. There is an association between exposure to household air pollution and pneumonia in children (half a million attributable deaths a year); however, whether this is true in adults is unknown. We conducted a case-control study in urban Malawi to examine the association between exposure to household air pollution and pneumonia in adults. Methods: Hospitalized patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia (cases) and healthy community controls underwent 48 hours of ambulatory and household particulate matter (µg/m 3 ) and carbon monoxide (ppm) exposure monitoring. Multivariate logistic regression, stratified by HIV status, explored associations between these and other potential risk factors with pneumonia. Results: 145 (117 HIV-positive; 28 HIV-negative) cases and 253 (169 HIV-positive; 84 HIV-negative) controls completed follow up. We found no evidence of association between household air pollution exposure and pneumonia in HIV-positive (e.g. ambulatory particulate matter adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.00 [95% CI 1.00-1.01, p=0.141]) or HIV-negative (e.g. ambulatory particulate matter aOR 1.00 [95% CI 0.99-1.01, p=0.872]) participants. Chronic respiratory disease was associated with pneumonia in both HIV-positive (aOR 28.07 [95% CI 9.29-84.83, ppollution is associated with pneumonia in Malawian adults. In contrast, chronic respiratory disease was strongly associated with pneumonia.

  16. Changes in Running Economy, Respiratory Exchange Ratio and VO2max in Runners following a 10-day Altitude Training Camp.

    Diebel, Sebastian R; Newhouse, Ian; Thompson, David S; Johnson, Vineet B K

    2017-01-01

    Running economy (RE) and VO 2 max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ), and VO 2 max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO 2 max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO 2 max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training. Eight varsity cross-country runners between the ages of 18 and 22 years performed an incremental treadmill test, pre- and post-10-day altitude training. Paired samples t-tests were used to statistically analyze the data. Average RE (VO 2 mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) improved following altitude intervention ( M = 56.44 ± 4.28) compared to pre-altitude training (61.30 ± 7.56). These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 )= 2.71, p =.014. RE expressed as kcals.kg -1 .km -1 improved following altitude training (16.73 ± 2.96) compared to (18.44 ± 4.04) pre-altitude training and was statistically significant t( 7 ) =3.08, p = .008. RER taken during the last minute of steady-state was higher (0.97, ± .019) post-altitude training, compared to (0.90 ± .043) pre-altitude. These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 ) -3.62, p =.008. VO 2 max (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) was lower in 6 out of 8 participants (63.91, ± 8.65) post-altitude compared to (69.90, ± 10.80) pre-altitude and was statistically significant t( 7 ) = 2.33, p =.026. The observed improvements in RE may be beneficial for endurance athletes competing and/or training at moderate altitudes near 1828 meters.

  17. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  18. The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial.

    Wingfield, Hailee L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Roelofs, Erica J; Trexler, Eric T; Hackney, Anthony C; Weaver, Mark A; Ryan, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO. Salivary samples were collected before each exercise session to determine estradiol-β-17 and before and after to quantify cortisol. Post-exercise REE and RER were analyzed via indirect calorimetry at the following: baseline, immediately post (IP), 30 minutes (30 min) post, and 60 minutes (60 min) post exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model, controlling for estradiol, was used to compare mean longitudinal changes in REE and RER. On average, HIIT produced a greater REE than AEE and HIRT (p HIIT produced lower RER compared to either AEE or HIRT after 30 min (p HIIT resulted in the largest increase in REE and largest reduction in RER.

  19. Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control

    Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

  20. Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial.

    Goldring, Stephen T; Griffiths, Chris J; Martineau, Adrian R; Robinson, Stephen; Yu, Christina; Poulton, Sheree; Kirkby, Jane C; Stocks, Janet; Hooper, Richard; Shaheen, Seif O; Warner, John O; Boyle, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies suggest high prenatal vitamin D intake may be associated with reduced childhood wheezing. We examined the effect of prenatal vitamin D on childhood wheezing in an interventional study. We randomised 180 pregnant women at 27 weeks gestation to either no vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery or single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol, in an ethnically stratified, randomised controlled trial. Supplementation improved but did not optimise vitamin D status. Researchers blind to allocation assessed offspring at 3 years. Primary outcome was any history of wheeze assessed by validated questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included atopy, respiratory infection, impulse oscillometry and exhaled nitric oxide. Primary analyses used logistic and linear regression. We evaluated 158 of 180 (88%) offspring at age 3 years for the primary outcome. Atopy was assessed by skin test for 95 children (53%), serum IgE for 86 (48%), exhaled nitric oxide for 62 (34%) and impulse oscillometry of acceptable quality for 51 (28%). We found no difference between supplemented and control groups in risk of wheeze [no vitamin D: 14/50 (28%); any vitamin D: 26/108 (24%) (risk ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.49, 1.50; P = 0.69)]. There was no significant difference in atopy, eczema risk, lung function or exhaled nitric oxide between supplemented groups and controls. Prenatal vitamin D supplementation in late pregnancy that had a modest effect on cord blood vitamin D level, was not associated with decreased wheezing in offspring at age three years. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785.

  1. Pandemic preparedness - Risk management and infection control for all respiratory infection outbreaks.

    Nori, Annapurna; Williams, Mary-Anne

    2009-11-01

    There has been substantial effort and activity in regards to pandemic planning, preparedness and response, mainly in the realm of public health. However, general practitioners and other primary care providers are important players in the health response to a pandemic. To discuss the importance of general practice preparedness for managing respiratory infection outbreaks and to provide a model for the general practice response. Pandemic planning and preparedness in general practice is ultimately a crucial risk management exercise, the cornerstone of which is sound infection control. As planning will be significantly aided by, and should extend to, other respiratory outbreaks, we propose a framework for managing outbreaks of respiratory infections with a focus on planned, practised and habitual infection control measures, and a stepwise response according to the extent and severity of the outbreak.

  2. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  3. Effect of Antenatal Steroids on Respiratory Morbidity of Late Preterm Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Ontela, Vijaya; Dorairajan, Gowri; Bhat, Vishnu B; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2018-01-22

    The objective of this article was to study the effect of antenatal dexamethasone on the respiratory morbidity of late preterm newborns. A randomized controlled trial, conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in collaboration with Neonatology department at JIPMER, India. In total, 155 women were studied in each group. Intention to treat analysis and per protocol analysis were done. Overall 31 (10%) newborns were admitted to intensive care unit. The composite respiratory morbidity (defined as respiratory distress syndrome and/or transient tachypnea of newborn) was observed in 64 (41.6%) infants in the study and 56 (36.2%) infants in the control group. On multivariable-adjusted analysis, use of steroids was not found to be associated with decrease in composite respiratory morbidity [adjusted relative risk 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-1.2)]. Antenatal dexamethasone does not reduce the composite respiratory morbidity of babies born vaginally or by emergency cesarean to women with late preterm labor. © The Author(s) [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Respiratory mechanics in infants with severe bronchiolitis on controlled mechanical ventilation.

    Cruces, Pablo; González-Dambrauskas, Sebastián; Quilodrán, Julio; Valenzuela, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Rivero, Natalia; Arias, Pablo; Díaz, Franco

    2017-10-06

    Analysis of respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation (MV) is able to estimate resistive, elastic and inertial components of the working pressure of the respiratory system. Our aim was to discriminate the components of the working pressure of the respiratory system in infants on MV with severe bronchiolitis admitted to two PICU's. Infants younger than 1 year old with acute respiratory failure caused by severe bronchiolitis underwent neuromuscular blockade, tracheal intubation and volume controlled MV. Shortly after intubation studies of pulmonary mechanics were performed using inspiratory and expiratory breath hold. The maximum inspiratory and expiratory flow (QI and QE) as well as peak inspiratory (PIP), plateau (PPL) and total expiratory pressures (tPEEP) were measured. Inspiratory and expiratory resistances (RawI and RawE) and Time Constants (K TI and K TE ) were calculated. We included 16 patients, of median age 2.5 (1-5.8) months. Bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus was the main etiology (93.8%) and 31.3% had comorbidities. Measured respiratory pressures were PIP 29 (26-31), PPL 24 (20-26), tPEEP 9 [8-11] cmH2O. Elastic component of the working pressure was significantly higher than resistive and both higher than threshold (tPEEP - PEEP) (P mechanics of infants with severe bronchiolitis receiving MV shows that the elastic component of the working pressure of the respiratory system is the most important. The elastic and resistive components in conjunction with flow profile are characteristic of restrictive diseases. A better understanding of lung mechanics in this group of patients may lead to change the traditional ventilatory approach to severe bronchiolitis.

  5. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    Era Tuladhar

    Abstract

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks

  6. Control of Respiratory Motion by Hypnosis Intervention during Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer I

    Deng, Jie; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy. PMID:24093100

  7. Control of Respiratory Motion by Hypnosis Intervention during Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer I

    Rongmao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy.

  8. Epidural analgesia in labour and neonatal respiratory distress: a case-control study.

    Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sue; Ijaz, Zainab; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2014-03-01

    Epidural analgesia is the commonest mode for providing pain relief in labour, with a combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl most often used in practice. To test whether late-preterm and term neonates exposed to opioids in epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period. A case-control study was conducted of singleton infants born during January 2006 to December 2010. Cases were neonates ≥34 weeks gestation, who developed respiratory distress within 24 h of life requiring supplemental oxygen ≥2 h and/or positive pressure ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Controls were gestation and site-matched neonates who did not develop any respiratory distress within the same period. The information on exposure to epidural analgesia and on potential confounding variables was obtained from the standardised delivery record, routinely filled out on all women admitted to the labour wards. In our study, 206 cases and 206 matched controls were enrolled. Exposure to epidural analgesia was present in 146 (70.9%) cases as compared with 131 (63.6%) of the controls. The association between exposure to epidural analgesia and respiratory distress in neonates was statistically significant upon adjustment for all potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.99; p = 0.04). When data was separately analysed for term and late-preterm infants, the results were consistent across these subpopulations, showing no interaction effect. Late-preterm and term infants exposed to maternal epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period.

  9. Increased constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. and a decrease in microflora diversity may be indicators of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a prospective study in the respiratory tracts of neonates.

    Wei Lu

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a common complication and cause of death in neonates on mechanical ventilation. However, it is difficult to define the causes of VAP. To understand the causes of VAP, we undertook a prospective study based on the diversity of the microflora in VAP. The experimental group consisted of newborns who suffered from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and VAP, while the control group suffered from RDS without VAP. Sputa were collected within 1, 3, and 5 days of ventilation and were divided into six groups. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the 16S rDNA was PCR amplified, separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were compared using BLAST. The DGGE pictures were measured, and the richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and cluster maps were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the constituent ratio of any genus between the Non-VAP and VAP group within 1 day after intubation. After 1 to 3 days, the constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the VAP group were higher than those in the Non-VAP group, and the ratios of Serratia sp. and Achromobacter sp. were lower. After 3 to 5 days, the ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., Serratia sp., and Achromobacter sp. were lower than those in the Non-VAP group. The richness and Shannon-Wiener index of the Non-VAP group were higher than those of the VAP group from 1 to 3 days after intubation, while no differences were found within 1 day and from 3 to 5 days. We conclude that during the first three days of intubation, the microflora diversity in the lower respiratory tract was reduced due to VAP, and the greater constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the sputum may be indicators of VAP.

  10. Servo-controlled pneumatic pressure oscillator for respiratory impedance measurements and high-frequency ventilation.

    Kaczka, David W; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2004-04-01

    The ability to provide forced oscillatory excitation of the respiratory system can be useful in mechanical impedance measurements as well as high frequency ventilation (HFV). Experimental systems currently used for generating forced oscillations are limited in their ability to provide high amplitude flows or maintain the respiratory system at a constant mean pressure during excitation. This paper presents the design and implementation of a pneumatic pressure oscillator based on a proportional solenoid valve. The device is capable of providing forced oscillatory excitations to the respiratory system over a bandwidth suitable for mechanical impedance measurements and HVF. It delivers high amplitude flows (> 1.4 l/s) and utilizes a servo-control mechanism to maintain a load at a fixed mean pressure during simultaneous oscillation. Under open-loop conditions, the device exhibited a static hysteresis of approximately 7%, while its dynamic magnitude and phase responses were flat out to 10 Hz. Broad-band measurement of total harmonic distortion was approximately 19%. Under closed-loop conditions, the oscillator was able to maintain a mechanical test load at both positive and negative mean pressures during oscillatory excitations from 0.1 to 10.0 Hz. Impedance of the test load agreed closely with theoretical predictions. We conclude that this servo-controlled oscillator can be a useful tool for respiratory impedance measurements as well as HFV.

  11. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  12. Current drive and profile control in low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Chan, V.S.; Chiu, S.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L.; Turnbull, A.D.

    1995-07-01

    The key to the theoretically predicted high performance of a low aspect ratio tokamak (LAT) is its ability to operate at very large plasma current*I p . The plasma current at low aspect ratios follows the approximate formula: I p ∼ (5a 2 B t /Rqψ) [(1 + κ 2 )/2] [A/(A - 1)] where A quadruple-bond R/a which was derived from equilibrium studies. For constant qψ and B t , I p can increase by an order of magnitude over the case of tokamaks with A approx-gt 2.5. The large current results in a significantly enhanced β t (quadruple-bond β N I p /aB t ) possibly of order unity. It also compensates for the reduction in A to maintain the same confinement performance assuming the confinement time τ follows the generic form ∼ HI p P -1 / 2 R 3 / 2 κ 1 / 2 . The initiation and maintenance of such a large current is therefore a key issue for LATs

  13. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  14. Effects of systematic prone positioning in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Guerin, Claude; Gaillard, Sandrine; Lemasson, Stephane; Ayzac, Louis; Girard, Raphaele; Beuret, Pascal; Palmier, Bruno; Le, Quoc Viet; Sirodot, Michel; Rosselli, Sylvaine; Cadiergue, Vincent; Sainty, Jean-Marie; Barbe, Philippe; Combourieu, Emmanuel; Debatty, Daniel; Rouffineau, Jean; Ezingeard, Eric; Millet, Olivier; Guelon, Dominique; Rodriguez, Luc; Martin, Olivier; Renault, Anne; Sibille, Jean-Paul; Kaidomar, Michel

    2004-11-17

    A recent trial showed that placing patients with acute lung injury in the prone position did not increase survival; however, whether those results hold true for patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) is unclear. To determine whether prone positioning improves mortality in ARF patients. Prospective, unblinded, multicenter controlled trial of 791 ARF patients in 21 general intensive care units in France using concealed randomization conducted from December 14, 1998, through December 31, 2002. To be included, patients had to be at least 18 years, hemodynamically stable, receiving mechanical ventilation, and intubated and had to have a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) ratio of 300 or less and no contraindications to lying prone. Patients were randomly assigned to prone position placement (n = 413), applied as early as possible for at least 8 hours per day on standard beds, or to supine position placement (n = 378). The primary end point was 28-day mortality; secondary end points were 90-day mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and oxygenation. The 2 groups were comparable at randomization. The 28-day mortality rate was 32.4% for the prone group and 31.5% for the supine group (relative risk [RR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.19; P = .77). Ninety-day mortality for the prone group was 43.3% vs 42.2% for the supine group (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.13; P = .74). The mean (SD) duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.7 (7.8) days for the prone group vs 14.1 (8.6) days for the supine group (P = .93) and the VAP incidence was 1.66 vs 2.14 episodes per 100-patients days of intubation, respectively (P = .045). The PaO2/FIO2 ratio was significantly higher in the prone group during the 28-day follow-up. However, pressure sores, selective intubation, and endotracheal tube obstruction incidences were higher in the prone group. This trial

  15. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Garaiova, I; Muchová, J; Nagyová, Z; Wang, D; Li, J V; Országhová, Z; Michael, D R; Plummer, S F; Ďuračková, Z

    2015-03-01

    This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3-6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NCIMB 30153) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34 (NCIMB 30172) plus 50 mg vitamin C or a placebo daily for 6 months. Significant reductions in the incidence rate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; 33%, P=0.002), the number of days with URTI symptoms (mean difference: -21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):-35.9, -6.0, P=0.006) and the incidence rate of absence from preschool (30%, P=0.007) were observed in the active group compared with the placebo. The number of days of use of antibiotics, painkillers, cough medicine or nasal sprays was lower in the active group and reached significance for use of cough medicine (mean difference: -6.6, 95% CI: -12.9, -0.3, P=0.040). No significant differences were observed in the incidence rate ratio or duration of lower respiratory tract infection or in the levels of plasma cytokines, salivary immunoglobulin A or urinary metabolites. Supplementation with a probiotic/vitamin C combination may be beneficial in the prevention and management of URTIs.

  17. Cell pairing ratio controlled micro-environment with valve-less electrolytic isolation

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2012-01-01

    We present a ratio controlled cell-to-cell interaction chip using valve-less isolation. We incorporated electrolysis in a microfluidic channel. In each microfluidic chamber, we loaded two types of different cells at various pairing ratios. More than

  18. Linear signal noise summer accurately determines and controls S/N ratio

    Sundry, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Linear signal noise summer precisely controls the relative power levels of signal and noise, and mixes them linearly in accurately known ratios. The S/N ratio accuracy and stability are greatly improved by this technique and are attained simultaneously.

  19. [Treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome using pressure and volume controlled ventilation with lung protective strategy].

    Ge, Ying; Wan, Yong; Wang, Da-qing; Su, Xiao-lin; Li, Jun-ying; Chen, Jing

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the significance and effect of pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) as well as volume controlled ventilation (VCV) by lung protective strategy on respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis and hemodynamics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Fifty patients with ARDS were randomly divided into PCV and VCV groups with permissive hypercapnia and open lung strategy. Changes in respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis and hemodynamics were compared between two groups. Peak inspiration pressure (PIP) in PCV group was significantly lower than that in VCV group, while mean pressure of airway (MPaw) was significantly higher than that in VCV after 24 hours mechanical ventilation. After 24 hours mechanical ventilation, there were higher central venous pressure (CVP) and slower heart rate (HR) in two groups, CVP was significantly higher in VCV compared with PCV, and PCV group had slower HR than VCV group, the two groups had no differences in mean blood pressure (MBP) at various intervals. All patients showed no ventilator-induced lung injury. Arterial blood oxygenations were obviously improved in two groups after 24 hours mechanical ventilation, PCV group had better partial pressure of oxygen in artery (PaO2) than VCV group. Both PCV and VCV can improve arterial blood oxygenations, prevent ventilator-induced lung injury, and have less disturbance in hemodynamic parameters. PCV with lung protective ventilatory strategy should be early use for patients with ARDS.

  20. Prone positioning in hypoxemic respiratory failure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Kopterides, Petros; Siempos, Ilias I; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2009-03-01

    Prone positioning is used to improve oxygenation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). However, its role in clinical practice is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of prone positioning on relevant clinical outcomes, such as intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, days of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and pneumothorax, and associated complications. We used literature search of MEDLINE, Current Contents, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We focused only on randomized controlled trials reporting clinical outcomes in adult patients with HRF. Four trials met our inclusion criteria, including 662 patients randomized to prone ventilation and 609 patients to supine ventilation. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the ICU mortality in the intention-to-treat analysis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.22), for the comparison between prone and supine ventilated patients. Interestingly, the pooled OR for the ICU mortality in the selected group of the more severely ill patients favored prone positioning (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66). The duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of pneumothorax were not different between the 2 groups. The incidence of VAP was lower but not statistically significant in patients treated with prone positioning (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). However, prone positioning was associated with a higher risk of pressure sores (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89) and a trend for more complications related to the endotracheal tube (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94-1.80). Despite the inherent limitations of the meta-analytic approach, it seems that prone positioning has no discernible effect on mortality in patients with HRF. It may decrease the incidence of VAP at the expense of more pressure sores and complications related to the endotracheal tube. However, a subgroup of the most severely ill patients may

  1. A Costly Lesson: Fatal Respiratory Depression Induced by Clindamycin during Postoperative Patient Controlled Analgesia.

    Wu, Gao; Wu, Guo; Wu, Hanbin

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs can cause neuromuscular blockade. Clindamycin-related neuromuscular blockade is commonly reported, but fatal clindamycin-induced neuromuscular blockade is rarely reported. We describe a 47-year-old woman who initially presented with endometrial carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) and bilateral adnexectomy under general anesthesia, secondary to antibiotic treatment with clindamycin 1.2g in 250 mL for about 30 minutes through the peripheral intravenous route during postoperative patient controlled analgesia (PCA). She became unconscious near the end of the infusion, then, despite resuscitation attempts, she died. Clindamycin appeared to have triggered delayed respiratory depression during PCA. A combination of clindamycin and fentanyl led to her respiratory depression in the fatal case.

  2. Genetic associations with viral respiratory illnesses and asthma control in children

    Loisel, D A; Du, G; Ahluwalia, T S

    2016-01-01

    of asthma control phenotypes was performed in 2128 children in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC). Significant associations in RhinoGen were further validated using virus-induced wheezing illness and asthma phenotypes in an independent sample of 122 children enrolled...... in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) birth cohort study. RESULTS: A significant excess of P values smaller than 0.05 was observed in the analysis of the 10 RhinoGen phenotypes. Polymorphisms in 12 genes were significantly associated with variation in the four phenotypes showing a significant enrichment...... differences in childhood viral respiratory illnesses and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Defining mechanisms of these associations may provide insight into the pathogenesis of viral respiratory infections and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma....

  3. A prospective controlled study of sleep respiratory events in patients with craniovertebral junction malformation.

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Rotta, José Marcos; Tufik, Sergio

    2003-12-01

    Craniovertebral junction malformation (CVJM) or Chiari malformation in adults, with or without syringomyelia and basilar invagination, produces neuronal dysfunction of the brainstem, cerebellum, cranial nerves, and upper spinal cord. The respiratory center and some of its afferent and efferent components can be altered in these diseases. The authors studied patients with and without CVJM to determine whether this physical feature contributed to sleep disturbances. Respiratory manifestations during sleep were studied prospectively, by using whole-night polysomnography, in 32 symptomatic patients (CVJM group) and 16 healthy volunteers (control group). Patients with CVJM presented with more sleep disturbances (reports of snoring and apnea) than those in the control group. The apnea/hypopnea index values were higher in patients with CVJMs than in the control group (13 +/- 15 compared with 3 +/- 6; p = 0.007) and the rate of central sleep apneas was higher in the CVJM than in the control group (22 +/- 30 compared with 4 +/- 8%; p = 0.009). The apnea/hypopnea index was highest in the subgroup with basilar invagination than in the other subgroups. The central apneic episodes were more frequent in the patients with basilar invagination (35 +/- 40%; p = 0.001) and in those with syringomyelia (17.6 +/- 24.6%; p = 0.003) than in the control group (4 +/- 8%). Patients with symptomatic CVJM, especially those with basilar invagination, presented with more sleep respiratory compromise than did those in the control group. The incidence of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome is significantly higher in patients with CVJM.

  4. Assessment of a strategy for the control of respiratory diseases in children

    Pereira Julio Cesar Rodrigues

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A programme for the control of respiratory diseases in children was conceived for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986. Its progress thereafter and the epidemiology of the diseases concerned are examined. Apart from an inquiry into the 64 existing State local health authorities, a sample of 18,255 cases of children assisted by the programme at different levels, including both in-patient and outpatient care, is analysed. Each case record included information about identification (child, doctor and health facility, reasons for calling, diagnoses made and outcome of treatment. Further data were also sought from hospitals and from State mortality records. The programme was found to be poorly implemented in the State but, where implemented, it showed itself capable of resolving problems (only 0.5% of the cases could not be handled as also of changing ongoing trends (more than 50% reduction in hospital admission rates. Individual assessment of each item of the programme indicated its bottlenecks. Regarding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases, it is observed that the major burden to health services comes from children aged less than five, and that the most important diseases are wheezing illnesses and pneumonia. Morevoer, they were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.000 so that a child in the community presenting wheezing diseases is 5 times more likely to develop pneumonia than a child with any other respiratory diagnosis. Similarly, among the under five deaths it was found that the risk for pneumonia is 3 times greater for children who died presenting wheezing diseases than it is for children with any other sort of diagnosis. In conclusion, the programme is deemed to be efficient and effective but its efficacy is marred by administrative flaws. The successful control of respiratory problems in childhood is related to a proper appreciation of the importance of wheezing diseases.

  5. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  6. Chronic heart failure modifies respiratory mechanics in rats: a randomized controlled trial

    Deise M. Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic alterations in an experimental model of chronic heart failure (CHF following myocardial infarction. Method Twenty-seven male adult Wistar rats were randomized to CHF group (n=12 or Sham group (n=15. Ten weeks after coronary ligation or sham surgery, the animals were anesthetized and submitted to respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic measurements. Pulmonary edema as well as cardiac remodeling were measured. Results The CHF rats showed pulmonary edema 26% higher than the Sham group. The respiratory system compliance (Crs and the total lung capacity (TLC were lower (40% and 27%, respectively in the CHF rats when compared to the Sham group (P<0.01. There was also an increase in tissue resistance (Gti and elastance (Hti (28% and 45%, respectively in the CHF group. Moreover, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher (32 mmHg vs 4 mmHg, P<0.01, while the left ventricular systolic pressure was lower (118 mmHg vs 130 mmHg, P=0.02 in the CHF group when compared to the control. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a negative association between pulmonary edema and Crs (r=–0.70, P=0.0001 and between pulmonary edema and TLC (r=–0.67,P=0.0034. Pulmonary edema correlated positively with Gti (r=0.68, P=0.001 and Hti (r=0.68, P=0.001. Finally, there was a strong positive relationship between pulmonary edema and heart weight (r=0.80, P=0.001. Conclusion Rats with CHF present important changes in hemodynamic and respiratory mechanics, which may be associated with alterations in cardiopulmonary interactions.

  7. The Ratio of Partial Pressure Arterial Oxygen and Fraction of Inspired Oxygen 1 Day After Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Onset Can Predict the Outcomes of Involving Patients.

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chao, Chien-Ming; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The initial hypoxemic level of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) defined according to Berlin definition might not be the optimal predictor for prognosis. We aimed to determine the predictive validity of the stabilized ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) following standard ventilator setting in the prognosis of patients with ARDS.This prospective observational study was conducted in a single tertiary medical center in Taiwan and compared the stabilized PaO2/FiO2 ratio (Day 1) following standard ventilator settings and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day patients met ARDS Berlin criteria (Day 0). Patients admitted to intensive care units and in accordance with the Berlin criteria for ARDS were collected between December 1, 2012 and May 31, 2015. Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Arterial blood gas and ventilator setting on Days 0 and 1 were obtained.A total of 238 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS were enrolled, and they were classified as mild (n = 50), moderate (n = 125), and severe (n = 63) ARDS, respectively. Twelve (5%) patients who originally were classified as ARDS did not continually meet the Berlin definition, and a total of 134 (56%) patients had the changes regarding the severity of ARDS from Day 0 to Day 1. The 28-day mortality rate was 49.1%, and multivariate analysis identified age, PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1, number of organ failures, and positive fluid balance within 5 days as significant risk factors of death. Moreover, the area under receiver-operating curve for mortality prediction using PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1 was significant higher than that on Day 0 (P = 0.016).PaO2/FiO2 ratio on Day 1 after applying mechanical ventilator is a better predictor of outcomes in patients with ARDS than those on Day 0.

  8. Robust extremum seeking and speed ratio control for high-performance CVT operation

    Meulen, van der S.H.; Jager, de A.G.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    The variator in a pushbelt continuously variable transmission (CVT) enables a stepless variation of the transmission ratio within a finite range. Nowadays, the variator is electronically controlled and the variator control objectives are twofold: 1) tracking a transmission ratio reference; 2)

  9. Respiratory rehabilitation: a physiotherapy approach to the control of asthma symptoms and anxiety

    Renata André Laurino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.

  10. Automated respiratory therapy system based on the ARDSNet protocol with systemic perfusion control

    Pomprapa Anake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical expert system of automatic artificial ventilation is set up in a star topology with additional closed-loop hemodynamic control. Arterial blood pressure (MAP is controlled by noradrenaline (NA as a controlling variable. The overall patient-in-the-loop expert system can intensively and intelligently perform a long-term treatment based on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSNet protocol. Three main goals are actively carried out, namely the stabilization and regulation of oxygenation, plateau pressure and blood pH value. The developed system shows a distinctive experimental result based on a 31.5-kg pig, in order to fulfil the ventilatory goals and to ensure proper systemic perfusion. Hence, this system has enormous potentials to realize a commercial system for individual patient with ARDS.

  11. Cell pairing ratio controlled micro-environment with valve-less electrolytic isolation

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-01-01

    We present a ratio controlled cell-to-cell interaction chip using valve-less isolation. We incorporated electrolysis in a microfluidic channel. In each microfluidic chamber, we loaded two types of different cells at various pairing ratios. More than 80% of the microchambers were successfully loaded with a specific target pairing ratio. For the proof of concept, we have demonstrated the cell-to-cell interaction between prostate cancer cells and muscle stem cells can be controlled by cell pairing ratios through growth factor secretion. The experimental data shows that sealing of microenvironment by air generated from electrolysis does not affect cell viability and cell interaction assay results. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Singing teaching as a therapy for chronic respiratory disease - a randomised controlled trial and qualitative evaluation

    Kelly Julia L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite optimal pharmacological therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, patients with COPD continue to be breathless. There is a need to develop additional strategies to alleviate symptoms. Learning to sing requires control of breathing and posture and might have benefits that translate into daily life. Methods To test this hypothesis we performed a randomised controlled trial, comparing a six week course of twice weekly singing classes to usual care, in 28 COPD patients. The experience of singing was assessed in a qualitative fashion, through interviews with a psychologist. In addition, we surveyed patients with chronic respiratory conditions who participated in a series of open singing workshops. Results In the RCT, the physical component score of the SF36 improved in the singers (n = 15 compared to the controls (n = 13; +7.5(14.6 vs. -3.8(8.4 p = 0.02. Singers also had a significant fall in HAD anxiety score; -1.1(2.7 vs. +0.8(1.7 p = 0.03. Singing did not improve single breath counting, breath hold time or shuttle walk distance. In the qualitative element, 8 patients from the singing group were interviewed. Positive effects on physical sensation, general well-being, community/social support and achievement/efficacy emerged as common themes. 150 participants in open workshops completed a questionnaire. 96% rated the workshops as "very enjoyable" and 98% thought the workshop had taught them something about breathing in a different way. 81% of attendees felt a "marked physical difference" after the workshop. Conclusion Singing classes can improve quality of life measures and anxiety and are viewed as a very positive experience by patients with respiratory disease; no adverse consequences of participation were observed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

  13. Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with central respiratory control in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation of neonatal rats

    EIKI HATORI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine exposure is a risk factor in several breathing disorders Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs exist in the ventrolateral medulla, an important site for respiratory control. We examined the effects of nicotinic acetylcholine neurotransmission on central respiratory control by addition of a nAChR agonist or one of various antagonists into superfusion medium in the isolated brainstem-spinal cord from neonatal rats. Ventral C4 neuronal activity was monitored as central respiratory output, and activities of respiratory neurons in the ventrolateral medulla were recorded in whole-cell configuration. RJR-2403 (0.1-10mM, alpha4beta2 nAChR agonist induced dose-dependent increases in respiratory frequency. Non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (0.1-100mM, alpha4beta2 antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (0.1-100mM, alpha7 antagonist methyllycaconitine (0.1-100mM, and a-bungarotoxin (0.01-10mM all induced dose-dependent reductions in C4 respiratory rate. We next examined effects of 20mM dihydro-beta-erythroidine and 20mM methyllycaconitine on respiratory neurons. Dihydro-beta-erythroidine induces hyperpolarization and decreases intraburst firing frequency of inspiratory and preinspiratory neurons. In contrast, methyllycaconitine has no effect on the membrane potential of inspiratory neurons, but does decrease their intraburst firing frequency while inducing hyperpolarization and decreasing intraburst firing frequency in preinspiratory neurons. These findings indicate that alpha4beta2 nAChR is involved in both inspiratory and preinspiratory neurons, whereas alpha7 nAChR functions only in preinspiratory neurons to modulate C4 respiratory rate

  14. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  15. Primary care randomised controlled trial of a tailored interactive website for the self-management of respiratory infections (Internet Doctor).

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Andreou, Panayiota; McDermott, Lisa; Joseph, Judith; Mullee, Mark; Moore, Mike; Broomfield, Sue; Thomas, Tammy; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-04-20

    To assess an internet-delivered intervention providing advice to manage respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Open pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. Primary care in UK. Adults (aged ≥18) registered with general practitioners, recruited by postal invitation. Patients were randomised with computer-generated random numbers to access the intervention website (intervention) or not (control). The intervention tailored advice about the diagnosis, natural history, symptom management (particularly paracetamol/ibuprofen use) and when to seek further help. Primary: National Health Service (NHS) contacts for those reporting RTIs from monthly online questionnaires for 20 weeks. Secondary: hospitalisations; symptom duration/severity. Results 3044 participants were recruited. 852 in the intervention group and 920 in the control group reported one or more RTIs, among whom there a modest increase in NHS Direct contacts in the intervention group (intervention 44/1734 (2.5%) versus control 24/1842 (1.3%); multivariate Risk Ratio (RR) 2.53 (95% CI 1.10 to 5.82, p=0.029)). Conversely reduced contact with doctors occurred (283/1734 (16.3%) vs 368/1845 (20.0%); risk ratio 0.71, 0.53 to 0.95, p=0.019). Reduction in contacts occurred despite slightly longer illness duration (11.3 days versus 10.9 days respectively; multivariateestimate 0.48 days longer (-0.16 to 1.12, p=0.141) and more days of illness rated moderately bad or worse illness (0.53 days; 0.12 to 0.94, p=0.012). The estimate of slower symptom resolution in the intervention group was attenuated when controlling for whether individuals had used webpages which advocated ibuprofen use (length of illness 0.22 days, −0.51 to 0.95, p=0.551; moderately bad or worse symptoms 0.36 days, −0.08 to 0.80, p=0.105). There was no evidence of increased hospitalisations (risk ratio 0.13; 0.02 to 1.01; p=0.051). An internet-delivered intervention for the self-management of RTIs modifies help-seeking behaviour, and does

  16. D-Tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases hydrogen production in humans without affecting 24-hour energy expenditure or respiratory exchange ratio.

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-09-01

    In growth studies on rats, the ketohexose D-tagatose has been shown to contribute no net metabolizable energy, and a pronounced thermic effect of the sugar has been suggested to account for the absence of energy. In a double-blind and balanced cross-over design, we measured 24-h energy expenditure in eight normal weight humans in a respiration chamber during the consumption of 30 g D-tagatose or 30 g sucrose/d. Metabolic measurements were performed before and after a 2-wk adaptation period with a 30-g daily intake of the test sugar. Total 24-h energy expenditure and hour-by-hour profile were unaffected by the test sugar. The nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RERnp) was similar during consumption of D-tagatose and sucrose. However, the effect on RERnp due to CO2 produced by fermentation of D-tagatose could not be quantified in this study. A significant increase in 24-h H2 production (35%) during D-tagatose administration suggests a substantial malabsorption of the sugar. We found no effects of the 2-wk adaptation period on the measured gas exchange variables. Significantly lower fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were observed during D-tagatose administration compared with the sucrose period. No effects of D-tagatose on body weight and composition were seen, but the perception of fullness 2.5 h after the sugar load was greater with D-tagatose. In conclusion, this study does not suggest a pronounced thermic effect of D-tagatose, and other mechanisms seem to be required to explain its lack of net energy.

  17. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The respiratory exchange ratio (RER indirectly shows the muscle's oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O 2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold, in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods The RER, O 2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml · kg −1 · min −1 , during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results Endurance trained men presented higher O 2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05 of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O 2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05. Conclusions These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance.

  18. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children's sympathy across early childhood.

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children's effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children's sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children's subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children's effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children's sympathy.

  19. Respiratory control in aquatic insects dictates their vulnerability to global warming.

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bilton, David T

    2013-10-23

    Forecasting species responses to climatic warming requires knowledge of how temperature impacts may be exacerbated by other environmental stressors, hypoxia being a principal example in aquatic systems. Both stressors could interact directly as temperature affects both oxygen bioavailability and ectotherm oxygen demand. Insufficient oxygen has been shown to limit thermal tolerance in several aquatic ectotherms, although, the generality of this mechanism has been challenged for tracheated arthropods. Comparing species pairs spanning four different insect orders, we demonstrate that oxygen can indeed limit thermal tolerance in tracheates. Species that were poor at regulating oxygen uptake were consistently more vulnerable to the synergistic effects of warming and hypoxia, demonstrating the importance of respiratory control in setting thermal tolerance limits.

  20. Development of an anaesthetized-rat model of exercise hyperpnoea: an integrative model of respiratory control using an equilibrium diagram.

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Manabe, Kou; Ueda, Shinya; Nakahara, Hidehiro

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small-animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using a respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This experimental model will provide an opportunity to clarify the major determinant mechanisms of exercise hyperpnoea, and will be useful for understanding the mechanisms responsible for abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise in disease models. Exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states seem to arise from pathological changes of respiratory regulation. Although experimental studies in small animals are essential to investigate the pathophysiological basis of various disease models, the lack of an integrated framework for quantitatively characterizing respiratory regulation during exercise prevents us from resolving these problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. In 24 anaesthetized rats, we induced muscle contraction by stimulating bilateral distal sciatic nerves at low and high voltage to mimic exercise. We recorded breath-by-breath respiratory gas analysis data and cardiorespiratory responses while running two protocols to characterize the controller and plant of the respiratory chemoreflex. The controller was characterized by determining the linear relationship between end-tidal CO 2 pressure (P ETC O2) and minute ventilation (V̇E), and the plant by the hyperbolic relationship between V̇E and P ETC O2. During exercise, the controller curve shifted upward without change in controller gain, accompanying

  1. The effect of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation on lung protection in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    Xu, Lili; Shen, Jianjun; Yan, Min

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effects of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV) and volume-control ventilation (VCV) on arterial oxygenation, pulmonary function, hemodynamics, levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Sixty patients, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 , scheduled for elective gynecological laparoscopic surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either PCIRV with an inspiratory-expiratory (I:E) ratio of 1.5:1 (PCIRV group n = 30) or VCV with an I:E ratio of 1:2 (VCV group n = 30). Ventilation variables, viz. tidal volume (V T ), dynamic respiratory-system compliance (C RS ), driving pressure (ΔP = V T /C RS ), arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ) and arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO 2 ), were measured. Hemodynamic variables, viz. mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and serum levels of SP-A and TNF-α, were also measured. When compared to patients in the VCV group, patients in the PCIRV group had higher V T , dynamic C RS , and PaO 2 /FiO 2 , and lower ΔP and PaCO 2 at 20 and 60 min after the start of pneumoperitoneum (p ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and is associated with decreased levels of SP-A and TNF-α. These effects demonstrate improved lung protection provided by PCIRV in this patient population.

  2. Respiratory acidosis

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  3. Afferent Neural Feedback Overrides the Modulating Effects of Arousal, Hypercapnia and Hypoxemia on Neonatal Cardio-respiratory Control.

    Lumb, Kathleen J; Schneider, Jennifer M; Ibrahim, Thowfique; Rigaux, Anita; Hasan, Shabih U

    2018-04-20

    Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade. Respiratory depression and apneas were independent of the sleep states. We demonstrate that profound apneas and life-threatening respiratory failure in vagally denervated animals do not result from lack of arousal or hypoxemia. Change in sleep state and concomitant respiratory depression result from lack of afferent volume feedback, which appears to be critical for the maintenance of normal breathing patterns and adequate gas exchange during the early postnatal period. Afferent volume feedback plays a vital role in neonatal respiratory control. Mechanisms for the profound respiratory depression and life-threatening apneas observed in vagally denervated neonatal animals remain unclear. We investigated the roles of sleep states, hypoxic-hypercapnia and afferent volume feedback on respiratory depression using reversible perineural vagal block during early postnatal period. Seven lambs were instrumented during the first 48h of life to record/analyze sleep states, diaphragmatic electromyograph, arterial blood gas tensions, systemic arterial blood pressure and rectal temperature. Perineural cuffs were placed around the vagi to attain reversible blockade. Post-operatively, during the awake state, both vagi were blocked using 2% xylocaine for up to 30 minutes. Compared with baseline values, pHa, PaO 2 and SaO 2 decreased and PaCO 2 increased during perineural blockade (P Respiratory depression and apneas were independent of sleep states. This

  4. Pre-ovulation control of hatchling sex ratio in the Seychelles warbler

    Komdeur, J; Magrath, MJL; Krackow, S

    2002-01-01

    Females of some bird species have a high degree of control over the sex ratio of their offspring at laying. Although several mechanisms have been put forward to explain how females might control the sex of their eggs, virtually nothing is known. As females are the heterogametic sex in birds,

  5. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  6. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation

    Schranz, C; Möller, K; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (p I ), inspiration and expiration time (t I , t E ) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal p I and adequate t E can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's ‘optimized’ settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end

  7. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    Schranz, C; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Möller, K

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's 'optimized' settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.

  8. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model.

    Paul Walsh

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase.We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected.We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed.One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01 and weight gain (p = 0.08 seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen.Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes

  9. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (pibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes. However lung

  10. Analysis of an employment of a gear ratio rate in CVT control system

    Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.

    2016-09-01

    Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear ratio that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear ratio to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear ratio. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear ratio can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear ratio independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.

  11. Optimal control of lift/drag ratios on a rotating cylinder

    Ou, Yuh-Roung; Burns, John A.

    1992-01-01

    We present the numerical solution to a problem of maximizing the lift to drag ratio by rotating a circular cylinder in a two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow. This problem is viewed as a test case for the newly developing theoretical and computational methods for control of fluid dynamic systems. We show that the time averaged lift to drag ratio for a fixed finite-time interval achieves its maximum value at an optimal rotation rate that depends on the time interval.

  12. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  13. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity and effortful control in preschool-age children.

    Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to each of three self-regulation tasks (bird and dragon; knock-tap; and gift wrap) would predict self-regulation performance in a sample of 101 preschool-age children (M age = 4.49, SD = .64). While controlling for baseline RSA, decreases in RSA from bird and dragon to knock-tap (but not from baseline to bird and dragon) predicted a latent variable measuring self-regulation. Furthermore, increases in RSA from the knock-tap to gift wrap-the only task involving delay of gratification-were related to concurrent task performance while controlling for the relation between RSA reactivity and the latent self-regulation variable. Results suggest that the relations between RSA reactivity and self-regulatory ability are influenced by task-specific demands and possibly by task order. Furthermore, RSA reactivity appears to relate differently to performance on motivationally salient self-regulation tasks such as delay of gratification relative to cool executive function tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Home Environmental Interventions for the Prevention or Control of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases: What Really Works.

    Le Cann, Pierre; Paulus, Hélène; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Frain, Sophie; Gangneux, Jean Pierre

    Home health care workers interventions have been implemented in western countries to improve health status of patients with respiratory diseases especially asthma and allergic illnesses. Twenty-six controlled studies dealing with prevention and control of these diseases through home environmental interventions were reviewed. After a comprehensive description of the characteristics of these studies, the effectiveness of each intervention was then evaluated in terms of participants' compliance with the intervention program, improvement of quality of the indoor environment, and finally improvement of health outcomes, in detailed tables. Limitations and biases of the studies are also discussed. Overall, this review aims at giving a toolbox for home health care workers to target the most appropriate measures to improve health status of the patient depending on his and/or her environment and disease. Only a case-by-case approach with achievable measures will warrant the efficacy of home interventions. This review will also provide to the research community a tool to better identify targets to focus in future evaluation studies of home health care workers action. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous Analysis of Sensor Data for Breath Control in Respiratory Air

    Rolf Seifert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad field of applications of breath monitoring in human health care, medical applications and alcohol control. In this report, an innovative mobile sensor system for breath control in respiratory air called AGaMon will be introduced. The sensor system is able to recognize a multitude of different gases like ethanol (which is the leading component of alcoholic drinks, H2S (which is the leading component for halitosis, H2 (which is the leading component for dyspepsia and food intolerance, NO (which is the leading component for asthma or acetone (which is the leading component for diabetes, thus ,covering almost all significant aspects. An innovative calibration and evaluation procedure called SimPlus was developed which is able to evaluate the sensor data simultaneously. That means, SimPlus is able to identify the samples simultaneously; for example, whether the measured sample is ethanol or another substance under consideration. Furthermore, SimPlus is able to determine the concentration of the identified sample. This will be demonstrated in this report for the application of ethanol, H2, acetone and the binary mixture ethanol-H2. It has been shown that SimPlus could identify the investigated gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs very well and that the relative analysis errors were smaller than 10% in all considered applications.

  16. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    Budianto, A; Tawi, K B; Hussein, M; Supriyo, B; Kob, M S Che; Zulkifli, Mohd Ezlamy; Khairuldean A K; Daraoh, Aishah; Ariyono, S

    2012-01-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  17. KIF7 Controls the Proliferation of Cells of the Respiratory Airway through Distinct Microtubule Dependent Mechanisms.

    Garry L Coles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle must be tightly coordinated for proper control of embryonic development and for the long-term maintenance of organs such as the lung. There is emerging evidence that Kinesin family member 7 (Kif7 promotes Hedgehog (Hh signaling during embryonic development, and its misregulation contributes to diseases such as ciliopathies and cancer. Kif7 encodes a microtubule interacting protein that controls Hh signaling through regulation of microtubule dynamics within the primary cilium. However, whether Kif7 has a function in nonciliated cells remains largely unknown. The role Kif7 plays in basic cell biological processes like cell proliferation or cell cycle progression also remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that Kif7 is required for coordination of the cell cycle, and inactivation of this gene leads to increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy experiments show that Kif7dda/dda mutant lungs are hyperproliferative and exhibit reduced alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. KIF7 depleted C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts and Kif7dda/dda mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts have increased growth rates at high cellular densities, suggesting that Kif7 may function as a general regulator of cellular proliferation. We ascertained that in G1, Kif7 and microtubule dynamics regulate the expression and activity of several components of the cell cycle machinery known to control entry into S phase. Our data suggest that Kif7 may function to regulate the maintenance of the respiratory airway architecture by controlling cellular density, cell proliferation, and cycle exit through its role as a microtubule associated protein.

  18. Model Predictive Engine Air-Ratio Control Using Online Sequential Relevance Vector Machine

    Hang-cheong Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine power, brake-specific fuel consumption, and emissions relate closely to air ratio (i.e., lambda among all the engine variables. An accurate and adaptive model for lambda prediction is essential to effective lambda control for long term. This paper utilizes an emerging technique, relevance vector machine (RVM, to build a reliable time-dependent lambda model which can be continually updated whenever a sample is added to, or removed from, the estimated lambda model. The paper also presents a new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for air-ratio regulation based on RVM. This study shows that the accuracy, training, and updating time of the RVM model are superior to the latest modelling methods, such as diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN and decremental least-squares support vector machine (DLSSVM. Moreover, the control algorithm has been implemented on a real car to test. Experimental results reveal that the control performance of the proposed relevance vector machine model predictive controller (RVMMPC is also superior to DRNNMPC, support vector machine-based MPC, and conventional proportional-integral (PI controller in production cars. Therefore, the proposed RVMMPC is a promising scheme to replace conventional PI controller for engine air-ratio control.

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, pbrain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and implementation of a high dimming ratio LED drive controller

    Xu Xiaoru; Wu Xiaobo; Zhao Menglian; Yan Xiaolang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a high dimming ratio light emitting diode (LED) drive controller chip with digital mode dimming (DMD). The chip is composed of a boost power converter and a dimming control block. A novel constant on time (COT) control strategy is proposed for boost converter to achieve high dimming ratio. In addition, a fast enough load transient response of the converter power stage ensures its high dimming ratio. The COT control circuit operates mainly based on two current-capacitor timers and a finite state machine (FSM). The LED drive controller chip is designed and fabricated in 1.5 μm bipolar CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process with a die area of 1.31 x 1.43 mm 2 . Experimental results show that the proposed LED drive system works well. And, as expected, the minimum LED dimming on time of 1.0 μs and the corresponding dimming ratio of 1000:1 at 1 kHz dimming frequency are successfully achieved.

  1. The Use of Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists and Risk of Respiratory Failure in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Chen, Su-Jung; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Wang, Kang-Ling; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Pesus; Wang, Fu-Der

    2015-07-01

    Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) are the most commonly used drugs despite their adverse effects on respiratory function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of BZRAs was associated with an increased risk of respiratory failure (RF) in COPD patients. Matched case-control study. National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The case group consisted of 2,434 COPD patients with RF, and the control group consisted of 2,434 COPD patients without RF, matched for age, sex, and date of enrollment. Exposure to BZRAs during the 180-day period preceding the index date was analyzed and compared in the case and control groups. Conditional logistic regression was performed, and the use of BZRAs was associated with an increased risk of RF (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.13). In subgroup analysis, we found that the benzodiazepine (BZD) users had a higher risk of RF (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.14-2.20), whereas the risk in non-benzodiazepine (non-BZD) users was insignificant (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.51-1.44). A greater than 2-fold increase in risk was found in those who received two or more kinds of BZRAs and those using a combination of BZD and non-BZD medications. The use of benzodiazepine receptor agonists was a significant risk factor for respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared to benzodiazepine, the prescription of non-benzodiazepine may be safer for the management of insomnia in COPD patients. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  3. Simulation and planning of treatment of breast with respiratory control; Simulacion y planifiacion de un tratamiento de mama con control respiratorio

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Castro Tejero, P.; Fuente Alonso, C. de la; Regueiro Otero, C.

    2013-07-01

    The radiotherapy with beams of photons of the breast cancer in stages I and II is an established technique. The principal risks of the treatment derived from accidental irradiation of pulmonary and cardiac tissue. Several previous studies have indicated that respiratory control techniques involve a benefit in the protection of pulmonary and cardiac volume, and therefore, it would mean a reduction in the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiac damage. The objective of this work is to check if there is a dosimetric benefit of breast with respiratory control treatments, such as reflects the literature. (Author)

  4. Vagal afferents modulate cytokine-mediated respiratory control at the neonatal medulla oblongata.

    Balan, Kannan V; Kc, Prabha; Hoxha, Zana; Mayer, Catherine A; Wilson, Christopher G; Martin, Richard J

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal sepsis and inflammation trigger lung and brain injury in preterm infants, and associated apnea of prematurity. We hypothesized that endotoxin exposure in the immature lung would upregulate proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the medulla oblongata and be associated with impaired respiratory control. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg) or saline was administered intratracheally to rat pups and medulla oblongatas were harvested for quantifying expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines. LPS-exposure significantly increased medullary mRNA for IL-1β and IL-6, and vagotomy blunted this increase in IL-1β, but not IL-6. Whole-body flow plethysmography revealed that LPS-exposed pups had an attenuated ventilatory response to hypoxia both before and after carotid sinus nerve transection. Immunochemical expression of IL-1β within the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema was increased after LPS-exposure. In summary, intratracheal endotoxin-exposure in rat pups is associated with upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the medulla oblongata that is vagally mediated for IL-1β and associated with an impaired hypoxic ventilatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  6. Respiratory Infections in the U.S. Military: Recent Experience and Control

    Cooper, Michael J.; Myers, Christopher A.; Cummings, James F.; Vest, Kelly G.; Russell, Kevin L.; Sanchez, Joyce L.; Hiser, Michelle J.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This comprehensive review outlines the impact of military-relevant respiratory infections, with special attention to recruit training environments, influenza pandemics in 1918 to 1919 and 2009 to 2010, and peacetime operations and conflicts in the past 25 years. Outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations of viral and bacterial infections among high-risk groups are presented, including (i) experience by recruits at training centers, (ii) impact on advanced trainees in special settings, (iii) morbidity sustained by shipboard personnel at sea, and (iv) experience of deployed personnel. Utilizing a pathogen-by-pathogen approach, we examine (i) epidemiology, (ii) impact in terms of morbidity and operational readiness, (iii) clinical presentation and outbreak potential, (iv) diagnostic modalities, (v) treatment approaches, and (vi) vaccine and other control measures. We also outline military-specific initiatives in (i) surveillance, (ii) vaccine development and policy, (iii) novel influenza and coronavirus diagnostic test development and surveillance methods, (iv) influenza virus transmission and severity prediction modeling efforts, and (v) evaluation and implementation of nonvaccine, nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26085551

  7. Respiratory control in the glucose perfused heart. A /sup 31/P NMR and NADH fluorescence study

    Katz, L A; Koretsky, A P; Balaban, R S

    1987-09-14

    The phosphate metabolites, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are potentially important regulators of mitochondrial respiration in vivo. However, previous studies on the heart in vivo and in vitro have not consistently demonstrated an appropriate correlation between the concentration of these phosphate metabolites and moderate changes in work and respiration. Recently, mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels have been proposed as a potential regulator of cardiac respiration during alterations in work output. In order to understand better the mechanism of respiratory control under these conditions, we investigated the relationship between the phosphate metabolites, the NAD(P)H levels, and oxygen consumption (Q/sub O(sub 2)/) in the isovolumic perfused rat heart during alterations in work output with pacing. ATP, creatine phosphate (CrP), P/sub i/ and intracellular pH were measured using /sup 31/P NMR. Mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels were monitored using spectrofluorometric techniques. 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  8. μ opioid receptor activation hyperpolarizes respiratory-controlling Kölliker-Fuse neurons and suppresses post-inspiratory drive.

    Levitt, Erica S; Abdala, Ana P; Paton, Julian F R; Bissonnette, John M; Williams, John T

    2015-10-01

    In addition to reductions in respiratory rate, opioids also cause aspiration and difficulty swallowing, indicating impairment of the upper airways. The Kölliker-Fuse (KF) maintains upper airway patency and a normal respiratory pattern. In this study, activation of μ opioid receptors in the KF reduced respiratory frequency and tidal volume in anaesthetized rats. Nerve recordings in an in situ preparation showed that activation of μ opioid receptors in the KF eliminated the post-inspiration phase of the respiratory cycle. In brain slices, μ opioid agonists hyperpolarized a distinct population (61%) of KF neurons by activation of an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance. These results suggest that KF neurons that are hyperpolarized by opioids could contribute to opioid-induced respiratory disturbances, particularly the impairment of upper airways. Opioid-induced respiratory effects include aspiration and difficulty swallowing, suggesting impairment of the upper airways. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) controls upper airway patency and regulates respiration, in particular the inspiratory/expiratory phase transition. Given the importance of the KF in coordinating respiratory pattern, the mechanisms of μ opioid receptor activation in this nucleus were investigated at the systems and cellular level. In anaesthetized, vagi-intact rats, injection of opioid agonists DAMGO or [Met(5) ]enkephalin (ME) into the KF reduced respiratory frequency and amplitude. The μ opioid agonist DAMGO applied directly into the KF of the in situ arterially perfused working heart-brainstem preparation of rat resulted in robust apneusis (lengthened low amplitude inspiration due to loss of post-inspiratory drive) that was rapidly reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone. In brain slice preparations, activation of μ opioid receptors on KF neurons hyperpolarized a distinct population (61%) of neurons. As expected, the opioid-induced hyperpolarization reduced the excitability of

  9. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD(+), NADH, or their ratio

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    NAD(+) is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD(+), NADH, and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several...... oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD......(+), NADH, or NAD(+)/NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD(+), but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we...

  10. The Use of Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists and Risk of Respiratory Failure in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Chen, Su-Jung; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Wang, Kang-Ling; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Pesus; Wang, Fu-Der

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) are the most commonly used drugs despite their adverse effects on respiratory function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of BZRAs was associated with an increased risk of respiratory failure (RF) in COPD patients. Design: Matched case-control study. Setting: National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Participants: The case group consisted of 2,434 COPD patients with RF, and the control group consisted of 2,434 COPD patients without RF, matched for age, sex, and date of enrollment. Measurements and Results: Exposure to BZRAs during the 180-day period preceding the index date was analyzed and compared in the case and control groups. Conditional logistic regression was performed, and the use of BZRAs was associated with an increased risk of RF (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–2.13). In subgroup analysis, we found that the benzodiazepine (BZD) users had a higher risk of RF (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.14–2.20), whereas the risk in non-benzodiazepine (non-BZD) users was insignificant (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.51–1.44). A greater than 2-fold increase in risk was found in those who received two or more kinds of BZRAs and those using a combination of BZD and non-BZD medications. Conclusions: The use of benzodiazepine receptor agonists was a significant risk factor for respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared to benzodiazepine, the prescription of non-benzodiazepine may be safer for the management of insomnia in COPD patients. Citation: Chen SJ, Yeh CM, Chao TF, Liu CJ, Wang KL, Chen TJ, Chou P, Wang FD. The use of benzodiazepine receptor agonists and risk of respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide population-based case-control study. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1045–1050

  11. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Design Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Setting Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Interventions Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. Results The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute

  12. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Guilherme P. T. Areas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  13. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Initial treatment of respiratory distress syndrome with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure: A randomized controlled trial

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in premature infants who survived and its complications are a common problem. Due to high morbidity and mechanical ventilation (MV nowadays researchers in interested minimizing MV. To determine, in very low birth weight (BW preterm neonates with RDS, if initial treatment with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (early NIMV compared with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (early NCPAP obtains more favorable outcomes in terms of the duration of treatment, and the need for endotracheal tube ventilation. Methods: In this single-center randomized control trial study, infants (BW ≤ 1500 g and/or gestational age ≤ 34 weeks with respiratory distress were considered eligible. Forty-four infants were randomly assigned to receive early-NIMV and 54 comparable infants to early-NCPAP. Surfactants were given, when FIO 2 requirement was of >30%. Primary outcomes were failure of noninvasive respiratory support, that is, the need for MV in the first 48 h of life and for the duration of noninvasive respiratory support in each group. Results: 98 infants were enrolled (44 in the NIMV and 54 in the NCPAP group. The Preventive power of MV of NIMV usage (95.5% was not lower than the NCPAP (98.1% strength (hazard ratio: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-2.66; P: 0.23. The duration of noninvasive respiratory support in the NIMV group was significantly shorter than NCPAP (the median (range was 24 (18.00-48.00 h versus 48.00 (22.00-120.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P < 0.001. Similarly, the duration of dependency on oxygen was less, for NIMV (the median (range was 96.00 (41.00-504.00 h versus144.00 (70.00-1130.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P: 0.009. Interestingly, time to full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were more favorable in the NIMV versus the NCPAP group. Conclusions: Initial treatment of RDS with NIMV was safe, and well tolerated. Furthermore, NIMV had excellent

  15. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  16. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: Applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    Paulino eMartínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD, a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two

  17. Respiratory alkalosis

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission among health care workers: Implication for infection control.

    Alfaraj, Sarah H; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Altuwaijri, Talal A; Alanazi, Marzouqa; Alzahrani, Nojoom; Memish, Ziad A

    2018-02-01

    Many outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have occurred in health care settings and involved health care workers (HCWs). We describe the occurrence of an outbreak among HCWs and attempt to characterize at-risk exposures to improve future infection control interventions. This study included an index case and all HCW contacts. All contacts were screened for MERS-CoV using polymerase chain reaction. During the study period in 2015, the index case was a 30-year-old Filipino nurse who had a history of unprotected exposure to a MERS-CoV-positive case on May 15, 2015, and had multiple negative tests for MERS-CoV. Weeks later, she was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and MERS-CoV infection. A total of 73 staff were quarantined for 14 days, and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken on days 2, 5, and 12 postexposure. Of those contacts, 3 (4%) were confirmed positive for MERS-CoV. An additional 18 staff were quarantined and had MERS-CoV swabs. A fourth case was confirmed positive on day 12. Subsequent contact investigations revealed a fourth-generation transmission. Only 7 (4.5%) of the total 153 contacts were positive for MERS-CoV. The role of HCWs in MERS-CoV transmission is complex. Although most MERS-CoV-infected HCWs are asymptomatic or have mild disease, fatal infections can occur and HCWs can play a major role in propagating health care facility outbreaks. This investigation highlights the need to continuously review infection control guidance relating to the role of HCWs in MERS-CoV transmission in health care outbreaks, especially as it relates to the complex questions on definition of risky exposures, who to test, and the frequency of MERS-CoV testing; criteria for who to quarantine and for how long; and clearance and return to active duty criteria. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    Dogru, M; Citli, R

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is a novel marker for the evaluation of inflammation and has not been evaluated previously in patients with AD. To investigate the relationship between NLR and the clinical findings of AD. Sixty-six children with AD were included in the study.The control group was included 66 children who have no allergic and chronic diseases.The immunoglobulin(Ig)E levels and complete blood count were measured. Skin prick tests were performed using the same antigens for all patients. NLR was not significant between the patient and control groups (p>0.05).The patients with AD were divided into 3 groups according to their SCORAD score as mild, moderate and severe AD.No statistically significant difference was present between groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics,eosinohil-lymphocyte ratio,eosinophil-neutrophil ratio,the percentage of eosinophil, IgE,the sensitivity of skin tests(p>0.05). However,NLR and sensitivity to house dust mite were significantly different among groups(respectively,p=0.037,p:0.043).SCORAD scores were weak positively correlated with NLR levels,eosinophil-lymphocyte ratio and the sensitivity of house dust mite (respectively,r:0.329;p:0.007,r:0.264;p:00035,r:0.325;p:0.008). We didn't found significant difference in term of mean NLR betweeen patients with AD and control group. NLR was found significantly higher in severe AD patients than mild AD patients.The house dust mite sensitivity, eosinohil-lymphocyte ratio and NLR were correlated with AD severity.

  20. Control device of air-fuel ratio of alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel

    Takahashi, Kazuo

    1987-08-19

    Concerning alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel, even the same amount of the fuel shows different air-fuel ratio depending upon alcohol concentration in the fuel, accordingly it is required to know the alcohol concentration when it is intended to make the air-fuel ratio to be the same as the predetermined ratio. Although a sensor which can detect in quick response and exactly the alcohol concentration has not been developed, the alcohol concentration in gasoline can be detected by detecting the concentration of the water in exhaust gas and many hygrometers which can detect the concentration of the water with high precision are available. With regard to an internal combustion engine equipped with a fuel supply device in order to supply alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel into an engine suction passage, this invention offers an air-fuel ratio control device to control the amount of the fuel to be supplied from the fuel supply device by detecting the concentration of alcohol in the gasoline from among the output signals of the main hygrometer and the auxiliary hygrometer. The former hygrometer to detect the concentration of the water in the exhaust gas is set in the engine exhaust gas passage and the latter is installed to detect the concentration of the water in the air. (4 figs)

  1. Breath-taking jobs: a case-control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway.

    Fell, A K; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, P K; Svendsen, M V; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-09-01

    The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16-50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: 'Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?' Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The 'breath-taking jobs' were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  3. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  4. Process and device for automatic control of air ratio in combustion

    Rohr, F J; Holick, H

    1976-06-24

    The device concerns a process for the automatic control of the air ratio in combustion, by setting the fuel-air mixture for combustion depending on the air number lambda. The control of the air ratio of combustion engines is carried out using a zirconium dioxide measuring probe, which is situated in the exhaust gas. It is a disadvantage that this is only sensitive for an air number lambda of 1. In order to achieve control of the air ratio for air numbers greater or smaller than 1, according to the invention an auxiliary gas is mixed with the hot exhaust gas, or a component of the gas is withdrawn, so that a corrected exhaust gas flow is produced, whose air number is detected by the measuring sensor and controlled to a value of about 1. The auxiliary gas flow is chosen so that an air ratio differing from lambda equals 1 is formed when the air number of the corrected exhaust gas flow is regulated to a value of lambda equals 1 approximately. In order to keep the demand for auxiliary gas low, only part of the exhaust gas flow is used for the measurement. The exhaust gas part flow is kept constant while the auxiliary gas flow or the removed component of gas flow are altered. Hydrogen or oxygen are used as auxiliary gases, depending whether excess or reduced air is required. Instead of hydrogen, fuel or its combustion products can be used. According to the invention, the hydrogen or oxygen can be produced electrolytically. Dosing takes place by the current used for electrolysis.

  5. General applicability of synthetic gene-overexpression for cell-type ratio control via reprogramming.

    Ishimatsu, Kana; Hata, Takashi; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Sekine, Ryoji; Yamamura, Masayuki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-09-19

    Control of the cell-type ratio in multistable systems requires wide-range control of the initial states of cells. Here, using a synthetic circuit in E. coli, we describe the use of a simple gene-overexpression system combined with a bistable toggle switch, for the purposes of enabling the wide-range control of cellular states and thus generating arbitrary cell-type ratios. Theoretically, overexpression induction temporarily alters the bistable system to a monostable system, in which the location of the single steady state of cells can be manipulated over a wide range by regulating the overexpression levels. This induced cellular state becomes the initial state of the basal bistable system upon overexpression cessation, which restores the original bistable system. We experimentally demonstrated that the overexpression induced a monomodal cell distribution, and subsequent overexpression withdrawal generated a bimodal distribution. Furthermore, as designed theoretically, regulating the overexpression levels by adjusting the concentrations of small molecules generated arbitrary cell-type ratios.

  6. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance and control study of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine for a drone aircraft

    Seldner, K.; Geyser, L. C.; Gold, H.; Walker, D.; Burgner, G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analog and digital computer studies of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine system for use in a drone vehicle are presented. The turbojet engine consists of a four-stage axial compressor, single-stage turbine, and a fixed area exhaust nozzle. Three simplified fuel schedules and a generalized parameter fuel control for the engine system are presented and evaluated. The evaluation is based on the performance of each schedule or control during engine acceleration from a windmill start at Mach 0.8 and 6100 meters to 100 percent corrected speed. It was found that, because of the higher acceleration margin permitted by the control, the generalized parameter control exhibited the best dynamic performance.

  8. Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention.

    Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Goldmann, Donald A

    2008-06-01

    Students often miss school because of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses. We assessed the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention, including alcohol-based hand-sanitizer and surface disinfection, in reducing absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in elementary school students. We performed a school-based cluster-randomized, controlled trial at a single elementary school. Eligible students in third to fifth grade were enrolled. Intervention classrooms received alcohol-based hand sanitizer to use at school and quaternary ammonium wipes to disinfect classroom surfaces daily for 8 weeks; control classrooms followed usual hand-washing and cleaning practices. Parents completed a preintervention demographic survey. Absences were recorded along with the reason for absence. Swabs of environmental surfaces were evaluated by bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza 3. The primary outcomes were rates of absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal or respiratory illness. Days absent were modeled as correlated Poisson variables and compared between groups by using generalized estimating equations. Analyses were adjusted for family size, race, health status, and home sanitizer use. We also compared the presence of viruses and the total bacterial colony counts on several classroom surfaces. A total of 285 students were randomly assigned; baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. The adjusted absenteeism rate for gastrointestinal illness was significantly lower in the intervention-group subjects compared with control subjects. The adjusted absenteeism rate for respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups. Norovirus was the only virus detected and was found less frequently on surfaces in intervention classrooms compared with control classrooms (9% vs 29%). A multifactorial intervention including hand sanitizer and surface disinfection

  9. Continuous versus intermittent endotracheal cuff pressure control for the prevention of ventilator-associated respiratory infections in Vietnam: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Dat, Vu Quoc; Geskus, Ronald B; Wolbers, Marcel; Loan, Huynh Thi; Yen, Lam Minh; Binh, Nguyen Thien; Chien, Le Thanh; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Hao, Nguyen Van; Long, Hoang Bao; Thuy, Tran Phuong; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Phu, Vu Dinh; Cap, Nguyen Trung; Trinh, Dao Tuyet; Campbell, James; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Wyncoll, Duncan; Thwaites, Guy Edward; van Doorn, H Rogier; Thwaites, C Louise; Nadjm, Behzad

    2018-04-04

    Ventilator-associated respiratory infection (VARI) comprises ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT). Although their diagnostic criteria vary, together these are the most common hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide, responsible for a large proportion of antibiotic use within ICUs. Evidence-based strategies for the prevention of VARI in resource-limited settings are lacking. Preventing the leakage of oropharyngeal secretions into the lung using continuous endotracheal cuff pressure control is a promising strategy. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of automated, continuous endotracheal cuff pressure control in preventing the development of VARI and reducing antibiotic use in ICUs in Vietnam. This is an open-label randomised controlled multicentre trial. We will enrol 600 adult patients intubated for ≤ 24 h at the time of enrolment. Eligible patients will be stratified according to admission diagnosis (180 tetanus, 420 non-tetanus) and site and will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either (1) automated, continuous control of endotracheal cuff pressure or (2) intermittent measurement and control of endotracheal cuff pressure using a manual cuff pressure meter. The primary outcome is the occurrence of VARI, defined as either VAP or VAT during the ICU admission up to a maximum of 90 days after randomisation. Patients in both groups who are at risk for VARI will receive a standardised battery of investigations if their treating physician feels a new infection has occurred, the results of which will be used by an endpoint review committee, blinded to the allocated arm and independent of patient care, to determine the primary outcome. All enrolled patients will be followed for mortality and endotracheal tube cuff-related complications at 28 days and 90 days after randomisation. Other secondary outcomes include antibiotic use; days ventilated, in ICU and in hospital

  10. Respiratory tract infections and its preventive measures among hajj pilgrims, 2010: A nested case control study

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  11. A randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen for respiratory syncytial infection in a bovine model study

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to ...

  12. Absence of association between angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphism and development of adult respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome: a case control study

    Chiu Rossa WK

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that genetic predisposition may influence the susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and disease outcomes. A recent study has suggested that the deletion allele (D allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene is associated with hypoxemia in SARS patients. Moreover, the ACE D allele has been shown to be more prevalent in patients suffering from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in a previous study. Thus, we have investigated the association between ACE insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism and the progression to ARDS or requirement of intensive care in SARS patients. Method One hundred and forty genetically unrelated Chinese SARS patients and 326 healthy volunteers were recruited. The ACE I/D genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results There is no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and the allelic frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between the SARS patients and the healthy control subjects. Moreover, there is also no evidence that ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with the progression to ARDS or the requirement of intensive care in the SARS patients. In multivariate logistic analysis, age is the only factor associated with the development of ARDS while age and male sex are independent factors associated with the requirement of intensive care. Conclusion The ACE I/D polymorphism is not directly related to increased susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and is not associated with poor outcomes after SARS-coronavirus infection.

  13. Bubble CPAP versus ventilator CPAP in preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress--a randomized controlled trial.

    Tagare, Amit; Kadam, Sandeep; Vaidya, Umesh; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations. To compare the efficacy and safety of BCPAP with ventilator-derived CPAP (VCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress. In a randomized controlled trial, preterm neonates with Silverman-Anderson score ≥ 4 and oxygen requirement >30% within first 6 h of life were randomly allocated to BCPAP or VCPAP. Proportion of neonates with success or failure was compared. In all, 47 of 57 (82.5%) neonates from BCPAP group and 36 of 57 (63.2%) neonates from the VCPAP group completed CPAP successfully (p = 0.03). Neonates who failed CPAP had higher Silverman-Anderson score (p neonates with early onset respiratory distress, with comparable safety.

  14. SU-E-J-211: Design and Study of In-House Software Based Respiratory Motion Monitoring, Controlling and Breath-Hold Device for Gated Radiotherapy

    Shanmugam, Senthilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle, to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation

  15. SU-E-J-211: Design and Study of In-House Software Based Respiratory Motion Monitoring, Controlling and Breath-Hold Device for Gated Radiotherapy

    Shanmugam, Senthilkumar [Madurai Medical College ' Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai (India)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle, to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation

  16. Biological N2 fixation mainly controlled by Sphagnum tissue N:P ratio in ombrotrophic bogs

    Zivkovic, Tatjana; Moore, Tim R.

    2017-04-01

    Most of the 18 Pg nitrogen (N) accumulated in northern nutrient-poor and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands (bogs and fens) can be attributed to N2-fixation by diazotrophs either associated with the live Sphagnum or non-symbiotically in the deeper peat such as through methane consumption close to the water table. Where atmospheric N deposition is low (Sphagnum, suggested by the increase in tissue N:P to >16. It is unclear how Sphagnum-hosted diazotrophic activity may be affected by N deposition and thus changes in N:P ratio. First, we investigated the effects of long-term addition of different sources of nitrogen (0, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1as NH4Cl and NaNO3), and phosphorus (5 g P m-2 y-1as KH2PO4) on Sphagnum nutrient status (N, P and N:P ratio), net primary productivity (NPP) and Sphagnum-associated N2fixation at Mer Bleue, a temperate ombrotrophic bog. We show that N concentration in Sphagnum tissue increased with larger rates of N addition, with a stronger effect on Sphagnum from NH4 than NO3. The addition of P created a 3.5 fold increase in Sphagnum P content compared to controls. Sphagnum NPP decreased linearly with the rise in N:P ratio, while linear growth declined exponentially with increase in Sphagnum N content. Rates of N2-fixation determined in the laboratory significantly decreased in response to even the smallest addition of both N species. In contrast, the addition of P increased N2 fixation by up to 100 times compared to N treatments and up to 5-30 times compared to controls. The change in N2-fixation was best modeled by the N:P ratio, across all experimental treatments. Secondly, to test the role of N:P ratio on N2-fixation across a range of bogs, eight study sites along the latitudinal gradient from temperate, boreal to subarctic zone in eastern Canada were selected. From each bog, two predominant microptopographies, hummocks and hollows, were tested for both N2-fixation activity in the laboratory and Sphagnum tissue concentrations of N, P and N

  17. Air to fuel ratio sensor for internal combustion engine control system; Nainen kikan no nensho seigyoyo kunen hi sensor

    Tsuzuki, M.; Kawai, T.; Yamada, T.; Nishio [NGK Spark Plug Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Air to fuel ratio sensor is used for emission control system of three-way catalyst, and constitutes the important functional part of combustion control system. For further precise combustion control application, universal air to fuel ratio heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO sensor) has been developed. This paper introduces heater control system for constant element temperature of UEGO sensor. By the heater wattage feedback control of sensing cell impedance, the change of sensor element temperature is decreased. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Oxygen-to-metal ratio control during fabrication of mixed oxide fast breeder reactor fuel pellets

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Benecke, M.W.; Jentzen, W.R.; McCord, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M) of mixed oxide fuel pellets can be controlled during fabrication by proper selection of binder (type and content) and sintering conditions. Sintering condition adjustments involved the passing of Ar--8% H 2 sintering gas across a cryostat ice bath controlled to temperatures ranging from -5 to -60 0 C to control as-sintered pellet O/M ratio. As-sintered fuel pellet O/M decreased with increasing Sterotex binder and PuO 2 concentrations, increasing sintering temperature, and decreasing sintering gas dew point. Approximate relationships between Sterotex binder level and O/M were established for PuO 2 --UO 2 and PuO 2 --ThO 2 fuels. O/M was relatively insensitive to Carbowax binder concentration. Several methods of increasing O/M using post-sintering pellet heat treatments were demonstrated, with the most reliable being a two-step process of first raising the O/M to 2.00 (stoichiometric) at 650 0 C in Ar--8% H 2 bubbled through H 2 O, followed by hydrogen reduction to specification O/M in oxygen-gettered Ar-8% H 2 at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1690 0 C

  19. Applications of low lift to drag ratio aerobrakes using angle of attack variation for control

    Mulqueen, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Several applications of low lift to drag ratio aerobrakes are investigated which use angle of attack variation for control. The applications are: return from geosynchronous or lunar orbit to low Earth orbit; and planetary aerocapture at Earth and Mars. A number of aerobrake design considerations are reviewed. It was found that the flow impingement behind the aerobrake and the aerodynamic heating loads are the primary factors that control the sizing of an aerobrake. The heating loads and other loads, such as maximum acceleration, are determined by the vehicle ballistic coefficient, the atmosphere entry conditions, and the trajectory design. Several formulations for defining an optimum trajectory are reviewed, and the various performance indices that can be used are evaluated. The 'nearly grazing' optimal trajectory was found to provide the best compromise between the often conflicting goals of minimizing the vehicle propulsive requirements and minimizing vehicle loads. The relationship between vehicle and trajectory design is investigated further using the results of numerical simulations of trajectories for each aerobrake application. The data show the sensitivity of the trajectories to several vehicle parameters and atmospheric density variations. The results of the trajectory analysis show that low lift to drag ratio aerobrakes, which use angle of attack variation for control, can potentially be used for a wide range of aerobrake applications.

  20. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD+, NADH, or their ratio.

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-12-01

    NAD + is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD + , NADH, and the NAD + /NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD + , NADH, or NAD + /NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD + , but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we identify future studies that might be informative to further interrogate physiological and pathophysiological changes in NAD + and NADH, as well as enzymes like sirtuins that sense and respond to redox changes in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of controlling the sum of error probability in the sequential probability ratio test

    Bijoy Kumarr Pradhan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A generalized modified method is proposed to control the sum of error probabilities in sequential probability ratio test to minimize the weighted average of the two average sample numbers under a simple null hypothesis and a simple alternative hypothesis with the restriction that the sum of error probabilities is a pre-assigned constant to find the optimal sample size and finally a comparison is done with the optimal sample size found from fixed sample size procedure. The results are applied to the cases when the random variate follows a normal law as well as Bernoullian law.

  2. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain Raimundo; Núñez-Tapia, Rosa María; Ramírez-Silva, Armando; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos

    2013-05-15

    Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ) and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL) were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents' limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837), parents' limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722), parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837), parents' emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743) and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870).No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.

  3. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  4. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with peripheral vertigo: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    Ozbay, Isa; Kahraman, Cuneyt; Balikci, Hasan Huseyin; Kucur, Cuneyt; Kahraman, Nilufer Kuzeyli; Ozkaya, Derya Pınar; Oghan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between peripheral vertigo and inflammation by using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker. We recruited 103 patients with peripheral vertigo (71 women, 32 men; mean age, 39.8 ± 14.7 years) who presented to the Otolaryngology Department of Dumlupinar University Hospital. Vertigo patients with systemic diseases, neurological disorders, malignancy or any inflammatory disease that could alter the NLR were excluded from the study. We also enrolled 103 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls; 82 women, 21 men; mean age, 36.7 ± 13.5 years) who underwent routine checkups in our hospital. The vertigo patients underwent full otolaryngologic and neurologic examinations and audiometric tests to rule out any other pathology causing the peripheral vertigo. NLR was calculated in all subjects and was compared between the patient and control groups. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of lipid profiles, liver-function tests, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin level, mean platelet volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels. The mean NLR was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (Pvertigo, found that the NLR is significantly higher among peripheral vertigo patients than among healthy controls. This result suggests that the NLR is a novel potential marker of stress in peripheral vertigo patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Slip Ratio Estimation and Regenerative Brake Control for Decelerating Electric Vehicles without Detection of Vehicle Velocity and Acceleration

    Suzuki, Toru; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    In slip ratio control systems, it is necessary to detect the vehicle velocity in order to obtain the slip ratio. However, it is very difficult to measure this velocity directly. We have proposed slip ratio estimation and control methods that do not require the vehicle velocity with acceleration. In this paper, the slip ratio estimation and control methods are proposed without detecting the vehicle velocity and acceleration when it is decelerating. We carried out simulations and experiments by using an electric vehicle to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Air-fuel ratio control of a lean burn Si engine using fuzzy self tuning method

    Akhlaghi, M.; Bakhtiari Nejad, F.; Azadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Reducing the exhaust emission of an spark ignition engine by means of engine modifications requires consideration of the effects of these modifications on the variations of crankshaft torque and the engine roughness respectively. Only if the roughness does not exceed a certain level the vehicle do not begin to surge. This paper presents a method for controlling the air-fuel ratio for a lean burn engine. Fuzzy rules and reasoning are utilized on-line to determine the control parameters. The main advantages of this method are simple structure and robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions. A non-linear model of an Si engine with the engine torque irregularity simulation is used in this study

  7. Enhancement of L-Threonine Production by Controlling Sequential Carbon-Nitrogen Ratios during Fermentation.

    Lee, Hyeok-Won; Lee, Hee-Suk; Kim, Chun-Suk; Lee, Jin-Gyeom; Kim, Won-Kyo; Lee, Eun-Gyo; Lee, Hong-Weon

    2018-02-28

    Controlling the residual glucose concentration is important for improving productivity in L-threonine fermentation. In this study, we developed a procedure to automatically control the feeding quantity of glucose solution as a function of ammonia-water consumption rate. The feeding ratio (R C/N ) of glucose and ammonia water was predetermined via a stoichiometric approach, on the basis of glucose-ammonia water consumption rates. In a 5-L fermenter, 102 g/l L -threonine was obtained using our glucose-ammonia water combined feeding strategy, which was then successfully applied in a 500-L fermenter (89 g/l). Therefore, we conclude that an automatic combination feeding strategy is suitable for improving L-threonine production.

  8. Electron energy distribution control by fiat: breaking from the conventional flux ratio scaling rules in etch

    Ranjan, Alok; Wang, Mingmei; Sherpa, Sonam; Ventzek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    With shrinking critical dimensions, minimizing each of aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE), bowing, undercut, selectivity, and within die uniformly across a wafer is met by trading off one requirement against another. The problem of trade-offs is especially critical. At the root of the problem is that roles radical flux, ion flux and ion energy play may be both good and bad. Increasing one parameter helps meeting one requirement but hinders meeting the other. Managing process by managing flux ratios and ion energy alone with conventional sources is not adequate because surface chemistry is uncontrollable. At the root of lack of control is that the electron energy distribution function (eedf) has not been controlled. Fortunately the high density surface wave sources control the eedf by fiat. High density surface wave sources are characterized by distinct plasma regions: an active plasma generation region with high electron temperature (Te) and an ionization free but chemistry rich diffusive region (low Te region). Pressure aids is segregating the regions by proving a means for momentum relaxation between the source and downstream region. "Spatial pulsing" allows access to plasma chemistry with reasonably high ion flux, from the active plasma generation region, just above the wafer. Low plasma potential enables precise passivation of surfaces which is critical for atomic layer etch (ALE) or high precision etch where the roles of plasma species can be limited to their purposed roles. High precision etch need not be at the cost of speed and manufacturability. Large ion flux at precisely controlled ion energy with RLSATM realizes fast desorption steps for ALE without compromising process throughput and precision.

  9. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  10. Tracking control of WMRs on loose soil based on mixed H2/H∞ control with longitudinal slip ratio estimation

    Gao, Haibo; Chen, Chao; Ding, Liang; Li, Weihua; Yu, Haitao; Xia, Kerui; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) often suffer from the longitudinal slipping when moving on the loose soil of the surface of the moon during exploration. Longitudinal slip is the main cause of WMRs' delay in trajectory tracking. In this paper, a nonlinear extended state observer (NESO) is introduced to estimate the longitudinal velocity in order to estimate the slip ratio and the derivative of the loss of velocity which are used in modelled disturbance compensation. Owing to the uncertainty and disturbance caused by estimation errors, a multi-objective controller using the mixed H2/H∞ method is employed to ensure the robust stability and performance of the WMR system. The final inputs of the trajectory tracking consist of the feedforward compensation, compensation for the modelled disturbances and designed multi-objective control inputs. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller, which exhibits a satisfactory tracking performance.

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  12. Safety and efficacy of diaphragm pacing in patients with respiratory insufficiency due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (DiPALS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    2015-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is part of the standard of care for treatment of respiratory failure in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System has received Humanitarian Device Exemption approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of respiratory failure in patients with ALS. We aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of diaphragm pacing with this system in patients with respiratory muscle weakness due to ALS. We undertook a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial at seven specialist ALS and respiratory centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older with laboratory supported probable, clinically probable, or clinically definite ALS; stable riluzole treatment for at least 30 days; and respiratory insufficiency. We randomly assigned participants (1:1), via a centralised web-based randomisation system with minimisation that balanced patients for age, sex, forced vital capacity, and bulbar function, to receive either non-invasive ventilation plus pacing with the NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System or non-invasive ventilation alone. Patients, carers, and outcome assessors were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN number 53817913. Between Dec 5, 2011, and Dec 18, 2013, we randomly assigned 74 participants to receive either non-invasive ventilation alone (n=37) or non-invasive ventilation plus diaphragm pacing (n=37). On Dec 18, 2013, the Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee (DMEC) recommended suspension of recruitment on the basis of overall survival figures. Randomly assigned participants continued as per the study protocol until June 23, 2014, when the DMEC advised discontinuation of pacing in all patients. Follow-up assessments continued until the planned end of the study in December, 2014. Survival

  13. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  14. Controls over foliar N:P ratios in tropical rain forests.

    Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Asner, Gregory P; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between foliar nutrient concentrations and soil nutrient availability have been found in multiple ecosystems. These relationships have led to the use of foliar nutrients as an index of nutrient status and to the prediction of broadscale patterns in ecosystem processes. More recently, a growing interest in ecological stoichiometry has fueled multiple analyses of foliar nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratios within and across ecosystems. These studies have observed that N:P values are generally elevated in tropical forests when compared to higher latitude ecosystems, adding weight to a common belief that tropical forests are generally N rich and P poor. However, while these broad generalizations may have merit, their simplicity masks the enormous environmental heterogeneity that exists within the tropics; such variation includes large ranges in soil fertility and climate, as well as the highest plant species diversity of any biome. Here we present original data on foliar N and P concentrations from 150 mature canopy tree species in Costa Rica and Brazil, and combine those data with a comprehensive new literature synthesis to explore the major sources of variation in foliar N:P values within the tropics. We found no relationship between N:P ratios and either latitude or mean annual precipitation within the tropics alone. There is, however, evidence of seasonal controls; in our Costa Rica sites, foliar N:P values differed by 25% between wet and dry seasons. The N:P ratios do vary with soil P availability and/or soil order, but there is substantial overlap across coarse divisions in soil type, and perhaps the most striking feature of the data set is variation at the species level. Taken as a whole, our results imply that the dominant influence on foliar N:P ratios in the tropics is species variability and that, unlike marine systems and perhaps many other terrestrial biomes, the N:P stoichiometry of tropical forests is not well constrained. Thus any use of N

  15. Differences in mortality based on worsening ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen corrected for immune system status and respiratory support.

    Miles, Lachlan F; Bailey, Michael; Young, Paul; Pilcher, David V

    2012-03-01

    To define the relationship between worsening oxygenation status (worst PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission) and mortality in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent ICU patients in the presence and absence of mechanical ventilation. Retrospective cohort study. Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database. Adult patients admitted to 129 ICUs in Australasia, 2000-2010. In hospital and ICU mortality; relationship between mortality and declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio by ventilation status and immune status. 457 750 patient records were analysed. Worsening oxygenation status was associated with increasing mortality in all groups. Higher mortality was seen in immunosuppressed patients than immunocompetent patients. After multivariate analysis, in mechanically ventilated patients, declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours of ICU admission was associated with a more rapidly rising mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients than non-immunosuppressed patients. Immunosuppression did not affect the relationship between oxygenation status and mortality in non-ventilated patients. Immunosuppression increases the risk of mortality with progressively worsening oxygenation status, but only in the presence of mechanical ventilation. Further research into the impact of mechanical ventilation in immunosuppressed patients is required.

  16. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease

  17. Respiratory Failure

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  18. Low level control of metal belt CVT considering shift dynamics and ratio valve on-off characteristics

    Kim, Tal Chol; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, low level control algorithms of a metal belt CVT are suggested. A feedforward PID control algorithm is adopted for line pressure based on a steady state relationship between the input duty and the line pressure. Experimental results show that feedforward PID control of the line pressure guarantees a fast response while reducing the pressure undershoot which may result in belt slip. For ratio control, a fuzzy logic is suggested by considering the CVT shift dynamics and on-off characteristics of the ratio control valve. It is found from experimental results that a desired speed ratio can be achieved at steady state in spite of the fluctuating primary pressure. It is expected that the low level control algorithms for the line pressure and speed ratio suggested in this study can be implemented in a prototype CVT

  19. Tip Speed Ratio Based Maximum Power Tracking Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines; A Comprehensive Design

    Murat Karabacak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive control method of wind turbines used to generate electric energy from wind is the fixed speed control method. With this method, it is not possible that turbine input power is transferred to grid at maximum rate. For this reason, Maximum Power Tracking (MPT schemes are proposed. In order to implement MPT, the propeller has to rotate at a different speed for every different wind speed. This situation has led MPT based systems to be called Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT systems. In VSWT systems, turbine input power can be transferred to grid at rates close to maximum power. When MPT based control of VSWT systems is the case, two important processes come into prominence. These are instantaneously determination and tracking of MPT point. In this study, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method based on tip speed ratio, power available in wind is transferred into grid over a back to back converter at maximum rate via a VSWT system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. Besides a physical wind turbine simulator is modelled and simulated. Results show that a time varying MPPT point is tracked with a high performance.

  20. Controls of oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate formed during nitrification in soils

    Mayer, B.; Bollwerk, S.M.; Vorhoff, B.; Mansfeldt, T.; Veizer, J.

    1999-01-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrate is increasingly used to determine sources and transformations of nitrogen in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate appear to be particularly useful, since they allow the differentiation between nitrate from atmospheric deposition (δ 18 O nitrate between +25 and +70 per mille), nitrate from fertilizers (δ 18 O nitrate +23 per mille), and nitrate derived from nitrification processes in soils (δ 18 O nitrate 3 molecule derive from H 2 O (with negative δ 18 O values dependent upon location) and one oxygen derives from atmospheric O 2 (δ 18 O = +23.5 per mille).. The objective of this study was to experimentally determine the extent to which water oxygen controls the δ 18 O value of nitrate, which is formed during nitrification in soils

  1. Control-surface hinge-moment calculations for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    Perry, B., III

    1978-01-01

    The hinge moments, at selected flight conditions, resulting from deflecting two trailing edge control surfaces (one inboard and one midspan) on a high aspect ratio, swept, fuel conservative wing with a supercritical airfoil are estimated. Hinge moment results obtained from procedures which employ a recently developed transonic analysis are given. In this procedure a three dimensional inviscid transonic aerodynamics computer program is combined with a two dimensional turbulent boundary layer program in order to obtain an interacted solution. These results indicate that trends of the estimated hinge moment as a function of deflection angle are similar to those from experimental hinge moment measurements made on wind tunnel models with swept supercritical wings tested at similar values of free stream Mach number and angle of attack.

  2. Concurrent progressive-ratio schedules: built-in controls in the study of delayed reward efficacy.

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Hudnall, Jennifer L

    2014-08-15

    Delayed rewards maintain lower rates of operant responding than immediate rewards, and when given a choice between immediate and delayed rewards, individuals typically choose the immediate reward, even when it is smaller (a phenomenon called delay discounting). The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral patterns, however, are not conclusively understood. The present study developed a method to examine the efficacy of delayed rewards in a way that is suitable for pharmacological manipulation of delayed reward efficacy (while controlling for general changes in reward efficacy). The progressive ratio (PR) paradigm often used to examine reward efficacy was modified such that two PR schedules for lever pressing concurrently yet independently were presented. Across a series of conditions, a range of delays (3-81s) were arranged on one of the levers while the reward on the other lever remained immediate. PR breakpoints (the highest ratio completed on each lever, our measure of reward efficacy) systematically decreased on the delayed, but not on the immediate reward lever, suggesting that delays decreased reward efficacy. This decrease in breakpoint resulted in bias in within-session responding that was accounted for by models that adjusted reward value by the delay to that reward. Unlike the standard PR paradigm, the present arrangement provided the controls needed to differentiate delay specific from general changes in reward efficacy. The present method should be helpful in the study of the behavioral and neural mechanisms of delayed reward efficacy. Modifications of the present paradigm should be useful for pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. pRotective vEntilation with veno-venouS lung assisT in respiratory failure: A protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure.

    McNamee, J J; Gillies, M A; Barrett, N A; Agus, A M; Beale, R; Bentley, A; Bodenham, A; Brett, S J; Brodie, D; Finney, S J; Gordon, A J; Griffiths, M; Harrison, D; Jackson, C; McDowell, C; McNally, C; Perkins, G D; Tunnicliffe, W; Vuylsteke, A; Walsh, T S; Wise, M P; Young, D; McAuley, D F

    2017-05-01

    One of the few interventions to demonstrate improved outcomes for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure is reducing tidal volumes when using mechanical ventilation, often termed lung protective ventilation. Veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (vv-ECCO 2 R) can facilitate reducing tidal volumes. pRotective vEntilation with veno-venouS lung assisT (REST) is a randomised, allocation concealed, controlled, open, multicentre pragmatic trial to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation facilitated by vv-ECCO 2 R in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure will be randomly allocated to receive either vv-ECCO 2 R and lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation or standard care with stratification by recruitment centre. There is a need for a large randomised controlled trial to establish whether vv-ECCO 2 R in acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure can allow the use of a more protective lung ventilation strategy and is associated with improved patient outcomes.

  4. Comparison of visual biofeedback system with a guiding waveform and abdomen-chest motion self-control system for respiratory motion management

    Nakajima, Yujiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Kanai, Takayuki; Ito, Kengo; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of 4D computed tomography imaging and cause artifacts. Visual biofeedback systems associated with a patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches) (representing simpler visual coaching techniques without a guiding waveform) are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching in reducing respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. We collected data from 11 healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared with free-breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86 and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18 and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with the wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to the other techniques. Our results showed that visual biofeedback combined with a wave model could potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques were able to reduce respiratory irregularities

  5. Aircraft control surface failure detection and isolation using the OSGLR test. [orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio

    Bonnice, W. F.; Motyka, P.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test in detecting and isolating commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures is evaluated. A modification to incorporate age-weighting which significantly reduces the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors is presented. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single linear model valid for a cruise flight condition is tested using a nonlinear aircraft simulation. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection and isolation performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling on dynamic pressure and flap deflection is examined. Based on this testing, the OSGLR algorithm should be capable of detecting control surface failures that would affect the safe operation of a commercial aircraft. Isolation may be difficult if there are several surfaces which produce similar effects on the aircraft. Extending the algorithm over the entire operating envelope of a commercial aircraft appears feasible.

  6. Pathways to Adolescents' Flourishing: Linking Self-Control Skills and Positivity Ratio through Social Support

    Orkibi, Hod; Hamama, Liat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Ronen, Tammie

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on the ability to experience a high ratio of positive to negative emotions in 807 Israeli adolescents aged 12 to 15 years (50% girls). While considering possible gender differences, we tested a model positing that adolescents' self-control skills would link to their positivity ratio and indirectly through perceived social…

  7. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  8. Shoulder Dynamic Control Ratio and Rotation Range of Motion in Female Junior Elite Handball Players and Controls.

    van Cingel, Robert; Habets, Bas; Willemsen, Linn; Staal, Bart

    2018-03-01

    To compare glenohumeral range of motion and shoulder rotator muscle strength in healthy female junior elite handball players and controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. Sports medical center. Forty elite female handball players and 30 controls active in nonoverhead sports participated in this study. Passive external rotator (ER), internal rotator (IR), and total range of motion (TROM) of the dominant and nondominant arm were examined with a goniometer. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to evaluate concentric and eccentric rotator muscle strength at 60 and 120 degrees/s with dynamic control ratio (DCR = ERecc:IRcon) as the main outcome parameter. Except for the ER range of motion in the nondominant arm, no significant differences were found between groups for IR, ER of the dominant arm, and the TROM. Within the handball group, the side-to-side difference for IR of the dominant arm was -1.4 degrees. The ER and the TROM of the dominant arm were significantly larger, 6.3 and 4.9 degrees, respectively. For both groups, the DCR values were above 1 and no significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant arm. The DCR values in the handball group were significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the adopted definitions for muscle imbalance, glenohumeral internal range of motion deficit and TROM deficit our elite female handball players seem not at risk for shoulder injuries. Prospective studies are needed to support the belief that a DCR below 1 places the shoulder at risk for injury.

  9. Epizootiological and diagnostic significance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome control

    Radojičić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a new viral disease in swine, designated exclusively under the acronym PRRS by the European Commission in 1991. The cause of this disease was isolated and determined in 1991 at the Lelystad Institute in The Netherlands as Lelystad aretrivirus. The PRRSV is an RNA virus of the order Nidovirales, the family Arteriviridae, the genus Arterivirus (Cavanaugh, 1997. Different genomic and pheriotypic varieties of the virus are significant. It is replicated in macrophages, it induces permanent viraemia, causes the creation of antibodies, and leads to persistent and latent infections. It is isolated from tonsil tissue, alveolar macrophages, the uterus, and fetal homogenate composed of different tissues (Wills et al., 1997. All production categories of swine can contract PRRS, but pregnant sows, suckling piglets and fattening swine are considered endangered categories. Morbidity and mortapty is between 8-80%, which also depends on the animal category. Economic damages are substantial when one considers the high percentage of still-born piglets, mummified fetuses and suckling piglets. Irregular successive cycles in sows are also expressed. In fattening swine, in addition to a respiratory form of the clinical picture, the time period until animals reach abattoir weight is extended even up to 30 days, which is also a considerable economic loss. Costs of treating possible secondary bacterial infections, diagnostics and immunoprophylaxis are not negligible. The OIE placed PRRS on the B list in 1992 as a contagious disease of swine which incurs economic losses in almost all countries of the world. Diagnosis is made by isolating and determining the virus and/or by serodiagnostics (ELISA and PCR. Certain countries have already made up protocols for the implementation of constant diagnostics and suggested eradication measures (Dee S.A. et al., 2000. In our country, the first clinical cases of PRRS were

  10. Measurement system analysis (MSA) of the isotopic ratio for uranium isotope enrichment process control

    Medeiros, Josue C. de; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R., E-mail: josue@inb.gov.br, E-mail: rodrigobarbosa@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rezende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, one of the stages in nuclear fuel cycle development is the process of uranium isotope enrichment, which will provide the amount of low enriched uranium for the nuclear fuel production to supply 100% Angra 1 and 20% Angra 2 demands. Determination of isotopic ration n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6} - used as process gas) is essential in order to control of enrichment process of isotopic separation by gaseous centrifugation cascades. The uranium hexafluoride process is performed by gas continuous feeding in separation unit which uses the centrifuge force principle, establishing a density gradient in a gas containing components of different molecular weights. The elemental separation effect occurs in a single ultracentrifuge that results in a partial separation of the feed in two fractions: an enriched on (product) and another depleted (waste) in the desired isotope ({sup 235}UF{sub 6}). Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) has used quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) by electron impact (EI) to perform isotopic ratio n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) analysis in the process. The decision of adjustments and change te input variables are based on the results presented in these analysis. A study of stability, bias and linearity determination has been performed in order to evaluate the applied method, variations and systematic errors in the measurement system. The software used to analyze the techniques above was the Minitab 15. (author)

  11. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children’s Sympathy Across Early Childhood

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children’s sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children’s effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children’s sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children’s subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children’s effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children’s sympathy. PMID:25329555

  12. Isometric strength ratios of the hip musculature in females with patellofemoral pain: a comparison to pain-free controls.

    Magalhães, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Paula M C C; Sacramento, Sylvio N; Martin, RobRoy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare hip agonist-antagonist isometric strength ratios between females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome and pain-free control group. One hundred and twenty females between 15 and 40 years of age (control group: n = 60; PFP group: n = 60) participated in the study. Hip adductor, abductor, medial rotator, lateral rotator, flexor, and extensor isometric strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Comparisons in the hip adductor/abductor and medial/lateral rotator and flexor/extensor strength ratios were made between groups using independent t-tests. Group comparisons also were made between the anteromedial hip complex (adductor, medial rotator, and flexor musculature) and posterolateral hip complex (abductor, lateral rotator, and extensor musculature). On average, the hip adductor/abductor isometric strength ratio in the PFP group was 23% higher when compared with the control group (p = 0.01). The anteromedial/posterolateral complex ratio also was significantly higher in the PFP group (average 8%; p = 0.04). No significant group differences were found for the medial/lateral rotator ratio and flexor/extensor strength ratios. The results of this study demonstrate that females with PFP have altered hip strength ratios when compared with asymptomatic controls. These strength imbalances may explain the tendency of females with PFP to demonstrate kinematic tendencies that increase loading on the patellofemoral joint (i.e., dynamic knee valgus).

  13. Does predation control adult sex ratios and longevities in marine pelagic copepods?

    Hirst, A.G.; Bonnet, D.; Conway, D.V.P.

    2010-01-01

    We assess the causes of adult sex ratio skew in marine pelagic copepods by examining changes in these ratios between the juveniles and adults, sexual differences in juvenile stage durations, and mortality rates of adults in the field and laboratory (when free from predators). In the field, late...... copepodite stages (CIV and CV) commonly have sex ratios that are either not significantly different from equity (1 : 1), or slightly male biased. By contrast, in adults, these ratios are commonly significantly biased toward female dominance. Sex ratio skews are therefore primarily attributable to processes...... in adults. Members of the non-Diaptomoidea have especially skewed adult ratios; in the members Oithonidae and Clausocalanidae this is not generated from differences between male and female adult physiological longevity (i.e., laboratory longevity when free of predators). In the genera Acartia, Oithona...

  14. Development of patient-controlled respiratory gating system based on visual guidance for magnetic-resonance image-guided radiation therapy.

    Kim, Jung-In; Lee, Hanyoung; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Jong Min

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a visual guidance patient-controlled (VG-PC) respiratory gating system for respiratory-gated magnetic-resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) and to evaluate the performance of the developed system. The near-real-time cine planar MR image of a patient acquired during treatment was transmitted to a beam projector in the treatment room through an optical fiber cable. The beam projector projected the cine MR images inside the bore of the ViewRay system in order to be visible to a patient during treatment. With this visual information, patients voluntarily controlled their respiration to put the target volume into the gating boundary (gating window). The effect of the presence of the beam projector in the treatment room on the image quality of the MRI was investigated by evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity, low-contrast detectability, high-contrast spatial resolution, and spatial integrity with the VG-PC gating system. To evaluate the performance of the developed system, we applied the VG-PC gating system to a total of seven patients; six patients received stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and one patient received conventional fractionated radiation therapy. The projected cine MR images were visible even when the room light was on. No image data loss or additional time delay during delivery of image data were observed. Every indicator representing MRI quality, including SNR, uniformity, low-contrast detectability, high-contrast spatial resolution, and spatial integrity exhibited values higher than the tolerance levels of the manufacturer with the VG-PC gating system; therefore, the presence of the VG-PC gating system in the treatment room did not degrade the MR image quality. The average beam-off times due to respiratory gating with and without the VG-PC gating system were 830.3 ± 278.2 s and 1264.2 ± 302.1 s respectively (P = 0.005). Consequently, the total treatment times excluding

  15. Bubble CPAP versus CPAP with variable flow in newborns with respiratory distress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Yagui, Ana Cristina Zanon; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Haddad, Luciana Branco; Prado, Cristiane; Rossi, Felipe Souza; Deutsch, Alice D Agostini; Rebello, Celso Moura

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) using devices with variable flow or bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) regarding CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, total CPAP and oxygen time, and length of intensive care unit and hospital stay in neonates with moderate respiratory distress (RD) and birth weight (BW) ≥ 1,500 g. Forty newborns requiring NCPAP were randomized into two study groups: variable flow group (VF) and continuous flow group (CF). The study was conducted between October 2008 and April 2010. Demographic data, CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, and total CPAP and oxygen time were recorded. Categorical outcomes were tested using the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The level of significance was set at p CPAP failure (21.1 and 20.0% for VF and CF, respectively; p = 1.000), air leak syndrome (10.5 and 5.0%, respectively; p = 0.605), total CPAP time (median: 22.0 h, interquartile range [IQR]: 8.00-31.00 h and median: 22.0 h, IQR: 6.00-32.00 h, respectively; p = 0.822), and total oxygen time (median: 24.00 h, IQR: 7.00-85.00 h and median: 21.00 h, IQR: 9.50-66.75 h, respectively; p = 0.779). In newborns with BW ≥ 1,500 g and moderate RD, the use of continuous flow NCPAP showed the same benefits as the use of variable flow NCPAP.

  16. Microtopographic and Hydrological Controls over Respiratory Efflux and Late-Season Arctic Methane Emissions

    Wilkman, E.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, Arctic peatlands have released approximately 35 Tg (3.5 x 1012g) of CH4 annually, corresponding to around 1/3 of the aggregate wetland CH4 fluxes and 16% of all natural emissions. As climate models increasingly suggest that current warming trends in the Arctic (4-8 °C higher annual surface air temperatures) will continue by century's end, carbon (C) cycling in these northern climes may be further amplified. Although much has been learned in recent decades, uncertainty remains in regard to the spatial and temporal extent of CO2 and CH4 emissions from these systems. Chamber based carbon flux measurements were gathered for three growing seasons from June 2007 to September 2013 in Barrow, Alaska to investigate the diurnal, weekly, and monthly patterns of CO2 and CH4 flux in the North American Arctic. For the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons, high temporal frequency auto-chambers (LI-8100A Automated Soil Flux System, LI-COR Biosciences) were used to gather over 18,000 individual flux measurements. From July to September 2013 an Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc.) was deployed in concert with this soil flux system to gather high temporal frequency soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Nearby eddy covariance towers provided auxiliary meteorological and environmental data, while weekly transects amassed further surficial hydrological measures (pH, thaw depth, water table). For earlier periods of data, respiratory fluxes were partitioned into five microtopographic classes (polygon rims and troughs, low centered basins, high ridges, and flat mesic terrain). Conversely, for the later periods of data covered chamber fluxes were partitioned into three 'habitat' types (High, Medium, Wet) based on corresponding aboveground average water table extent. Marked dissimilarities were noted across habitat types and microtopographic classes. In general more mesic, waterlogged regions released greater quantities of CO2 across the growing season, while

  17. Indoor spread of respiratory infection by recirculation of air: a controllable hazard

    Riley, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The overall health benefit to be derived from disinfecting air before recirculation is difficult to predict, but as more and more buildings recirculate air without disinfection, the problem of spreading infection increases. Since the cost of disinfection with uv radiation is small and the cost of morbidity from airborne infections immense, the cost-benefit ratio for disinfecting recirculated air may be attractive, even though the protection of occupants would be limited. Recirculation of air in buildings is a relatively new technology that conserves energy. Like most new technologies, it brings new hazards. Disinfection of recirculated air is an appropriate additional technique with which to counter some of the hazards of air recirculation

  18. Intelligent Multiobjective Slip and Speed Ratio Control of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission for Automobiles

    Zhengchao Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Van Doorne’s continuously variable transmission (CVT is the most popular CVT design for automotive transmission, but it is only applicable to low-power passenger cars because of its low torque capacity. To overcome this limitation of traditional single-belt CVT, a novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s CVT (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors. This paper, based on the published analytical model and test rig of DBVCVT, further proposes an intelligent multiobjective fuzzy controller for slip and speed ratio control of DBVCVT. The controller aims to safely control the clamping forces of both the primary and the secondary pulleys in order to improve the transmission efficiency, achieve the accurate speed ratio, and avoid the belt slip under different engine loads and vehicle speeds. The slip, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency dynamics of DBVCVT are firstly analyzed and modeled in this paper. With the aid of a flexible objective function, the analytical model, and fuzzy logic, a Pareto rule base for fuzzy controller is developed for multiobjective DBVCVT control. Experimental results show that the proposed controller for slip and speed ratio regulation of DBVCVT is effective and performs well under different user-defined weights.

  19. Computer-controlled detection system for high-precision isotope ratio measurements

    McCord, B.R.; Taylor, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a detection system for high-precision isotope ratio measurements. In this new system, the requirement for a ratioing digital voltmeter has been eliminated, and a standard digital voltmeter interfaced to a computer is employed. Instead of measuring the ratio of the two steadily increasing output voltages simultaneously, the digital voltmeter alternately samples the outputs at a precise rate over a certain period of time. The data are sent to the computer which calculates the rate of charge of each amplifier and divides the two rates to obtain the isotopic ratio. These results simulate a coincident measurement of the output of both integrators. The charge rate is calculated by using a linear regression method, and the standard error of the slope gives a measure of the stability of the system at the time the measurement was taken

  20. Respiratory mechanics

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  1. Walk Ratio (Step Length/Cadence) as a Summary Index of Neuromotor Control of Gait: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

    Rota, Viviana; Perucca, Laura; Simone, Anna; Tesio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, the step length/cadence ratio [walk ratio (WR) in mm/(steps/min) and normalized for height] is known to be constant around 6.5 mm/(step/min). It is a speed-independent index of the overall neuromotor gait control, in as much as it reflects energy expenditure, balance, between-step variability, and attentional demand. The speed…

  2. Does a balanced transfusion ratio of plasma to packed red blood cells improve outcomes in both trauma and surgical patients? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

    Rahouma, Mohamed; Kamel, Mohamed; Jodeh, Diana; Kelley, Thomas; Ohmes, Lucas B; de Biasi, Andreas R; Abouarab, Ahmed A; Benedetto, Umberto; Guy, T Sloane; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Paul C; Girardi, Leonard N; Gaudino, Mario

    2017-09-23

    The effect of high transfusion ratios of fresh frozen plasma (FFP): packed red blood cell (RBC) on mortality is still controversial. Observational evidence contradicts a recent randomized controlled trial regarding mortality benefit. This is an updated meta-analysis, including a non-trauma cohort. Patients were grouped into high vs. low based on FFP:RBC ratio. Primary outcomes were 24-h and 30-day/in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury rates. Random model and leave-one-out-analyses were used. In 36 studies, lower ratio showed poorer 24-h and 30-day survival (p ratio was associated with worse 24-h and 30-day mortality (P ratio of 1:1.5 provided the largest 24-h and 30-day survival benefit (p ratio was not associated with ARDS or ALI. High FFP:RBC ratio confers survival benefits in trauma and non-trauma settings, with the highest survival benefit at 1:1.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of respiratory muscle training in weaning of mechanical ventilation in patients with mechanical ventilation for 48hours or more: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Sandoval Moreno, L M; Casas Quiroga, I C; Wilches Luna, E C; García, A F

    2018-02-02

    To evaluate the efficacy of respiratory muscular training in the weaning of mechanical ventilation and respiratory muscle strength in patients on mechanical ventilation of 48hours or more. Randomized controlled trial of parallel groups, double-blind. Ambit: Intensive Care Unit of a IV level clinic in the city of Cali. 126 patients in mechanical ventilation for 48hours or more. The experimental group received daily a respiratory muscle training program with treshold, adjusted to 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure, additional to standard care, conventional received standard care of respiratory physiotherapy. MAIN INTEREST VARIABLES: weaning of mechanical ventilation. Other variables evaluated: respiratory muscle strength, requirement of non-invasive mechanical ventilation and frequency of reintubation. intention-to-treat analysis was performed with all variables evaluated and analysis stratified by sepsis condition. There were no statistically significant differences in the median weaning time of the MV between the groups or in the probability of extubation between groups (HR: 0.82 95% CI: 0.55-1.20 P=.29). The maximum inspiratory pressure was increased in the experimental group on average 9.43 (17.48) cmsH20 and in the conventional 5.92 (11.90) cmsH20 (P=.48). The difference between the means of change in maximal inspiratory pressure was 0.46 (P=.83 95%CI -3.85 to -4.78). respiratory muscle training did not demonstrate efficacy in the reduction of the weaning period of mechanical ventilation nor in the increase of respiratory muscle strength in the study population. Registered study at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02469064). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Doosje, S.; De Goede, M.P.M.; Van Doornen, L.J.P.; Van de Schoot, R.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related

  5. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  6. Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Hoes, Arno W; van Loon, Anton M; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 579 children age 18 to 72 months with

  7. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  8. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    Chang SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective: We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods: Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results: Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both; after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05. Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05. The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48

  9. Yogurt supplemented with probiotics can protect the healthy elderly from respiratory infections: A randomized controlled open-label trial.

    Pu, Fangfang; Guo, Yue; Li, Ming; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijie; Shen, Xi; He, Miao; Huang, Chengyu; He, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain could protect middle-aged and elderly people from acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) using a randomized, blank-controlled, parallel-group design. Two hundred and five volunteers aged ≥45 years were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects in the intervention group were orally administered 300 mL/d of yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (N1115), 3.6×10 7 CFU/mL for 12 weeks, while those in the control group retained their normal diet without any probiotic supplementation. The primary outcome was the incidence of URTI, and changes in serum protein, immunoglobulins, and the profiles of the T-lymphocyte subsets (total T-cells [CD3 + ], T-helper cells [CD4 + ], and T-cytotoxic-suppressor cells [CD8 + ]) during the intervention were the secondary outcomes. Compared to the control group, the number of persons diagnosed with an acute URTI and the number of URTI events significantly decreased in the intervention group ( P =0.038, P =0.030, respectively). The risk of URTI in the intervention group was evaluated as 55% of that in the control group (relative risk =0.55, 95% CI: 0.307-0.969). The change in the percentage of CD3 + cells in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group ( P =0.038). However, no significant differences were observed in the total protein, albumin, globulin, and prealbumin levels in both groups ( P >0.05). The study suggested that yogurt with selected probiotic strains such as N1115 may reduce the risk of acute upper tract infections in the elderly. The enhancement of the T-cell-mediated natural immune defense might be one of the important underlying mechanisms for probiotics to express their anti-infective effects.

  10. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    Piiper, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. WE-DE-209-05: Self-Held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance

    Gifford, K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  12. WE-DE-209-05: Self-Held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance

    Gifford, K. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  13. Targeting the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain of Cryptococcus through Antifungal Chemosensitization: A Model for Control of Non-Fermentative Pathogens

    Kathleen L. Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC inhibition compared to species of Candida. This higher sensitivity results from the inability of Cryptococcus to generate cellular energy through fermentation. To heighten disruption of cellular MRC, octyl gallate (OG or 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA, phenolic compounds inhibiting mitochondrial functions, were selected as chemosensitizers to pyraclostrobin (PCS; an inhibitor of complex III of MRC. The cryptococci were more susceptible to the chemosensitization (i.e., PCS + OG or 2,3-DHBA than the Candida with all Cryptococcus strains tested being sensitive to this chemosensitization. Alternatively, only few of the Candida strains showed sensitivity. OG possessed higher chemosensitizing potency than 2,3-DHBA, where the concentration of OG required with the drug to achieve chemosensitizing synergism was much lower than that required of 2,3-DHBA. Bioassays with gene deletion mutants of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that OG or 2,3-DHBA affect different cellular targets. These assays revealed mitochondrial superoxide dismutase or glutathione homeostasis plays a relatively greater role in fungal tolerance to 2,3-DHBA or OG, respectively. These findings show that application of chemosensitizing compounds that augment MRC debilitation is a promising strategy to antifungal control against yeast pathogens.

  14. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramirez, Martha; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 ± 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 ± 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead

  15. Fast predictive control for air-fuel ratio of SI engines using a ...

    In this paper MPC based on an adaptive neural network model is attempted for air fuel ratio (AFR), in which the model is adapted on-line to cope with nonlinear dynamics and parameter uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) network is employed and the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm is used for weight ...

  16. Using Live-Crown Ratio to Control Wood Quality: An Example of Quantitative Silviculture

    Thomas J. Dean

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative silviculture is the application of biological relationships in meeting specific, quantitative management objectives. It is a two-sided approach requiring the identification and application of biological relationships. An example of quantitative silviculture is presented that uses a relationship between average-live crown ratio and relative stand density...

  17. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/μg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

  18. A critical analysis of carbonic anhydrase function, respiratory gas exchange, and the acid-base control of secretion in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias.

    Shuttleworth, Trevor J; Thompson, Jill; Munger, R Stephen; Wood, Chris M

    2006-12-01

    We compared in vivo responses of rectal gland secretion to carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition (10(-4) mol l(-1) acetazolamide) in volume-loaded dogfish with in vitro responses in an isolated-perfused gland stimulated with 5 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) forskolin and removed from systemic influences. We also measured respiratory gas exchange in the perfused gland, described the acid-base status of the secreted fluid, and determined the relative importance of various extracellular and intracellular acid-base parameters in controlling rectal gland secretion in vitro. In vivo, acetazolamide inhibited Cl(-) secretion and decreased pHi in the rectal gland, but interpretation was confounded by an accompanying systemic respiratory acidosis, which would also have contributed to the inhibition. In the perfused gland, M(CO(2)) and M(O(2)) increased in linear relation to increases in Cl(-) secretion rate. CA inhibition (10(-4) mol l(-1) acetazolamide) had no effect on Cl(-) secretion rate or pHi in the perfused gland, in contrast to in vivo, but caused a transitory 30% inhibition of M(CO(2)) (relative to stable M(O(2))) and elevation in secretion P(CO(2)) effects, which peaked at 2 h and attenuated by 3.5-4 h. Secretion was inhibited by acidosis and stimulated by alkalosis; the relationship between relative Cl(-) secretion rate and pHe was almost identical to that seen in vivo. Experimental manipulations of perfusate pH, P(CO(2)) and HCO(3)(-) concentration, together with measurements of pHi, demonstrated that these responses were most strongly correlated with changes in pHe, and were not related to changes in P(CO(2)), extracellular HCO(3)(-), or intracellular HCO(3)(-) levels, though changes in pHi may also have played a role. The acid-base status of the secreted fluid varied with that of the perfusate, secretion pH remaining about 0.3-0.5 units lower, and changing in concert with pHe rather than pHi; secretion HCO(3)(-) concentrations remained low, even in the face of greatly

  19. A New Family of Nonlinear Observers for SI Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Control

    Jensen, P. B.; Olsen, M. B.; Poulsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper treats a newly developed set of nonlinear observers for advanced spark ignition engine control.......The paper treats a newly developed set of nonlinear observers for advanced spark ignition engine control....

  20. Determination of the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of endogenous urinary steroids for doping control purposes.

    Piper, Thomas; Thevis, Mario; Flenker, Ulrich; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-07-01

    The development and application of a combined gas chromatography/thermal conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/TC/IRMS) method for D/H ratio determination of endogenous urinary steroids are presented. The key element in sample preparation was the consecutive cleanup with high-performance liquid chromatography of initially native and subsequently acetylated steroids. This strategy enabled sufficient cleanup off all target analytes for determination of their respective D/H values. Ten steroids (11beta-hydroxyandrosterone, 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol, pregnanediol, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, epitestosterone, 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol, 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol and dehydroepiandrosterone) were measured from a single urine specimen. Depending on the biological background, the determination limit for all steroids ranged from 10 to 15 ng/mL for a 20 mL specimen. The method was validated by application of linear mixing models on each steroid and covered repeatability and reproducibility. The specificity of the procedure was ensured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the sample using equivalent chromatographic conditions to those employed in the GC/TC/IRMS measurement. Within the sample preparation, no isotopic fractionation was observed, and no amount-dependent shift of the D/H ratios during the measurement was noticed. Possible memory effects occurring during IRMS measurements were corrected by applying a simple rule of proportion. In order to determine the naturally occurring D/H ratios of all implemented steroids, a population of 18 male subjects was analyzed. Relevant mean Delta values among selected steroids were calculated which allowed us to study the metabolic pathways and production sites of all the implemented steroids with additional consideration of the corresponding (13)C/(12)C ratios. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Postnatal follow-up of the oxygenation index, arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio and alveolar arterial oxygen tension difference values in neonates with the respiratory distress syndrome treated with conventional ventilatory support.

    Atanasov, A; Despotova-Toleva, L

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of sophisticated intensive care technique for use in newborn infants with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has resulted in changes in the therapeutic strategies and moved the problem of neonatal survival into the realm of new therapeutic realities. At present, the mechanical ventilation methods form an integral part of the intensive care strategy of infants with RDS. They have come to the forefront of infant care because of their successful use in ventilatory support and children survival where other therapeutic modalities have failed. The present prospective observational longitudinal study was designed to assess the real-time convenience, reliability and accuracy of the changes in the oxygenation index (OI), arterial-to-alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A PO2) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a)DO2 in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS, to analyze their feasibility and potential information yield in oxygen inhalation therapy as well as their prognostic implications and predictive value. Twenty neonates with RDS, heralded by respiratory failure which necessitated the initiation of oxygen inhalation therapy and ventilatory support within 24 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study. Ten of the infants survived and the remaining ten died. OI, (a/A PO2) and (A-a)DO2 were followed up sequentially and thoroughly analyzed as the primary outcome measures of the study. The indices were calculated on the basis of the complete monitoring of the ventilatory equipment parameters and acid-base status carried out on an hourly basis. Our results show that: 1. The combination of three indexes (OI, (a/A)PO2 and (A-a)DO2 we propose is a useful discriminating predictor of neonatal lung maturity reflecting arterial blood gas status in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS. 2. The indices detect the efficacy of the modern conventional ventilatory support with real-time convenience and reliable accuracy forming the cornerstone of clinical decision

  2. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection. Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI. Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS. Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions. Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  3. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study.

    Ghaffarzad, Aisa; Amani, Reza; Mehrzad Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu), insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C) were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC). Waist circumference (WC), insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19) as a marker of IR in infertile PCOS women. Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR) in infertile PCOS patients.

  4. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Aisa Ghaffarzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR, occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu, insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC. Results: Waist circumference (WC, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19 as a marker of IR in infert ile PCOS women. Conclusion: Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR in infertile PCOS patients.

  5. A preliminary evaluation of the generalized likelihood ratio for detecting and identifying control element failures in a transport aircraft

    Bundick, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the Generalized Likelihood Ratio technique to the detection and identification of aircraft control element failures has been evaluated in a linear digital simulation of the longitudinal dynamics of a B-737 aircraft. Simulation results show that the technique has potential but that the effects of wind turbulence and Kalman filter model errors are problems which must be overcome.

  6. Statistical Power and Optimum Sample Allocation Ratio for Treatment and Control Having Unequal Costs Per Unit of Randomization

    Liu, Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    This article considers optimal sample allocation between the treatment and control condition in multilevel designs when the costs per sampling unit vary due to treatment assignment. Optimal unequal allocation may reduce the cost from that of a balanced design without sacrificing any power. The optimum sample allocation ratio depends only on the…

  7. Reducing early career general practitioners' antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections: a pragmatic prospective non-randomised controlled trial.

    Magin, Parker; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Davis, Joshua S; McElduff, Patrick; Yardley, Lucy; Henderson, Kim; Dallas, Anthea; McArthur, Lawrie; Mulquiney, Katie; Davey, Andrew; Little, Paul; Spike, Neil; van Driel, Mieke L

    2018-01-16

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescription and consequent antibacterial resistance is a major threat to healthcare. To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention in reducing early career general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. A pragmatic non-randomized trial employing a non-equivalent control group design nested within an existing cohort study of GP registrars' (trainees') clinical practice. The intervention included access to online modules (covering the rationale of current clinical guidelines recommending non-prescription of antibiotics for URTI and bronchitis/bronchiolitis, and communication skills in management of acute bronchitis) followed by a face-to-face educational session. The intervention was delivered to registrars (and their supervisors) in two of Australia's seventeen regional GP training providers (RTPs). Three other RTPs were the control group. Outcomes were proportion of registrars' URTI consultations and bronchitis/bronchiolitis consultations prescribed antibiotics. Intention-to-treat analyses employed logistic regression within a Generalised Estimating Equation framework, adjusted for relevant independent variables. The predictors of interest were time; treatment group; and an interaction term for time-by-treatment group. The P value associated with an interaction term determined statistically significant differences in antibiotic prescribing. Analyses include data of 217 intervention RTPs' and 311 control RTPs' registrars. There was no significant reduction in antibiotic prescribing for URTIs. For bronchitis/bronchiolitis, a significant reduction (interaction P value = 0.024) remained true for analysis adjusted for independent variables (P value = 0.040). The adjusted absolute reduction in prescribing was 15.8% (95% CI: 4.2%-27.5%). A multifaceted intervention reduced antibiotic prescribing for bronchitis/bronchiolitis but not URTIs. © The

  8. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics and control of high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft and its application to geomagnetic exploration

    Luo, Tong; Xu, Ming; Colombo, Camilla

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the dynamics and control of a spacecraft, whose area-to-mass ratio is increased by deploying a reflective orientable surface such as a solar sail or a solar panel. The dynamical system describing the motion of a non-zero attitude angle high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft under the effects of the Earth's oblateness and solar radiation pressure admits the existence of equilibrium points, whose number and the eccentricity values depend on the semi-major axis, the area-to-mass ratio and the attitude angle of the spacecraft together. When two out of three parameters are fixed, five different dynamical topologies successively occur through varying the third parameter. Two of these five topologies are critical cases characterized by the appearance of the bifurcation phenomena. A conventional Hamiltonian structure-preserving (HSP) controller and an improved HSP controller are both constructed to stabilize the hyperbolic equilibrium point. Through the use of a conventional HSP controller, a bounded trajectory around the hyperbolic equilibrium point is obtained, while an improved HSP controller allows the spacecraft to easily transfer to the hyperbolic equilibrium point and to follow varying equilibrium points. A bifurcation control using topologies and changes of behavior areas can also stabilize a spacecraft near a hyperbolic equilibrium point. Natural trajectories around stable equilibrium point and these stabilized trajectories around hyperbolic equilibrium point can all be applied to geomagnetic exploration.

  10. Influenza vaccine effectiveness for hospital and community patients using control groups with and without non-influenza respiratory viruses detected, Auckland, New Zealand 2014.

    Pierse, Nevil; Kelly, Heath; Thompson, Mark G; Bissielo, Ange; Radke, Sarah; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-20

    We aimed to estimate the protection afforded by inactivated influenza vaccine, in both community and hospital settings, in a well characterised urban population in Auckland during 2014. We used two different comparison groups, all patients who tested negative for influenza and only those patients who tested negative for influenza and had a non-influenza respiratory virus detected, to calculate the vaccine effectiveness in a test negative study design. Estimates were made separately for general practice outpatient consultations and hospitalised patients, stratified by age group and by influenza type and subtype. Vaccine status was confirmed by electronic record for general practice patients and all respiratory viruses were detected by real time polymerase chain reaction. 1039 hospitalised and 1154 general practice outpatient consultations met all the study inclusion criteria and had a respiratory sample tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. Compared to general practice patients, hospitalised patients were more likely to be very young or very old, to be Māori or Pacific Islander, to have a low income and to suffer from chronic disease. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) adjusted for age and other participant characteristics using all influenza negative controls was 42% (95% CI: 16 to 60%) for hospitalised and 56% (95% CI: 35 to 70%) for general practice patients. The vaccine appeared to be most effective against the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain with an adjusted VE of 62% (95% CI:38 to 77%) for hospitalised and 59% (95% CI:36 to 74%) for general practice patients, using influenza virus negative controls. Similar results found when patients testing positive for a non-influenza respiratory virus were used as the control group. This study contributes to validation of the test negative design and confirms that inactivated influenza vaccines continue to provide modest but significant protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Lipid ratio as a suitable tool to identify individuals with MetS risk: A case- control study.

    Abbasian, Maryam; Delvarianzadeh, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Khosravi, Farideh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the serum lipids ratio in staff with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were working in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. This case-control study was conducted in 2015 on 499 personnel aged 30-60 years old. ATP III criteria were used to diagnose patients with MetS. The data were analyzed by using logistic regression and ROC curve. Mean lipid ratio was higher in individuals having the MetS in both sexes compared with those without. In addition, the mean levels of lipid ratios significantly increased with increasing number of MetS components in both sexes. Also it could be concluded that TG/HDL-C ratio is the best marker for the diagnosis of MetS in men and women. Moreover, the cut-off point for the TG/HDL-C was 2.86 in women and 4.03 in men. It was found that for any unit of increases in the TG/HDL-C, the risk of developing the MetS will increase by 2.12 times. TG/HDL-C ratio is found to be the best clinical marker for the diagnosis of MetS compare with other lipid ratios, therefore it is recommended to be used as a feasible tool to identify individuals with MetS risk. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards H-infinity Control of an SI Engine's A/F Ratio

    Vigild, Christian; Struwe, Michael; Andersen, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    in conjunction with a PI feedback from a HEGO sensor. The effective bandwidth of this feedback loop is quite small, generally around 2 Hz. This is altogether too small for accurate AFR control.This paper presents a new lambda control methodology (H-infinity) which has a somewhat larger bandwidth and can...

  13. Influences of the Control on the Nonlinear Vibrations of a Variable Compression Ratio Mechanism

    Mănescu Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the mechanism described in references the study of the nonlinear vibrations is performed considering a multibody approach for the elements of the mechanism and different laws of motion for the control element. A great attention is paid to the equilibrium of the motion. The influence of different parameters of control is highlighted in the paper. The results are numerically validated.

  14. Controlling the Ratio of CZTS to CZTSe Nanocrystals by Hot Injection of Selenium

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lam, Yeng Ming

    In this work, we present a wetchemical method to prepare CZTS and CZTSe nanoparticles in controlled proportions which will result in a film with desired Se content.......In this work, we present a wetchemical method to prepare CZTS and CZTSe nanoparticles in controlled proportions which will result in a film with desired Se content....

  15. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure.

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation - volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2-4 hours and 48 hours. Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2-4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P0.05). Vital signs during 2-4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2-4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (P0.05). Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining a low peak inspiratory pressure. PRVC can reduce pulmonary barotrauma risk, making it a safer protective ventilation mode than synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation - volume control.

  16. Respiratory quotient: innovative method for monitoring ‘Royal Gala’ apple storage in a dynamic controlled atmosphere

    Anderson Weber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica, Borkh. which are not stored at low temperature or in a properly controlled atmosphere (CA may have a high metabolic rate during the postharvest stage resulting in losses in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruit stored in accordance with a new method of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA.The respiratory quotient (RQ was monitored at two temperatures which were then compared using a commercially available technology based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF and static CA. Ethylene production and respiration rates were lower in apples stored in DCA than in CA, as a result of lower 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase activity, especially in apples stored in DCA-RQ2. Flesh firmness of apples stored in DCA did not differ from those stored in CA. Apples stored at 1 °C had less flesh breakdown occurrence and a high percentage of healthy fruit. ‘Royal Gala’ stored at DCA-RQ2 had less flesh breakdown than apples stored in CA; however, the apples stored in DCA-CF did not differ from those stored in DCA-RQ2 and CA. Apples stored at the highest RQ value (6 and 4, especially at 0.5 °C, had low O2 injury occurrence after storage. However the increase in temperature to 1.0 °C, reduced the occurrence of this disorder. Therefore, storage in DCA-RQ2 at 1 °C or DCA-CF at 0.5 °C are the recommendations of preference for ensuring maintenance of quality in ‘Royal Gala’ apples after eight months of storage.

  17. Liquid‐to‐solid ratio control as an advanced process control solution for continuous twin‐screw wet granulation

    Nicolaï, Niels; Leersnyder, Fien De; Copot, Dana

    2018-01-01

    for the dynamic behavior of the granule liquid‐to‐solid ratio (w) at the end of the granulation unit of a commercial ConsiGmaTM‐25 production line. Near‐infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the granule composition in‐line. The outcome for both the tracking and regulator problem using either conventional...

  18. Performance of high-area-ratio annular dump diffuser using suction-stabilized-vortex flow control

    Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A short annular dump diffuser having a geometry conductive to formation of suction stabilized toroidal vortices in the region of abrupt area change was tested. The overall diffuser area ratio was 4.0 and the length to inlet height ratio was 2.0. Performance data were obtained at near ambient temperature and pressure for inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.30 with suction rates ranging from 0 to 18 percent of total inlet mass flowrate. Results show that the exit velocity profile could be readily biased toward either wall by adjustment of inner and outer wall suction rates. Symmetric exit velocity profiles were inherently unstable with a tendency to revert to a hub or tip bias. Diffuser effectiveness was increased from about 38 percent without suction to over 85 percent at a total suction rate of 10 to 12 percent. At the same time diffuser total pressure loss was reduced from 3.1 percent to 1.1 percent at an inlet Mach number of 0.3.

  19. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Morasso, Carlo, E-mail: cmorasso@dongnocchi.it; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP) (Italy); Zanchetta, Giuliano [Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale (Italy); Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Prosperi, Davide [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, NanoBioLab, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze (Italy); Gramatica, Furio [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au{sup 3+} reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag{sup +} ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  20. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Morasso, Carlo; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au 3+ reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag + ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated

  1. Novel Cyclorotor Control System for Operation at Curtate and Prolate Advance Ratios

    2012-03-06

    control mechanisms used until now pitch the blade by attaching control rods from the blade to a rotating eccentric ring. By varying the position of...this eccentric ring the blades are pitched approximately in a sinusoidal manner with variable amplitude and phase; however, this sinusoidal pitching...Florida, June 25-28, 2007. 19Gerhardt, H., "Paddle Wheel Rotorcraft," U.S. Patent 5,265,827, November 30, 1993. 20Bohorquez, F., Rankins, F., Baeder, J

  2. Evaluation of a Candidate Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem Architecture: The High Velocity, Low Aspect Ratio (HVLA) Adsorption Process

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gas-phase trace contaminant control adsorption process flow is constrained as required to maintain high contaminant single-pass adsorption efficiency. Specifically, the bed superficial velocity is controlled to limit the adsorption mass-transfer zone length relative to the physical adsorption bed; this is aided by traditional high-aspect ratio bed design. Through operation in this manner, most contaminants, including those with relatively high potential energy are readily adsorbed. A consequence of this operational approach, however, is a limited available operational flow margin. By considering a paradigm shift in adsorption architecture design and operations, in which flows of high superficial velocity are treated by low-aspect ratio sorbent beds, the range of well-adsorbed contaminants becomes limited, but the process flow is increased such that contaminant leaks or emerging contaminants of interest may be effectively controlled. To this end, the high velocity, low aspect ratio (HVLA) adsorption process architecture was demonstrated against a trace contaminant load representative of the International Space Station atmosphere. Two HVLA concept packaging designs (linear flow and radial flow) were tested. The performance of each design was evaluated and compared against computer simulation. Utilizing the HVLA process, long and sustained control of heavy organic contaminants was demonstrated.

  3. The effect of using an interactive booklet on childhood respiratory tract infections in consultations: Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Nuttall Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions

  4. Control of oleylamine to perovskite ratio in synthesis of MAPbBr3 nanoparticles

    Huang, Jing; Wu, Yi-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Gang; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2018-06-01

    Methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) nanocrystals have great potentials for lighting and display applications. Previously we synthesized CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals using oleylamine as capping molecule and found that by increasing the oleylamine to CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite ratio (OPR), the photoluminescence wavelengths and morphology of CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals could be varied from 530 nm (green) platelets to 460 nm (blue) particles. Here we modified the synthesis to direct injection of precursors into toluene and found that increasing OPR not only changes the wavelength and morphology of nanocrystals but also the size of the unit cells.

  5. Orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio test for failure detection and isolation. [for aircraft control

    Hall, Steven R.; Walker, Bruce K.

    1990-01-01

    A new failure detection and isolation algorithm for linear dynamic systems is presented. This algorithm, the Orthogonal Series Generalized Likelihood Ratio (OSGLR) test, is based on the assumption that the failure modes of interest can be represented by truncated series expansions. This assumption leads to a failure detection algorithm with several desirable properties. Computer simulation results are presented for the detection of the failures of actuators and sensors of a C-130 aircraft. The results show that the OSGLR test generally performs as well as the GLR test in terms of time to detect a failure and is more robust to failure mode uncertainty. However, the OSGLR test is also somewhat more sensitive to modeling errors than the GLR test.

  6. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    Velasco, Antonio [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jvelasco@ine.gob.mx; Ramirez, Martha [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Volke-Sepulveda, Tania [Departamento de Biotecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Revah, Sergio [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 {+-} 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 {+-} 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  7. GAE detection for mass measurement for D-T ratio control

    Lister, J.B.; Villard, L.; Ridder, G. de

    1997-09-01

    This report includes two papers by the authors Lister, Villard and de Ridder: 1) Measurement of the effective plasma ion mass in large tokamaks using Global Alfven Eigenmodes, 2) GAE detection for mass measurement for plasma density control. The second paper represents the final report of JET article 14 contract 950104. figs., tabs., refs

  8. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome-a randomized controlled trial.

    Kallio, Merja; Koskela, Ulla; Peltoniemi, Outi; Kontiokari, Tero; Pokka, Tytti; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Saarela, Timo

    2016-09-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) improves patient-ventilator synchrony during invasive ventilation and leads to lower peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and oxygen requirements. The aim of this trial was to compare NAVA with current standard ventilation in preterm infants in terms of the duration of invasive ventilation. Sixty infants born between 28 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation and requiring invasive ventilation due to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were randomized to conventional ventilation or NAVA. The median durations of invasive ventilation were 34.7 h (quartiles 22.8-67.9 h) and 25.8 h (15.6-52.1 h) in the NAVA and control groups, respectively (P = 0.21). Lower PIPs were achieved with NAVA (P = 0.02), and the rapid reduction in PIP after changing the ventilation mode to NAVA made following the predetermined extubation criteria challenging. The other ventilatory and vital parameters did not differ between the groups. Frequent apneas and persistent pulmonary hypertension were conditions that limited the use of NAVA in 17 % of the patients randomized to the NAVA group. Similar cumulative doses of opiates were used in both groups (P = 0.71). NAVA was a safe and feasible ventilation mode for the majority of preterm infants suffering from RDS, but the traditional extubation criteria were not clinically applicable during NAVA. • NAVA improves patient-ventilator synchrony during invasive ventilation. • Lower airway pressures and oxygen requirements are achieved with NAVA during invasive ventilation in preterm infants by comparison with conventional ventilation. What is new: • Infants suffering from PPHN did not tolerate NAVA in the acute phase of their illness. • The traditional extubation criteria relying on inspiratory pressures and spontaneous breathing efforts were not clinically applicable during NAVA.

  9. Index of Theta/Alpha Ratio of the Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Alzheimer's Disease: A Case-Control Study.

    Fahimi, Golshan; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Fahimi, Elnaz; Rajebi, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in human beings associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments. The main symptom of AD is dementia, which causes difficulties in carrying out daily practices. Brain waves are altered in people with AD. Relative indices of brain waves can be beneficial in the diagnosis of AD. In this case-control study, 50 patients with AD and 50 matched healthy individuals were enrolled in case and control groups respectively. With recording and analyzing of brain waves with the utilization of quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG), index of theta/alpha ratio was assessed in both groups. The index of theta/alpha ratio was significantly higher in patients with AD in comparison to healthy individuals (Pratio obtained by QEEG provides a non-invasive diagnostic marker of AD, which may be helpful in identification of non-advanced disease in susceptible individuals.

  10. Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Rigid Vehicle Control System Design and Simulation for Human Mars Entry

    Johnson, Breanna J.; Cerimele, Christopher J.; Stachowiak, Susan J.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Matz, Daniel A.; Lu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Rigid Vehicle (MRV) is a proposed candidate in the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign's (EMC) Pathfinder Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) architecture study. The purpose of the study is to design a mission and vehicle capable of transporting a 20mt payload to the surface of Mars. The MRV is unique in its rigid, asymmetrical lifting-body shape which enables a higher lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) than the typical robotic Mars entry capsule vehicles that carry much less mass. This paper presents the formulation and six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) performance of the MRV's control system, which uses both aerosurfaces and a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) to affect longitudinal and lateral directional behavior.

  11. Risk factors for hospital admission due to acute lower respiratory tract infection in Guarani indigenous children in southern Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    Cardoso, Andrey M; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Werneck, Guilherme L

    2013-05-01

    To assess risk factors associated with hospital admission due to acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in indigenous Guarani children <5 years of age in southern Brazil. Population-based matched case-control study from May 2007 to June 2008 in 81 Guarani villages. Cases were defined as hospital admissions due to confirmed ALRTI. Two controls free from acute respiratory infection, matched according to age, sex and place of residence, were selected for each case at the time of the case's hospitalisation. Both cases and controls were recruited by a surveillance routine established for the study. The analysis was performed on 120 cases and 201 controls. The risk factors that remained significantly associated with hospitalisation due to ALRTI in the hierarchical multivariate conditional logistic regression were: low stable monthly per capita household income (respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Guarani children. Our study provides the first evidence about their determinants in indigenous peoples in Brazil that can help to better understand the epidemiology of respiratory infections in indigenous children. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Coordinated Control for Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farm Based on Charging/Discharging Ratio Consensus Algorithms

    Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...... and unbalanced directed graphs. Average consensus is guaranteed in unbalanced digraphs by updating the weight matrix with both its row sums and column sums being 1. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method....

  13. Hydrologic control of the oxygen isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration in a semi-arid woodland

    J. H. Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted high frequency measurements of the δ18O value of atmospheric CO2 from a juniper (Juniperus monosperma woodland in New Mexico, USA, over a four-year period to investigate climatic and physiological regulation of the δ18O value of ecosystem respiration (δR. Rain pulses reset δR with the dominant water source isotope composition, followed by progressive enrichment of δR. Transpiration (ET was significantly related to post-pulse δR enrichment because the leaf water δ18O value showed strong enrichment with increasing vapor pressure deficit that occurs following rain. Post-pulse δR enrichment was correlated with both ET and the ratio of ET to soil evaporation (ET/ES. In contrast, the soil water δ18O value was relatively stable and δR enrichment was not correlated with ES. Model simulations captured the large post-pulse δR enrichments only when the offset between xylem and leaf water δ18O value was modeled explicitly and when a gross flux model for CO2 retro-diffusion was included. Drought impacts δR through the balance between evaporative demand, which enriches δR, and low soil moisture availability, which attenuates δR enrichment through reduced ET. The net result, observed throughout all four years of our study, was a negative correlation of post-precipitation δR enrichment with increasing drought.

  14. Composition-ratio control of CuInS{sub 2} films using PLD

    Wakita, Kazuki; Po-Han, Tseng; Yoshida, Ryo; Kyan, Issei [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shim, Yong-Gu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    A sulfur-annealing treatment was investigated to control the sulfur content of epitaxial CuInS{sub 2} films grown on GaAs substrate by PLD. The sulfur-annealing treatment improved the surface roughness and film crystallinity. Photoluminescence measurements obtained using the confocal microspectroscopy demonstrated that the annealed films show band-edge emissions over a very large area. Electron-probe microanalysis measurements indicated that the sulfur content of the annealed films was about 50 at.%, and the content of the emission area was more than 50 at.%. Therefore, the sulfur content of epitaxial CuInS{sub 2} films was successfully controlled by the sulfur-annealing treatment. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. SU-E-J-48: Development of An Abdominal Compression Device for Respiratory Correlated Radiation Therapy

    Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level according to the abdominal respiratory motion and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on developing the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level at any point of time so the developed device is possible to use a variety of purpose (gating technique or respiratory training system) while maintaining the merit of the existing commercial device. The compression device (air pad form) was designed to be able to compress the front and side of abdomen and the pressure level of the abdomen is controlled by air flow. Pressure level of abdomen (air flow) was determined using correlation data between external abdominal motion and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer. In order to verify the feasibility of the device, it was necessary to confirm the correlation between the abdominal respiratory motion and respiratory volume signal and cooperation with respiratory training system also checked. Results: In the previous study, we could find that the correlation coefficient ratio between diaphragm and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer was 0.95. In this study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion measured by belt-transducer (correlation coefficient ratio was 0.92) and used the correlated respiratory volume data as an abdominal pressure level. It was possible to control the pressure level with negligible time delay and respiratory volume data based guiding waveforms could be properly inserted into the respiratory training system. Conclusion: Through this feasibility study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion. Also initial assessment of the device and its compatibility with the respiratory training system were verified. Further study on application in respiratory gated

  16. Analysis on Filling Ratio and Shield Supporting Pressure for Overburden Movement Control in Coal Mining with Compacted Backfilling

    Yanli Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the weight of overburden is sustained by both the backfill body and the unmined solid coal in coal mining with compacted backfilling (CMCB panels, the stress and deformation characteristics of the surrounding rocks in coal mining are radically changed. The overburden movement control mechanism by coordinating with backfill body and shield in CMCB was studied systematically in this paper. Based on the analysis of deformational and structural characteristics of surrounding rock in CMCB panels, the methods of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and engineering test are employed. The results show that the fracture of the main roof is mainly controlled by the filling ratio φ and is non-correlated to the shield supporting pressure p. However, p has a significant control effect on the deflection of roof within the shield canopy length, and adversely affects the filling ratio. With the increase of the filling ratio of the gob, the maximum sagging of the immediate and the main roofs, the peak front and the influence range of the abutment pressures are gradually reduced. Correspondingly, the stable period of internal pressure of backfill body in the gob is shortened. Engineering practice shows that the sagging of the gob roof, the distribution of the abutment pressure, the distribution of the internal pressure in the backfill body, and the ground surface sagging results obtained by the in-situ measurement are approximately corresponding to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results.

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV viral shedding in the respiratory tract: an observational analysis with infection control implications

    Ziad A. Memish

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Contacts cleared MERS-CoV earlier than ill patients. This finding could be related to the types of sample as well as the types of patient studied. More ill patients with significant comorbidities shed the virus for a significantly longer time. The results of this study could have critical implications for infection control guidance and its application in healthcare facilities handling positive cases.

  18. Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

  19. A case of severe and rigid congenital thoracolumbar lordoscoliosis with diastematomyelia presenting with type 2 respiratory failure: managed by staged correction with controlled axial traction.

    Kanagaraju, Vijayanth; Chhabra, H S; Srivastava, Abhishek; Mahajan, Rajat; Kaul, Rahul; Bhatia, Pallav; Tandon, Vikas; Nanda, Ankur; Sangondimath, Gururaj; Patel, Nishit

    2016-10-01

    Congenital lordoscoliosis is an uncommon pathology and its management poses formidable challenge especially in the presence of type 2 respiratory failure and intraspinal anomalies. In such patients standard management protocols are not applicable and may require multistage procedure to minimize risk and optimize results. A 15-year-old girl presented in our hospital emergency services with severe breathing difficulty. She had a severe and rapidly progressing deformity in her back, noted since 6 years of age, associated with severe respiratory distress requiring oxygen and BiPAP support. She was diagnosed to have a severe and rigid congenital right thoracolumbar lordoscoliosis (coronal Cobb's angle: 105° and thoracic lordosis -10°) with type 1 split cord malformation with bony septum extending from T11 to L3. This leads to presentation of restrictive lung disease with type 2 respiratory failure. As her lung condition did not allow for any major procedure, we did a staged procedure rather than executing in a single stage. Controlled axial traction by halogravity was applied initially followed by halo-femoral traction. Four weeks later, this was replaced by halo-pelvic distraction device after a posterior release procedure with asymmetric pedicle substraction osteotomies at T7 and T10. Halo-pelvic distraction continued for 4 more weeks to optimize and correct the deformity. Subsequently definitive posterior stabilization and fusion was done. The detrimental effect of diastematomyelia resection in such cases is clearly evident from literature, so it was left unresected. A good scoliotic correction with improved respiratory function was achieved. Three years follow-up showed no loss of deformity correction, no evidence of pseudarthrosis and a good clinical outcome with reasonably balanced spine. The management of severe and rigid congenital lordoscoliotic deformities with intraspinal anomalies is challenging. Progressive reduction in respiratory volume in untreated

  20. Gust load alleviation wind tunnel tests of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing with piezoelectric control

    Ying Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An active control technique utilizing piezoelectric actuators to alleviate gust-response loads of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing is investigated. Piezoelectric materials have been extensively used for active vibration control of engineering structures. In this paper, piezoelectric materials further attempt to suppress the vibration of the aeroelastic wing caused by gust. The motion equation of the flexible wing with piezoelectric patches is obtained by Hamilton’s principle with the modal approach, and then numerical gust responses are analyzed, based on which a gust load alleviation (GLA control system is proposed. The gust load alleviation system employs classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers which treat piezoelectric patches as control actuators and acceleration as the feedback signal. By a numerical method, the control mechanism that piezoelectric actuators can be used to alleviate gust-response loads is also analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, through low-speed wind tunnel tests, the effectiveness of the gust load alleviation active control technology is validated. The test results agree well with the numerical results. Test results show that at a certain frequency range, the control scheme can effectively alleviate the z and x wingtip accelerations and the root bending moment of the wing to a certain extent. The control system gives satisfying gust load alleviation efficacy with the reduction rate being generally over 20%.

  1. High aspect ratio silicon nanowires control fibroblast adhesion and cytoskeleton organization

    Andolfi, Laura; Murello, Anna; Cassese, Damiano; Ban, Jelena; Dal Zilio, Simone; Lazzarino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are essential to the survival and proliferation of most cells, and are responsible for triggering a wide range of biochemical pathways. More recently, the biomechanical role of those interactions was highlighted, showing, for instance, that adhesion forces are essential for cytoskeleton organization. Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) with their small size, high aspect ratio and anisotropic mechanical response represent a useful model to investigate the forces involved in the adhesion processes and their role in cellular development. In this work we explored and quantified, by single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), the interaction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a flexible forest of Si NWs. We observed that the cell adhesion forces are comparable to those found on collagen and bare glass coverslip, analogously the membrane tether extraction forces are similar to that on collagen but stronger than that on bare flat glass. Cell survival did not depend significantly on the substrate, although a reduced proliferation after 36 h was observed. On the contrary both cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization revealed striking differences. The cell morphology on Si-NW was characterized by a large number of filopodia and a significant decrease of the cell mobility. The cytoskeleton organization was characterized by the absence of actin fibers, which were instead dominant on collagen and flat glass support. Such findings suggest that the mechanical properties of disordered Si NWs, and in particular their strong asymmetry, play a major role in the adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organization processes. Indeed, while adhesion measurements by SCFS provide out-of-plane forces values consistent with those measured on conventional substrates, weaker in-plane forces hinder proper cytoskeleton organization and migration processes.

  2. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  3. Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes

    Gitau, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed

  4. Application of laminar flow control to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine nacelles

    Wie, Y. S.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Wagner, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept of the application of hybrid laminar flow to modern commercial transport aircraft was successfully flight tested on a Boeing 757 aircraft. In this limited demonstration, in which only part of the upper surface of the swept wing was designed for the attainment of laminar flow, significant local drag reduction was measured. This paper addresses the potential application of this technology to laminarize the external surface of large, modern turbofan engine nacelles which may comprise as much as 5-10 percent of the total wetted area of future commercial transports. A hybrid-laminar-flow-control (HLFC) pressure distribution is specified and the corresponding nacelle geometry is computed utilizing a predictor/corrector design method. Linear stability calculations are conducted to provide predictions of the extent of the laminar boundary layer. Performance studies are presented to determine potential benefits in terms of reduced fuel consumption.

  5. Geometric phase effects in the coherent control of the branching ratio of photodissociation products of phenol

    Abe, Mayumi; Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Fujimura, Yuichi; Lan, Zhenggang; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control simulation is used to examine the control mechanisms in the photodissociation of phenol within a two-dimensional, three-electronic-state model with two conical intersections. This model has two channels for H-atom elimination, which correspond to the 2 π and 2 σ states of the phenoxyl radical. The optimal pulse that enhances 2 σ dissociation initially generates a wave packet on the S 1 potential-energy surface of phenol. This wave packet is bifurcated at the S 2 -S 1 conical intersection into two components with opposite phases because of the geometric phase effect. The destructive interference caused by the geometric phase effect reduces the population around the S 1 -S 0 conical intersection, which in turn suppresses nonadiabatic transitions and thus enhances dissociation to the 2 σ limit. The optimal pulse that enhances S 0 dissociation, on the other hand, creates a wave packet on the S 2 potential-energy surface of phenol via an intensity borrowing mechanism, thus avoiding geometric phase effects at the S 2 -S 1 conical intersection. This wave packet hits the S 1 -S 0 conical intersection directly, resulting in preferred dissociation to the 2 π limit. The optimal pulse that initially prepares the wave packet on the S 1 potential-energy surface (PES) has a higher carrier frequency than the pulse that prepares the wave packet on the S 2 PES. This counterintuitive effect is explained by the energy-level structure and the S 2 -S 1 vibronic coupling mechanism

  6. New non-linear control strategy for non-isolated DC/DC converter with high voltage ratio

    Shahin, A.; Huang, B.; Martin, J.P.; Pierfederici, S.; Davat, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a non-isolated DC/DC converter with high voltage ratio is proposed to allow the interface between a low voltage power source like fuel cell and a high voltage DC bus. To take into account the low voltage-high density characteristics of power sources, a cascaded structure composed of two sub-converters has been chosen and allows obtaining a high voltage ratio. The choice of each sub-converter is based on the requirements of the source and its performances. Consequently, we have chosen a three-interleaved boost converter as the 1st sub-converter whereas the 2nd sub-converter is a three-level boost converter. The control of the whole system is realized thanks to energetic trajectories planning based on flatness properties of the system. The control of both the current and the balance of voltage across the output serial capacitors of the three-level boost converter is ensured by non-linear controllers based on a new non-linear model. Experimental results allow validating the proposed power architecture and its associated control.

  7. New non-linear control strategy for non-isolated DC/DC converter with high voltage ratio

    Shahin, A.; Huang, B.; Martin, J.P.; Pierfederici, S.; Davat, B. [Groupe de Recherche en Electronique et en Electrotechnique de Nancy - INPL - Nancy Universite, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, a non-isolated DC/DC converter with high voltage ratio is proposed to allow the interface between a low voltage power source like fuel cell and a high voltage DC bus. To take into account the low voltage-high density characteristics of power sources, a cascaded structure composed of two sub-converters has been chosen and allows obtaining a high voltage ratio. The choice of each sub-converter is based on the requirements of the source and its performances. Consequently, we have chosen a three-interleaved boost converter as the 1st sub-converter whereas the 2nd sub-converter is a three-level boost converter. The control of the whole system is realized thanks to energetic trajectories planning based on flatness properties of the system. The control of both the current and the balance of voltage across the output serial capacitors of the three-level boost converter is ensured by non-linear controllers based on a new non-linear model. Experimental results allow validating the proposed power architecture and its associated control. (author)

  8. The impact of laboratory characteristics on molecular detection of respiratory syncytial virus in a European multicentre quality control study

    Meerhoff, T. J.; MacKay, W. G.; Meijer, A.; Paget, W. J.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Schellevis, F.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for detecting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was evaluated in 25 laboratories across Europe by an external quality assessment study. In addition, factors related to the diagnostic performance of laboratories were explored. The results of

  9. Tailored interventions to improve antibiotic use for lower respiratory tract infections in hospitals: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    Schouten, J.A.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Trap-Liefers, J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Kullberg, B.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the most effective approach to increase the quality of antibiotic use for lower respiratory tract infections at hospitals. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred six patients with community-acquired pneumonia or an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  10. Effect of thoracic mobilization on respiratory parameters in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Babina, R; Mohanty, P P; Pattnaik, M

    2016-02-19

    Altered respiratory function has been found to be associated with back pain. Limited chest excursion in subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP) may be due to co-contraction or bracing of erector spinae and abdominal muscles; their flexed spinal posture; and/or their compromised spinal stability resulting from dysfunctional transversus abdominis. To check for the effects of thoracic mobilization on respiratory parameters in subjects with chronic non-specific low back pain. Sixty-two subjects (excluding 11 dropouts) with CLBP of age group 30-60 were randomly allocated to two groups. Both groups received individualized treatment for low back pain (LBP) and HEP (home exercise program) regime of breathing exercises. In addition, group 1 received Maitland's Central postero-anterior vertebral pressure for thoracic spine (T1-T8). Total treatment duration was 10 sessions in 2 weeks (5 sessions/week). Results showed significant improvement in respiratory parameters viz. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Sustained Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (SMIP) and Chest Wall Expansion (CWE) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in both groups (pchronic low back pain with or without radiation to lower limbs when treated with thoracic central PA mobilization, in addition to LBP specific treatment and breathing exercises, show an improvement in respiratory parameters and reduction in disability.

  11. Remodeling pathway control of mitochondrial respiratory capacity by temperature in mouse heart: electron flow through the Q-junction in permeabilized fibers.

    Lemieux, Hélène; Blier, Pierre U; Gnaiger, Erich

    2017-06-06

    Fuel substrate supply and oxidative phosphorylation are key determinants of muscle performance. Numerous studies of mammalian mitochondria are carried out (i) with substrate supply that limits electron flow, and (ii) far below physiological temperature. To analyze potentially implicated biases, we studied mitochondrial respiratory control in permeabilized mouse myocardial fibers using high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of oxidative phosphorylation at 37 °C was nearly two-fold higher when fueled by physiological substrate combinations reconstituting tricarboxylic acid cycle function, compared with electron flow measured separately through NADH to Complex I or succinate to Complex II. The relative contribution of the NADH pathway to physiological respiratory capacity increased with a decrease in temperature from 37 to 25 °C. The apparent excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase above physiological pathway capacity increased sharply under hypothermia due to limitation by NADH-linked dehydrogenases. This mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in the hypothermic mammalian heart is comparable to the pattern in ectotherm species, pointing towards NADH-linked mt-matrix dehydrogenases and the phosphorylation system rather than electron transfer complexes as the primary drivers of thermal sensitivity at low temperature. Delineating the link between stress and remodeling of oxidative phosphorylation is important for understanding metabolic perturbations in disease evolution and cardiac protection.

  12. Control of the Nano-Particle Weight Ratio in Stainless Steel Micro and Nano Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Treatment

    Dong-Yeol Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes how to make stainless steel hybrid micro-nano-powders (a mixture of micro-powder and nano-powder using an in situ one-step process via radio frequency (RF thermal plasma treatment. Nano-particles attached to micro-powders were successfully prepared by RF thermal plasma treatment of stainless steel powder with an average size of 35 μm. The ratio of nano-powders is estimated with a two-dimensional fluid simulation that calculates the temperature profile influencing the rate of surface evaporation. The simulation is conducted to determine the variation of the input power and the distance from the plasma torch to the feeding nozzle. It was demonstrated experimentally that the nano-powder ratio in the micro-nano-powder mixture can be controlled by adjusting the feeding rate, plasma power, feeding position and quenching effect during plasma treatment. The ratio of nano-particles in the micro-nano-powder mixture was controlled in a range from 0.1 (wt. % to 30.7 (wt. %.

  13. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  14. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  15. Respiratory Home Health Care

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  16. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    Ng H. They

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Precessional control of Sr ratios in marginal basins during the Messinian Salinity Crisis?

    Topper, R. P. M.; Lugli, S.; Manzi, V.; Roveri, M.; Meijer, P. Th.

    2014-05-01

    Based on 87Sr/86Sr data of the Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) deposits in the Vena del Gesso basin—a marginal basin of the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis—a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr values and precessional forcing has recently been proposed but not yet confirmed. In this study, a box model is set up to represent the Miocene Mediterranean deep basin and a connected marginal basin. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr in the Vena del Gesso and estimated salinity extrema are used to constrain model results. In an extensive analysis with this model, we assess whether coeval 87Sr/86Sr and salinity fluctuations could have been forced by precession-driven changes in the fresh water budget. A comprehensive set of the controlling parameters is examined to assess the conditions under which precession-driven 87Sr/86Sr variations occur and to determine the most likely setting for PLG formation. Model results show that precession-driven 87Sr/86Sr and salinity fluctuations in marginal basins are produced in settings within a large range of marginal basin sizes, riverine strontium characteristics, amplitudes of precessional fresh water budget variation, and average fresh water budgets of both the marginal and deep basin. PLG deposition most likely occurred when the Atlantic-Mediterranean connection was restricted, and the average fresh water budget in the Mediterranean was significantly less negative than at present day. Considering the large range of settings in which salinities and 87Sr/86Sr fluctuate on a precessional timescale, 87Sr/86Sr variations are expected to be a common feature in PLG deposits in marginal basins of the Mediterranean.

  18. A Soft Sensor-Based Fault-Tolerant Control on the Air Fuel Ratio of Spark-Ignition Engines

    Yu-Jia Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air/fuel ratio (AFR regulation for spark-ignition (SI engines has been an essential and challenging control problem for engineers in the automotive industry. The feed-forward and feedback scheme has been investigated in both academic research and industrial application. The aging effect can often cause an AFR sensor fault in the feedback loop, and the AFR control performance will degrade consequently. In this research, a new control scheme on AFR with fault-tolerance is proposed by using an artificial neural network model based on fault detection and compensation, which can provide the satisfactory AFR regulation performance at the stoichiometric value for the combustion process, given a certain level of misreading of the AFR sensor.

  19. Balance control of grid currents for UPQC under unbalanced loads based on matching-ratio compensation algorithm

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chunjiang; Chai, Xiuhui

    2018-01-01

    In three-phase four-wire systems, unbalanced loads can cause grid currents to be unbalanced, and this may cause the neutral point potential on the grid side to shift. The neutral point potential shift will worsen the control precision as well as the performance of the threephase four-wire unified...... fluctuations, and elaborates the interaction between unbalanced grid currents and DC bus voltage fluctuations; two control strategies of UPQC under three-phase stationary coordinate based on the MCA are given, and finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified...... power quality conditioner (UPQC), and it also leads to unbalanced three-phase output voltage, even causing damage to electric equipment. To deal with unbalanced loads, this paper proposes a matching-ratio compensation algorithm (MCA) for the fundamental active component of load currents...

  20. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    ,589 in 2002). In survey 1, we looked at the institution of mandatory overtime policies and their use in 30 size-stratified hospitals. Mandatory overtime was selected as a survey topic under the supposition that manpower shortages might lead to the development of such procedures and also to their utilization. Fourteen of the 30 hospitals responding indicated that they had a policy addressing mandatory over time. Of the 14 hospitals with policies, only ten had disciplinary actions specific to refusing the overtime. Seven of the 30 hospitals indicated that they used mandatory overtime monthly of more frequently. Survey 2 data revealed that there was a wide variation in bed size, number of ICUs, and number of RCP staff assigned to the ICU. Serendipitously, our 51 responding centers were distributed among small (16), medium (19), and large (16) hospitals in a manner that appeared to reflect the national distribution pattern. We were able to use these data to develop a closeness of fit diagram ICU beds to preferred numbers of RCPs (DF=48; pRCP ratio was 10.75 to 1. This article provides a short history of the development of respiratory care and its historical relationship with critical care. We have, perhaps for the first time, provided a unified data set of key demographic information from the three professional bodies guiding the development of the respiratory therapy profession. This data set provides time-linked data on admissions and graduations from the CoARC, membership numbers for the AARC, and the numbers of active credentialed RCP from the NBRC. By two focused surveys, we were able to show that while mandatory overtime is a common practice in respiratory care departments, it was not overwhelming utilized. We also learned that in most hospitals, regardless of bed size, there is a perceived need for 1.3 RCPs more than the actual staff and that it appears that the critical staffing level between actual to preferred RCP to beds is between 9 and 11 beds.

  1. Controls of Ca/Mg/Fe activity ratios in pore water chemistry models of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation

    Lerouge, C.; Grangeon, S.; Wille, G.; Flehoc, C.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C. [BRGM av. Claude Guillemin BP6009 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Vinsot, A. [ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground research Laboratory (URL), RD 960, 55290 Bure (France); Made, B.; Altmann, S. [ANDRA - Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    In the pore water chemistry model of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation, the divalent cations Ca, Mg, and Fe are controlled by equilibrium reactions with pure carbonates: calcite for Ca, dolomite for Mg, and siderite for Fe. Results of a petrological study and computing of the Ca/Mg and Ca/Fe activity ratios based on natural pore water chemistry provide evidence that equilibrium with pure calcite and pure dolomite is a reasonable assumption for undisturbed pore waters; on the other hand, siderite cannot be considered at equilibrium with pore waters at the formation scale. (authors)

  2. Controls of Ca/Mg/Fe activity ratios in pore water chemistry models of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation

    Lerouge, C.; Grangeon, S.; Wille, G.; Flehoc, C.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Vinsot, A.; Made, B.; Altmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the pore water chemistry model of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation, the divalent cations Ca, Mg, and Fe are controlled by equilibrium reactions with pure carbonates: calcite for Ca, dolomite for Mg, and siderite for Fe. Results of a petrological study and computing of the Ca/Mg and Ca/Fe activity ratios based on natural pore water chemistry provide evidence that equilibrium with pure calcite and pure dolomite is a reasonable assumption for undisturbed pore waters; on the other hand, siderite cannot be considered at equilibrium with pore waters at the formation scale. (authors)

  3. Measuring Progress on the Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS at a Regional Level: The Minnesota N212 Regional Control Project (Rcp as a Working Example.

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    Full Text Available Due to the highly transmissible nature of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, implementation of regional programs to control the disease may be critical. Because PRRS is not reported in the US, numerous voluntary regional control projects (RCPs have been established. However, the effect of RCPs on PRRS control has not been assessed yet. This study aims to quantify the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control by proposing a methodological framework to evaluate the progress of RCPs. Information collected between July 2012 and June 2015 from the Minnesota Voluntary Regional PRRS Elimination Project (RCP-N212 was used. Demography of premises (e.g. composition of farms with sows = SS and without sows = NSS was assessed by a repeated analysis of variance. By using general linear mixed-effects models, active participation of farms enrolled in the RCP-N212, defined as the decision to share (or not to share PRRS status, was evaluated and used as a predictor, along with other variables, to assess the PRRS trend over time. Additionally, spatial and temporal patterns of farmers' participation and the disease dynamics were investigated. The number of farms enrolled in RCP-N212 and its geographical coverage increased, but the proportion of SS and NSS did not vary significantly over time. A significant increasing (p<0.001 trend in farmers' decision to share PRRS status was observed, but with NSS producers less willing to report and a large variability between counties. The incidence of PRRS significantly (p<0.001 decreased, showing a negative correlation between degree of participation and occurrence of PRRS (p<0.001 and a positive correlation with farm density at the county level (p = 0.02. Despite a noted decrease in PRRS, significant spatio-temporal patterns of incidence of the disease over 3-weeks and 3-kms during the entire study period were identified. This study established a systematic approach to quantify the effect of RCPs on

  4. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of different ranges of LH:FSH ratios in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) - Clinical based case control study.

    Malini, N A; Roy George, K

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women, leading to infertility. One of the common clinical manifestations in PCOS is that there is a difference in the range of LH production in different case of PCOS and accordingly variability in LH:FSH ratio was observed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different ranges of LH:FSH ratios in PCOS. In this cross sectional study, a consecutive series of 745 women (aged 28.11 ± 0.2) who were subjected to infertility treatment at specialist infertility clinics in central Travancore region were considered. About 50 healthy females (aged 27.58 ± 0.4) with regular menstrual cycles were regarded as control. The data were collected from hospital records using subject's written informed consent. PCOS patients were observed to have different ranges of LH:FSH ratios from PCOS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Flow Nasal Cannula versus Conventional Oxygen Therapy in Children with Respiratory Distress.

    Sitthikarnkha, Punthila; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Prapphal, Nuanchan; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Sritippayawan, Suchada

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy compared with conventional oxygen therapy in children presented with respiratory distress. This was a randomized controlled study. Infants and children aged between 1 month to 5 years who were admitted to our tertiary referral center for respiratory distress (July 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015) and met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Infants and children hospitalized with respiratory distress were randomized into two groups of interventions. All clinical data, for example, respiratory score, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were recorded. The results were subsequently analyzed. A total of 98 respiratory distress children were enrolled during the study period. Only 4 children (8.2%) failed in HFNC therapy, compared with 10 children (20.4%) in conventional oxygen therapy group ( P = 0.09). After adjusted for body weight, underlying diseases, and respiratory distress score, there was an 85% reduction in the odds of treatment failure in HFNC therapy group (adjusted odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.66, P = 0.01). Most children in HFNC therapy group had significant improvement in clinical respiratory score, heart rate, and respiratory rate at 240, 360, and 120 min compared with conventional oxygen therapy ( P = 0.03, 0.04, and 0.03). HFNC therapy revealed a potential clinical advantage in management children hospitalized with respiratory distress compared with conventional respiratory therapy. The early use of HFNC in children with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress may prevent endotracheal tube intubation. TCTR 20170222007.

  7. Point-of-care C-reactive protein testing to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for non-severe acute respiratory infections in Vietnamese primary health care: a randomised controlled trial.

    Do, Nga T T; Ta, Ngan T D; Tran, Ninh T H; Than, Hung M; Vu, Bich T N; Hoang, Long B; van Doorn, H Rogier; Vu, Dung T V; Cals, Jochen W L; Chandna, Arjun; Lubell, Yoel; Nadjm, Behzad; Thwaites, Guy; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen, Kinh V; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2016-09-01

    within 14 days was 581 (64%) of 902 patients in the C-reactive protein group versus 738 (78%) of 947 patients in the control group (odds ratio [OR] 0·49, 95% CI 0·40-0·61; pacute respiratory tract infection without compromising patients' recovery in primary health care in Vietnam. Health-care providers might have become familiar with the clinical picture of low C-reactive protein, leading to reduction in antibiotic prescribing in both groups, but this would have led to a reduction in observed effect, rather than overestimation. Qualitative analysis is needed to address differences in context in order to implement this strategy to improve rational antibiotic use for patients with acute respiratory infection in low-income and middle-income countries. Wellcome Trust, UK, and Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership, USA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  9. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  10. On transcending the impasse of respiratory motion correction applications in routine clinical imaging - a consideration of a fully automated data driven motion control framework

    Kesner, Adam L; Schleyer, Paul J; Büther, Florian; Walter, Martin A; Schäfers, Klaus P; Koo, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for the detection, characterization, and follow-up of tumors located in the thorax. However, patient respiratory motion presents a unique limitation that hinders the application of high-resolution PET technology for this type of imaging. Efforts to transcend this limitation have been underway for more than a decade, yet PET remains for practical considerations a modality vulnerable to motion-induced image degradation. Respiratory motion control is not employed in routine clinical operations. In this article, we take an opportunity to highlight some of the recent advancements in data-driven motion control strategies and how they may form an underpinning for what we are presenting as a fully automated data-driven motion control framework. This framework represents an alternative direction for future endeavors in motion control and can conceptually connect individual focused studies with a strategy for addressing big picture challenges and goals. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2197-7364-1-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  11. Quality assurance program of a respiratory gating irradiation system based on external and internal fiducial markers; Programa de garantia de calidad de un sistema de irradiacion con control respiratorio basado en marcadores fiduciales externos e internos

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-07-01

    Respiratory Gating involves the administration of radiation during treatment delivery within a particular portion of the patients breathing cycle, so the absorbed dose administration with respiratory control techniques requires specific quality control to ensure the correctness of the delivered dose. The establishment of a Quality Control Program (QC) is proposed for the Respiratory Gating based techniques in order to have a better understanding of how this system works and to know its associated dosimetric impact. The influence of the CT acquisition under respiratory motion conditions has been analyzed for the treatment isocenter localization, using internal and external fiducial markers with IGRT techniques that allow the correlation of the isocenter positioning with the phase of the respiratory cycle. Radiation delivery in the presence of intra fraction organ motion causes an averaging or blurring of the static dose distribution over the path of motion increasing the beam penumbra of the radiation field and reducing the therapeutic region when the irradiation is not breath controlled. The feasibility of intensity modulated treatments (IMRT) for both static and dynamic techniques, managed by respiratory control has been tested, demonstrating the possibility of synchronizing the movement of the leaves in the microfluorimeter collimator (mMLC) with the gated beam irradiation. (Author) 45 refs.

  12. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  13. Effect of ultraviolet exposure on mitochondrial respiratory system

    Noda, K [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-09-01

    To find the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondria were obtained from rat livers, and the suspension was exposed to an extensive ultraviolet light. The oxygen consumption was measured polarographically with a Clark oxygen electrode. The effect of ultraviolet exposure on the five states of respiratory control (Chance and Williams), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control index in mitochondria was discussed. The ultraviolet light with a dose of 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ erg/cm/sup 2/ caused the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to uncouple. The 2nd phosphorylation site of the respiratory chain was susceptible to ultraviolet exposure. The stimulation of latent ATPase activity in mitochondria following exposure was observed by increasing exposure of ultraviolet light. However, DNP-stimulated ATPase was found to be stable in activity. The uncoupling of the respiratory chain by ultraviolet exposure was not detected if the mitochondrial suspension was preincubated with bovine serum albumin before exposure. The changes in light absorption of the mitochondrial suspension were followed at 520 nm after exposure. A close correlation was found between the ultraviolet exposure and swelling in mitochondria. But, the reversing contraction was observed by adding ATP to the swelled mitochondria. The peroxide compound was formed in mitochondria irradiated with ultraviolet light. The amount of compounds formed was dependent on the radiant energy of ultraviolet light. The possible mechanisms involved in the photodynamic effect of ultraviolet light to the mitochondrial respiration system were discussed.

  14. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  15. Control of temperature and aqueous Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio on the (trans-)formation of ikaite

    Purgstaller, B.; Dietzel, M.; Baldermann, A.; Mavromatis, V.

    2017-11-01

    The calcium carbonate hexahydrate mineral ikaite (CaCO3 ṡ 6 H2O) has been documented in aquatic environments at near-freezing temperatures. An increase of the prevailing temperature in the depositional environment, results in the transformation of natural ikaite into less soluble calcium carbonate phases occasionally leaving calcite pseudomorphs in the sediments, which are considered as an indicator for primary cold water temperatures. Detailed understanding on the physicochemical parameters controlling ikaite (trans-)formation however, such as temperature and reactive solution chemical composition, are still under debate. In order to study the formation of ikaite, we conducted precipitation experiments under controlled physicochemical conditions (pH = 8.3 ± 0.1; T = 6, 12, and 18 ± 0.1 °C) at defined aqueous molar Mg/Ca ratios. The transformation of ikaite into anhydrous calcium carbonate polymorphs was investigated in solution and at air exposure. The obtained results reveal the formation of ikaite at temperatures up to 12 °C, whereas Mg-rich amorphous calcium carbonate precipitated at 18 °C. In contact with the reactive solution ikaite transformed into aragonite at aqueous molar Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios of ≥14. In contrast, ikaite separated from the Mg-rich solution and exposed to air transformed in all cases into calcite/vaterite. The herein obtained temperature limit of ≤12 for ikaite formation is significantly higher than formerly expected and most probably caused by (i) the high saturation degree of the solution with respect to ikaite and (ii) the slow dehydration of the aqueous Ca2+ ion at low temperatures. This result questions the suitability of calcite pseudomorphs (i.e. glendonites) as a proxy for near-freezing temperatures. Moreover, our findings show that the CaCO3 polymorph formed from ikaite is strongly controlled by the physicochemical conditions, such as aqueous molar Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of the reactive fluid and H2O availability throughout the

  16. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    concern when using peripheral densitometry is the poor correlation with the central measurements. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the possibility of expressing ultrasound measurements at the heel and bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the distal forearm as fracture odds ratios...... rather than an absolute measure of bone mass. METHODS: A total of 76 women with lower forearm fracture, 47 women with hip fracture and 231 age-matched women (controls) were included. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel using the DTU-one ultrasound.......8; 5.2) for heel-BUA (T-score cutoff: -2.3), 4.1 (2.3; 7.4) for heel-SOS (-2.1) and 2.2 (1.3; 3.7) for lower forearm BMD (-2.7). The odds ratio for hip fracture was 3.4 (1.5-7.7) for heel-BUA (-2.7), 3.6 (1.6; 8.1) for heel-SOS (-2.6) and 3.2 (1.4; 7.4) for lower forearm BMD (-2.9). CONCLUSION...

  17. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    Bishnu Prasad Koiry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N’,N,N- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights versus conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using 1H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2 were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR, inverted Finemann-Ross (FR and Kelen-Tudos (KT methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis.

  18. Rewiring AMPK and Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling for Metabolic Control of Aging and Histone Acetylation in Respiratory-Defective Cells

    R. Magnus N. Friis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal respiratory metabolism plays a role in numerous human disorders. We find that regulation of overall histone acetylation is perturbed in respiratory-incompetent (ρ0 yeast. Because histone acetylation is highly sensitive to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA availability, we sought interventions that suppress this ρ0 phenotype through reprogramming metabolism. Nutritional intervention studies led to the discovery that genetic coactivation of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus retrograde (RTG response and the AMPK (Snf1 pathway prevents abnormal histone deacetylation in ρ0 cells. Metabolic profiling of signaling mutants uncovered links between chromatin-dependent phenotypes of ρ0 cells and metabolism of ATP, acetyl-CoA, glutathione, branched-chain amino acids, and the storage carbohydrate trehalose. Importantly, RTG/AMPK activation reprograms energy metabolism to increase the supply of acetyl-CoA to lysine acetyltransferases and extend the chronological lifespan of ρ0 cells. Our results strengthen the framework for rational design of nutrient supplementation schemes and drug-discovery initiatives aimed at mimicking the therapeutic benefits of dietary interventions.

  19. On the possible high +Gz tolerance increase by multimodal brain imaging controlled respiratory AFTE biofeedback training exercise

    Smietanowski, Maciej; Achimowicz, Jerzy; Lorenc, Kamil; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Zalewska, Ewa; Truszczynski, Olaf

    The experimental data related to Valsalva manouvers and short term voluntary apnea, available in the literature, suggest that the cerebral blood flow increase and reduction of the peripheral one may be expected if the specific AFTE based respiratory training is performed. The authors had verified this hypothesis by studying the relations between EEG measured subject relaxation combined with voluntary apnea by multimodal brain imaging technique (EEG mapping, Neuroscan and fMRI) in a group of healthy volunteers. The SPM analysis of respiratory related changes in cortical and subcortical BOLD signal has partially confirmed the hypothesis. The mechanism of this effect is probably based on the simultaneous blood pressure increase and total peripheral resistance increase. However the question is still open for further experimental verification if AFTE can be treated as the tool which can increase pilot/astronaut situation awareness in the extreme environment typical for aerospace operations where highly variable accelerations due to liftoff, rapid maneuvers, and vibrations can be expected in the critical phases of the mission.

  20. Telemedicine-guided, very low-dose international normalized ratio self-control in patients with mechanical heart valve implants.

    Koertke, Heinrich; Zittermann, Armin; Wagner, Otto; Secer, Songuel; Sciangula, Alfonso; Saggau, Werner; Sack, Falk-Udo; Ennker, Jürgen; Cremer, Jochen; Musumeci, Francesco; Gummert, Jan F

    2015-06-01

    To study in patients performing international normalized ratio (INR) self-control the efficacy and safety of an INR target range of 1.6-2.1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and 2.0-2.5 for mitral valve replacement (MVR) or double valve replacement (DVR). In total, 1304 patients undergoing AVR, 189 undergoing MVR and 78 undergoing DVR were randomly assigned to low-dose INR self-control (LOW group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.8-2.8; MVR/DVR: 2.5-3.5) or very low-dose INR self-control once a week (VLO group) and twice a week (VLT group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.6-2.1; MVR/DVR: 2.0-2.5), with electronically guided transfer of INR values. We compared grade III complications (major bleeding and thrombotic events; primary end-points) and overall mortality (secondary end-point) across the three treatment groups. Two-year freedom from bleedings in the LOW, VLO, and VLT groups was 96.3, 98.6, and 99.1%, respectively (P = 0.008). The corresponding values for thrombotic events were 99.0, 99.8, and 98.9%, respectively (P = 0.258). The risk-adjusted composite of grade III complications was in the per-protocol population (reference: LOW-dose group) as follows: hazard ratio = 0.307 (95% CI: 0.102-0.926; P = 0.036) for the VLO group and = 0.241 (95% CI: 0.070-0.836; P = 0.025) for the VLT group. The corresponding values of 2-year mortality were = 1.685 (95% CI: 0.473-5.996; P = 0.421) for the VLO group and = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.62-13.60; P = 0.004) for the VLT group. Telemedicine-guided very low-dose INR self-control is comparable with low-dose INR in thrombotic risk, and is superior in bleeding risk. Weekly testing is sufficient. Given the small number of MVR and DVR patients, results are only valid for AVR patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    refractory periods. The same system can be perturbed to a state in which amplitude of oscillation is attenuated or abolished. We have characterized critical perturbations which induce transitions between these two states, giving rise to patterns of dysrhythmic activity that are similar to those seen in the experiments. We illustrate the importance of noise in initiation and termination of rhythm, comparable to normal respiratory rhythm intermixed with spontaneous dysrhythmias. In the BvP system the incidence and duration of dysrhythmia is shown to be strongly influenced by the level of noise. These studies should lead to greater understanding of rhythmicity and integrative responses of the respiratory control system, and provide insight into disturbances in control mechanisms that cause apnea and aspiration in clinical disease states.

  2. Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance?

    Sperlich, Billy; Fricke, Hannes; de Marées, Markus; Linville, John W; Mester, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Special force units and military personnel undergo demanding physical exercise and might benefit from high-intensity respiratory muscle training (RMT) by increasing their endurance performance. This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity RMT on running performance and oxygen uptake (VO2max) in a group of German Special Force Squad members. 17 participants were randomly assigned to a training or control group. Baseline and post-testing included a ramp test, as well as an incremental test on a treadmill, performed to physical exhaustion. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured breath by breath. Furthermore, maximum running speed (V(max)), 4 mmol x 1(-1) lactate threshold (V4) and perception of respiratory effort were determined. During pulmonary testing, sustained maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (PI(max) and PE(max)) were obtained. RMT was performed daily at approximately 90% PI(max) for 6 weeks with 2 x 30 breath cycles using an Ultrabreathe lung trainer. No statistical differences were detected between the groups for any parameter after RMT. High-intensity RMT did not show any benefits on VO2max and endurance performance and are unlikely to be of benefit to military or paramilitary training programs for an increase in endurance performance.

  3. Absence of Association between Cord Specific Antibody Levels and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Disease in Early Infants: A Case Control Study from Coastal Kenya.

    Nyiro, Joyce Uchi; Sande, Charles Jumba; Mutunga, Martin; Kiyuka, Patience Kerubo; Munywoki, Patrick Kioo; Scott, John Anthony G; Nokes, David James

    2016-01-01

    The target group for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease prevention is infants under 6 months of age. Vaccine boosting of antibody titres in pregnant mothers could protect these young infants from severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated disease. Quantifying protective levels of RSV-specific maternal antibody at birth would inform vaccine development. A case control study nested in a birth cohort (2002-07) was conducted in Kilifi, Kenya; where 30 hospitalised cases of RSV-associated severe disease were matched to 60 controls. Participants had a cord blood and 2 subsequent 3-monthly blood samples assayed for RSV-specific neutralising antibody by the plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Two sample paired t test and conditional logistic regression were used in analyses of log2PRNT titres. The mean RSV log2PRNT titre at birth for cases and controls were not significantly different (P = 0.4) and remained so on age-stratification. Cord blood PRNT titres showed considerable overlap between cases and controls. The odds of RSV disease decreased with increase in log2PRNT cord blood titre. There was a 30% reduction in RSV disease per unit increase in log2PRNT titre (disease. Cord antibody levels show wide variation with considerable overlap between cases and controls. It is likely that, there are additional factors to specific PRNT antibody levels which determine susceptibility to severe RSV disease. In addition, higher levels of neutralizing antibody beyond the normal range may be required for protection; which it is hoped can be achieved by a maternal RSV vaccine.

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  5. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  6. Carbon-ion scanning lung treatment planning with respiratory-gated phase-controlled rescanning: simulation study using 4-dimensional CT data.

    Takahashi, Wataru; Mori, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Mio; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Inaniwa, Taku; Furukawa, Takuji; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2014-11-11

    To moving lung tumors, we applied a respiratory-gated strategy to carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with multiple phase-controlled rescanning (PCR). In this simulation study, we quantitatively evaluated dose distributions based on 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) treatment planning. Volumetric 4DCTs were acquired for 14 patients with lung tumors. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated. Field-specific target volumes (FTVs) were calculated, and 48Gy(RBE) in a single fraction was prescribed to the FTVs delivered from four beam angles. The dose assessment metrics were quantified by changing the number of PCR and the results for the ungated and gated scenarios were then compared. For the ungated strategy, the mean dose delivered to 95% of the volume of the CTV (CTV-D95) was in average 45.3 ± 0.9 Gy(RBE) even with a single rescanning (1 × PCR). Using 4 × PCR or more achieved adequate target coverage (CTV-D95 = 46.6 ± 0.3 Gy(RBE) for ungated 4 × PCR) and excellent dose homogeneity (homogeneity index =1.0 ± 0.2% for ungated 4 × PCR). Applying respiratory gating, percentage of lung receiving at least 20 Gy(RBE) (lung-V20) and heart maximal dose, averaged over all patients, significantly decreased by 12% (p lung tumors without gating. The use of a respiratory-gated strategy in combination with PCR reduced excessive doses to OARs.

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Note: Javascript is disabled ... 2018 Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) , Division of Viral Diseases Email Recommend ...

  8. Vaccine Induced Herd Immunity for Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in a Low-Income Country Setting.

    Timothy M Kinyanjui

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is globally ubiquitous, and infection during the first six months of life is a major risk for severe disease and hospital admission; consequently RSV is the most important viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in young children. Development of vaccines for young infants is complicated by the presence of maternal antibodies and immunological immaturity, but vaccines targeted at older children avoid these problems. Vaccine development for young infants has been unsuccessful, but this is not the case for older children (> 6 m. Would vaccinating older children have a significant public health impact? We developed a mathematical model to explore the benefits of a vaccine against RSV.We have used a deterministic age structured model capturing the key epidemiological characteristics of RSV and performed a statistical maximum-likelihood fit to age-specific hospitalization data from a developing country setting. To explore the effects of vaccination under different mixing assumptions, we included two versions of contact matrices: one from a social contact diary study, and the second a synthesised construction based on demographic data. Vaccination is assumed to elicit an immune response equivalent to primary infection. Our results show that immunisation of young children (5-10 m is likely to be a highly effective method of protection of infants (<6 m against hospitalisation. The majority benefit is derived from indirect protection (herd immunity. A full sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling of the parameter space shows that our results are robust to model structure and model parameters.This result suggests that vaccinating older infants and children against RSV can have a major public health benefit.

  9. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  10. Cumulative vibratory indices and the H/M ratio of the soleus H-reflex: a quantitative study in control and spastic subjects

    Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Bour, L. J.; Koelman, J. H.; Speelman, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    Suppression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex recruitment curve by Achilles tendon vibration and the ratio of maximum Sol H-reflex (Hmax) to maximum M-response (H/M ratio) have been studied by means of computer processing on the basis of peak-to-peak (P-P) and area values in 46 controls and in 16 spastic

  11. Effect of a training and educational intervention for physicians and caregivers on antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in children at primary care facilities in rural China: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Wei, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhitong; Walley, John D; Hicks, Joseph P; Zeng, Jun; Deng, Simin; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Jia; Newell, James N; Sun, Qiang; Zou, Guanyang; Guo, Yan; Upshur, Ross E G; Lin, Mei

    2017-12-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing contributes to the generation of drug resistance worldwide, and is particularly common in China. We assessed the effectiveness of an antimicrobial stewardship programme aiming to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in paediatric outpatients by targeting providers and caregivers in primary care hospitals in rural China. We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised controlled trial with a 6-month intervention period. Clusters were primary care township hospitals in two counties of Guangxi province in China, which were randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group (in a 1:1 ratio in Rong county and in a 5:6 ratio in Liujiang county). Randomisation was stratified by county. Eligible participants were children aged 2-14 years who attended a township hospital as an outpatient and were given a prescription following a primary diagnosis of an upper respiratory tract infection. The intervention included clinician guidelines and training on appropriate prescribing, monthly prescribing peer-review meetings, and brief caregiver education. In hospitals allocated to the control group, usual care was provided, with antibiotics prescribed at the individual clinician's discretion. Patients were masked to their allocated treatment group but doctors were not. The primary outcome was the antibiotic prescription rate in children attending the hospitals, defined as the cluster-level proportion of prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections in 2-14-year-old outpatients, issued during the final 3 months of the 6-month intervention period (endline), that included one or more antibiotics. The outcome was based on prescription records and analysed by modified intention-to-treat. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN14340536. We recruited all 25 eligible township hospitals in the two counties (14 hospitals in Rong county and 11 in Liujiang county), and randomly allocated 12 to the intervention group

  12. Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials.

    Mirjam J Knol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, the odds ratio (OR can substantially overestimate the risk ratio (RR if the incidence of the outcome is over 10%. This study determined the frequency of use of ORs, the frequency of overestimation of the OR as compared with its accompanying RR in published RCTs, and we assessed how often regression models that calculate RRs were used. METHODS: We included 288 RCTs published in 2008 in five major general medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine. If an OR was reported, we calculated the corresponding RR, and we calculated the percentage of overestimation by using the formula . RESULTS: Of 193 RCTs with a dichotomous primary outcome, 24 (12.4% presented a crude and/or adjusted OR for the primary outcome. In five RCTs (2.6%, the OR differed more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Forty-one of all included RCTs (n = 288; 14.2% presented ORs for other outcomes, or for subgroup analyses. Nineteen of these RCTs (6.6% had at least one OR that deviated more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Of 53 RCTs that adjusted for baseline variables, 15 used logistic regression. Alternative methods to estimate RRs were only used in four RCTs. CONCLUSION: ORs and logistic regression are often used in RCTs and in many articles the OR did not approximate the RR. Although the authors did not explicitly misinterpret these ORs as RRs, misinterpretation by readers can seriously affect treatment decisions and policy making.

  13. Defect controlled tuning of the ratio of ultraviolet to visible light emission in TiO2 thin films

    Mondal, S.; Basak, D.

    2016-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of sol–gel TiO 2 thin film has been found to be largely dependent on the post-deposition processing such as annealing at 500 °C in air, vacuum and ultraviolet (UV) light curing at room temperature. A detailed analysis of room temperature PL spectra shows that the UV/VIS PL peak intensity ratio is maximum for the film which has been annealed at 500 °C in air. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Ti 3+ type of point defects. The visible emission is deconvoluted to green and orange emissions. Analyses of the present experimental results indicate that V O and/or Ti 3+ causes the green emission and OH and/or excess O 2 adsorption on TiO 2 surface probably causes the orange emission. The time correlated single photon counting spectroscopy data of the UV PL indicates higher number defects in vacuum annealed and UV cured films as compared to the air annealed film. Correlation of the results altogether allows us to conclude that the surface defects those causing the visible emission are smaller in number in the air annealed film. The present results may be useful for tuning the relative PL intensities of UV, green and orange emissions. - Highlights: • Sol–gel TiO 2 films were treated both in air, vacuum at 500 °C and under UV light (room temperature). • UV/VIS PL intensity ratio is maximum for air annealed and minimum for UV cured films. • Both green and orange emission predominantly controls the visible emission of TiO 2 . • The visible emission exhibit a clear correlation with Ti 3+  defects on the surface.

  14. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  15. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  16. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  17. Golden Ratio

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  18. Golden Ratio

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  19. Golden Ratio

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  20. Differential Effects of Endotracheal Suctioning on Gas Exchanges in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure under Pressure-Controlled and Volume-Controlled Ventilation

    Xiao-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of open endotracheal suctioning on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics in ARF patients under the modes of PCV or VCV. Ninety-six ARF patients were treated with open endotracheal suctioning and their variations in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange after the suctions were compared. Under PCV mode, compared with the initial level of tidal volume (VT, ARF patients showed 30.0% and 27.8% decrease at 1 min and 10 min, respectively. Furthermore, the initial respiratory system compliance (Crs decreased by 29.6% and 28.5% at 1 min and 10 min, respectively. Under VCV mode, compared with the initial level, 38.6% and 37.5% increase in peak airway pressure (PAP were found at 1 min and 10 min, respectively. Under PCV mode, the initial PaO2 increased by 6.4% and 10.2 % at 3 min and 10 min, respectively, while 18.9% and 30.6% increase of the initial PaO2 were observed under VCV mode. Summarily, endotracheal suctioning may impair gas exchange and decrease lung compliance in ARF patients receiving mechanical ventilation under both PCV and VCV modes, but endotracheal suctioning effects on gas exchange were more severe and longer-lasting under PCV mode than VCV.

  1. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  3. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Rambaudi, L R; Rossi, E; Mantaras, M C; Perrone, M S; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  4. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients: comparison of apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio with fasting and postprandial conventional lipid ratios

    Mustapha Diaf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The incidence of diabetes co-morbidities could probably be better assessed by studying its associations with major corpulence parameters and glycaemic control indicators. We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from 238 type 2 diabetic patients aged 57.4±11.9 years. The sera were analysed for glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, and apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB. Ratios of lipids and apolipoproteins were calculated and their associations with BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels were analysed. Results: Our investigation showed increases in most fasting and postprandial lipid parameters according to BMI and WC. In men, postprandial HDL-c and TG levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 in overweight and obese patients, respectively, as well as in patients with abdominal obesity. Contrariwise, postprandial TC levels were significantly higher (p<0.01 in overweight and abdominal obese women. However, elevations of apoA-I and apoB levels were according to BMI and WC in both genders. There was a strong influence of BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels on the apoB/apoA-I ratio compared to traditional fasting and postprandial lipid ratios in both men and women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women. Conclusion: The apoB/apoA-I ratio is helpful in assessing metabolic risk caused by overall obesity, abdominal obesity and impaired glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients.

  5. Effects of communication training with the MAAS-Global-D instrument on the antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Hammersen, Friederike; Goetz, Katja; Soennichsen, Andreas; Emcke, Timo; Steinhaeuser, Jost

    2016-04-02

    Primary care physicians account for the majority of antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory care in Germany. Respiratory diseases are, regardless of effectiveness, often treated with antibiotics. Research has found this use without indication to be caused largely by communication problems (e.g. expectations on the patient's part or false assumptions about them by the physician). The present randomised controlled trial (RCT) study evaluates whether communication training for primary care physicians can reduce the antibiotic prescribing rate for respiratory tract infections. The study consists of three groups: group A will receive communication training; group B will be given the same, plus additional, access to an evidence-based point-of-care tool; and group C will function as the control group. The primary endpoint is the difference between intervention and control groups regarding the antibiotic prescribing rate before and after the intervention assessed through routine data. The communication skills are captured with the help of the communication instrument MAAS-Global-D, as well as individual videos of physician-patient consultations recorded by the primary care physicians. These skills will also be regarded with respect to the antibiotic prescribing rate. A process evaluation using qualitative as well as quantitative methods should provide information about barriers and enablers to implementing the communication training. The trial contributes to an insight into the effectiveness of the different components to reduce antibiotic prescribing, which will also be supported by an extensive evaluation. Communication training could be an effective method of reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care. DRKS00009566 DATE REGISTRATION: 5 November 2015.

  6. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    Lindh Magnus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit and after 10 days (follow-up visit. Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202 of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204 (P = 0.005 of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202 in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204 in the delayed result group (P

  8. An Experimental Study on What Controls the Ratios of 18O/16O and 17O/16O of O2 During Microbial Respiration

    Stolper, D. A.; Ward, B. B.; Fischer, W. W.; Bender, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios of atmospheric and dissolved oceanic O2 are key biogeochemical tracers of total photosynthesis and respiration on global to local length scales and glacial/interglacial time scales (Luz et al., 1999). Critical to the use of these ratios as biogeochemical tracers is knowledge of how they are affected by production, consumption, and transport of O2. We present new measurements of O2 respiration by E. coli and N. oceanus, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium, to test three assumptions of isotopically enabled models of the O2 cycle: (i) laboratory-measured respiratory 18O/16O isotope effects (18α) of microorganisms are constant under all experimental and natural conditions (e.g., temperature and growth rate); (ii) the respiratory 'mass law' relationship between 18O/16O and 17O/16O [17α = (18α)β] is universal; and (iii) 18α and β for aerobic ammonia and organic carbon oxidation are identical. For E. coli, we find that both 18α and β are variable. From 37°C to 15°C, 18α varies linearly with temperature from 17 to 14‰, and β varies linearly from 0.513 to 0.508. 18α and β do not appear to vary with growth rate (as tested using different carbon sources). Both 18α and β are lower than previous observations for bacteria: 18α = 17-20‰ (Kiddon et al., 1993) and β = 0.515 (Luz and Barkan, 2005). We were able to simulate the observed temperature dependence of 18α and β using a model of respiration with two isotopically discriminating steps: O2 binding to cytochrome bo oxidase (the respiratory enzyme) and reduction of O2 to H2O. Finally, initial results on N. oceanus suggest it has similar values for 18α and β as previously studied aerobic bacteria that consume organic carbon, providing the first support for assumption (iii). Based on these results, isotopically constrained biogeochemical models of O2 cycling may need to consider a temperature dependence for 18α and β for microbial respiration. For example, these results may

  9. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Validation of the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in a population of Hispanic preschoolers.

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in children younger than 5 years old. To validate the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) questionnaire in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. In a prospective cohort validation study, parents and/or caregivers of children younger than age 5 years and with symptoms consistent with asthma, during a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later, completed the information required to assess the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency reliability, and usability of the TRACK questionnaire. Median (interquartile range) of the TRACK scores were significantly different between patients with well-controlled asthma, patients with not well-controlled asthma, and patients with very poorly controlled asthma (90.0 [75.0-95.0], 75.0 [55.0-85.0], and 35.0 [25.0-55.0], respectively, P Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire has excellent sensitivity to change and usability; adequate criterion validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability; and an acceptable internal consistency, when used in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduces the duration of respiratory infections in the elderly in a randomised controlled trial.

    Guillemard, E; Tondu, F; Lacoin, F; Schrezenmeir, J

    2010-01-01

    Common infectious diseases (CID) of the airways and the gastrointestinal tract are still a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. The present study examined the beneficial effect of a dairy product containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (fermented product) on the resistance of free-living elderly to CID. The study was multicentric, double blind and controlled, involving 1072 volunteers (median age = 76.0 years) randomised for consumption of either 200 g/d of fermented (n 537) or control (non-fermented) dairy product (n 535) for 3 months, followed by an additional 1 month's follow-up. The results showed that, when considering all CID, the fermented product significantly reduced the average duration per episode of CID (6.5 v. 8 d in control group; P = 0.008) and the cumulative duration of CID (7 v. 8 d in control group; P = 0.009). Reduction in both episode and cumulative durations was also significant for all upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; P fermented product consumption (2-3.8 x 107 equivalents of colony-forming unit/g of stools, P fermented product was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 in elderly was associated with a decreased duration of CID in comparison with the control group, especially for URTI such as rhinopharyngitis.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  13. Optical 'dampening' of the refractive error to axial length ratio: implications for outcome measures in myopia control studies.

    Cruickshank, Fiona E; Logan, Nicola S

    2018-05-01

    To gauge the extent to which differences in the refractive error axial length relationship predicted by geometrical optics are observed in actual refractive/biometric data. This study is a retrospective analysis of existing data. Right eye refractive error [RX] and axial length [AXL] data were collected on 343 6-to-7-year-old children [mean 7.18 years (S.D. 0.35)], 294 12-to-13-year-old children [mean 13.12 years (S.D. 0.32)] and 123 young adults aged 18-to-25-years [mean 20.56 years (S.D. 1.91)]. Distance RX was measured with the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 infrared open-field autorefractor. Child participants were cyclopleged prior to data collection (1% Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride). Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent [MSE] ≤-0.50 D. Axial length was measured using the Zeiss IOLMaster 500. Optical modelling was based on ray tracing and manipulation of parameters of a Gullstrand reduced model eye. There was a myopic shift in mean MSE with age (6-7 years +0.87 D, 12-13 years -0.06 D and 18-25 years -1.41 D), associated with an increase in mean AXL (6-7 years 22.70 mm, 12-13 years 23.49 mm and 18-25 years 23.98 mm). There was a significant negative correlation between MSE and AXL for all age groups (all p theory predicts that there will be a reduction in the RX: AXL ratio with longer eyes. The participant data although adhering to this theory show a reduced effect, with eyes with longer axial lengths having a lower refractive error to axial length ratio than predicted by model eye calculations. We propose that in myopia control intervention studies when comparing efficacy, consideration should be given to the dampening effect seen with a longer eye. © 2018 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  15. Increased crown-to-implant ratio may not be a risk factor for dental implant failure under appropriate plaque control.

    Okada, Shinsuke; Koretake, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Oue, Hiroshi; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increased crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio influences implant stability or not under proper healthy control of peri-implant mucosa. The hypothesis of this study is that implant stability can be maintained despite High C/I, under appropriate plaque control. Five male Beagle-Labrador hybrid dogs (2 years old) were used. Their bilateral mandibular premolar extraction was performed. After allowing 12 weeks for bone healing, 3 types of vertical marginal bone loss were simultaneously prepared randomly. Then, 30 titanium implants were placed in the edentulous areas and defined as High C/I, Mid C/I and Low C/I groups. This time point was designated as the baseline (0 Week). Twelve weeks after implant placement, metal superstructures were cemented to the implants and an occlusal plate was set at the opposite side. At the same time, Calcein green was injected for remodeling evaluation. Implants were loaded by feeding the dogs a hard pellet diet. Tooth brushing was performed 5 days per week during the study to maintain healthy peri-implant mucosa. Twenty-four weeks following implant placement, the interface structure was evaluated clinically, radiologically, and histologically. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) increased with time in all 3 groups, without any significant correlation with the C/I value (p >0.05). Moreover, mean marginal bone loss adjacent around implants in all 3 groups ranged between 0.11 and 0.19 mm, with no significant difference (p >0.05). Many fluorescence-labeled bones are shown in the High C/I group. It is considered that high remodeling activity prevent marginal bone loss in the High C/I group and this may provide favorable implant stability under proper plaque control. These findings suggest that increased C/I may not be a risk factor for implant failure if the peri-implant mucosa is kept healthy, as was the case in this animal model.

  16. Hydrologic and environmental controls on uranium-series and strontium isotope ratios in a natural weathering environment

    White, A. M.; Ma, L.; Moravec, B. G.; McIntosh, J. C.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    core samples with depth shows distinct weathering profiles with variable 234U/238U activity and Sr isotope ratios. Comparison of the isotopic composition of cores and groundwaters from similar depths, as well as surface waters in the JRB-CZO will be vital for the characterization of hydrogeologic controls on isotopic composition in this complex terrain.

  17. Increased crown-to-implant ratio may not be a risk factor for dental implant failure under appropriate plaque control.

    Shinsuke Okada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increased crown-to-implant (C/I ratio influences implant stability or not under proper healthy control of peri-implant mucosa. The hypothesis of this study is that implant stability can be maintained despite High C/I, under appropriate plaque control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five male Beagle-Labrador hybrid dogs (2 years old were used. Their bilateral mandibular premolar extraction was performed. After allowing 12 weeks for bone healing, 3 types of vertical marginal bone loss were simultaneously prepared randomly. Then, 30 titanium implants were placed in the edentulous areas and defined as High C/I, Mid C/I and Low C/I groups. This time point was designated as the baseline (0 Week. Twelve weeks after implant placement, metal superstructures were cemented to the implants and an occlusal plate was set at the opposite side. At the same time, Calcein green was injected for remodeling evaluation. Implants were loaded by feeding the dogs a hard pellet diet. Tooth brushing was performed 5 days per week during the study to maintain healthy peri-implant mucosa. Twenty-four weeks following implant placement, the interface structure was evaluated clinically, radiologically, and histologically. RESULT: Implant stability quotient (ISQ increased with time in all 3 groups, without any significant correlation with the C/I value (p >0.05. Moreover, mean marginal bone loss adjacent around implants in all 3 groups ranged between 0.11 and 0.19 mm, with no significant difference (p >0.05. Many fluorescence-labeled bones are shown in the High C/I group. It is considered that high remodeling activity prevent marginal bone loss in the High C/I group and this may provide favorable implant stability under proper plaque control. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increased C/I may not be a risk factor for implant failure if the peri-implant mucosa is kept healthy, as was the case in this animal model.

  18. [Likeness between respiratory responses on CO2 in conditions of natural breathing and voluntary-controlled mechanical ventilation].

    Pogodin, M A; Granstrem, M P; Dimitrienko, A I

    2007-04-01

    We did Read CO2 rebreathing tests in 8 adult males. Both at natural breathing, and at self-controlled mechanical ventilation, volunteers increased ventilation proportionally to growth end-tidal PCO2. Inside individual distinctions of responses to CO2 during controlled mechanical ventilation are result of the voluntary motor control.

  19. Sex ratios

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  20. The plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio predicts first cardiovascular event in men : A prospective nested case-control study

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van Beek, Andre P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The plasma leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been proposed as a preferential marker of atherosclerosis susceptibility compared to leptin and adiponectin alone. We determined the extent to which the L/A ratio predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) taking account of clinical risk

  1. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. On the controls of leaf-water oxygen isotope ratios in the atmospheric Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides.

    Helliker, Brent R

    2011-04-01

    Previous theoretical work showed that leaf-water isotope ratio (δ(18)O(L)) of Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphytes was controlled by the δ(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (δ(18)O(a)), and observed δ(18)O(L) could be explained by both a non-steady-state model and a "maximum enrichment" steady-state model (δ(18)O(L-M)), the latter requiring only δ(18)O(a) and relative humidity (h) as inputs. δ(18)O(L), therefore, should contain an extractable record of δ(18)O(a). Previous empirical work supported this hypothesis but raised many questions. How does changing δ(18)O(a) and h affect δ(18)O(L)? Do hygroscopic trichomes affect observed δ(18)O(L)? Are observations of changes in water content required for the prediction of δ(18)O(L)? Does the leaf need to be at full isotopic steady state for observed δ(18)O(L) to equal δ(18)O(L-M)? These questions were examined with a climate-controlled experimental system capable of holding δ(18)O(a) constant for several weeks. Water adsorbed to trichomes required a correction ranging from 0.5‰ to 1‰. δ(18)O(L) could be predicted using constant values of water content and even total conductance. Tissue rehydration caused a transitory change in δ(18)O(L), but the consequent increase in total conductance led to a tighter coupling with δ(18)O(a). The non-steady-state leaf water models explained observed δ(18)O(L) (y = 0.93*x - 0.07; r(2) = 0.98) over a wide range of δ(18)O(a) and h. Predictions of δ(18)O(L-M) agreed with observations of δ(18)O(L) (y = 0.87*x - 0.99; r(2) = 0.92), and when h > 0.9, the leaf did not need to be at isotopic steady state for the δ(18)O(L-M) model to predict δ(18)O(L) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides.

  3. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long-term

    Frossard, E.; Buchmann, N.; Bünemann, E. K.; Kiba, D. I.; Lompo, F.; Oberson, A.; Tamburini, F.; Traoré, O. Y. A.

    2015-09-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long-term. Thus, we analysed the C, N and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at Wagga Wagga contains illite and haematite, is richer in clay and

  4. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Inten...

  5. The Distinction of Amyloid-β Protein Precursor (AβPP) Ratio in Platelet Between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Shi, Yachen; Gu, Lihua; Alsharif, Abdul Azeez; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    To systematically assess the clinical significance of platelet amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) ratio between Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and controls. 14 articles were selected in this analysis by search of databases including PubMed and Web of Science up to December 2016. Random effects models were used to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD). Subgroup analyses were used to detect the cause of heterogeneity. The result showed a significant drop in platelet AβPP ratio in AD patients compared to controls [SMD: -1.871; 95% CI: (-2.33, -1.41); p analysis revealed races or the quality of studies may be the cause of high heterogeneity. This meta-analysis concluded that there is a close association between platelet AβPP ratio and AD. It is necessary to design a sizable sample study to further support that platelet AβPP ratio can be a biomarker of AD.

  6. Cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome among Toronto healthcare workers after implementation of infection control precautions: a case series.

    Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Gravel, Denise; McDonald, L Clifford; Lem, Marcus; Sarwal, Shelley; McGeer, Allison; Green, Karen; Vearncombe, Mary; Roth, Virginia; Paton, Shirley; Loeb, Mark; Simor, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    To review the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection control practices, the types of exposure to patients with SARS, and the activities associated with treatment of such patients among healthcare workers (HCWs) who developed SARS in Toronto, Canada, after SARS-specific infection control precautions had been implemented. A retrospective review of work logs and patient assignments, detailed review of medical records of patients with SARS, and comprehensive telephone-based interviews of HCWs who met the case definition for SARS after implementation of infection control precautions. Seventeen HCWs from 6 hospitals developed disease that met the case definition for SARS after implementation of infection control precautions. These HCWs had a mean age (+/-SD) of 39+/-2.3 years. Two HCWs were not interviewed because of illness. Of the remaining 15, only 9 (60%) reported that they had received formal infection control training. Thirteen HCWs (87%) were unsure of proper order in which personal protective equipment should be donned and doffed. Six HCWs (40%) reused items (eg, stethoscopes, goggles, and cleaning equipment) elsewhere on the ward after initial use in a room in which a patient with SARS was staying. Use of masks, gowns, gloves, and eyewear was inconsistent among HCWs. Eight (54%) reported that they were aware of a breach in infection control precautions. HCWs reported fatigue due to an increased number and length of shifts; participants worked a median of 10 shifts during the 10 days before onset of symptoms. Seven HCWs were involved in the intubation of a patient with SARS. One HCW died, and the remaining 16 recovered. Multiple factors were likely responsible for SARS in these HCWs, including the performance of high-risk patient care procedures, inconsistent use of personal protective equipment, fatigue, and lack of adequate infection control training.

  7. Model-Assisted Control of Flow Front in Resin Transfer Molding Based on Real-Time Estimation of Permeability/Porosity Ratio

    Bai-Jian Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding (RTM is a popular manufacturing technique that produces fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites. In this paper, a model-assisted flow front control system is developed based on real-time estimation of permeability/porosity ratio using the information acquired by a visualization system. In the proposed control system, a radial basis function (RBF network meta-model is utilized to predict the position of the future flow front by inputting the injection pressure, the current position of flow front, and the estimated ratio. By conducting optimization based on the meta-model, the value of injection pressure to be implemented at each step is obtained. Moreover, a cascade control structure is established to further improve the control performance. Experiments show that the developed system successfully enhances the performance of flow front control in RTM. Especially, the cascade structure makes the control system robust to model mismatch.

  8. Synthesis and Characterisation of Aminoplast Microcapsules for Controlled Release of Bioactives. Influence of the Resin:Oil Ratio

    Sánchez Navarro, M. Magdalena; Arán Aís, Francisca; Marcilla, Antonio; Orgilés-Barceló, César

    2015-01-01

    In this study a series of melamine-formaldehyde (MF) microcapsules containing Melaleuca alternifolia oil as natural biocide with different polymer to oil ratio was prepared by the in situ polymerization (O/W) method. The characterization of the microcapsules properties was undertaken by different experimental techniques in order to establish a correlation between the polymer to oil ratio and the oil encapsulation efficiency and properties for further applications. The average size distributio...

  9. Influence of Hold Time and Stress Ratio on Cyclic Creep Properties Under Controlled Tension Loading Cycles of Grade 91 Steel

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung; Ekaputra, I Made Wicaksana; Kim, Seon Jin

    2017-01-01

    Influences of hold time and stress ratio on cyclic creep properties of Grade 91 steel were systemically investigated using a wide range of cyclic creep tests, which were performed with hold times (HTs) of 1 minute, 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes and stress ratios (R) of 0.5, 0.8, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.95 under tension loading cycles at 600°C. Under the influence of HT, the rupture time increased to HT = 5 minutes at R = 0.90 and R = 0.95, but there was no influence at R = 0.50, 0.80, and 0.85. The creep rate was constant regardless of an increase in the HT, except for the case of HT = 5 minutes at R = 0.90 and R = 0.95. Under the influence of stress ratio, the rupture time increased with an increase in the stress ratio, but the creep rate decreased. The cyclic creep led to a reduction in the rupture time and an acceleration in the creep rate compared with the case of monotonic creep. Cyclic creep was found to depend dominantly on the stress ratio rather than on the HT. Fracture surfaces displayed transgranular fractures resulting from microvoid coalescence, and the amount of microvoids increased with an increase in the stress ratio. Enhanced coarsening of the precipitates in the cyclic creep test specimens was found under all conditions

  10. Use of palivizumab and infection control measures to control an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    O'Connell, K

    2011-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potentially life-threatening infection in premature infants. We report an outbreak involving four infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital that occurred in February 2010. RSV A infection was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Palivizumab was administered to all infants in the NICU. There were no additional symptomatic cases and repeat RSV surveillance confirmed that there was no further cross-transmission within the unit. The outbreak highlighted the infection control challenge of very high bed occupancy in the unit and the usefulness of molecular methods in facilitating detection and management.

  11. Questionnaire-based analysis of infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia in regards to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

    Rabaan, Ali A; Alhani, Hatem M; Bazzi, Ali M; Al-Ahmed, Shamsah H

    Effective implementation of infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities depends on training, awareness and compliance of healthcare workers. In Saudi Arabia recent significant hospital outbreaks, including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have resulted from lack of, or breakdown in, infection prevention and control procedures. This study was designed to assess attitudes to, and awareness of, infection prevention and control policies and guidelines among healthcare workers of different professions and institution types in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was administered to 607 healthcare workers including physicians (n=133), nurses (n=162), laboratory staff (n=233) and other staff (n=79) in government hospitals, private hospitals and poly clinics. Results were compared using Chi square analysis according to profession type, institution type, age group and nationality (Saudi or non-Saudi) to assess variability. Responses suggested that there are relatively high levels of uncertainty among healthcare workers across a range of infection prevention and control issues, including institution-specific issues, surveillance and reporting standards, and readiness and competence to implement policies and respond to outbreaks. There was evidence to suggest that staff in private hospitals and nurses were more confident than other staff types. Carelessness of healthcare workers was the top-cited factor contributing to causes of outbreaks (65.07% of total group), and hospital infrastructure and design was the top-cited factor contributing to spread of infection in the hospital (54.20%), followed closely by lack and shortage of staff (53.71%) and no infection control training program (51.73%). An electronic surveillance system was considered the most effective by staff (81.22%). We have identified areas of concern among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia on infection prevention and control which vary between institutions and among different

  12. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  13. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long term

    Frossard, Emmanuel; Buchmann, Nina; Bünemann, Else K.; Kiba, Delwende I.; Lompo, François; Oberson, Astrid; Tamburini, Federica; Traoré, Ouakoltio Y. A.

    2016-02-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies have explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on the soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long term. Thus, we analysed the C, N, and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK (bio-Dynamic, bio-Organic, and "Konventionell") cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N, and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P, and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure, and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at

  14. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and herpes simplex virus type 2 are possible risk factors for adult-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (prospective case-control study).

    Formánek, M; Jančatová, D; Komínek, P; Matoušek, P; Zeleník, K

    2017-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Although HPV prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than HPV infection probably contribute to RRP. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis (ChT) and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs in this group of patients more often. Prospective case-control study. Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital. The study included 20 patients with adult-onset RRP and 20 adult patients with vocal cord cyst and no pathology of laryngeal mucosa (control group). Immunohistochemical analysis of pepsin, HPV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and ChT was performed in biopsy specimens of laryngeal papillomas and of healthy laryngeal mucosa (control group) obtained from medial part of removed vocal cord cyst during microlaryngoscopy procedures. Pathologic LPR (pepsin in tissue) was diagnosed in 8/20 (40.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .003). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was present in 9/20 (45.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .001). Five specimens were positive for both pepsin and herpes simplex virus type 2. No samples were positive for ChT. There were no significant differences between groups for age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and gastrooesophageal reflux disease. Tobacco exposure was not more frequent in RRP group either (P = .01). Results show that LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 are significantly more often present in patients with RRP. LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 might activate latent HPV infection and thereby be possible risk factors for RRP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infection control and prevention practices implemented to reduce transmission risk of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus in a tertiary care institution in Saudi Arabia.

    Butt, Taimur S; Koutlakis-Barron, Irene; AlJumaah, Suliman; AlThawadi, Sahar; AlMofada, Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among health care workers (HCWs) and patients has been documented with mortality rate approximating 36%. We propose advanced infection control measures (A-IC) used in conjunction with basic infection control measures (B-IC) help reduce pathogen transmission. B-IC include standard and transmission-based precautions. A-IC are initiatives implemented within our center to enhance effectiveness of B-IC. Study effectiveness of combining B-IC and A-IC to prevent transmission of MERS-CoV to HCWs. A retrospective observational study was undertaken. A-IC measures include administrative support with daily rounds; infection control risk assessment; timely screening, isolation, and specimen analysis; collaboration; epidemic planning; stockpiling; implementation of contingency plans; full personal protective equipment use for advanced airway management; use of a real-time electronic isolation flagging system; infection prevention and control team on-call protocols; pretransfer MERS-CoV testing; and education. A total of 874 real-time polymerase chain reaction MERS-CoV tests were performed during the period beginning July 1, 2013, and ending January 31, 2015. Six hundred ninety-four non-HCWs were tested, of these 16 tested positive for MERS-CoV and their infection was community acquired. Sixty-nine percent of the confirmed MERS-CoV-positive cases were men, with an average age of 56 years (range, 19-84 years). Of the total tested for MERS-CoV, 180 individuals were HCWs with zero positivity. Adhering to a combination of B-IC and A-IC reduces the risk of MERS-CoV transmission to HCWs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  17. Evaluation of Building Energy Saving Through the Development of Venetian Blinds' Optimal Control Algorithm According to the Orientation and Window-to-Wall Ratio

    Kwon, Hyuk Ju; Yeon, Sang Hun; Lee, Keum Ho; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2018-02-01

    As various studies focusing on building energy saving have been continuously conducted, studies utilizing renewable energy sources, instead of fossil fuel, are needed. In particular, studies regarding solar energy are being carried out in the field of building science; in order to utilize such solar energy effectively, solar radiation being brought into the indoors should be acquired and blocked properly. Blinds are a typical solar radiation control device that is capable of controlling indoor thermal and light environments. However, slat-type blinds are manually controlled, giving a negative effect on building energy saving. In this regard, studies regarding the automatic control of slat-type blinds have been carried out for the last couple of decades. Therefore, this study aims to provide preliminary data for optimal control research through the controlling of slat angle in slat-type blinds by comprehensively considering various input variables. The window area ratio and orientation were selected as input variables. It was found that an optimal control algorithm was different among each window-to-wall ratio and window orientation. In addition, through comparing and analyzing the building energy saving performance for each condition by applying the developed algorithms to simulations, up to 20.7 % energy saving was shown in the cooling period and up to 12.3 % energy saving was shown in the heating period. In addition, building energy saving effect was greater as the window area ratio increased given the same orientation, and the effects of window-to-wall ratio in the cooling period were higher than those of window-to-wall ratio in the heating period.

  18. Controlled growth of carbon nanofibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: Effect of catalyst thickness and gas ratio

    Saidin, M.A.R.; Ismail, A.F.; Sanip, S.M.; Goh, P.S.; Aziz, M.; Tanemura, M.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown, using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system reactor under various acetylene to ammonia gas ratios and different catalyst thicknesses were studied. Nickel/Chromium-glass (Ni/Cr-glass) thin film catalyst was employed for the growth of CNF. The grown CNFs were then characterized using Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that the Ni/Cr-glass with thickness of 15 nm and gas ratio acetylene to ammonia of 1:3 produced CNFs with the lowest I D /I G value (the relative intensity of D-band to G-band). This indicated that this catalyst thickness and gas ratio value is the optimum combination for the synthesis of CNFs under the conditions studied. TEM observation pointed out that the CNFs produced have 104 concentric walls and the residual catalyst particles were located inside the tubes of CNFs. It was also observed that structural morphology of the grown CNFs was influenced by acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and catalyst thickness.

  19. Controlled growth of carbon nanofibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: Effect of catalyst thickness and gas ratio

    Saidin, M.A.R. [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ismail, A.F., E-mail: afauzi@utm.my [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Sanip, S.M.; Goh, P.S.; Aziz, M. [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Material, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2012-01-31

    The characteristics of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown, using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system reactor under various acetylene to ammonia gas ratios and different catalyst thicknesses were studied. Nickel/Chromium-glass (Ni/Cr-glass) thin film catalyst was employed for the growth of CNF. The grown CNFs were then characterized using Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that the Ni/Cr-glass with thickness of 15 nm and gas ratio acetylene to ammonia of 1:3 produced CNFs with the lowest I{sub D}/I{sub G} value (the relative intensity of D-band to G-band). This indicated that this catalyst thickness and gas ratio value is the optimum combination for the synthesis of CNFs under the conditions studied. TEM observation pointed out that the CNFs produced have 104 concentric walls and the residual catalyst particles were located inside the tubes of CNFs. It was also observed that structural morphology of the grown CNFs was influenced by acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and catalyst thickness.

  20. Environmental controls on seasonal ecosystem evapotranspiration/potential evapotranspiration ratio as determined by the global eddy flux measurements

    Chunwei Liu; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Asko Noormets; Yuan Fang

    2017-01-01

    The evapotranspiration / potential evapotranspiration (AET / PET) ratio is traditionally termed as the crop coefficient (Kc) and has been generally used as ecosystem evaporative stress index. In the current hydrology literature, Kc has been widely used as a parameter to estimate crop water demand by water managers but has...

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  3. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  5. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  6. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  7. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki

    2015-01-01

    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  8. Effectiveness of a Self-monitoring Device for Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio on Dietary Improvement in Free-Living Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Ohgami, Naoto; Yamashita, Hideyuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kondo, Keiko; Torii, Sayuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-05

    Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups. Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were -0.55 in the intervention group and -0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088); respective sodium excretion changes were -18.5 mmol/24 hours and -8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528); and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and -1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300). No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention. Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in "pure self-management" settings, indicating further needs to study an effective method to enhance the synergetic effect of dietary programs and self

  9. Effectiveness of a Self-monitoring Device for Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio on Dietary Improvement in Free-Living Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Toshiyuki Iwahori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. Methods: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan. All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups. Results: Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were −0.55 in the intervention group and −0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088; respective sodium excretion changes were −18.5 mmol/24 hours and −8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528; and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and −1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300. No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention. Conclusions: Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in “pure self-management” settings, indicating further needs to study an

  10. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  11. The ratio of Matriptase/HAI-1 mRNA is higher in colorectal cancer adenomas and carcinomas than corresponding tissue from control individuals

    Vogel, Lotte K; Saebø, Mona; Skjelbred, Camilla F

    2006-01-01

    .001) and severe (p ratio than corresponding normal tissue from healthy control individuals (p ... that the ratio of matriptase to HAI-1 influences the malignant progression. The aim of this study has been to determine the ratio of matriptase to HAI-1 mRNA expression in affected and normal tissue from individuals with colorectal cancer adenomas and carcinomas as well as in healthy individuals, in order...... to determine at which stages a dysregulated ratio of matriptase/HAI-1 mRNA is present during carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for matriptase and HAI-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 9), severe dysplasia (n = 15), mild/moderate dysplasia (n = 21...

  12. Association of biomass fuel use with acute respiratory infections among under- five children in a slum urban of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-10-31

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel is responsible for 50,320 annual deaths of children under-five year, accounting for 4.9% of the national burden of disease in Ethiopia. Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality among children in Ethiopia. There is limited research that has examined the association between the use of biomass fuel and acute respiratory infections among children. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during January to February 2012 among 422 households in the slum of Addis Ababa. Data were collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire. Odds ratio was done to determine association between independent variables and acute respiratory infections by using logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the presence of an association between biomass fuel use and acute respiratory infections after controlling for other confounding variables. Nearly 253 (60%) of children live in households that predominately used biomass fuel. The two weeks prevalence of acute respiratory infection was 23.9%. The odds ratios of acute respiratory infection were 2.97 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87) and 1.96 (95% CI: 0.78-4.89) in households using biomass fuel and kerosene, respectively, relative to cleaner fuels. There is an association between biomass fuel usage and acute respiratory infection in children. The relationship needs investigation which measure indoor air pollution and clinical measures of acute respiratory infection.

  13. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  14. On/off ratio enhancement in single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor by controlling network density via sonication

    Jang, Ho-Kyun; Choi, Jun Hee; Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2018-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is generally used as a networked structure in the fabrication of a field-effect transistor (FET) since it is known that one-third of SWCNT is electrically metallic and the remains are semiconducting. In this case, the presence of metallic paths by metallic SWCNT (m-SWCNT) becomes a significant technical barrier which hinders the networks from achieving a semiconducting behavior, resulting in a low on/off ratio. Here, we report on an easy method of controlling the on/off ratio of a FET where semiconducting SWCNT (s-SWCNT) and m-SWCNT constitute networks between source and drain electrodes. A FET with SWCNT networks was simply sonicated under water to control the on/off ratio and network density. As a result, the FET having an almost metallic behavior due to the metallic paths by m-SWCNT exhibited a p-type semiconducting behavior. The on/off ratio ranged from 1 to 9.0 × 104 along sonication time. In addition, theoretical calculations based on Monte-Carlo method and circuit simulation were performed to understand and explain the phenomenon of a change in the on/off ratio and network density by sonication. On the basis of experimental and theoretical results, we found that metallic paths contributed to a high off-state current which leads to a low on/off ratio and that sonication formed sparse SWCNT networks where metallic paths of m-SWCNT were removed, resulting in a high on/off ratio. This method can open a chance to save the device which has been considered as a failed one due to a metallic behavior by a high network density leading to a low on/off ratio.

  15. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  16. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  17. Effects of consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on common respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in shift workers in a randomized controlled trial.

    Guillemard, Eric; Tanguy, Jérôme; Flavigny, Ann'Laure; de la Motte, Stephan; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

    2010-10-01

    The risk of infection may be increased in people under stress such as shift workers. This study examined the effect of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (verum) on the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal common infectious diseases (CIDs) and on immune functions in healthy shift workers. The study was single-center, randomized, double-blind, and controlled. Volunteers received 200 g/day of verum (n = 500) or control product (n = 500) for 3 months; 1-month follow-up was carried out. The cumulated number of CIDs (primary outcome) was not significantly different between groups. Because the Poisson distribution of the primary parameter did not fully fit the observed data, a post hoc categorical analysis was applied and showed a significantly lower cumulated number of CIDs in the verum group during the product consumption phase (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.95, p = 0.017). Verum also reduced the proportion of volunteers experiencing at least 1 CID (43% vs. 51%, p = 0.005), increased the time to the first occurrence of CID (p = 0.017) in the whole population, and reduced the cumulated number of CIDs in the subgroup of smokers (p = 0.033). In the course of CID, cumulated duration of fever was lower in the verum group (in the whole study phase) (p = 0.022), and an increase in leukocyte, neutrophil, and natural killer (NK) cell counts and activity (p = 0.047 to p fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the risk of common infections in stressed individuals such as shift workers.

  18. The Implementation of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI Controlling Programme and the Coverage of Pneumonia among Under-Five Children

    Ni'mal Baroya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pneumonia is an acute infection of lung tissue (alveoli. Pneumonia is one of the main focus ARI preventing and controlling program.  One of the ARI preventing and controlling program indicators was pneumonia coverage among under five years old. The coverage of pneumonia finding among under five years old in Banyuwangi Regency since 2014-2016 years have not reached the national target. Pneumonia toddler coverage in 2014 and 2015 shows 33,7% and 71,1%, while in 2016 shows 41,99%. This research aims to analyze the association between officer characteristics, logistics availability and ARI control activities with pneumonia toddler coverage in Banyuwangi Regency. The research uses cross sectional analytic desain with 31 respondents. The result of this research has significant relationship is age, work length and capacity buailding. Nevertheless, gender, education, knowladge, availability of diagnostic tools, guideline, KIE media, recording and reporting media, advocation and socialisation, pneumonia find and management, supervision, recording and reporting, partnership and network, monitoring and evaluation has not significant relationship. Banyuwangi Health Office is hoped to do conduct periodic training every year to ARI program officer on ARI control management, management of pneumonia toddler and promotion of pneumonia control in under fives to increase human resources capacity in primary health facility.                 Abstrak Pneumonia merupakan salah satu fokus utama Program Pencegahan dan Pengendalian ISPA. Salah satu indikator program P2 ISPA adalah cakupan penemuan pneumonia balita. Cakupan pneumonia pada balita di Kabupaten Banyuwangi dari tahun 2014-2016 belum mencapai target nasional. Pada tahun 2014 dan 2015 cakupan pneumonia pada balita sebesar 33,7% dan 71,1% sedangkan tahun 2016 sebesar 41,99%. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis hubungan antara karakteristik petugas, ketersediaan  logistik dan kegiatan

  19. Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

  20. Nonassociative learning promotes respiratory entrainment to mechanical ventilation.

    Shawna M MacDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator synchrony is a major concern in critical care and is influenced by phasic lung-volume feedback control of the respiratory rhythm. Routine clinical application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP introduces a tonic input which, if unopposed, might disrupt respiratory-ventilator entrainment through sustained activation of the vagally-mediated Hering-Breuer reflex. We suggest that this potential adverse effect may be averted by two differentiator forms of nonassociative learning (habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex via pontomedullary pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in 17 urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats under controlled mechanical ventilation. Without PEEP, phrenic discharge was entrained 1:1 to the ventilator rhythm. Application of PEEP momentarily dampened the entrainment to higher ratios but this effect was gradually adapted by nonassociative learning. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the pneumotaxic center weakened the adaptation to PEEP, whereas sustained stimulation of the pneumotaxic center weakened the entrainment independent of PEEP. In all cases, entrainment was abolished after vagotomy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate an important functional role for pneumotaxic desensitization and extra-pontine habituation of the Hering-Breuer reflex elicited by lung inflation: acting as buffers or high-pass filters against tonic vagal volume input, these differentiator forms of nonassociative learning help to restore respiratory-ventilator entrainment in the face of PEEP. Such central sites-specific habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex provide a useful experimental model of nonassociative learning in mammals that is of particular significance in understanding respiratory rhythmogenesis and coupled-oscillator entrainment mechanisms, and in the clinical management of mechanical ventilation in

  1. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  3. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (Plow-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  4. Evaluation of Enhanced Condensational Growth (ECG) for Controlled Respiratory Drug Delivery in a Mouth-Throat and Upper Tracheobronchial Model

    Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of enhanced condensational growth (ECG), as a novel inhalation drug delivery method, on nano-aerosol deposition in a mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) model using in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Methods Separate streams of nebulized nano-aerosols and saturated humidified air (39°C—ECG; 25°C—control) were combined as they were introduced into a realistic MT-TB geometry. Aerosol deposition was determined in the MT, generations G0–G2 (trachea—lobar bronchi) and G3–G5 and compared to CFD simulations. Results Using ECG conditions, deposition of 560 and 900 nm aerosols was low in the MT region of the MT-TB model. Aerosol drug deposition in the G0–G2 and G3–G5 regions increased due to enhanced condensational growth compared to control. CFD-predicted depositions were generally in good agreement with the experimental values. Conclusions The ECG platform appears to offer an effective method of delivering nano-aerosols through the extrathoracic region, with minimal deposition, to the tracheobronchial airways and beyond. Aerosol deposition is then facilitated as enhanced condensational growth increases particle size. Future studies will investigate the effects of physio-chemical drug properties and realistic inhalation profiles on ECG growth characteristics. PMID:20454837

  5. Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: control of the aspect ratio by variation of the reducing agent

    Koeppl, Susanne; Ghielmetti, Nico; Caseri, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Seed-mediated growth methods involving reduction of tetrachloroaurate(III) with ascorbic acid are common for the synthesis of gold nanorods. This study shows, however, that simply by appropriate choice of the reducing agent a drastic influence on the aspect ratio can be attained. Weaker reducing agents, such as dihydroxybenzene isomers (hydroquinone, catechol or resorcinol) or glucose can increase the aspect ratio of the nanorods by an order of magnitude, up to values as high as 100 (nanowires). The increase in aspect ratio is mainly a consequence of an increase in length of the particles (up to 1–3 μm). This effect is probably associated with a decrease in the reduction rate of gold(III) species by dihydroxybenzenes or glucose compared to ascorbic acid. The reduction potential of the reducing agents strongly depends on the pH value, and related effects on the dimensions of the nanoparticles are also reflected in this study. The nanorods exhibited penta-twinned nature without noteworthy defects (e.g. stacking faults and dislocations).

  6. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  7. Respiratory correlated cone beam CT

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Zijp, Lambert; Remeijer, Peter; Herk, Marcel van

    2005-01-01

    A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner integrated with a linear accelerator is a powerful tool for image guided radiotherapy. Respiratory motion, however, induces artifacts in CBCT, while the respiratory correlated procedures, developed to reduce motion artifacts in axial and helical CT are not suitable for such CBCT scanners. We have developed an alternative respiratory correlated procedure for CBCT and evaluated its performance. This respiratory correlated CBCT procedure consists of retrospective sorting in projection space, yielding subsets of projections that each corresponds to a certain breathing phase. Subsequently, these subsets are reconstructed into a four-dimensional (4D) CBCT dataset. The breathing signal, required for respiratory correlation, was directly extracted from the 2D projection data, removing the need for an additional respiratory monitor system. Due to the reduced number of projections per phase, the contrast-to-noise ratio in a 4D scan reduced by a factor 2.6-3.7 compared to a 3D scan based on all projections. Projection data of a spherical phantom moving with a 3 and 5 s period with and without simulated breathing irregularities were acquired and reconstructed into 3D and 4D CBCT datasets. The positional deviations of the phantoms center of gravity between 4D CBCT and fluoroscopy were small: 0.13±0.09 mm for the regular motion and 0.39±0.24 mm for the irregular motion. Motion artifacts, clearly present in the 3D CBCT datasets, were substantially reduced in the 4D datasets, even in the presence of breathing irregularities, such that the shape of the moving structures could be identified more accurately. Moreover, the 4D CBCT dataset provided information on the 3D trajectory of the moving structures, absent in the 3D data. Considerable breathing irregularities, however, substantially reduces the image quality. Data presented for three different lung cancer patients were in line with the results obtained from the phantom study. In

  8. Experimental Investigation of Diffuser Pressure-ratio Control with Shock-positioning Limit on 28-inch Ram-jet Engine

    Dunbar, William R; Wentworth, Carl B; Crowl, Robert J

    1957-01-01

    The performance of a control system designed for variable thrust applications was determined in an altitude free-jet facility at various Mach numbers, altitudes and angles of attack for a wide range of engine operation. The results are presented as transient response characteristics for step disturbances in fuel flow and stability characteristics as a function of control constants and engine operating conditions. The results indicate that the control is capable of successful operation over the range of conditions tested, although variations in engine gains preclude optimum response characteristics at all conditions with fixed control constants.

  9. Does training family physicians in shared decision making promote optimal use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections? Study protocol of a pilot clustered randomised controlled trial

    Côté Luc

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In North America, although it varies according to the specific type of acute respiratory infections (ARI, use of antibiotics is estimated to be well above the expected prevalence of bacterial infections. The objective of this pilot clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT is to assess the feasibility of a larger clustered RCT aiming at evaluating the impact of DECISION+, a continuing professional development (CPD program in shared decision making, on the optimal use of antibiotics in the context of ARI. Methods/design This pilot study is a cluster RCT conducted with family physicians from Family Medicine Groups (FMG in the Quebec City area, Canada. Participating FMG are randomised to an immediate DECISION+ group, a CPD program in shared decision making, (experimental group, or a delayed DECISION+ group (control group. Data collection involves recruiting five patients consulting for ARI per physician from both study groups before (Phase 1 and after (Phase 2 exposure of the experimental group to the DECISION+ program, and after exposure of the control group to the DECISION+ program (Phase 3. The primary outcome measures to assess the feasibility of a larger RCT include: 1 proportion of contacted FMG that agree to participate; 2 proportion of recruited physicians who participate in the DECISION+ program; 3 level of satisfaction of physicians regarding DECISION+; and 4 proportion of missing data in each data collection phase. Levels of agreement of the patient-physician dyad on the Decisional Conflict Scale and physicians' prescription profile for ARI are performed as secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol is informative for researchers and clinicians interested in designing and/or conducting clustered RCT with FMG regarding training of physicians in shared decision making. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00354315

  10. Treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome with a combination of lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon-β1b (MIRACLE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Alothman, Adel; Balkhy, Hanan H; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; AlJohani, Sameera; Al Harbi, Shmeylan; Kojan, Suleiman; Al Jeraisy, Majed; Deeb, Ahmad M; Assiri, Abdullah M; Al-Hameed, Fahad; AlSaedi, Asim; Mandourah, Yasser; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Sherbeeni, Nisreen Murad; Elzein, Fatehi Elnour; Memon, Javed; Taha, Yusri; Almotairi, Abdullah; Maghrabi, Khalid A; Qushmaq, Ismael; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Kharaba, Ayman; Shalhoub, Sarah; Jose, Jesna; Fowler, Robert A; Hayden, Frederick G; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2018-01-30

    It had been more than 5 years since the first case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection (MERS-CoV) was recorded, but no specific treatment has been investigated in randomized clinical trials. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-β1b (IFN-β1b) may be effective against MERS-CoV. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of treatment with a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and recombinant IFN-β1b provided with standard supportive care, compared to treatment with placebo provided with standard supportive care in patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS requiring hospital admission. The protocol is prepared in accordance with the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) guidelines. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS will be enrolled in this recursive, two-stage, group sequential, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized controlled trial. The trial is initially designed to include 2 two-stage components. The first two-stage component is designed to adjust sample size and determine futility stopping, but not efficacy stopping. The second two-stage component is designed to determine efficacy stopping and possibly readjustment of sample size. The primary outcome is 90-day mortality. This will be the first randomized controlled trial of a potential treatment for MERS. The study is sponsored by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Enrollment for this study began in November 2016, and has enrolled thirteen patients as of Jan 24-2018. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02845843 . Registered on 27 July 2016.

  11. To compare the effect of dextromethorphan, promethazine and placebo on nocturnal cough in children aged 1-12 y with upper respiratory infections: a randomized controlled trial.

    Bhattacharya, Malobika; Joshi, Neha; Yadav, Sangita

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether promethazine and dextromethorphan reduce nocturnal cough and improve sleep quality in children aged 1-12 y with upper respiratory tract infection (URI). This randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Pediatric outpatient department of Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi. After randomization into promethazine, dextromethorphan and placebo groups, parental assessment of 120 children with URI for nocturnal cough severity (child), post-tussive vomiting (child) and sleep quality (child and parent) on the night before enrolment and after 3 d of assigned medication was measured using an internally validated indigenously prepared ordinal scale. Entire cohort improved in all the study parameters after 3 d. However, no superior benefit was noted when individual parameters were compared in the promethazine and dextromethorphan groups with the placebo group. Adverse effects were more frequent in the dextromethorphan and promethazine groups although the difference was not statistically significant. Nocturnal cough in URI is self-resolving and dextromethorphan and promethazine prescribed for the same are not superior to placebo.

  12. Mechanism for Controlling the Dimer-Monomer Switch and Coupling Dimerization to Catalysis of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 3C-Like Protease

    Shi,J.; Sivaraman, J.; Song, J.

    2008-01-01

    Unlike 3C protease, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is only enzymatically active as a homodimer and its catalysis is under extensive regulation by the unique extra domain. Despite intense studies, two puzzles still remain: (i) how the dimer-monomer switch is controlled and (ii) why dimerization is absolutely required for catalysis. Here we report the monomeric crystal structure of the SARS-CoV 3CLpro mutant R298A at a resolution of 1.75 Angstroms . Detailed analysis reveals that Arg298 serves as a key component for maintaining dimerization, and consequently, its mutation will trigger a cooperative switch from a dimer to a monomer. The monomeric enzyme is irreversibly inactivated because its catalytic machinery is frozen in the collapsed state, characteristic of the formation of a short 310-helix from an active-site loop. Remarkably, dimerization appears to be coupled to catalysis in 3CLpro through the use of overlapped residues for two networks, one for dimerization and another for the catalysis.

  13. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory- and field-cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

    H. A. Kennedy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcite is commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, which were grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory- and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens and r2=0.50, p0.001 for field-cultured specimens and P. maximus (r2=0.21, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate or salinity. The Mg/Ca ratios in the shells exhibited a large degree of variability among and within species and individuals. The results suggest that the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy is limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite. The utilization is further limited by the great variability both within and among shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  14. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  15. Multi-Objective Flight Control for Drag Minimization and Load Alleviation of High-Aspect Ratio Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean

    2017-01-01

    As aircraft wings become much more flexible due to the use of light-weight composites material, adverse aerodynamics at off-design performance can result from changes in wing shapes due to aeroelastic deflections. Increased drag, hence increased fuel burn, is a potential consequence. Without means for aeroelastic compensation, the benefit of weight reduction from the use of light-weight material could be offset by less optimal aerodynamic performance at off-design flight conditions. Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing (PAAW) technology can potentially address these technical challenges for future flexible wing transports. PAAW technology leverages multi-disciplinary solutions to maximize the aerodynamic performance payoff of future adaptive wing design, while addressing simultaneously operational constraints that can prevent the optimal aerodynamic performance from being realized. These operational constraints include reduced flutter margins, increased airframe responses to gust and maneuver loads, pilot handling qualities, and ride qualities. All of these constraints while seeking the optimal aerodynamic performance present themselves as a multi-objective flight control problem. The paper presents a multi-objective flight control approach based on a drag-cognizant optimal control method. A concept of virtual control, which was previously introduced, is implemented to address the pair-wise flap motion constraints imposed by the elastomer material. This method is shown to be able to satisfy the constraints. Real-time drag minimization control is considered to be an important consideration for PAAW technology. Drag minimization control has many technical challenges such as sensing and control. An initial outline of a real-time drag minimization control has already been developed and will be further investigated in the future. A simulation study of a multi-objective flight control for a flight path angle command with aeroelastic mode suppression and drag

  16. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with spinal cord injury: : An explorative analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial

    Postma, Karin; Vlemmix, Lonneke Y.; Haisma, Janneke A.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe A. R.; Stam, Henk J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with recent spinal cord injury. Design: Longitudinal analyses. Subjects: Forty persons with recent spinal cord injury and impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Measurements were

  18. Control of the Nano-Particle Weight Ratio in Stainless Steel Micro and Nano Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Treatment

    Dong-Yeol Yang; Youngja Kim; Min Young Hur; Hae June Lee; Yong-Jin Kim; Tae-Soo Lim; Ki-Bong Kim; Sangsun Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how to make stainless steel hybrid micro-nano-powders (a mixture of micro-powder and nano-powder) using an in situ one-step process via radio frequency (RF) thermal plasma treatment. Nano-particles attached to micro-powders were successfully prepared by RF thermal plasma treatment of stainless steel powder with an average size of 35 μm. The ratio of nano-powders is estimated with a two-dimensional fluid simulation that calculates the temperature profile influencing the r...

  19. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  20. Short-range correlations control the G/K and Poisson ratios of amorphous solids and metallic glasses

    Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-21

    The bulk modulus of many amorphous materials, such as metallic glasses, behaves nearly in agreement with the assumption of affine deformation, namely that the atoms are displaced just by the amount prescribed by the applied strain. In contrast, the shear modulus behaves as for nonaffine deformations, with additional displacements due to the structural disorder which induce a marked material softening to shear. The consequence is an anomalously large ratio of the bulk modulus to the shear modulus for disordered materials characterized by dense atomic packing, but not for random networks with point atoms. We explain this phenomenon with a microscopic derivation of the elastic moduli of amorphous solids accounting for the interplay of nonaffinity and short-range particle correlations due to excluded volume. Short-range order is responsible for a reduction of the nonaffinity which is much stronger under compression, where the geometric coupling between nonaffinity and the deformation field is strong, whilst under shear this coupling is weak. Predictions of the Poisson ratio based on this model allow us to rationalize the trends as a function of coordination and atomic packing observed with many amorphous materials.

  1. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

  3. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

  4. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Treatments and Vaccination Regimens for Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Streptococcus suis Coinfection of Nursery Pigs

    Halbur, P.; Thanawongnuwech, R.; Brown, G.; Kinyon, J.; Roth, J.; Thacker, E.; Thacker, B.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-six, crossbred, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-free pigs were weaned at 12 days of age and randomly assigned to seven groups of 10 to 11 pigs each. Pigs in group 1 served as unchallenged controls. Pigs in groups 2 to 7 were challenged intranasally with 2 ml of high-virulence PRRSV isolate VR-2385 (104.47 50% tissue culture infective doses per 2 ml) on day 0 of the study (30 days of age). Seven days after PRRSV challenge, pigs in groups 2 to 7 were challenged intranasally with 2 ml of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (108.30 CFU/2 ml). Group 2 pigs served as untreated positive controls. Antimicrobial treatments included daily intramuscular injection with 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G per kg of body weight on days 8 to 10 (group 3), drinking water medication with 23.1 mg of tiamulin per kg during days 8 to 10 (group 4), and daily intramuscular injection of 5.0 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride per kg on days 8 to 10 (group 5). Vaccination regimens included two intramuscular doses of an autogenous killed S. suis vaccine (group 6) prior to S. suis challenge or a single 2-ml intramuscular dose of an attenuated live PRRSV vaccine (group 7) 2 weeks prior to PRRSV challenge. Mortality was 0, 63, 45, 54, 9, 40, and 81% in groups 1 to 7, respectively. Ceftiofur treatment was the only regimen that significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mortality associated with PRRSV and S. suis coinfection. The other treatments and vaccinations were less effective. We conclude that ceftiofur administered by injection for three consecutive days following S. suis challenge was the most effective regimen for minimizing disease associated with PRRSV and S. suis coinfection. PMID:10699012

  5. Evaluation of a Web-based intervention providing tailored advice for self-management of minor respiratory symptoms: exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Yardley, Lucy; Joseph, Judith; Michie, Susan; Weal, Mark; Wills, Gary; Little, Paul

    2010-12-15

    There has been relatively little research on the role of web-based support for self-care in the management of minor, acute symptoms, in contrast to the wealth of recent research into Internet interventions to support self-management of long-term conditions. This study was designed as an evaluation of the usage and effects of the "Internet Doctor" website providing tailored advice on self-management of minor respiratory symptoms (eg, cough, sore throat, fever, runny nose), in preparation for a definitive trial of clinical effectiveness. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of using the Internet Doctor webpages on patient enablement and use of health services, to test whether the tailored, theory-based advice provided by the Internet Doctor was superior to providing a static webpage providing the best existing patient information (the control condition). The second aim was to gain an understanding of the processes that might mediate any change in intentions to consult the doctor, by comparing changes in relevant beliefs and illness perceptions in the intervention and control groups, and by analyzing usage of the Internet Doctor webpages and predictors of intention change. Participants (N = 714) completed baseline measures of beliefs about their symptoms and self-care online, and were then automatically randomized to the Internet Doctor or control group. These measures were completed again by 332 participants after 48 hours. Four weeks later, 214 participants completed measures of enablement and health service use. The Internet Doctor resulted in higher levels of satisfaction than the control information (mean 6.58 and 5.86, respectively; P = .002) and resulted in higher levels of enablement a month later (median 3 and 2, respectively; P = .03). Understanding of illness improved in the 48 hours following use of the Internet Doctor webpages, whereas it did not improve in the control group (mean change from baseline 0.21 and -0.06, respectively, P = .05). Decline

  6. Optimization of number and signal to noise ratio radiographs for defects 3D reconstruction in industrial control

    Bruandet, J.-P.

    2001-01-01

    Among numerous techniques for non-destructive evaluation (NOE), X-rays systems are well suited to inspect inner objects. Acquiring several radiographs of inspected objects under different points of view enables to recover a three dimensional structural information. In this NOE application, a tomographic testing is considered. This work deals with two tomographic testing optimizations in order to improve the characterization of defects that may occur into metallic welds. The first one consists in the optimization of the acquisition strategy. Because tomographic testing is made on-line, the total duration for image acquisition is fixed, limiting the number of available views. Hence, for a given acquisition duration, it is possible either to acquire a very limited number of radiographs with a good signal to noise ratio in each single acquisition or a larger number of radiographs with a limited signal to noise ratio. The second one consists in optimizing the 3D reconstruction algorithms from a limited number of cone-beam projections. To manage the lack of data, we first used algebraic reconstruction algorithms such as ART or regularized ICM. In terms of acquisition strategy optimization, an increase of the number of projections was proved to be valuable. Taking into account specific prior knowledge such as support constraint or physical noise model in attenuation images also improved reconstruction quality. Then, a new regularized region based reconstruction approach was developed. Defects to reconstruct are binary (lack of material in a homogeneous object). As a consequence, they are entirely described by their shapes. Because the number of defects to recover is unknown and is totally arbitrary, a level set formulation allowing handling topological changes was used. Results obtained with a regularized level-set reconstruction algorithm are optimistic in the proposed context. (author) [fr

  7. Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains

    Temple R. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO at surface monitoring stations is affected by meteorological forcings that are particularly complicated over mountainous terrain. A detailed understanding of the impact of meteorological forcings on trace gas variability is challenging, but is vital to distinguish trace gas measurements affected by local pollutant sources from measurements representative of background mixing ratios. In the present study, we investigate the meteorological and CO characteristics at Pinnacles (38.61 N, 78.35 W, 1017 m above mean sea level, a mountaintop monitoring site in northwestern Virginia, USA, in the Appalachian Mountains, from 2009 to 2012, and focus on understanding the dominant meteorological forcings affecting the CO variability on diurnal timescales. The annual mean diurnal CO cycle shows a minimum in the morning between 0700 and 0900 LST and a maximum in the late afternoon between 1600 and 2000 LST, with a mean (median daily CO amplitude of 39.2±23.7 ppb (33.2 ppb. CO amplitudes show large day-to-day variability. The largest CO amplitudes, in which CO mixing ratios can change >100 ppb in <3 h, occur in the presence of synoptic disturbances. Under fair weather conditions, local- to regional-scale transport processes are found to be more important drivers of the diurnal CO variability. On fair weather days with northwesterly winds, boundary layer dilution causes a daytime CO decrease, resembling the variability observed atop tall towers in flat terrain. Fair weather days with a wind shift from the northwest to the south are characterised by an afternoon CO increase and resemble the variability observed at mountaintops influenced by the vertical transport of polluted air from adjacent valleys.

  8. Mask-wearing and respiratory infection in healthcare workers in Beijing, China

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0% of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5% subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49] and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.092.72], but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.280.76], wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91] or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]. The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.

  9. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effects of Control Mode and R-Ratio on the Fatigue Behavior of a Metal Matrix Composite

    2005-01-01

    Composite Because of their high specific stiffness and strength at elevated temperatures, continuously reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) are under consideration for a future generation of aeropropulsion systems. Since components in aeropropulsion systems experience substantial cyclic thermal and mechanical loads, the fatigue behavior of MMC's is of great interest. Almost without exception, previous investigations of the fatigue behavior of MMC's have been conducted in a tension-tension, load-controlled mode. This has been due to the fact that available material is typically less than 2.5-mm thick and, therefore, unable to withstand high compressive loads without buckling. Since one possible use of MMC's is in aircraft skins, this type of testing mode may be appropriate. However, unlike aircraft skins, most engine components are thick. In addition, the transient thermal gradients experienced in an aircraft engine will impose tension-compression loading on engine components, requiring designers to understand how the MMC will behave under fully reversed loading conditions. The increased thickness of the MMC may also affect the fatigue life. Traditionally, low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests on MMC's have been performed in load control. For monolithic alloys, low-cycle fatigue tests are more typically performed in strain control. Two reasons justify this choice: (1) the critical volume from which cracks initiate and grow is generally small and elastically constrained by the larger surrounding volume of material, and (2) load-controlled, low-cycle fatigue tests of monolithics invariably lead to unconstrained ratcheting and localized necking--an undesired material response because the failure mechanism is far more severe than, and unrelated to, the fatigue mechanism being studied. It is unknown if this is the proper approach to composite testing. However, there is a lack of strain-controlled data on which to base any decisions. Consequently, this study addresses the

  11. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  12. An analysis of the operation of a single-pole relay integrated circuit device with a controlled reset ratio

    Reshetov, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Relay equipment using semiconductor components (such as those containing gates using planar transformers, and a relay in networks which control the operational time of a relay) are widely used in the automation equipment of electric power systems. A scheme where a gate in the form of an integrated circuit is used is given.

  13. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Brand, Allan; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.

  14. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  15. Morphological and moisture availability controls of the leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian trees.

    Togashi, Henrique Furstenau; Prentice, Iain Colin; Evans, Bradley John; Forrester, David Ian; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. The pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease toward drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. Despite considerable scatter in LA:SA among species, quantile regression showed strong (0.2 < R1 < 0.65) positive relationships between two climatic moisture indices and the lowermost (5%) and uppermost (5-15%) quantiles of log LA:SA, suggesting that moisture availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid-quantile range and may be an important determinant of tree morphology.

  16. A dual-mode generalized likelihood ratio approach to self-reorganizing digital flight control system design

    1976-01-01

    Analytic techniques have been developed for detecting and identifying abrupt changes in dynamic systems. The GLR technique monitors the output of the Kalman filter and searches for the time that the failure occured, thus allowing it to be sensitive to new data and consequently increasing the chances for fast system recovery following detection of a failure. All failure detections are based on functional redundancy. Performance tests of the F-8 aircraft flight control system and computerized modelling of the technique are presented.

  17. Control of mitosis in Physarum polycephalum. The effect of lowering the DNA: mass ratio by uv irradiation

    Sudbery, P.E.; Grant, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the control of mitosis is presented and, along with four other models described previously, is tested by the response of Physarum polycephalum to uv irradiation. Plasmodia were irradiated following the second mitosis (M II) after fusion of microplasmodia. As shown by other authors, the onset of the next mitosis (M III) was delayed but the period M III-M IV was shortened relative to control plasmodia. It is shown that the period M III-M IV cannot be shortened beyond a minimum of 6 h despite increasing doses of uv. This minimum length is shown to be relatively independent of growth rate. If conditions were such that the length of M III-M IV was shortened to this minimum value the length of M IV-M V was also shorter than the corresponding control period. If the period M II-M IV was longer than the minimum following irradiation then the length of M IV-M V was not shortened. It is argued that only the latter situation allows models to be tested and it is shown how the observed result is consistent with only two of the five models considered. A further test compared the length of M III-M IV under these conditions with that predicted from the amount of DNA destroyed by the uv. This result was consistent only with the same two models

  18. Adverse respiratory effect of acute β-blocker exposure in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Morales, Daniel R; Jackson, Cathy; Lipworth, Brian J; Donnan, Peter T; Guthrie, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    β-Blockers are avoided in asthma over concerns regarding acute bronchoconstriction. Risk is greatest following acute exposure, including the potential for antagonism of β2-agonist rescue therapy. A systematic review of databases was performed to identify all randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluating acute β-blocker exposure in asthma. Effect estimates for changes in respiratory function, symptoms, and β2-agonist response were pooled using random effects meta-analysis with heterogeneity investigated. Acute selective β-blockers in the doses given caused a mean change in FEV1 of −6.9% (95% CI, −8.5 to −5.2), a fall in FEV1 of ≥20% in one in eight patients (P=.03), symptoms affecting one in 33 patients (P=.18), and attenuation of concomitant β2-agonist response of −10.2% (95% CI, −14.0 to −6.4). Corresponding values for acute nonselective β-blockers in the doses given were −10.2% (95% CI, −14.7 to −5.6), one in nine patients (P=.02), one in 13 patients (P=.14), and −20.0% (95% CI, −29.4 to −10.7). Following investigation of heterogeneity, clear differences were found for celiprolol and labetalol. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated for selective β-blockers. Selective β-blockers are better tolerated but not completely risk-free. Risk from acute exposure may be mitigated using the smallest dose possible and β-blockers with greater β1-selectivity. β-Blocker-induced bronchospasm responded partially to β2-agonists in the doses given with response blunted more by nonselective β-blockers than selective β-blockers. Use of β-blockers in asthma could possibly be based upon a risk assessment on an individual patient basis.

  19. High signal to noise ratio THz spectroscopy with ASOPS and signal processing schemes for mapping and controlling molecular and bulk relaxation processes

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Becerra, V M; Zafiropoulos, A; Galvao, R K H

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous Optical Sampling has the potential to improve signal to noise ratio in THz transient sperctrometry. The design of an inexpensive control scheme for synchronising two femtosecond pulse frequency comb generators at an offset frequency of 20 kHz is discussed. The suitability of a range of signal processing schemes adopted from the Systems Identification and Control Theory community for further processing recorded THz transients in the time and frequency domain are outlined. Finally, possibilities for femtosecond pulse shaping using genetic algorithms are mentioned.

  20. High signal to noise ratio THz spectroscopy with ASOPS and signal processing schemes for mapping and controlling molecular and bulk relaxation processes

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Becerra, V M [Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Zafiropoulos, A [Biosystems Engineering Department, School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, 411 10, Larissa (Greece); Galvao, R K H, E-mail: s.hadjiloucas@reading.ac.u [Divisao de Engenharia Eletronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, 12228-900 Brazil (Brazil)

    2009-08-01

    Asynchronous Optical Sampling has the potential to improve signal to noise ratio in THz transient sperctrometry. The design of an inexpensive control scheme for synchronising two femtosecond pulse frequency comb generators at an offset frequency of 20 kHz is discussed. The suitability of a range of signal processing schemes adopted from the Systems Identification and Control Theory community for further processing recorded THz transients in the time and frequency domain are outlined. Finally, possibilities for femtosecond pulse shaping using genetic algorithms are mentioned.

  1. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  2. Techniques for enhancing durability and equivalence ratio control in a rich-lean, three-stage ground power gas turbine combustor

    Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rig tests of a can-type combustor were performed to demonstrate two advanced ground power engine combustor concepts: steam cooled rich-burn combustor primary zones for enhanced durability; and variable combustor geometry for three stage combustion equivalence ratio control. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. Three degrees of variable geometry were successfully implemented to control airflow distribution within the combustor. One was a variable blade angle axial flow air swirler to control primary airflow while the other two consisted of rotating bands to control secondary and tertiary or dilution air flow.

  3. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    Pritchard, J.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  4. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    S. N. Koval; A. Ye. Kulagin

    2006-01-01

    Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP) is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency) is calculated ...

  5. A fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell transfusion ratio of 1:1 mitigates lung injury in a rat model of damage control resuscitation for hemorrhagic shock.

    Zhao, Jingxiang; Pan, Guocheng; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yuhua; You, Guoxing; Wang, Ying; Gao, Dawei; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Lian

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of resuscitation with different ratios of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to red blood cells (RBCs) on pulmonary inflammatory injury and to illuminate the beneficial effects of FFP on lung protection compared with lactated ringers (LR) using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Rats underwent pressure-controlled hemorrhage for 60 minutes and were then transfused with LR for initial resuscitation. Thereafter, the rats were transfused with varying ratios of FFP:RBC (1:4, 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1) or LR:RBC (1:1) to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 100 ± 3 mm Hg for 30 minutes. After 4 hours of observation, lung tissue was harvested to determine the wet/dry weight, myeloperoxidase levels, tumor necrosis factor α levels, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and the nuclear factor κB p65 DNA-binding activity. With an increase in the FFP:RBC ratio, the volume of required RBC to maintain the target MAP decreased. The MAP value in each group was not significantly different during the whole experiment period. The values of the wet/dry weights and MIP-2 were significantly lower in the FFP:RBC = 1:1 group than the other groups (P ratio of FFP to RBC results in decreased lung inflammation. Compared with LR, FFP could further mitigate lung inflammatory injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Evaluation of browning ratio in an image analysis of apple slices at different stages of instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot-air drying (AD-DIC).

    Gao, Kun; Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Jinfeng; Yi, Jianyong; Wu, Xinye; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Xueyuan; Liu, Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis systems are widely used in food processing to evaluate quality changes. They are able to objectively measure the surface colour of various products since, providing some obvious advantages with their objectivity and quantitative capabilities. In this study, a computer vision-based image analysis system was used to investigate the colour changes of apple slices dried by instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air drying (AD-DIC). The CIE L* value and polyphenol oxidase activity in apple slices decreased during the entire drying process, whereas other colour indexes, including CIE a*, b*, ΔE and C* values, increased. The browning ratio calculated by image analysis increased during the drying process, and a sharp increment was observed for the DIC process. The change in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and fluorescent compounds (FIC) showed the same trend with browning ratio due to Maillard reaction. Moreover, the concentrations of 5-HMF and FIC both had a good quadratic correlation (R 2  > 0.998) with the browning ratio. Browning ratio was a reliable indicator of 5-HMF and FIC changes in apple slices during drying. The image analysis system could be used to monitor colour changes, 5-HMF and FIC in dehydrated apple slices during the AD-DIC process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. In-line process control for laser welding of titanium by high dynamic range ratio pyrometry and plasma spectroscopy

    Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Baselt, T.; Rudek, F.; Maschke, R.; Basan, F.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    The production of complex titanium components for various industries using laser welding processes has received growing attention in recent years. It is important to know whether the result of the cohesive joint meets the quality requirements of standardization and ultimately the customer requirements. Erroneous weld seams can have fatal consequences especially in the field of car manufacturing and medicine technology. To meet these requirements, a real-time process control system has been developed which determines the welding quality through a locally resolved temperature profile. By analyzing the resulting weld plasma received data is used to verify the stability of the laser welding process. The determination of the temperature profile is done by the detection of the emitted electromagnetic radiation from the material in a range of 500 nm to 1100 nm. As detectors, special high dynamic range CMOS cameras are used. As the emissivity of titanium depends on the wavelength, the surface and the angle of radiation, measuring the temperature is a problem. To solve these a special pyrometer setting with two cameras is used. That enables the compensation of these effects by calculating the difference between the respective pixels on simultaneously recorded images. Two spectral regions with the same emissivity are detected. Therefore the degree of emission and surface effects are compensated and canceled out of the calculation. Using the spatially resolved temperature distribution the weld geometry can be determined and the laser process can be controlled. The active readjustment of parameters such as laser power, feed rate and inert gas injection increases the quality of the welding process and decreases the number of defective goods.

  8. Acute respiratory failure in asthma

    Soubra Said; Guntupalli Kalapalatha

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma is a condition that is managed in the outpatient setting in most patients, the poorly controlled and severe cases pose a major challenge to the health-care team. Recognition of the more common insidious and the less common rapid onset "acute asphyxic" asthma are important. The intensivist needs to be familiar with the factors that denote severity of the exacerbation. The management of respiratory failure in asthma, including pharmacologic and mechanical ventilation, are discus...

  9. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  10. Difference and ratio plots

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  11. Progress in nanoscale dry processes for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio features: How can we control critical dimension uniformity at the bottom?

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Cho, Sung Il; Elliott, Simon; Hausmann, Dennis; Mocuta, Dan; Wilson, Aaron; Kinoshita, Keizo

    2018-06-01

    In this review, we discuss the progress of emerging dry processes for nanoscale fabrication of high-aspect-ratio features, including emerging design technology for manufacturability. Experts in the fields of plasma processing have contributed to addressing the increasingly challenging demands of nanoscale deposition and etching technologies for high-aspect-ratio features. The discussion of our atomic-scale understanding of physicochemical reactions involving ion bombardment and neutral transport presents the major challenges shared across the plasma science and technology community. Focus is placed on advances in fabrication technology that control surface reactions on three-dimensional features, as well as state-of-the-art techniques used in semiconductor manufacturing with a brief summary of future challenges.

  12. Subxyphoid pleural drain confers lesser impairment in respiratory muscle strength, oxygenation and lower chest pain after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial.

    Cancio, Andreia S A; Guizilini, Solange; Bolzan, Douglas W; Dauar, Renato B; Succi, José E; de Paola, Angelo A V; Carvalho, Antonio C de Camargo; Gomes, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory muscle strength, oxygenation and chest pain in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) using internal thoracic artery grafts comparing pleural drain insertion site at the subxyphoid region versus the lateral region. Forty patients were randomized into two groups in accordance with the pleural drain site. Group II (n = 19) -pleural drain exteriorized in the intercostal space; group (SI) (n = 21) chest tube exteriorized at the subxyphoid region. All patients underwent assessment of respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory) on the pre, 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days (POD). Arterial blood gas analysis was collected on the pre and POD1. The chest pain sensation was measured 1, 3 and 5 POD. A significant decrease in respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory) was seen in both groups until POD5 (P pleural drainage showed less decrease in respiratory muscle strength, better preservation of blood oxygenation and reduced thoracic pain compared to patients with intercostal drain on early OPCAB postoperative.

  13. Epidemiological investigation of the UGT2B17 polymorphism in doping control urine samples and its correlation to T/E ratios.

    Anielski, Patricia; Simmchen, Juliane; Wassill, Lars; Ganghofner, Dirk; Thieme, Detlef

    2011-10-01

    The deletion polymorphism of the enzyme UGT2B17 is known to correlate with the level of the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in urine specimen. Due to the importance of the T/E ratio to detect testosterone abuse in doping analysis, a PCR-ELISA system (Genotype® UGT test, AmplexDiagnostics) was established to identify the UGT2B17 phenotype in urine samples. Epidemiological investigations in a set of 674 routine doping controls (in- and out-of-competition) resulted in 22.8% homozygote gene-deleted and 74.5% UGT2B17-positive athletes. The validated test system has shown to be robust and sensitive: in only 18 cases (2.7%) isolation of cell material from urine failed. Following hydrolysis of glucuronidated conjugates, steroids were analyzed as bis-TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for example, testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E). Additionally, isotope ration mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis and luteinizing hormone (LH) measurement were applied. Mean T/E ratios significantly correlated with the UGT2B17 phenotype (del: T/E 0.9; pos: 1.7), however the values did not differ as distinctive as reported in previous studies. Additionally, the T/E ratios in the gene-deleted group did not show a normal curve of distribution (median of T/E 0.5). Obviously, beside the UGT2B17 deletion further influences have to be taken into account, for example, polymorphisms or induction of other metabolizing enzymes. Our results indicate that the UGT2B17 polymorphism might be insufficient when utilized solely as a crucial parameter for individual interpretation of T/E in urine. Nevertheless, the detection of the UGT2B17-gene deletion in urine samples would provide additional information important for gathering evidence in analysis of steroids in doping control. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  15. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of the Charge/Discharge (C/D) ratio to aument voltage limit (V sub T) charge control in the ERBS spacecraft

    Halpert, G.

    1982-01-01

    A 50-ampere hour nickel cadmium cell test pack was operated in a power profile simulating the orbit of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). The objective was to determine the ability of the temperature compensated voltage limit (V sub T) charge control system to maintain energy balance in the half sine wave-type current profile expected of this mission. The four-cell pack (50 E) was tested at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) at Crane, Indiana. The ERBS evaluation test consisted of two distinct operating sequences, each having a specific purpose. The first phase was a parametric test involving the effect of V sub T level, temperature, and Beta angle on the charge/discharge (C/D) ratio, an indicator of the amount of overcharge. The second phase of testing made use of the C/D ratio limit to augment the V sub T charge limit control. When the C/D limit was reached, the current was switched from the taper mode to a C/67 (0.75 A) trickle charge. The use of an ampere hour integrator limiting the overcharge to a C/67 rate provided a fine tuning of the charge control technique which eliminated the sensitivity problems noted in the initial operating sequence.

  17. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  18. Adaptive Control Using Fully Online Sequential-Extreme Learning Machine and a Case Study on Engine Air-Fuel Ratio Regulation

    Pak Kin Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most adaptive neural control schemes are based on stochastic gradient-descent backpropagation (SGBP, which suffers from local minima problem. Although the recently proposed regularized online sequential-extreme learning machine (ReOS-ELM can overcome this issue, it requires a batch of representative initial training data to construct a base model before online learning. The initial data is usually difficult to collect in adaptive control applications. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved version of ReOS-ELM, entitled fully online sequential-extreme learning machine (FOS-ELM. While retaining the advantages of ReOS-ELM, FOS-ELM discards the initial training phase, and hence becomes suitable for adaptive control applications. To demonstrate its effectiveness, FOS-ELM was applied to the adaptive control of engine air-fuel ratio based on a simulated engine model. Besides, controller parameters were also analyzed, in which it is found that large hidden node number with small regularization parameter leads to the best performance. A comparison among FOS-ELM and SGBP was also conducted. The result indicates that FOS-ELM achieves better tracking and convergence performance than SGBP, since FOS-ELM tends to learn the unknown engine model globally whereas SGBP tends to “forget” what it has learnt. This implies that FOS-ELM is more preferable for adaptive control applications.

  19. Clay-to-carbon ratio controls the effect of herbicide application on soil bacterial richness and diversity in a loamy field

    Herath, H M Lasantha I; Møldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2017-01-01

    Soil texture and soil organic carbon (OC) influence the bacterial microenvironment and also control herbicide sorption. A field-scale exploratory study was conducted to investigate the potential interaction between soil texture parameters, herbicides, and soil bacterial richness and diversity......-based coverage (ACE), Shannon diversity index, and phylogenetic diversity. In general, bacterial richness and diversity increased after bentazon application and decreased after glyphosate application. There was no significant effect for field locations with Dexter n (the ratio between clay and OC) values below 4...

  20. A Flexible Power Control Method of VSC-HVDC Link for the Enhancement of Effective Short-Circuit Ratio in a Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . To evaluate the contribution of the VSC-HVDC link on the voltage stability of HMIDC system, this paper proposes an effective short circuit ratio (ESCR) calculation method. Through the calculation, the voltage support capability of the VSC-HVDC link can be quantitatively represented by the ESCR. Furthermore......, based on the calculation results, a flexible power control strategy for the VSC-HVDC link is developed to provide maximum reactive power support under grid faults. The theoretical analysis of the HMIDC system is based on the Danish transmission grid, evaluated through PSCAD simulations under different...

  1. Microbial enterotypes, inferred by the prevotella-to-bacteroides ratio, remained stable during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention with the new nordic diet

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human gut microbiota can be divided into enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial groups; however, the biological significance and stability of these enterotypes remain unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that subjects (n = 62) 18 to 65 years old......, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did...

  2. Does the index-to-ring finger length ratio (2D:4D) differ in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Results from an international online case-control study.

    Parkin Kullmann, Jane Alana; Pamphlett, Roger

    2017-08-07

    The ratio of the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring finger (4D) (2D:4D) has been reported to be lower (ie, 2Dcontrols. This has led to suggestions that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone, which also lowers this ratio, could be a risk factor for ALS. In an attempt to test this hypothesis, we examined 2D:4Ds from large numbers of patients with ALS and controls. An online multilingual questionnaire enabling respondents to measure their own index and ring finger lengths. Of the initial 949 respondents, 572 remained for analysis after elimination for inability to straighten fingers, not answering the question, statistical outliers and aged controls (112 males, 258 females). Unpaired t-tests with 95% CIs were used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds. Males had significantly lower mean 2D:4Ds than females, in both ALS and control groups, for both left and right hands. No significant differences were found in 2D:4Ds between ALS and control groups, in either males or females, for either left or right hands. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed no power for 2D:4Ds to predict ALS status in either males or females. 2D:4Ds did not differ between patients with ALS and controls in this study. This was despite the dataset being large enough to confirm the established finding of lower 2D:4Ds in males compared with females. These findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone is a risk factor for ALS. A putative lower 2D:4D has been proposed to explain the link between ALS and exercise, but our results indicate that other exercise-related factors are more likely to explain this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Respiratory insufficiency correlated strongly with mortality of rodents infected with West Nile virus.

    John D Morrey

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV disease can be fatal for high-risk patients. Since WNV or its antigens have been identified in multiple anatomical locations of the central nervous system of persons or rodent models, one cannot know where to investigate the actual mechanism of mortality without careful studies in animal models. In this study, depressed respiratory functions measured by plethysmography correlated strongly with mortality. This respiratory distress, as well as reduced oxygen saturation, occurred beginning as early as 4 days before mortality. Affected medullary respiratory control cells may have contributed to the animals' respiratory insufficiency, because WNV antigen staining was present in neurons located in the ventrolateral medulla. Starvation or dehydration would be irrelevant in people, but could cause death in rodents due to lethargy or loss of appetite. Animal experiments were performed to exclude this possibility. Plasma ketones were increased in moribund infected hamsters, but late-stage starvation markers were not apparent. Moreover, daily subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in physiological saline solution did not improve survival or other disease signs. Therefore, infected hamsters did not die from starvation or dehydration. No cerebral edema was apparent in WNV- or sham-infected hamsters as determined by comparing wet-to-total weight ratios of brains, or by evaluating blood-brain-barrier permeability using Evans blue dye penetration into brains. Limited vasculitis was present in the right atrium of the heart of infected hamsters, but abnormal electrocardiograms for several days leading up to mortality did not occur. Since respiratory insufficiency was strongly correlated with mortality more than any other pathological parameter, it is the likely cause of death in rodents. These animal data and a poor prognosis for persons with respiratory insufficiency support the hypothesis that neurological lesions affecting respiratory

  4. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: A meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies

    Mustajbegovic Jadranka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Methods Three thousand and eleven (3011 workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. Results There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

  6. Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: a meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies.

    Schachter, E Neil; Zuskin, Eugenija; Moshier, Erin L; Godbold, James; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka; Pucarin-Cvetkovic, Jasna; Chiarelli, Angelo

    2009-01-12

    Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Three thousand and eleven (3011) workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male) were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387). Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 powders with controllable anatase/rutile ratio

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Zhi; Jiang, Peng; Kuang, Jianlei; Liu, Wenxiu; Cao, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mixed-phase TiO2 powders were novelly synthesized via a facile and mild hydrothermal method without any post-heat treatment. TiOSO4 and peroxide titanic acid (PTA) were used as inorganic titanium sources, while no special solvent or additive were introduced. The XRD and TEM results showed the mixed-phase TiO2 powders were composed of anatase and rutile phases, and the PTA sol played an important role on forming the rutile nucleus. The proportion of rutile in the mixed-phase TiO2 could be easily controlled in the range of 0%-70.5% by changing the amount of PTA sol used in the synthesis process. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicated the prepared mixed-phase TiO2 showed enhanced visible light absorption with the increase of rutile ratio. The photodegradation experiments revealed the mixed-phase TiO2 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity at the rutile ratio of 41.5%, while a higher or lower rutile ratio both resulted in the decrease of photocatalytic activity.

  8. A PIV Study of Baseline and Controlled Flow over the Highly Deflected Flap of a Generic Low Aspect Ratio Trapezoidal Wing

    Tewes, Philipp; Genschow, Konstantin; Little, Jesse; Wygnanski, Israel

    2017-11-01

    A detailed flow survey using PIV was conducted over a highly-deflected flap (55°) of a low-aspect ratio trapezoidal wing. The wing section is a NACA 0012 with 45° sweep at both the leading and trailing edges, an aspect ratio of 1.5 and a taper ratio of 0.27. The main element is equipped with 7 equally spaced fluidic oscillators, covering the inner 60 % of the span, located near the flap hinge. Experiments were carried out at 0° and 8° incidence at a Reynolds number of 1.7 .106 for both baseline and active flow control (AFC) cases. Velocity ISO-surfaces, x-vorticity and streamlines are analyzed / discussed. A flap leading edge vortex governs the baseline flow field for 0°. This vortical structure interacts with the jets emitted by the actuators (Cμ = 1 %). Its development is hampered and the vortex is redirected toward the trailing edge resulting in a CL increase. At 8°, the dominant flap leading edge vortex could not be detected and is believed to have already merged with the tip vortex. AFC attached the flow over the flap and enhanced the lift by up to 20 % while maintaining longitudinal stability. The dominant flow features in the AFC cases are actuator-generated streamwise vortices which appear stronger at 8°. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Grant No. N00014-14-1-0387.

  9. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fasting urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and breed-matched controls.

    Furrow, E; Patterson, E E; Armstrong, P J; Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Effects of a physical activity and nutrition program for seniors on body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: a randomised controlled trial.

    Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H; Pasalich, Maria; Jancey, Jonine; Kerr, Deborah; Howat, Peter

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether a home-based program, physical activity and nutrition for seniors (PANS), made positive changes to central obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A 6-month randomised controlled trial was conducted targeting overweight and sedentary older adults aged 60 to 70 years residing in low to medium socio-economic suburbs within metropolitan Perth. Intervention participants (n=248) received mailed materials and telephone/email support to improve nutrition and physical activity levels. Controls (n=230) received small incentives to complete baseline and post-intervention questionnaires. Both groups reported anthropometric measures following specific written instructions. Generalised estimating equation models were used to assess repeated outcomes of BMI and WHR over both time points. 176 intervention and 199 controls (response rate 78.5%) with complete data were available for analysis. After controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, the intervention group demonstrated a small (0.02) but significant reduction in WHR (p=0.03) compared to controls, no apparent change in BMI was evident for both groups. The 0.02 reduction in mean WHR corresponded to a 2.11 cm decrease in waist circumference for a typical hip circumference. PANS appears to improve the WHR of participants. Changes in BMI might require a longer term intervention to take effect, and/or a follow-up study to confirm its sustainability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  13. Comparative efficacy of enrofloxacin to that of tulathromycin for the control of bovine respiratory disease and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica in calves at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease.

    Crosby, S; Credille, B; Giguère, S; Berghaus, R

    2018-04-14

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in North American beef cattle. Mannheimia haemolytica is the bacterial pathogen most often isolated from cattle with BRD, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in this organism has increased in recent years. Antimicrobials are commonly used to prevent BRD in cattle at high risk of developing BRD; however, recent work would suggest that this practice might be one factor contributing to the increased prevalence of AMR in M. haemolytica. We hypothesized that the administration of the short-acting fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin, would be just as effective as the long-acting triamilide, tulathromycin, in preventing BRD but would be less likely to select for AMR M. haemolytica in stocker calves at high risk of developing BRD. Three hundred forty-one stocker calves were enrolled in the study with 172 calves in 4 pens being randomly assigned to treatment with enrofloxacin and 169 calves in 4 pens randomly assigned to treatment with tulathromycin. Calves within each treatment group were allocated to one of 4 replicate pens based on the week of enrollment. Of calves receiving enrofloxacin, 33.7% required treatment for BRD at least once within 45 d after arrival, compared with 18.3% of calves receiving tulathromycin (P = 0.040). The percentages of calves that required more than one treatment for BRD within 45 d after arrival did not differ statistically for those receiving enrofloxacin compared with those receiving tulathromycin (10.5% and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.107) Likewise, the percentages of calves that died during the 45-d follow-up period did not differ for those receiving enrofloxacin compared with those receiving tulathromycin (12.2% and 10.1%, respectively; P = 0.592). Mannheimia haemolytica was cultured from 11% of calves sampled at arrival and from 50% of calves sampled at revaccination 14 to 17 d later. There was a significanst effect of sampling time on the

  14. Analysis of radially heterogeneous ZPPR-13A benchmark for investigating the spatial dependence of the calculated-to-experiment ratio for control rod worths

    Mahalakshmi, B.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation were performed on the ZPPR-13A critical assembly to determine the cause of the radial variation of the calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratio for control rod worth in large heterogeneous cores. The effects of errors in cross section, mesh size, group condensation, transport, and modeling were studied by studied by using two- and three-dimensional diffusion calculations and three-dimensional transport calculations. In that process, the cross-section set and the calculation scheme that are being used for fast reactor design in India have been revalidated. The cross-section set was found to yield satisfactory results. Three-dimensional calculations with adjusted and unadjusted cross sections confirmed that the error in cross sections was largely responsible for the radial dependence of the C/E ratios. The contributions from group condensation and mesh size errors were < 2%, and from modeling errors and transport correction, < 1%. The effect of these errors is insignificant when compared with the effect of the cross-section error. The analysis also showed that even without the adjustment in diffusion coefficient suggested in earlier studies, a satisfactory prediction is found, at least for this benchmark. The diffusion-to-transport correction for control rod worth was found to be -7%

  15. Exponential increase in the on-off ratio of conductance in organic memory devices by controlling the surface morphology of the devices

    Vyas, Giriraj; Dagar, Parveen; Sahu, Satyajit

    2018-05-01

    We have shown an exponential increase in the ratio of conductance in the on and off states of switching devices by controlling the surface morphology of the thin films for the device by depositing at different rotational speeds. The pinholes which are preferred topography on the surface at higher rotational speed give rise to higher on-off ratio of current from the devices fabricated at the speed. The lower rotational speed contributes to higher thickness of the film and hence no switching. For thicker films, the domain is formed due to phase segregation between the two components in the film, which also indicates that the film is far from thermal equilibrium. At higher speed, there is very little scope of segregation when the film is drying up. Hence, there are only few pinholes on the surface of the film which are shallow. So, the filamentary mechanism of switching in memory devices can be firmly established by varying the speed of thin film deposition which leads to phase segregation of the materials. Thus, the formation of filament can be regulated by controlling the thickness and the surface morphology.

  16. Impact of the Spanish smoking control law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study

    Fernández Muñoz, Esteve; Fu Balboa, Marcela; Pascual, José A.; López, María José; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó i Cerezuela, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHO...

  17. YME1L controls the accumulation of respiratory chain subunits and is required for apoptotic resistance, cristae morphogenesis, and cell proliferation

    Stibůrek, L.; Česneková, J.; Kostková, O.; Fornůsková, D.; Vinšová, K.; Wenchich, L.; Houštěk, Josef; Zeman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2012), s. 1010-1023 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 277511; GA ČR(CZ) GPP305/10/P414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondria * respiratory chain * AAA proteases * YME1L * apoptosis * HEK293 cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.604, year: 2012

  18. Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold

    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks, a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada. Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections, residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics. Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1% showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6–34.7, asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1–25.8 and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7–21.2. After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01–1.55 and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37–2.11, but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85–1.36. Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01. University students report a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and respiratory infections. A common indoor hazard, residential dampness or mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university

  19. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  20. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum

    2012-01-01

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory guidance

  1. Influence of mode of delivery at term on the neonatal respiratory morbidity

    Dehdashtian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory morbidity is an important complication of elective cesarean section. Our objective was to find out the incidence of respiratory distress in term neonates delivered by elective cesarean section and compare it with neonates delivered vaginally. We evaluated one thousands infants delivered by elective cesarean section and normal vaginal delivery for respiratory distress. Among 500 cesarean done, 27 (5.4%) neonates had respiratory distress and among 500 vaginal delivery infants, 8(1.6%) developed respiratory Distress (P<0.001). The odd ratio for neonatal respiratory distress was 3.38, almost threefold higher in cesarean section group than those delivered vaginally. (author)

  2. Comparison of the prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory infections at different hospital settings in North China, 2012-2015.

    Yu, Jianxing; Xie, Zhengde; Zhang, Tiegang; Lu, Yanqin; Fan, Hongwei; Yang, Donghong; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe; Shen, Kunling; Huang, Fang; Han, Jinxiang; Li, Taisheng; Gao, Zhancheng; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei

    2018-02-08

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays. The prevalence of respiratory viruses was determined and compared between patients at different hospital settings. A total of 3487 hospitalized cases and 6437 outpatients/Emergency Department (ED) patients were enrolled. The most commonly detected viruses in the hospitalized cases were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 33.3%) in children less than two years old, adenoviruses (13.0%) in patients 15-34 years old, and influenza viruses (IFVs, 9.6%) in patients ≥65 years. IFVs were the most common virus in outpatient/ED patients across all age groups (22.7%). After controlling for the confounders caused by other viruses and covariates, adenoviruses (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.97, 99% confidence interval [99% CI]: 2.19-7.20) and RSV (aOR: 2.04, 99% CI: 1.34-3.11) were independently associated with increased hospitalization in children, as well as adenoviruses in adults (aOR: 2.14, 99% CI: 1.19-3.85). Additionally, co-infection of RSV with IFVs was associated with increased hospitalization in children (aOR: 12.20, 99% CI: 2.65-56.18). A substantial proportion of ARIs was associated with respiratory viruses in North China. RSV, adenoviruses, and co-infection of RSV and IFVs were more frequent in hospitalized children (or adenoviruses in adults), which might predict the severity of ARIs. Attending clinicians should be more vigilant of these infections.

  3. Association of respiratory viruses with outcomes of severe childhood pneumonia in Botswana.

    Matthew S Kelly

    Full Text Available The highest incidence of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI is in low- and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether detection of respiratory viruses predicts ALRI outcomes in these settings.We conducted prospective cohort and case-control studies of children 1-23 months of age in Botswana. Cases met clinical criteria for pneumonia and were recruited within six hours of presentation to a referral hospital. Controls were children without pneumonia matched to cases by primary care clinic and date of enrollment. Nasopharyngeal specimens were tested for respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction. We compared detection rates of specific viruses in matched case-control pairs. We examined the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and other respiratory viruses on pneumonia outcomes.Between April 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 310 cases, of which 133 had matched controls. Median ages of cases and controls were 6.1 and 6.4 months, respectively. One or more viruses were detected from 75% of cases and 34% of controls. RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent among cases than controls, but only enterovirus/rhinovirus was detected from asymptomatic controls. Compared with non-RSV viruses, RSV was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure at 48 hours [risk ratio (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20, 2.84], more days of respiratory support [mean difference (MD: 1.26 days; 95% CI: 0.30, 2.22 days], and longer duration of hospitalization [MD: 1.35 days; 95% CI: 0.20, 2.50 days], but lower in-hospital mortality [RR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.80] in children with pneumonia.Respiratory viruses were detected from most children hospitalized with ALRI in Botswana, but only RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent than among children without ALRI. Detection of RSV from children with ALRI predicted a protracted illness course but lower mortality compared with non-RSV viruses.

  4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  5. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  8. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  9. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  10. High signal-to-noise ratio sensing with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor based on auto gain control of electron multiplying CCD

    Zhu Zhao-Yi; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Mu Quan-Quan; Yang Cheng-Liang; Cao Zhao-Liang; Xuan Li

    2016-01-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in the Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (S–H WFS) in adaptive optics (AO). However, when the brightness of the target changes in a large scale, the fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain will not be suited to the sensing limitation. Therefore an auto-gain-control method based on the brightness of light-spots array in S–H WFS is proposed in this paper. The control value is the average of the maximum signals of every light spot in an array, which has been demonstrated to be kept stable even under the influence of some noise and turbulence, and sensitive enough to the change of target brightness. A goal value is needed in the control process and it is predetermined based on the characters of EMCCD. Simulations and experiments have demonstrated that this auto-gain-control method is valid and robust, the sensing SNR reaches the maximum for the corresponding signal level, and especially is greatly improved for those dim targets from 6 to 4 magnitude in the visual band. (special topic)

  11. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  12. Respiratory hospitalizations of children and residential exposure to traffic air pollution in Jerusalem.

    Nirel, Ronit; Schiff, Michal; Paltiel, Ora

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been reported to be associated with respiratory morbidity in children, this association has not been examined in Israel. Jerusalem is ranked among the leading Israeli cities in transport-related air pollution. This case-control study examined whether pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases in Jerusalem is related to residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Cases (n=4844) were Jerusalem residents aged 0-14 years hospitalized for respiratory illnesses between 2000 and 2006. These were compared to children admitted electively (n=2161) or urgently (n=3085) for non-respiratory conditions. Individual measures of exposure included distance from residence to nearest main road, the total length of main roads, traffic volume, and bus load within buffers of 50, 150, and 300m around each address. Cases were more likely to have any diesel buses passing within 50m of their home (adjusted odds ratios=1.16 and 1.10, 95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.30 and 1.01-1.20 for elective and emergency controls, respectively). Our findings indicated that older girls (5-14) and younger boys (0-4) had increased risks of respiratory hospitalization, albeit with generally widened confidence intervals due to small sample sizes. Our results add to the limited body of evidence regarding associations between diesel exhaust particles and respiratory morbidity. The findings also point to possible differential associations between traffic-related air pollution and pediatric hospitalization among boys and girls in different age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of respiratory motion and active breathing control on the displacement of target area in patients with gastric cancer treated with post-operative radiotherapy

    Yu Xiaoli; Zhang Zhen; Gu Weilie; Hu Weigang; Zhu Ji; Cai Gang; Li Guichao; He Shaoqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of respiratory motion on the displacement of target area and to analyze the discrimination between free breathing and active breathing control (ABC) in patients with gastric cancer treated with post-operative radiotherapy. Methods: From January 2005 to November 2006, 22 patients with post-operatively confirmed gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. All diseases were T 3 / N +, staging II - IV. Patients were CT scanned and treated by radiation with the use of ABC. Image J software was used in image processing, motion measurement and data analysis. Surgical clips were implanted as fiducial marks in the tumor bed and lymphatic drainage area. The motion range of each clip was measured in the resultant-projection image. Motions of the clips in superior-inferior (S-I), right-left (R-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were determined from fluoroscopy movies obtained in the treatment position. Results: The motion ranges in S-I, R-L and A-P directions were 11.1 mam, 1.9 mm and 2.5 mm (F = 85.15, P = 0. 000) under free breathing, with 2.2 mm, 1.1 mm and 1.7 nun under ABC (F = 17.64, P = 0. 000), and the reduction of motion ranges was significant in both S-I and A-P directions (t = 4.36, P = 0. 000;t = 3.73,P = 0.000). When compared with under free-breathing, the motion ranges under ABC were kept unchanged in the same breathing phase of the same treatment fraction, while significant increased in different breathing phase in all three directions (t = - 4.36, P = 0. 000; t = - 3.52, P = 0.000; t =-3.79, P = 0. 000), with a numerical value of 3.7 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.8 mm, respectively (F = 19.46, P = 0. 000) . With ABC between different treatment fractions , the maximum displacements were 2.7 mm, 1.7 mm and 2.5 mm for the centre of the clip cluster (F =4.07,P =0. 019), and were 4.6 mm, 3.1 mm and 4.2 mm for the clips (F =5.17 ,P =0.007). The motion ranges were significant increased in all the three directions (t = - 4.09, P=0.000 ; t =-4

  14. Effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease

    Ming GUO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function and conscious state of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease (SCVD.  Methods A total of 27 patients with SCVD were divided into control group (N = 17 and observation group (N = 10. Control group received routine drug and rehabilitation treatment, and observation group was added respiratory function training based on routine treatment. The respiratory rate, tidal volume (TV, heart rate, blood pressure and artery oxygen saturation (SaO2 of patients were monitored by breathing machine before and after 4-week treatment. Meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was used to detect arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, oxygenation index, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and pH value. At the same time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was used to evaluate the conscious state of patients.  Results All patients successfully completed 4-week rehabilitation training, without asphyxia, arrhythmia or other adverse events. Compared with before training, the respiratory rate (P = 0.006 and pH value (P = 0.010 were significantly decreased, while SaO2 (P = 0.001, oxygenation index (P = 0.000 and GCS scores (P = 0.004, 0.017 were significantly increased in both groups of patients after training. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on respiratory function indexes and GCS scores after training (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Respiratory function training did not significantly improve the respiratory function and conscious state of patients with SCVD, yet to be further studied. Randomized controlled clinical trials with larger, layered samples and long-term prognosis observation are needed. Examination method of respiratory function of SCVD patients is also a topic to be explored.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.007

  15. Determinants of Chronic Respiratory Symptoms among Pharmaceutical Factory Workers

    Sahle Asfaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic respiratory symptoms including chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain are manifestations of respiratory problems which are mainly evolved as a result of occupational exposures. This study aims to assess determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers. Methods. A case control study was carried out among 453 pharmaceutical factory workers with 151 cases and 302 controls. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analysis. Result. Previous history of chronic respiratory diseases (AOR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.85–6.12, family history of chronic respiratory diseases (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.51–4.32, previous dusty working environment (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.07–4.78, ever smoking (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI = 1.05–12.72, and service years (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.16–2.99 showed statistically significant association with chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion. Previous history of respiratory diseases, family history of chronic respiratory diseases, previous dusty working environment, smoking, and service years were determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms. Public health endeavors to prevent the burden of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers should target the reduction of adverse workplace exposures and discouragement of smoking.

  16. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  17. Estimating achievable signal-to-noise ratios of MRI transmit-receive coils from radiofrequency power measurements: applications in quality control

    Redpath, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the radiofrequency (RF) power needed to transmit a 90 deg. RF pulse, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) available from a transmit-receive RF coil is well known. The theory is restated and a formula given for the signal-to-noise ratio from water, achievable from a single-shot MRI experiment, in terms of the net forward RF power needed for a rectangular 90 deg. RF pulse of known shape and duration. The result is normalized to a signal bandwidth of 1 Hz and a sample mass of 1 g. The RF power information needed is available on most commercial scanners, as it is used to calculate specific absorption rates for RF tissue heating. The achievable SNR figure will normally be larger that that actually observed, mainly because of receiver noise, but also because of inaccuracies in setting RF pulse angles, and relaxation effects. Phantom experiments were performed on the transmit-receive RF head coil of a commercial MRI system at 0.95 T using a projection method. The measured SNR agreed with that expected from the formula for achievable SNR once a correction was made for the noise figure of the receiving chain. Comparisons of measured SNR figures with those calculated from RF power measurements are expected to be of value in acceptance testing and quality control. (author)

  18. Computing power and sample size for case-control association studies with copy number polymorphism: application of mixture-based likelihood ratio test.

    Wonkuk Kim

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that copy number polymorphisms (CNPs may play an important role in disease susceptibility and onset. Currently, the detection of CNPs mainly depends on microarray technology. For case-control studies, conventionally, subjects are assigned to a specific CNP category based on the continuous quantitative measure produced by microarray experiments, and cases and controls are then compared using a chi-square test of independence. The purpose of this work is to specify the likelihood ratio test statistic (LRTS for case-control sampling design based on the underlying continuous quantitative measurement, and to assess its power and relative efficiency (as compared to the chi-square test of independence on CNP counts. The sample size and power formulas of both methods are given. For the latter, the CNPs are classified using the Bayesian classification rule. The LRTS is more powerful than this chi-square test for the alternatives considered, especially alternatives in which the at-risk CNP categories have low frequencies. An example of the application of the LRTS is given for a comparison of CNP distributions in individuals of Caucasian or Taiwanese ethnicity, where the LRTS appears to be more powerful than the chi-square test, possibly due to misclassification of the most common CNP category into a less common category.

  19. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to prevent acute respiratory infections in infancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDARI trial): protocol for a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized controlled trial.

    Morris, Shaun K; Pell, Lisa G; Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Dimitris, Michelle C; Mahmud, Abdullah; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Kashem, Tahmid; Shanta, Shaila S; Gubbay, Jonathan; Papp, Eszter; Science, Michelle; Zlotkin, Stanley; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-10-13

    Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations. In the Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth (MDIG) study in Dhaka, Bangladesh (NCT01924013), 1300 pregnant women are randomized to one of five groups: placebo, 4200 IU/week, 16,800 IU/week, or 28,000 IU/week from 2 nd trimester to delivery plus placebo from 0-6 months postpartum; or, 28,000 IU/week prenatal and until 6-months postpartum. In the Maternal Vitamin D for ARI in Infancy (MDARI) sub-study nested within the MDIG trial, trained personnel conduct weekly postnatal home visits to inquire about ARI symptoms and conduct a standardized clinical assessment. Supplementary home visits between surveillance visits are conducted when caregivers make phone notifications of new infant symptoms. Mid-turbinate nasal swab samples are obtained from infants who meet standardized clinical ARI criteria. Specimens are tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 8 viruses (influenza A/B, parainfluenza 1/2/3, RSV, adenovirus, and human metapneumovirus), and nasal carriage density of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The primary outcome is the incidence rate of microbiologically-positive viral ARI, using incidence rate ratios to estimate between-group differences. We hypothesize that among infants 0-6 months of age, the incidence of microbiologically-confirmed viral ARI will be significantly lower in infants whose mothers received high-dose prenatal/postpartum vitamin D supplements versus placebo. Secondary outcomes include

  20. The effect of aging on respiratory synergy.

    Kweon, Migyoung; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on respiratory synergy, through the comparison of an elderly group and a young group, to help further understanding of postural control in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten community-dwelling elderly subjects and ten young subjects performed standing under two different respiratory conditions: quiet breathing and apnea. Center of foot pressure displacement and joint angular movements of the head, trunk, pelvis, hips, knees and ankles were measured. [Results] The results of this study showed that the elderly group had a respiratory synergy different from that of the young group. The elderly group in quiet stance used significantly more hip and pelvis movements when compensating for respiratory disturbance than standing with apnea, while the young group used significantly more whole body segments. There were no differences in angular displacements in the quiet stance between the elderly and the young groups. [Conclusion] The elderly group demonstrated a respiratory synergy pattern different from that of the young group. The findings indicate that aging changes the respiratory synergy pattern and this change is not due to decreased functioning of the ankle joint alone.

  1. Functional respiratory imaging after neostigmine- or sugammadex-enhanced recovery from neuromuscular blockade in the anesthetised rat: a randomised controlled pilot study

    Tom Schepens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reductions in diaphragm activity are associated with the postoperative development of atelectasis. Neostigmine reversal is also associated with increased atelectasis. We assessed the effects of neostigmine, sugammadex, and spontaneous reversal on regional lung ventilation and airway flow. Methods: Six Sprague–Dawley rats were paralysed with rocuronium and mechanically ventilated until recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.5. We administered neostigmine (0.06 mg.kg−1, sugammadex (15 mg.kg−1, or saline (n = 2 per group. Computed tomography scans were obtained during the breathing cycle. Three-dimensional models of lung lobes were generated using functional respiratory imaging technology, and lobar volumes were calculated during the breathing cycle. The diaphragmatic surface was segmented for the end-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans. The total change in volume was reported by the lung volume change from the end-expiratory scan to the end-inspiratory scan. Chest wall movement was defined as the lung volume change minus the volume change that resulted from diaphragm excursion. Results: The two rats that received neostigmine exhibited a smaller relative contribution of diaphragm movement to the total change in lung volume compared with the two rats that received sugammadex or saline (chest wall contribution (%: 26.69 and 25.55 for neostigmine; −2.77 and 15.98 for sugammadex; 18.82 and 10.30 for saline. Conclusion: This pilot study in rats demonstrated an increased relative contribution of chest wall expansion after neostigmine compared with sugammadex or saline. This smaller relative contribution of diaphragm movement may be explained by a neostigmine-induced decrease in phrenic nerve activity or by remaining occupied acetylcholine receptors after neostigmine. Resumo: Objetivos: As reduções da atividade do diafragma estão associadas ao desenvolvimento de atelectasia no período pós-operatório. A reversão com

  2. Kinetic Modeling of Arsenic Cycling by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium as Influenced by N:P Ratios: A Potential Biologic Control in an Iron-Limited Drainage Basin

    Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated As levels are common in South Texas surface waters, where As is derived from the natural weathering of geogenic sources and a byproduct of historical uranium mining. The impacted surface waters of the Nueces River drainage basin supply Lake Corpus Christi (LCC), a major drinking water reservoir for the Corpus Christi area. The soils and sediments of the Nueces River drainage basin generally have low levels of reactive iron (average concentration of 2780 mg/kg), limiting the control of iron oxyhydroxides on As geochemistry and bioavailability. Given these conditions, biologic cycling of As may have a large influence on As fate and transport in LCC. Sediment cores from LCC show evidence for cyanobacterial blooms after reservoir formation based upon stable isotopes, total organic matter and specific elemental correlations. While algae have been shown to accumulate and reduce inorganic As(V), few studies have reported biologic cycling of As by cyanobacteria. Therefore, As(V) uptake, accumulation, reduction, and excretion in a 1.0 μ M As(V) solution by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120, was measured over time as a function of low, middle and high N:P ratios (1.2, 12, 120) to determine nutrient effects on As cycling by the cyanobacterium. Total As(V) reduction was observed in all three conditions upon completion of the ten-day experiment. Maximum As(V) reduction rates ranged from (0.013 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the low N:P solution to (0.398 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the high N:P solution. Increased cell biomass in the low N:P ratio solution compensated for the low maximum reduction rate to allow total As(V) reduction. Kinetic equations commonly used to model algal-nutrient interactions were utilized in modeling the current data. The Michaelis-Menten enzyme saturation equation modified with a competitive inhibition term adequately modeled As(III) excretion in the high and middle N:P ratio test conditions. The low N:P test condition further

  3. Relationship between PPARα mRNA expression and mitochondrial respiratory function and ultrastructure of the skeletal muscle of patients with COPD.

    Zhang, Jian-Qing; Long, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Huan; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Fu, Wei-Ping; Shu, Jing-Kui; Wu, Jiang-Hai; Dai, Lu-Ming

    2017-11-02

    Peripheral muscle dysfunction is an important complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression and the respiratory function and ultrastructure of mitochondria in the vastus lateralis of patients with COPD. Vastus lateralis biopsies were performed on 14 patients with COPD and 6 control subjects with normal lung function. PPARα mRNA levels in the muscle tissue were detected by real-time PCR. A Clark oxygen electrode was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory function. Mitochondrial number, fractional area in skeletal muscle cross-sections, and Z-line width were observed via transmission electron microscopy. The PPARα mRNA expression was significantly lower in COPD patients with low body mass index (BMIL) than in both COPD patients with normal body mass index (BMIN) and controls. Mitochondrial respiratory function (assessed by respiratory control ratio) was impaired in COPD patients, particularly in BMIL. Compared with that in the control group, mitochondrial number and fractional area were lower in the BMIL group, but were maintained in the BMIN group. Further, the Z-line became narrow in the BMIL group. PPARα mRNA expression was positively related to mitochondrial respiratory function and volume density. In COPD patients with BMIN, mitochondria volume density was maintained, while respiratory function decreased, whereas both volume density and respiratory function decreased in COPD patients with BMIL. PPARα mRNA expression levels are associated with decreased mitochondrial respiratory function and volume density, which may contribute to muscle dysfunction in COPD patients.

  4. The feasibility evaluation of Respiratory Gated radiation therapy simulation according to the Respiratory Training with lung cancer

    Hong, Mi Ran; Kim, Cheol Jong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Jae Won; Pyo, Hong Ryeol

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the breathing exercise,we analyzed the change in the RPM signal and the diaphragm image before 4D respiratory gated radiation therapy planning of lung cancer patients. The breathing training was enforced on 11 patients getting the 4D respiratory gated radiation therapy from April, 2016 until August. At the same time, RPM signal and diaphragm image was obtained respiration training total three steps in step 1 signal acquisition of free-breathing state, 2 steps respiratory signal acquisition through the guide of the respiratory signal, 3 steps, won the regular respiration signal to the description and repeat training. And then, acquired the minimum value, maximum value, average value, and a standard deviation of the inspiration and expiration in RPM signal and diaphragm image in each steps. Were normalized by the value of the step 1, to convert the 2,3 steps to the other distribution ratio (%), by evaluating the change in the interior of the respiratory motion of the patient, it was evaluated breathing exercise usefulness of each patient. The mean value and the standard deviation of each step were obtained with the procedure 1 of the RPM signal and the diaphragm amplitude as a 100% reference. In the RPM signal, the amplitudes and standard deviations of four patients (36.4%, eleven) decreased by 18.1%, 27.6% on average in 3 steps, and 2 patients (18.2%, 11 people) had standard deviation, It decreased by an average of 36.5%. Meanwhile, the other four patients (36.4%, eleven) decreased by an average of only amplitude 13.1%. In Step 3, the amplitude of the diaphragm image decreased by 30% on average of 9 patients (81.8%, 11 people), and the average of 2 patients (18.2%, 11 people) increased by 7.3%. However, the amplitudes of RPM signals and diaphragm image in 3 steps were reduced by 52.6% and 42.1% on average from all patients, respectively, compared to the 2 steps. Relationship between RPM signal and diaphragm image amplitude difference

  5. The feasibility evaluation of Respiratory Gated radiation therapy simulation according to the Respiratory Training with lung cancer

    Hong, Mi Ran; Kim, Cheol Jong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Jae Won; Pyo, Hong Ryeol [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of the breathing exercise,we analyzed the change in the RPM signal and the diaphragm image before 4D respiratory gated radiation therapy planning of lung cancer patients. The breathing training was enforced on 11 patients getting the 4D respiratory gated radiation therapy from April, 2016 until August. At the same time, RPM signal and diaphragm image was obtained respiration training total three steps in step 1 signal acquisition of free-breathing state, 2 steps respiratory signal acquisition through the guide of the respiratory signal, 3 steps, won the regular respiration signal to the description and repeat training. And then, acquired the minimum value, maximum value, average value, and a standard deviation of the inspiration and expiration in RPM signal and diaphragm image in each steps. Were normalized by the value of the step 1, to convert the 2,3 steps to the other distribution ratio (%), by evaluating the change in the interior of the respiratory motion of the patient, it was evaluated breathing exercise usefulness of each patient. The mean value and the standard deviation of each step were obtained with the procedure 1 of the RPM signal and the diaphragm amplitude as a 100% reference. In the RPM signal, the amplitudes and standard deviations of four patients (36.4%, eleven) decreased by 18.1%, 27.6% on average in 3 steps, and 2 patients (18.2%, 11 people) had standard deviation, It decreased by an average of 36.5%. Meanwhile, the other four patients (36.4%, eleven) decreased by an average of only amplitude 13.1%. In Step 3, the amplitude of the diaphragm image decreased by 30% on average of 9 patients (81.8%, 11 people), and the average of 2 patients (18.2%, 11 people) increased by 7.3%. However, the amplitudes of RPM signals and diaphragm image in 3 steps were reduced by 52.6% and 42.1% on average from all patients, respectively, compared to the 2 steps. Relationship between RPM signal and diaphragm image amplitude difference

  6. Respiratory System Mechanics During Low Versus High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Substudy of PROVHILO Randomized Controlled Trial.

    D'Antini, Davide; Huhle, Robert; Herrmann, Jacob; Sulemanji, Demet S; Oto, Jun; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Kaczka, David W; Vidal Melo, Marcos Francisco; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Cinnella, Gilda

    2018-01-01

    In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications when compared to low PEEP (0-2 cm H2O) approach without recruitment breaths. However, effects of intraoperative PEEP on lung compliance remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that higher PEEP leads to a dominance of intratidal overdistension, whereas lower PEEP results in intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (R/D). To test our hypothesis, we used the volume-dependent elastance index %E2, a respiratory parameter that allows for noninvasive and radiation-free assessment of dominant overdistension and intratidal R/D. We compared the incidence of intratidal R/D, linear expansion, and overdistension by means of %E2 in a subset of the PROVHILO cohort. In 36 patients from 2 participating centers of the PROVHILO trial, we calculated respiratory system elastance (E), resistance (R), and %E2, a surrogate parameter for intratidal overdistension (%E2 > 30%) and R/D (%E2 mechanical ventilation with protective tidal volumes in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, lung recruitment followed by PEEP of 12 cm H2O decreased the incidence of intratidal R/D and did not worsen overdistension, when compared to PEEP ≤2 cm H2O.

  7. Impact of insecticides used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in corn on survival, sex ratio, and reproduction of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley offspring

    Jander R Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is cultivated in large areas and considered one of the world's major cereal crops. There are several arthropod pests that can reduce its production such as the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae, which is considered to be the main pest for corn. Fall armyworm is primarily controlled by insecticides. The use of biological control agents to manage this pest is growing with an emphasis on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the following insecticides (g ai L-1 beta-cypermethrin (0.03, chlorfenapyr (0.60, chlorpyrifos (0.96, spinosad (0.16, etofenprox (0.10, triflumuron (0.08, alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron (0.0425/0.0425, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (0.11/0.083 on survival, sex ratio, reproduction, and T. pretiosum offspring. Distilled water was used as a control. Commercial insecticide formulations were diluted in distilled water. Bioassays used Anagasta kuehniella eggs treated with insecticides which were afterwards exposed to parasitism. Bioassays were conducted under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12:12 h photoperiod. Alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, etofenprox, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam reduced parasitism capacity of maternal generation females as well as the percentage of insect emergence from the F1 generation. Only triflumuron was selective for T. pretiosum and can be recommended along with this parasitoid in fall armyworm management programs in corn.

  8. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  9. The association between gender and pediatric respiratory morbidity.

    Ben-Shmuel, Atar; Sheiner, Eyal; Wainstock, Tamar; Landau, Daniella; Vaknin, Flear; Walfisch, Asnat

    2018-06-26

    To evaluate the association between newborn gender and the risk for later pediatric respiratory morbidity. A population based cohort analysis was performed by comparing the risk of long-term respiratory morbidity (until 18 years of age) according to gender. Respiratory morbidity included hospitalizations involving pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), influenza, and bronchiectasis. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to compare cumulative respiratory morbidity. A Cox proportional hazards model controlled for confounders. During the study period 240 953 newborns met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 118 113 were females (49.0%) and 122 840 were males (51.0%). During the 18 years of follow-up, 13 719 (5.7%) different newborns were hospitalized with respiratory related morbidity. Males had significantly higher rates of respiratory morbidity as compared with females (6.4% vs 4.9% respectively, P respiratory morbidity (log rank P respiratory morbidity while adjusting for gestational age, birthweight, and other confounders (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.25-1.34, P respiratory morbidity, independent of obstetrical characteristics such as gestational age and birthweight. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Respiratory manifestations of panic disorder: causes, consequences and therapeutic implications.

    Sardinha, Aline; Freire, Rafael Christophe da Rocha; Zin, Walter Araújo; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2009-07-01

    Multiple respiratory abnormalities can be found in anxiety disorders, especially in panic disorder (PD). Individuals with PD experience unexpected panic attacks, characterized by anxiety and fear, resulting in a number of autonomic and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory stimulation is a common event during panic attacks. The respiratory abnormality most often reported in PD patients is increased CO2 sensitivity, which has given rise to the hypothesis of fundamental abnormalities in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in PD. There is evidence that PD patients with dominant respiratory symptoms are more sensitive to respiratory tests than are those who do not manifest such symptoms, and that the former group constitutes a distinct subtype. Patients with PD tend to hyperventilate and to panic in response to respiratory stimulants such as CO2, triggering the activation of a hypersensitive fear network. Although respiratory physiology seems to remain normal in these subjects, recent evidence supports the idea that they present subclinical abnormalities in respiration and in other functions related to body homeostasis. The fear network, composed of the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala and its brain stem projections, might be oversensitive in PD patients. This theory might explain why medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy are both clearly effective. Our aim was to review the relationship between respiration and PD, addressing the respiratory subtype of PD and the hyperventilation syndrome, with a focus on respiratory challenge tests, as well as on the current mechanistic concepts and the pharmacological implications of this relationship.

  11. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetrical Flow Control-Part II: Nonaxisymmetrical Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment.

    Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.

  12. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control-Part I: Non-Axisymmetrical Flow in Centrifugal Compressor.

    Yang, Mingyang; Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki; Huenteler, Joern; Li, Zhigang

    2013-03-01

    This is Part I of a two-part paper documenting the development of a novel asymmetric flow control method to improve the stability of a high-pressure-ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressor. Part I focuses on the nonaxisymmetrical flow in a centrifugal compressor induced by the nonaxisymmetrical geometry of the volute while Part II describes the development of an asymmetric flow control method to avoid the stall on the basis of the characteristic of nonaxisymmetrical flow. To understand the asymmetries, experimental measurements and corresponding numerical simulation were carried out. The static pressure was measured by probes at different circumferential and stream-wise positions to gain insights about the asymmetries. The experimental results show that there is an evident nonaxisymmetrical flow pattern throughout the compressor due to the asymmetric geometry of the overhung volute. The static pressure field in the diffuser is distorted at approximately 90 deg in the rotational direction of the volute tongue throughout the diffuser. The magnitude of this distortion slightly varies with the rotational speed. The magnitude of the static pressure distortion in the impeller is a function of the rotational speed. There is a significant phase shift between the static pressure distributions at the leading edge of the splitter blades and the impeller outlet. The numerical steady state simulation neglects the aforementioned unsteady effects found in the experiments and cannot predict the phase shift, however, a detailed asymmetric flow field structure is obviously obtained.

  13. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  14. Incidence, etiology, and symptomatology of upper respiratory illness in elite athletes.

    Spence, Luke; Brown, Wendy J; Pyne, David B; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P; McCormack, Joseph G; Locke, A Simon; Fricker, Peter A

    2007-04-01

    Upper respiratory illness (URI) is the most common medical condition affecting elite athletes. The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the incidence, pathogenic etiology, and symptomatology of acute URI during a 5-month training and competition period. Thirty-two elite and 31 recreationally competitive triathletes and cyclists, and 20 sedentary controls (age range 18.0-34.1 yr) participated in a prospective surveillance study. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected from subjects presenting with two or more defined upper respiratory symptoms. Swabs were analyzed using microscopy, culture, and PCR testing for typical and atypical respiratory pathogens. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-44) was used to assess symptomatology and functional impairment. Thirty-seven URI episodes were reported in 28 subjects. Incidence rate ratios for illness were higher in both the control subjects (1.93, 95% CI: 0.72-5.18) and elite athletes (4.50, 1.91-10.59) than in the recreationally competitive athletes. Infectious agents were identified in only 11 (two control, three recreationally competitive, and six elite) out of 37 illness episodes. Rhinovirus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated. Symptom and functional impairment severity scores were higher in subjects with an infectious pathogen episode, particularly on illness days 3-4. The results confirm a higher rate of URI among elite athletes than recreationally competitive athletes during this training and competition season. However, because pathogens were isolated in fewer than 30% of URI cases, further study is required to uncover the causes of unidentified but symptomatic URI in athletes. Despite the common perception that all URI are infections, physicians should consider both infectious and noninfectious causes when athletes present with symptoms.

  15. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  16. The respiratory practical persons: new understanding and approaches.

    Ruslanov D.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed modern information about existent respiratory practices. The methodological, physiological and psychological aspects of respiratory practices are examined. 2 groups of students of higher humanitarian institute are participated in experiment: healthy (students of basic group, n1=180 and with different chronic pathology in the stage of remission (students of group of medical physical education, n2=50. Duration of experiment made about two months. Frequency of the controlled respiratory practice - 1-2 times per a week. The algorithm of respiratory practice is presented. Exercises and recommendations are resulted on their application.

  17. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    Rita Galeiras Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCIs often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB. Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients’ inspiratory function following a SCI.

  18. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss.

    Preter, M; Lee, S H; Petkova, E; Vannucci, M; Kim, S; Klein, D F

    2011-02-01

    The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone+lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area.

  19. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss

    Preter, M.; Lee, S. H.; Petkova, E.; Vannucci, M.; Kim, S.; Klein, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Method Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Results Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Conclusions Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone + lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. PMID:20444308

  20. Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    dos Reis Santos, Israel; Danaga, Aline Roberta; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Dias, Ismael Souza; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Martins, Aline Almeida; Ferraz, Leonardo Macario; Fonsêca, Nina Teixeira; Fernandes, Virgilio; Fernandes, Vinicius Alves Thomaz; Lopes, Viviane Cristina Delgado; Leitão Filho, Fernando Sérgio Studart; Nacif, Sérgio Roberto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Giannasi, Lílian Christiane; Romano, Salvatore; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Araujo, Ana Karina Fachini; Dellê, Humberto; Souza, Nadia Karina Guimarães; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2013-10-08

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height(2); circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian

  1. Nasal Jet-CPAP (variable flow) versus Bubble-CPAP in preterm infants with respiratory distress: an open label, randomized controlled trial.

    Bhatti, A; Khan, J; Murki, S; Sundaram, V; Saini, S S; Kumar, P

    2015-11-01

    To compare the failure rates between Jet continuous positive airway pressure device (J-CPAP-variable flow) and Bubble continuous positive airway device (B-CPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress. Preterm newborns CPAP (a variable flow device) or B-CPAP (continuous flow device). A standardized protocol was followed for titration, weaning and removal of CPAP. Pressure was monitored close to the nares in both the devices every 6 hours and settings were adjusted to provide desired CPAP. The primary outcome was CPAP failure rate within 72 h of life. Secondary outcomes were CPAP failure within 7 days of life, need for surfactant post-randomization, time to CPAP failure, duration of CPAP and complications of prematurity. An intention to treat analysis was done. One-hundred seventy neonates were randomized, 80 to J-CPAP and 90 to B-CPAP. CPAP failure rates within 72 h were similar in infants who received J-CPAP and in those who received B-CPAP (29 versus 21%; relative risks 1.4 (0.8 to 2.3), P=0.25). Mean (95% confidence intervals) time to CPAP failure was 59 h (54 to 64) in the Jet CPAP group in comparison with 65 h (62 to 68) in the Bubble CPAP group (log rank P=0.19). All other secondary outcomes were similar between the two groups. In preterm infants with respiratory distress starting within 6 h of life, CPAP failure rates were similar with Jet CPAP and Bubble CPAP.

  2. Impact of cement dust pollution on respiratory systems of Lafarge ...

    In this investigation, the impact of cement dust pollution on respiratory systems of Lafarge cement workers was evaluated. A total of 120 respondents; 60 from the factory workers and 60 (controls) from Ifo, a nearby village 22 km NE of the factory were interviewed in 2014 using a modified respiratory symptom score ...

  3. Influence of chemoreflexes on respiratory variability in healthy subjects

    van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Karemaker, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The background of this study was the hypothesis that respiratory variability is influenced by chemoreflex regulation, In search for periodicities in the variability due to instability of the respiratory control system, spectral analysis was applied to breath-to-breath variables in 19 healthy

  4. Voltage-dependent amplification of synaptic inputs in respiratory motoneurones

    Enríquez Denton, M; Wienecke, Jacob; Zhang, Mengliang

    2012-01-01

    time, the likely amplifying processes at work in respiratory motoneurones. In phrenic motoneurones, which control the most important respiratory muscle, the diaphragm, we found that the mechanism most favoured by investigations in other motoneurones, the activation of persistent inward currents via...

  5. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  6. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  7. European Respiratory Society statement

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  9. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  10. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  11. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis

  12. Usefulness of phrenic latency and forced vital capacity in patients with ALS with latent respiratory dysfunction.

    Kwon, Soonwook; Min, Ju-Hong; Cho, Hye-Jin; Joo, Byung-Euk; Cho, Eun Bin; Seok, Jin Myoung; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Byoung Joon

    2015-07-01

    The pulmonary function test (PFT) is a non-invasive and easily available technique to assess respiratory function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, patients with dyspnea sometimes show normal PFT findings. Herein, we investigated whether phrenic nerve conduction study (NCS) and PFT are useful to evaluate respiratory function of patients with ALS with normal value ranges in the PFT. We prospectively enrolled 34 patients with definite or probable ALS, who showed FVC (%) ⩾80 of predicted and 78 healthy subjects. PFT and phrenic NCS were performed with the measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC, %), forced expiratory volumes in 1s (FEV1, %), FEV1/FCV ratio (%), and phrenic compound muscle action potential amplitude, and latency. Compared to healthy controls, ALS patients showed delayed phrenic nerve latency and the decrease of FVC (%) (p=0.006 and pphrenic latency (AUC=0.7655) and FVC (%) (AUC=0.8239) discriminated ALS patients from healthy subjects. We demonstrated that ALS patients had early respiratory dysfunction, despite normal PFT findings. Phrenic latency and FVC (%) can be helpful to discriminate ALS patients with latent respiratory dysfunction from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  14. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  15. Acute respiratory infections at children

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  16. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  17. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Impairment among ...

    Background: The industrial process of detergent production could be deleterious to lung function. This study describes respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among detergent workers in Jos, Northern Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred detergent plant workers and controls were studied for the presence of ...

  18. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted childr