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Sample records for respiration increased weight

  1. Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis before and after a weight loss by diet and RYGB

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael T.; Gregers, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis following a massive weight loss. METHODS: High resolution respirometry of adipose tissue biopsies and tracer determined whole body lipolysis. Sixteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 27 without (OB) were...... studied following a massive weight loss by diet and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RESULTS: The mitochondrial respiratory rates were similar in OB and T2DM, and the mass-specific oxygen flux increased significantly 4 and 18 months post-surgery (P ... 2DM, visceral fat mass was always higher relative to the body fat mass (%) compared to OB. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiratory capacity increases with RYGB. Adipocytes adapt to massive weight...

  2. Effect of single dose, fractionated, and hyperfractionated trunk irradiation on weight gain, respiration frequency, and survival in rats

    Kimler, B.F.; Giri, P.G.S.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that, in this rat trunk irradiation model, fractionation of a single dose into two equal doses separated by 4-6 h produced a sparing effect of approx. 5Gy as measured by delay in weight gain; approx. 4Gy as measured by increased respiration frequency; and approx. 6Gy as measured by survival. Fractionation into daily doses or hyperfractionation into twice-daily doses permitted an approximate doubling of the dose required for the same suppression of weight gain. For the respiration rates and survival endpoints, fractionation or hyperfractionation produced an even greater sparing effect since there was no increase in the respiration frequency at twice the doses that would produce changes if delivered within a few hours; and since essentially no lethality was observed at twice the doses that would kill 70%-100% of animals if delivered in one day. (UK)

  3. Nutrients and temperature additively increase stream microbial respiration

    David W. P. Manning; Amy D. Rosemond; Vladislav Gulis; Jonathan P. Benstead; John S. Kominoski

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co‐occurring global‐change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon, but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across...

  4. Redox Fluctuations Increase the Contribution of Lignin to Soil Respiration

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Timokhin, V.; Hammel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin mineralization represents a critical flux in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet little is known about mechanisms and environmental factors controlling lignin breakdown in mineral soils. Hypoxia has long been thought to suppress lignin decomposition, yet variation in oxygen (O2) availability in surface soils accompanying moisture fluctuations could potentially stimulate this process by generating reactive oxygen species via coupled biotic and abiotic iron (Fe) redox cycling. Here, we tested the impact of redox fluctuations on lignin breakdown in humid tropical forest soils during ten-week laboratory incubations. We used synthetic lignins labeled with 13C in either of two positions (aromatic methoxyl and propyl Cβ) to provide highly sensitive and specific measures of lignin mineralization not previously employed in soils. Four-day redox fluctuations increased the percent contribution of methoxyl C to soil respiration, and cumulative methoxyl C mineralization was equivalent under static aerobic and fluctuating redox conditions despite lower total C mineralization in the latter treatment. Contributions of the highly stable Cβ to mineralization were also equivalent in static aerobic and fluctuating redox treatments during periods of O2 exposure, and nearly doubled in the fluctuating treatment after normalizing to cumulative O2 exposure. Oxygen fluctuations drove substantial net Fe reduction and oxidation, implying that reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic Fe oxidation likely contributed to the elevated contribution of lignin to C mineralization. Iron redox cycling provides a mechanism for lignin breakdown in soils that experience conditions unfavorable for canonical lignin-degrading organisms, and provides a potential mechanism for lignin depletion in soil organic matter during late-stage decomposition. Thus, close couplings between soil moisture, redox fluctuations, and lignin breakdown provide potential a link between climate variability and

  5. [Temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration influenced by increased UV-B radiation from elongation to flowering periods].

    Chen, Shu-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hua; Li, Han-Mao; Ji, Yu-Hong; Yang, Yan-Ping

    2009-05-15

    Field experiment was carried out in the spring of 2008 in order to investigate the effects of increased UV-B radiation on the temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration from elongation to flowering periods. Static chamber-gas chromatography method was used to measure ecosystem respiration and soil respiration under 20% UV-B radiation increase and control. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture were also measured. Results indicated that supplemental UV-B radiation inhibited the ecosystem respiration and soil respiration from wheat elongation to flowering periods, and the inhibition effect was more obvious for soil respiration than for ecosystem respiration. Ecosystem respiration rates, on daily average, were 9%, 9%, 3%, 16% and 30% higher for control than for UV-B treatment forthe five measurement days, while soil respiration rates were 99%, 93%, 106%, 38% and 10% higher for control than for UV-B treatment. The Q10s (temperature sensitivity coefficients) for plant respiration under control and UV-B treatments were 1.79 and 1.59, respectively, while the Q10s for soil respiration were 1.38 and 1.76, respectively. The Q10s for ecosystem respiration were 1.65 and 1.63 under CK and UV-B treatments, respectively. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused a lower Q10 for plant respiration and a higher Q10 for soil respiration, although no significant effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on the Q10 for ecosystem respiration was found.

  6. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  7. Microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass increases with carbon-to-nutrient ratios in soils

    Spohn, Marie; Chodak, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    The ratio of carbon-to-nutrient in forest floors is usually much higher than the ratio of carbon-to-nutrient that soil microorganisms require for their nutrition. In order to understand how this mismatch affects carbon cycling, the respiration rate per unit soil microbial biomass carbon - the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was studied. This was done in a field study (Spohn and Chodak, 2015) and in a meta-analysis of published data (Spohn, 2014). Cores of beech, spruce, and mixed spruce-beech forest soils were cut into slices of 1 cm from the top of the litter layer down to 5 cm in the mineral soil, and the relationship between the qCO2 and the soil carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and the soil carbon-to-phosphorus (C:P) ratio was analyzed. We found that the qCO2 was positively correlated with soil C:N ratio in spruce soils (R = 0.72), and with the soil C:P ratio in beech (R = 0.93), spruce (R = 0.80) and mixed forest soils (R = 0.96). We also observed a close correlation between the qCO2 and the soil C concentration in all three forest types. Yet, the qCO2 decreased less with depth than the C concentration in all three forest types, suggesting that the change in qCO2 is not only controlled by the soil C concentration. We conclude that microorganisms increase their respiration rate per unit biomass with increasing soil C:P ratio and C concentration, which adjusts the substrate to their nutritional demands in terms of stoichiometry. In an analysis of literature data, I tested the effect of the C:N ratio of soil litter layers on microbial respiration in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C. For this purpose, a global dataset on the microbial respiration rate per unit microbial biomass C - termed the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was compiled form literature data. It was found that the qCO2 in the soil litter layers was positively correlated with the litter C:N ratio and negatively related with the litter nitrogen (N) concentration. The positive relation between the qCO2

  8. Effect of increasing truck weight on bridges.

    2010-09-01

    Legislation has been proposed that will allow a 17,000 lb increase in the maximum gross vehicle : weight on the Interstate Highway System. This projects main goal is quantify the effect of this : increase on the internal forces to which typical sl...

  9. Increased platelet mitochondrial respiration after cardiac arrest and resuscitation as a potential peripheral biosignature of cerebral bioenergetic dysfunction.

    Ferguson, Michael A; Sutton, Robert M; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Becker, Lance B; Berg, Robert A; Margulies, Susan S; Kilbaugh, Todd J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) results in a sepsis-like syndrome with activation of the innate immune system and increased mitochondrial bioenergetics. To determine if platelet mitochondrial respiration increases following CA in a porcine pediatric model of asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA, and if this readily obtained biomarker is associated with decreased brain mitochondrial respiration. CA protocol: 7 min of asphyxia, followed by VF, protocolized titration of compression depth to systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg and vasopressor administration to a coronary perfusion pressure greater than 20 mmHg. platelet integrated mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) function evaluated pre- and post-CA/ROSC four hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Secondary outcome: correlation of platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics to cerebral bioenergetic function. Platelet maximal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOSCI+CII), P respiration through Complex II (OXPHOSCII, P respiration was not due to uncoupling, as the LEAKCI + CII respiration (mitochondrial respiration independent of ATP-production) was unchanged after CA/ROSC. Larger increases in platelet mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) compared to pre-CA RCR were significantly correlated with lower RCRs in the cortex (P respiration. Platelet mitochondrial respiration is significantly increased four hours after ROSC. Future studies will identify mechanistic relationships between this serum biomarker and altered cerebral bioenergetics function following cardiac arrest.

  10. Does the increased air humidity affect soil respiration and carbon stocks?

    Kukumägi, Mai; Celi, Luisella; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Kupper, Priit; Sõber, Jaak; Lõhmus, Krista; Kutti, Sander; Ostonen, Ivika

    2013-04-01

    Climate manipulation experiments at ecosystem-scale enable us to simulate, investigate and predict changes in carbon balance of forest ecosystems. Considering the predicted increase in air humidity and precipitation for northern latitudes, this work aimed at investigating the effect of increased air humidity on soil respiration, distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) among pools having different turnover times, and microbial, fine root and rhizome biomass. The study was carried out in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) stands in a Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) experimental facility containing three humidified (H; on average 7% above current ambient levels since 2008) and three control (C) plots. Soil respiration rates were measured monthly during the growing season using a closed dynamic chamber method. Density fractionation was adopted to separate SOM into two light fractions (free and aggregate-occluded particulate organic matter, fPOM and oPOM respectively), and one heavy fraction (mineral-associated organic matter, MOM). The fine root and rhizome biomass and microbial data are presented for silver birch stands only. In 2011, after 4 growing seasons of humidity manipulation soil organic carbon contents were significantly higher in C plots than H plot (13.5 and 12.5 g C kg-1, respectively), while soil respiration tended to be higher in the latter. Microbial biomass and basal respiration were 13 and 14% higher in H plots than in the C plots, respectively. Twice more fine roots of trees were estimated in H plots, while the total fine root and rhizome biomass (tree + understory) was similar in C and H plots. Fine root turnover was higher for both silver birch and understory roots in H plots. Labile SOM light fractions (fPOM and oPOM) were significantly smaller in H plots with respect to C plots (silver birch and hybrid aspen stands together), whereas no differences were observed in the

  11. Weight Rhythms: Weight Increases during Weekends and Decreases during Weekdays

    Anna-Leena Orsama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. Methods: The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m2; age, 25-62 years was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. Results: A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p Conclusion: Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation.

  12. Earthworms (Amynthas spp. increase common bean growth, microbial biomass, and soil respiration

    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the effect of earthworms on plants and biological soil attributes, especially among legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of earthworms (Amynthas spp. on growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and on soil biological attributes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted of inoculation with five different quantities of earthworms of the genus Amynthas (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 worms per pot. Each experimental unit consisted of a plastic pot containing 4 kg of soil and two common bean plants. The experiment was harvested 38 days after seedling emergence. Dry matter and plant height, soil respiration, microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and metabolic quotient were determined. Earthworm recovery in our study was high in number and mass, with all values above 91.6% and 89.1%, respectively. In addition, earthworm fresh biomass decreased only in the treatment that included eight earthworms per pot. The presence of earthworms increased the plant growth and improved soil biological properties, suggesting that agricultural practices that favor the presence of these organisms can be used to increase the production of common bean, and the increased soil CO2 emission caused by the earthworms can be partially offset by the addition of common bean crop residues to the soil.

  13. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  14. Effect of soil sieving on respiration induced by low-molecular-weight substrates

    Datta, Rahul; Vranová, Valerie; Pavelka, Marian; Rejšek, Klement; Formánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The mesh size of sieves has a significant impact upon soil disturbance, affecting pore structure, fungal hyphae, proportion of fungi to bacteria, and organic matter fractions. The effects are dependent upon soil type and plant coverage. Sieving through a 2 mm mesh increases mineralization of exogenously supplied carbohydrates and phenolics compared to a 5 mm mesh and the effect is significant (p<0.05), especially in organic horizons, due to increased microbial metabolism and alteration of other soil properties. Finer mesh size particularly increases arabinose, mannose, galactose, ferulic and pthalic acid metabolism, whereas maltose mineralization is less affected. Sieving through a 5 mm mesh size is suggested for all type of experiments where enhanced mineralization of low-molecular-weight organic compounds needs to be minimalized.

  15. Adaptive aneuploidy protects against thiol peroxidase deficiency by increasing respiration via key mitochondrial proteins.

    Kaya, Alaattin; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Seim, Inge; Labarre, Jean; Toledano, Michel B; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-08-25

    Aerobic respiration is a fundamental energy-generating process; however, there is cost associated with living in an oxygen-rich environment, because partially reduced oxygen species can damage cellular components. Organisms evolved enzymes that alleviate this damage and protect the intracellular milieu, most notably thiol peroxidases, which are abundant and conserved enzymes that mediate hydrogen peroxide signaling and act as the first line of defense against oxidants in nearly all living organisms. Deletion of all eight thiol peroxidase genes in yeast (∆8 strain) is not lethal, but results in slow growth and a high mutation rate. Here we characterized mechanisms that allow yeast cells to survive under conditions of thiol peroxidase deficiency. Two independent ∆8 strains increased mitochondrial content, altered mitochondrial distribution, and became dependent on respiration for growth but they were not hypersensitive to H2O2. In addition, both strains independently acquired a second copy of chromosome XI and increased expression of genes encoded by it. Survival of ∆8 cells was dependent on mitochondrial cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP1) and UTH1, present on chromosome XI. Coexpression of these genes in ∆8 cells led to the elimination of the extra copy of chromosome XI and improved cell growth, whereas deletion of either gene was lethal. Thus, thiol peroxidase deficiency requires dosage compensation of CCP1 and UTH1 via chromosome XI aneuploidy, wherein these proteins support hydroperoxide removal with the reducing equivalents generated by the electron transport chain. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of adaptive aneuploidy counteracting oxidative stress.

  16. Brain mitochondria from DJ-1 knockout mice show increased respiration-dependent hydrogen peroxide consumption

    Pamela Lopert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the DJ-1 gene have been shown to cause a rare autosomal-recessive genetic form of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The function of DJ-1 and its role in PD development has been linked to multiple pathways, however its exact role in the development of PD has remained elusive. It is thought that DJ-1 may play a role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and overall oxidative stress in cells through directly scavenging ROS itself, or through the regulation of ROS scavenging systems such as glutathione (GSH or thioredoxin (Trx or ROS producing complexes such as complex I of the electron transport chain. Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated that isolated brain mitochondria consume H2O2 predominantly by the Trx/Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR/Peroxiredoxin (Prx system in a respiration dependent manner (Drechsel et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010. Therefore we wanted to determine if mitochondrial H2O2 consumption was altered in brains from DJ-1 deficient mice (DJ-1−/−. Surprisingly, DJ-1−/− mice showed an increase in mitochondrial respiration-dependent H2O2 consumption compared to controls. To determine the basis of the increased H2O2 consumption in DJ1−/− mice, the activities of Trx, Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR, GSH, glutathione disulfide (GSSG and glutathione reductase (GR were measured. Compared to control mice, brains from DJ-1−/− mice showed an increase in (1 mitochondrial Trx activity, (2 GSH and GSSG levels and (3 mitochondrial glutaredoxin (GRX activity. Brains from DJ-1−/− mice showed a decrease in mitochondrial GR activity compared to controls. The increase in the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial Trx and total GSH levels may account for the increased H2O2 consumption observed in the brain mitochondria in DJ-1−/− mice perhaps as an adaptive response to chronic DJ-1 deficiency.

  17. The role of oxygen-increased respirator in humans ascending to high altitude

    Shen Guanghao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS is common for people who live in low altitude areas ascending to the high altitude. Many instruments have been developed to treat mild cases of AMS. However, long-lasting and portable anti-hypoxia equipment for individual is not yet available. Methods Oxygen-increased respirator (OIR has been designed to reduce the risk of acute mountain sickness in acute exposure to low air pressure. It can increase the density of oxygen by increasing total atmospheric pressure in a mask. Male subjects were screened, and eighty-eight were qualified to perform the experiments. The subjects were divided into 5 groups and were involved in some of the tests at 4 different altitudes (Group 1, 2: 3700 m; Group 3,4,5: 4000 m, 4700 m, 5380 m with and without OIR. These tests include heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, blood lactate (BLA and PWC (physical work capacity -170. Results The results showed that higher SpO2, lower heart rate (except during exercise and better recovery of heart rate were observed from all the subjects ’with OIR’ compared with ’without OIR’ (P Conclusions We suggested that OIR may play a useful role in protecting people ascending to high altitude before acclimatization.

  18. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Burger Symington

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV, aspirin (ASP or vitamin C (VitC co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months. Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail.

  19. Increased heme synthesis in yeast induces a metabolic switch from fermentation to respiration even under conditions of glucose repression.

    Zhang, Tiantian; Bu, Pengli; Zeng, Joey; Vancura, Ales

    2017-10-13

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is a complex process that involves several signaling pathways and transcription factors as well as communication between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Under aerobic conditions, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolizes glucose predominantly by glycolysis and fermentation. We have recently shown that altered chromatin structure in yeast induces respiration by a mechanism that requires transport and metabolism of pyruvate in mitochondria. However, how pyruvate controls the transcriptional responses underlying the metabolic switch from fermentation to respiration is unknown. Here, we report that this pyruvate effect involves heme. We found that heme induces transcription of HAP4 , the transcriptional activation subunit of the Hap2/3/4/5p complex, required for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources, in a Hap1p- and Hap2/3/4/5p-dependent manner. Increasing cellular heme levels by inactivating ROX1 , which encodes a repressor of many hypoxic genes, or by overexpressing HEM3 or HEM12 induced respiration and elevated ATP levels. Increased heme synthesis, even under conditions of glucose repression, activated Hap1p and the Hap2/3/4/5p complex and induced transcription of HAP4 and genes required for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation, leading to a switch from fermentation to respiration. Conversely, inhibiting metabolic flux into the TCA cycle reduced cellular heme levels and HAP4 transcription. Together, our results indicate that the glucose-mediated repression of respiration in budding yeast is at least partly due to the low cellular heme level. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Will nitrogen deposition mitigate warming-increased soil respiration in a young subtropical plantation?

    Xiaofei Liu; Zhijie Yang; Chengfang Lin; Christian P. Giardina; Decheng Xiong; Weisheng Lin; Shidong Chen; Chao Xu; Guangshui Chen; Jinsheng Xie; Yiqing Li; Yusheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Global change such as climate warming and nitrogen (N) deposition is likely to alter terrestrial carbon (C) cycling, including soil respiration (Rs), the largest CO2 source from soils to the atmosphere. To examine the effects of warming, N addition and their interactions on Rs, we...

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis with Arundo donax Decreases Root Respiration and Increases Both Photosynthesis and Plant Biomass Accumulation.

    Romero-Munar, Antònia; Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume; Baraza, Elena; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Gulías, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis on plant growth is associated with the balance between costs and benefits. A feedback regulation loop has been described in which the higher carbohydrate cost to plants for AM symbiosis is compensated by increases in their photosynthetic rates. Nevertheless, plant carbon balance depends both on photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon consumption. The hypothesis behind this research was that the role of respiration in plant growth under AM symbiosis may be as important as that of photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested in Arundo donax L. plantlets inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. We tested the effects of AM inoculation on both photosynthetic capacity and in vivo leaf and root respiration. Additionally, analyses of the primary metabolism and ion content were performed in both leaves and roots. AM inoculation increased photosynthesis through increased CO 2 diffusion and electron transport in the chloroplast. Moreover, respiration decreased only in AM roots via the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) as measured by the oxygen isotope technique. This decline in the COP can be related to the reduced respiratory metabolism and substrates (sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) observed in roots. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. After more than a decade of soil moisture deficit, tropical rainforest trees maintain photosynthetic capacity, despite increased leaf respiration.

    Rowland, Lucy; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel L; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Melém, Eliane A; Kruijt, Bart; Vasconcelos, Steel S; Domingues, Tomas; Binks, Oliver J; Oliveira, Alex A R; Metcalfe, Daniel; da Costa, Antonio C L; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Meir, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Determining climate change feedbacks from tropical rainforests requires an understanding of how carbon gain through photosynthesis and loss through respiration will be altered. One of the key changes that tropical rainforests may experience under future climate change scenarios is reduced soil moisture availability. In this study we examine if and how both leaf photosynthesis and leaf dark respiration acclimate following more than 12 years of experimental soil moisture deficit, via a through-fall exclusion experiment (TFE) in an eastern Amazonian rainforest. We find that experimentally drought-stressed trees and taxa maintain the same maximum leaf photosynthetic capacity as trees in corresponding control forest, independent of their susceptibility to drought-induced mortality. We hypothesize that photosynthetic capacity is maintained across all treatments and taxa to take advantage of short-lived periods of high moisture availability, when stomatal conductance (gs ) and photosynthesis can increase rapidly, potentially compensating for reduced assimilate supply at other times. Average leaf dark respiration (Rd ) was elevated in the TFE-treated forest trees relative to the control by 28.2 ± 2.8% (mean ± one standard error). This mean Rd value was dominated by a 48.5 ± 3.6% increase in the Rd of drought-sensitive taxa, and likely reflects the need for additional metabolic support required for stress-related repair, and hydraulic or osmotic maintenance processes. Following soil moisture deficit that is maintained for several years, our data suggest that changes in respiration drive greater shifts in the canopy carbon balance, than changes in photosynthetic capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  4. When weight management lasts. Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence.

    Mata, Jutta; Todd, Peter M; Lippke, Sonia

    2010-02-01

    Maintaining behavior change is one of the major challenges in weight management and long-term weight loss. We investigated the impact of the cognitive complexity of eating rules on adherence to weight management programs. We studied whether popular weight management programs can fail if participants find the rules too complicated from a cognitive perspective, meaning that individuals are not able to recall or process all required information for deciding what to eat. The impact on program adherence of participants' perceptions of eating rule complexity and other behavioral factors known to influence adherence (including previous weight management, self-efficacy, and planning) was assessed via a longitudinal online questionnaire given to 390 participants on two different popular weight management regimens. As we show, the regimens, Weight Watchers and a popular German recipe diet (Brigitte), strongly differ in objective rule complexity and thus their cognitive demands on the dieter. Perceived rule complexity was the strongest factor associated with increased risk of quitting the cognitively demanding weight management program (Weight Watchers); it was not related to adherence length for the low cognitive demand program (Brigitte). Higher self-efficacy generally helped in maintaining a program. The results emphasize the importance of considering rule complexity to promote long-term weight management. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial respiration, but not biomass, responded linearly to increasing light fraction organic matter input: Consequences for carbon sequestration.

    Rui, Yichao; Murphy, Daniel V; Wang, Xiaoli; Hoyle, Frances C

    2016-10-18

    Rebuilding 'lost' soil carbon (C) is a priority in mitigating climate change and underpinning key soil functions that support ecosystem services. Microorganisms determine if fresh C input is converted into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or lost as CO 2 . Here we quantified if microbial biomass and respiration responded positively to addition of light fraction organic matter (LFOM, representing recent inputs of plant residue) in an infertile semi-arid agricultural soil. Field trial soil with different historical plant residue inputs [soil C content: control (tilled) = 9.6 t C ha -1 versus tilled + plant residue treatment (tilled + OM) = 18.0 t C ha -1 ] were incubated in the laboratory with a gradient of LFOM equivalent to 0 to 3.8 t C ha -1 (0 to 500% LFOM). Microbial biomass C significantly declined under increased rates of LFOM addition while microbial respiration increased linearly, leading to a decrease in the microbial C use efficiency. We hypothesise this was due to insufficient nutrients to form new microbial biomass as LFOM input increased the ratio of C to nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur of soil. Increased CO 2 efflux but constrained microbial growth in response to LFOM input demonstrated the difficulty for C storage in this environment.

  6. Glucose, Lactate and Glutamine but not Glutamate Support Depolarization-Induced Increased Respiration in Isolated Nerve Terminals

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Andersen, Vibe H; Bak, Lasse K

    2017-01-01

    Synaptosomes prepared from various aged and gene modified experimental animals constitute a valuable model system to study pre-synaptic mechanisms. Synaptosomes were isolated from whole brain and the XFe96 extracellular flux analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience) was used to study mitochondrial respiration...... and antimycin A. The synaptosomes exhibited intense respiratory activity using glucose as substrate. The FCCP-dependent respiration was significantly higher with 10 mM glucose compared to 1 mM glucose. Synaptosomes also readily used pyruvate as substrate, which elevated basal respiration, activity......-dependent respiration induced by veratridine and the respiratory response to uncoupling compared to that obtained with glucose as substrate. Also lactate was used as substrate by synaptosomes but in contrast to pyruvate, mitochondrial lactate mediated respiration was comparable to respiration using glucose as substrate...

  7. Irradiated aromatic polysulphones of increased flow resistance and molecular weight

    Staniland, P.A.; Jarrett, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and molecular weight are obtained by irradiation using β-rays or γ-rays at temperatures up to 400 0 C of an aromatic polymer whose molecular chains comprise benzenoid groups and bivalent linking groups, and where irradiation is γ-rays by heating subsequent to irradiation at 200 to 400 0 C

  8. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  9. TGF-β1-mediated differentiation of fibroblasts is associated with increased mitochondrial content and cellular respiration.

    Ulugbek Negmadjanov

    Full Text Available Cytokine-dependent activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, a key event in fibrosis, is accompanied by phenotypic changes with increased secretory and contractile properties dependent on increased energy utilization, yet changes in the energetic profile of these cells are not fully described. We hypothesize that the TGF-β1-mediated transformation of myofibroblasts is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and function when compared to naive fibroblasts.Cultured NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1, a profibrotic cytokine, or vehicle were assessed for transformation to myofibroblasts (appearance of α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA] stress fibers and associated changes in mitochondrial content and functions using laser confocal microscopy, Seahorse respirometry, multi-well plate reader and biochemical protocols. Expression of mitochondrial-specific proteins was determined using western blotting, and the mitochondrial DNA quantified using Mitochondrial DNA isolation kit.Treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL induced transformation of naive fibroblasts into myofibroblasts with a threefold increase in the expression of α-SMA (6.85 ± 0.27 RU compared to cells not treated with TGF-β1 (2.52 ± 0.11 RU. TGF-β1 exposure increased the number of mitochondria in the cells, as monitored by membrane potential sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine, and expression of mitochondria-specific proteins; voltage-dependent anion channels (0.54 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 RU and adenine nucleotide transporter (0.61 ± 0.11 vs. 0.22 ± 0.05 RU, as well as mitochondrial DNA content (530 ± 12 μg DNA/106 cells vs. 307 ± 9 μg DNA/106 cells in control. TGF-β1 treatment was associated with an increase in mitochondrial function with a twofold increase in baseline oxygen consumption rate (2.25 ± 0.03 vs. 1.13 ± 0.1 nmol O2/min/106 cells and FCCP-induced mitochondrial respiration (2.87 ± 0.03 vs. 1.46 ± 0.15 nmol O2/min/106 cells.TGF-β1 induced

  10. Responses of respiration and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus protuberans Fritsch to gradual and steep salinity increases

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an increase in salinity on the physiology of the halotolerant chlorophyte Scenedesmus protuberans was studied in light-limited continuous cultures. It was observed that a gradual, as well as a steep increase in salinity resulted in lower biomass. However, the mechanisms by which this

  11. Preoperative weight gain might increase risk of gastric bypass surgery.

    Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative

  12. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities

    Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E.; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Ray, Partha P.; Smitherman, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function. PMID:28356447

  13. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities.

    Wepking, Carl; Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, Partha P; Smitherman, Crystal; Strickland, Michael S

    2017-03-29

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship...... between mitochondrial function, IMTG, and insulin resistance. Nine obese women (age, 32.3 years [SD, 3.0]; body mass index, 33.4 kg/m(2) [SD, 2.6]) completed a 53-day (SE, 3.8) very low calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 to 600 kcal/d without altering physical activity. The target of the intervention was a 10...... resistance in young obese women and do not support a direct relationship between IMTG and insulin sensitivity in young obese women during weight loss....

  15. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  16. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  17. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tropical rainforest carbon sink declines during El Niño as a result of reduced photosynthesis and increased respiration rates.

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Coble, Adam P; Ryan, Michael G; Bauerle, William L; Loescher, Henry W; Oberbauer, Steven F

    2017-10-01

    Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data. MAESTRA-estimated GPP did not statistically differ from GPP estimated using approach 2, but was ˜ 28% greater than published GPP estimates for the same site and years using eddy covariance data only. A 7% increase in RE (primarily increased soil respiration) and a 10% reduction in GPP contributed equally to the difference in NEP between ENSO year 1998 and non-ENSO year 2000. A warming and drying climate for tropical forests may yield a weakened carbon sink from both decreased GPP and increased RE. Understanding physiological acclimation will be critical for the large carbon stores in these ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Idebenone increases mitochondrial complex I activity in fibroblasts from LHON patients while producing contradictory effects on respiration

    Angebault, Claire; Gueguen, Naig; Desquiret-Dumas, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    to impairment in some cases and stimulation in others. Conclusion: These results indicate that idebenone is able to compensate the complex I deficiency in LHON patient cells with variable effects on respiration, indicating that the patients might not be equally likely to benefit from the treatment....... of idebenone in fibroblasts from LHON patients using enzymatic and polarographic measurements. Results: Complex I activity was 42% greater in treated fibroblasts compared to controls (p = 0.002). Despite this complex I activity improvement, the effects on mitochondrial respiration were contradictory, leading...

  20. Can we distinguish autotrophic respiration from heterotrophic respiration in a field site using high temporal resolution CO2 flux measurements?

    Biro, Beatrice; Berger, Sina; Praetzel, Leandra; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The processes behind C-cycling in peatlands are important to understand for assessing the vulnerability of peatlands as carbon sinks under changing climate conditions. Especially boreal peatlands are likely to underlie strong alterations in the future. It is expected that C-pools that are directly influenced by vegetation and water table fluctuations can be easily destabilized. The CO2 efflux through respiration underlies autotrophic and heterotrophic processes that show different feedbacks on changing environmental conditions. In order to understand the respiration fluxes better for more accurate modelling and prognoses, the determination of the relative importance of different respiration sources is necessary. Earlier studies used e.g. exfoliation experiments, incubation experiments or modelling approaches to estimate the different respiration sources for the total ecosystem respiration (Reco). To further the understanding in this topic, I want to distinguish autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using high temporal resolution measurements. The study site was selected along a hydrological gradient in a peatland in southern Ontario (Canada) and measurements were conducted from May to September 2015 once per month. Environmental controls (water table, soil temperature and soil moisture) that effect the respiration sources were recorded. In my study I used a Li-COR 6400XT and a Los Gatos greenhouse gas analyzer (GGA). Reco was determined by chamber flux measurements with the GGA, while simultaneously CO2 respiration measurements on different vegetation compartments like roots, leaves and mosses were conducted using the Li-COR 6400XT. The difference between Reco and autotrophic respiration equals heterotrophic respiration. After the measurements, the vegetation plots were harvested and separated for all compartments (leaves, roots, mosses, soil organic matter), dried and weighed. The weighted respiration rates from all vegetation compartments sum up to

  1. Organic fertilizer application increases the soil respiration and net ecosystem carbon dioxide absorption of paddy fields under water-saving irrigation.

    Yang, Shihong; Xiao, Ya Nan; Xu, Junzeng

    2018-04-01

    Quantifying carbon sequestration in paddy soil is necessary to understand the effect of agricultural practices on carbon cycles. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of organic fertilizer addition (MF) on the soil respiration and net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorption of paddy fields under water-saving irrigation (CI) in the Taihu Lake Region of China during the 2014 and 2015 rice-growing seasons. Compared with the traditional fertilizer and water management (FC), the joint regulation of CI and MF (CM) significantly increased the rice yields and irrigation water use efficiencies of paddy fields by 4.02~5.08 and 83.54~109.97% (p < 0.05). The effects of organic fertilizer addition on soil respiration and net ecosystem CO 2 absorption rates showed inter-annual differences. CM paddy fields showed a higher soil respiration and net CO 2 absorption rates during some periods of the rice growth stage in the first year and during most periods of the rice growth stage in the second year. These fields also had significantly higher total CO 2 emission through soil respiration (total R soil ) and total net CO 2 absorption compared with FC paddy fields (p < 0.05). The total R soil and net ecosystem CO 2 absorption of CM paddy fields were 67.39~91.55 and 129.41~113.75 mol m -2 , which were 27.66~135.52 and 12.96~31.66% higher than those of FC paddy fields. The interaction between water and fertilizer management had significant effects on total net ecosystem CO 2 absorption. The frequent alternate wet-dry cycles of CI paddy fields increased the soil respiration and reduced the net CO 2 absorption. Organic fertilizer promoted the soil respiration of paddy soil but also increased its net CO 2 absorption and organic carbon content. Therefore, the joint regulation of water-saving irrigation and organic fertilizer is an effective measure for maintaining yield, increasing irrigation water use efficiency, mitigating CO 2 emission, and promoting paddy

  2. Water organic pollution and eutrophication influence soil microbial processes, increasing soil respiration of estuarine wetlands: site study in jiuduansha wetland.

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent.

  3. Temporal trends in pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in Bavaria 2000–2007: slightly decreasing birth weight with increasing weight gain in pregnancy

    Schiessl, Barbara; Beyerlein, Andreas; Lack, Nicholas; Kries, Rüdiger von

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess temporal trends in birth weight and pregnancy weight gain in Bavaria from 2000 to 2007. Methods: Data on 695,707 mother and infant pairs (singleton term births) were available from a compulsory reporting system for quality assurance, including information on birth weight, maternal weight at delivery and at booking, maternal smoking, age, and further anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy weight gain was defined as: weight prior to delivery minus weight at first booki...

  4. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  5. Increasing low birth weight rates: deliveries in a tertiary hospital in istanbul.

    Akin, Yasemin; Cömert, Serdar; Turan, Cem; Unal, Orhan; Piçak, Abdülkadir; Ger, Lale; Telatar, Berrin

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and stillbirth deliveries were determined. Among 19,533 total births, there were 450 (23.04 per 1000) stillbirths. Low birth weight rate was 10.61%. A significant increase in yearly distribution of low birth weight deliveries was observed (Pbirth weight and extremely low birth weight delivery rates were 3.14% and 1.58% respectively. Among 2073 low birth weight infants, 333 (16.06%) were stillbirths. The stillbirth delivery rate and the birth of a female infant among low birth weight deliveries were significantly higher than infants with birth weight ≥2500g (Pbirth weight and maternal age. The rate of cesarean section among low birth weight infants was 49.4%. High low birth weight and stillbirth rates, as well as the increase in low birth weight deliveries over the past five years in this study are striking. For reduction of increased low birth weight rates, appropriate intervention methods should be initiated.

  6. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  7. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  8. Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon; Sebastien Bonnet; Poonpipope Kasemsap; Savitri Garivait

    2013-01-01

    The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to ...

  9. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC TECHNIQUE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.

  10. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  11. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  12. The Value of a General Increase in Slaughter Weight for Pigs

    Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    of Danish pig production, slaughtering processes and delivery. There have been varying opinions within the industry concerning an improved profit for the slaughterhouses and the farmers when increasing the slaughter weight. The argument for an increased slaughter weight is based on the fact that some...... different weight scenarios, namely the current slaughter weight as well as increases in the slaughter weight of 5, 10 and 15 kg respectively. The model set up in this paper consists of 17 different products and four alternative uses of each pig, but the model can easily be changed to include more products...... to approximately DKK 0.25 for each increase in slaughter weight of 5 kg. The main conclusion is that even relatively simple optimization models can be used to improve the basis of the slaughterhouses considerably for making decisions regarding the value of increased slaughter weight. Prices may vary over time...

  13. Effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight in PIC pigs.

    Huang, Jieping; Zhang, Mingming; Ye, Runqing; Ma, Yun; Lei, Chuzhao

    2017-12-01

    Variation of the vertebral number is associated with carcass traits in pigs. However, results from different populations do not match well with others, especially for carcass weight. Therefore, effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight were investigated by analyzing the relationship between two loci multi-vertebra causal loci (NR6A1 g.748 C > T and VRTN g.20311_20312ins291) and carcass weight in PIC pigs. Results from the association study between vertebral number and carcass weight showed that increased thoracic number had negative effects on carcass weight, but the results were not statistically significant. Further, VRTN Ins/Ins genotype increased more than one thoracic than that of Wt/Wt genotype on average in this PIC population. Meanwhile, there was a significant negative effect of VRTN Ins on carcass weight (P carcass weight in PIC pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Yokukansankachimpihange increased body weight but not food-incentive motivation in wild-type mice.

    Hamaguchi, Takuya; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; F Tanaka, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    Yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), a traditional Japanese medicine, is widely used for the amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia with digestive dysfunction. Regardless of its successful use for digestive dysfunction, the effect of YKSCH on body weight was unknown. Furthermore, if YKSCH increased body weight, it might increase motivation according to Kampo medicine theory. Therefore, we investigated whether YKSCH had the potential to increase body weight and enhance motivation in mice. To address this, C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the long-term effect of YKSCH on body weight and food-incentive motivation. As part of the evaluation, we optimized an operant test for use over the long-term. We found that feeding mice YKSCH-containing chow increased body weight, but did not increase their motivation to food reward. We propose that YKSCH may be a good treatment option for preventing decrease in body weight in patients with dementia.

  15. Detecting the permafrost carbon feedback: talik formation and increased cold-season respiration as precursors to sink-to-source transitions

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Miller, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Thaw and release of permafrost carbon (C) due to climate change is likely to offset increased vegetation C uptake in northern high-latitude (NHL) terrestrial ecosystems. Models project that this permafrost C feedback may act as a slow leak, in which case detection and attribution of the feedback may be difficult. The formation of talik, a subsurface layer of perennially thawed soil, can accelerate permafrost degradation and soil respiration, ultimately shifting the C balance of permafrost-affected ecosystems from long-term C sinks to long-term C sources. It is imperative to understand and characterize mechanistic links between talik, permafrost thaw, and respiration of deep soil C to detect and quantify the permafrost C feedback. Here, we use the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5, a permafrost and biogeochemistry model, in comparison to long-term deep borehole data along North American and Siberian transects, to investigate thaw-driven C sources in NHL ( > 55° N) from 2000 to 2300. Widespread talik at depth is projected across most of the NHL permafrost region (14 million km2) by 2300, 6.2 million km2 of which is projected to become a long-term C source, emitting 10 Pg C by 2100, 50 Pg C by 2200, and 120 Pg C by 2300, with few signs of slowing. Roughly half of the projected C source region is in predominantly warm sub-Arctic permafrost following talik onset. This region emits only 20 Pg C by 2300, but the CLM4.5 estimate may be biased low by not accounting for deep C in yedoma. Accelerated decomposition of deep soil C following talik onset shifts the ecosystem C balance away from surface dominant processes (photosynthesis and litter respiration), but sink-to-source transition dates are delayed by 20-200 years by high ecosystem productivity, such that talik peaks early ( ˜ 2050s, although borehole data suggest sooner) and C source transition peaks late ( ˜ 2150-2200). The remaining C source region in cold northern Arctic permafrost, which shifts to a net

  16. Detecting the permafrost carbon feedback: talik formation and increased cold-season respiration as precursors to sink-to-source transitions

    N. C. Parazoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaw and release of permafrost carbon (C due to climate change is likely to offset increased vegetation C uptake in northern high-latitude (NHL terrestrial ecosystems. Models project that this permafrost C feedback may act as a slow leak, in which case detection and attribution of the feedback may be difficult. The formation of talik, a subsurface layer of perennially thawed soil, can accelerate permafrost degradation and soil respiration, ultimately shifting the C balance of permafrost-affected ecosystems from long-term C sinks to long-term C sources. It is imperative to understand and characterize mechanistic links between talik, permafrost thaw, and respiration of deep soil C to detect and quantify the permafrost C feedback. Here, we use the Community Land Model (CLM version 4.5, a permafrost and biogeochemistry model, in comparison to long-term deep borehole data along North American and Siberian transects, to investigate thaw-driven C sources in NHL ( >  55° N from 2000 to 2300. Widespread talik at depth is projected across most of the NHL permafrost region (14 million km2 by 2300, 6.2 million km2 of which is projected to become a long-term C source, emitting 10 Pg C by 2100, 50 Pg C by 2200, and 120 Pg C by 2300, with few signs of slowing. Roughly half of the projected C source region is in predominantly warm sub-Arctic permafrost following talik onset. This region emits only 20 Pg C by 2300, but the CLM4.5 estimate may be biased low by not accounting for deep C in yedoma. Accelerated decomposition of deep soil C following talik onset shifts the ecosystem C balance away from surface dominant processes (photosynthesis and litter respiration, but sink-to-source transition dates are delayed by 20–200 years by high ecosystem productivity, such that talik peaks early ( ∼  2050s, although borehole data suggest sooner and C source transition peaks late ( ∼  2150–2200. The

  17. Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction

    Carolyn L. Mulvey, BS

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

  18. Fatigue evaluation of the increased weight limit on transit railway bridges.

    2014-09-01

    The recent increase of freight railcar weight limits from 263,000 lbs. to 286,000 lbs. raises concerns for the safety of bridges : on transit passenger rail systems, since they were not designed for this weight increase. Thus, there is a need to asse...

  19. Inhibiting ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene triggers molecular responses aimed to cope with cell toxicity and increased respiration in citrus fruits.

    Establés-Ortiz, Beatriz; Romero, Paco; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Lafuente, María T

    2016-06-01

    The ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been critical in understanding the hormone's mode of action. However, 1-MCP may trigger other processes that could vary the interpretation of results related until now to ethylene, which we aim to understand by using transcriptomic analysis. Transcriptomic changes in ethylene and 1-MCP-treated 'Navelate' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) oranges were studied in parallel with changes in ethylene production, respiration and peel damage. The effects of compounds modifying the levels of the ethylene co-product cyanide and nitric oxide (NO) on fruit physiology were also studied. Results suggested that: 1) The ethylene treatment caused sub-lethal stress since it induced stress-related responses and reduced peel damage; 2) 1-MCP induced ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent responsive networks; 3) 1-MCP triggered ethylene overproduction, stress-related responses and metabolic shifts aimed to cope with cell toxicity, which mostly affected to the inner part of the peel (albedo); 4) 1-MCP increased respiration and drove metabolism reconfiguration for favoring energy conservation but up-regulated genes related to lipid and protein degradation and triggered the over-expression of genes associated with the plasma membrane cellular component; 5) Xenobiotics and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) might act as signals for defense responses in the ethylene-treated fruit, while their uncontrolled generation would induce processes mimicking cell death and damage in 1-MCP-treated fruit; 6) ROS, the ethylene co-product cyanide and NO may converge in the toxic effects of 1-MCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  1. Thermal effects on growth and respiration rates of the mayfly, Dolania americana (ephemeroptera)

    Harvey, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The mayfly Dolania Americana, common in the sand of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, was studied to determine the effects of seasonal changes in temperature on population growth rates and to determine the effects of slight elevations in water temperature on respiration rates of this benthic species. Growth of the population increased with stream temperature until peak emergence of adults in June and July. There was a strong inverse correlation between body weight and respiration rates of immature nymphs. Respiration rates at 2.5, 5, and 10 0 C above ambient creekwater temperatures were not significantly higher than those measured at ambient creekwater temperatures. (auth)

  2. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Vos, J.M.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Velthorst, E.J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2007-01-01

    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and

  3. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  4. Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and molecular weight obtained by irradiation

    Staniland, P.A.; Jarrett, G.

    1976-01-01

    Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and increased molecular weight are obtained by irradiation using β rays or gamma rays at temperatures up to 400 0 C of an aromatic polymer whose molecular chains comprise benzenoid groups and bivalent linking groups, and where irradiation is gamma rays by heating subsequent to irradiation at 200 0 C to 400 0 C. The polymeric materials having increased molecular weight are useful for coating non-cooking surfaces of cookware

  5. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  6. Microbiopsies versus Bergström needle for skeletal muscle sampling: impact on maximal mitochondrial respiration rate.

    Isner-Horobeti, M E; Charton, A; Daussin, F; Geny, B; Dufour, S P; Richard, R

    2014-05-01

    Microbiopsies are increasingly used as an alternative to the standard Bergström technique for skeletal muscle sampling. The potential impact of these two different procedures on mitochondrial respiration rate is unknown. The objective of this work was to compare microbiopsies versus Bergström procedure on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. 52 vastus lateralis muscle samples were obtained from 13 anesthetized pigs, either with a Bergström [6 gauges (G)] needle or with microbiopsy needles (12, 14, 18G). Maximal mitochondrial respiration (V GM-ADP) was assessed using an oxygraphic method on permeabilized fibers. The weight of the muscle samples and V GM-ADP decreased with the increasing gauge of the needles. A positive nonlinear relationship was observed between the weight of the muscle sample and the level of maximal mitochondrial respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration compared to the standard Bergström needle.Therefore, the higher the gauge (i.e. the smaller the size) of the microbiopsy needle, the lower is the maximal rate of respiration. Microbiopsies of skeletal muscle underestimate the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate, and this finding needs to be highlighted for adequate interpretation and comparison with literature data.

  7. Influence of sugars on the dry-weight increase of gamma irradiated Jerusalem artichoke tuber's tissue

    Schaeverbeke-Sacre, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tuber's explants after a γ irradiation of 6000 rads couldn't proliferate in a growth medium containing glucose and indolyl acetic acid; their dry weight is increased by an accumulation of sugars [fr

  8. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature

    Gauthier, Paul P. G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Ellsworth, David S.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Evans, John R.; Tissue, David T.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R dark), and the short-term T response of R dark were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T–response curves of R dark measured over the 15–65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R dark measured at T CO2], growth T, and drought on T response of R dark. However, drought increased R dark at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35–45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R dark occurred (T max) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R dark (i.e. proportional rise in R dark per 10 °C) over the 15–35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. PMID:25205579

  9. Short-term increase of body weight triggers immunological variables in dogs.

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Stuyven, E; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Hesta, M

    2012-01-15

    Overweight in dogs is, as in other companion animals, a major risk factor for several metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known whether immunity is challenged by increased body weight in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term increase in body weight on immunological variables in adult healthy beagle dogs. Sixteen dogs, divided into a control group (CG) and weight gain group (WGG), were included. During a period of 13 weeks, the CG was fed at maintenance energy requirement (MER), whereas the WGG received a double amount of food. After 13 weeks, blood samples were taken for immunological and biochemical analyses. Weight gain and increased body condition score in the WGG were accompanied by a significant higher leptin concentration. Weight gain increased the number of lymphocytes and immunoglobulins A and M and was responsible for a higher proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Short-term increase of body weight thus seems to trigger immunological variables in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual Importance Weighting of Domain Satisfaction Ratings does Not Increase Validity.

    Rohrer, Julia M; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2018-01-01

    Bottom-up models of life satisfaction are based on the assumption that individuals judge the overall quality of their lives by aggregating information across various life domains, such as health, family, and income. This aggregation supposedly involves a weighting procedure because individuals care about different parts of their lives to varying degrees. Thus, composite measures of well-being should be more accurate if domain satisfaction scores are weighted by the importance that respondents assign to the respective domains. Previous studies have arrived at mixed conclusions about whether such a procedure actually works. In the present study, importance weighting was investigated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID; N = 5,049). Both weighted composite scores and moderated regression analyses converged in producing the conclusion that individual importance weights did not result in higher correlations with the outcome variable, a global measure of life satisfaction. By contrast, using weights that vary normatively across domains (e.g., assigning a larger weight to family satisfaction than to housing satisfaction for all respondents) significantly increased the correlation with global life satisfaction (although incremental validity was rather humble). These results converge with findings from other fields such as self-concept research, where evidence for individual importance weighting seems elusive as best.

  11. Individual Importance Weighting of Domain Satisfaction Ratings does Not Increase Validity

    Rohrer, Julia M.; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2018-01-01

    Bottom-up models of life satisfaction are based on the assumption that individuals judge the overall quality of their lives by aggregating information across various life domains, such as health, family, and income. This aggregation supposedly involves a weighting procedure because individuals care about different parts of their lives to varying degrees. Thus, composite measures of well-being should be more accurate if domain satisfaction scores are weighted by the importance that respondents assign to the respective domains. Previous studies have arrived at mixed conclusions about whether such a procedure actually works. In the present study, importance weighting was investigated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID; N = 5,049). Both weighted composite scores and moderated regression analyses converged in producing the conclusion that individual importance weights did not result in higher correlations with the outcome variable, a global measure of life satisfaction. By contrast, using weights that vary normatively across domains (e.g., assigning a larger weight to family satisfaction than to housing satisfaction for all respondents) significantly increased the correlation with global life satisfaction (although incremental validity was rather humble). These results converge with findings from other fields such as self-concept research, where evidence for individual importance weighting seems elusive as best. PMID:29652406

  12. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  13. Lack of Substantial Post-Cessation Weight Increase in Electronic Cigarettes Users

    Cristina Russo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smokers who quit or reduced substantially their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs use. Body weight and smoking/vaping history were extracted from medical records of smokers and ex-smokers to match three study groups: (1 regular EC users on at least two consecutive follow-up visits; (2 regular smokers (and not using ECs; (3 subjects who reported sustained smoking abstinence after completing a cessation program. Review of their medical records was conducted at two follow-up visits at 6- (F/U 6m and 12-months (F/U 12m. A total of 86 EC users, 93 regular smokers, and 44 quitters were studied. In the EC users study group, cigarettes/day use decreased from 21.1 at baseline to 1.8 at F/U 12m (p < 0.0001. Dual usage was reported by approximately 50% of EC users. Both within factor (time, p < 0.0001 and between factor (study groups, p < 0.0001 produced significant effect on weight (% change from baseline, with a significant 4.8% weight gain from baseline in the quitters study group at F/U 12m. For the EC users, weight gain at F/U 12m was only 1.5% of baseline. There was no evidence of post-cessation weight increase in those who reduced substantially cigarette consumption by switching to ECs (i.e., dual users and only modest post-cessation weight increase was reported in exclusive EC users at F/U 12m. By reducing weight gain and tobacco consumption, EC-based interventions may promote an overall improvement in quality of life.

  14. Management effects on European cropland respiration

    Eugster, Werner; Moffat, Antje M.; Ceschia, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Increases in respiration rates following management activities in croplands are considered a relevant anthropogenic source of CO2. In this paper, we quantify the impact of management events on cropland respiration fluxes of CO2 as they occur under current climate and management conditions. Our....... This allowed us to address the question of how management activities influence ecosystem respiration. This was done by comparing respiration fluxes during 7, 14, and 28 days after the management with those observed during the matching time period before management. Median increases in respiration ranged from...... than management alone are also important at a given site. Temperature is the climatic factor that showed best correlation with site-specific respiration fluxes. Therefore, the effect of temperature changes between the time periods before and after management were taken into account for a subset of 13...

  15. Increased pericarp cell length underlies a major quantitative trait locus for grain weight in hexaploid wheat.

    Brinton, Jemima; Simmonds, James; Minter, Francesca; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Snape, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-08-01

    Crop yields must increase to address food insecurity. Grain weight, determined by grain length and width, is an important yield component, but our understanding of the underlying genes and mechanisms is limited. We used genetic mapping and near isogenic lines (NILs) to identify, validate and fine-map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 5A associated with grain weight. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of developing and mature grains from the NILs was performed. We identified a stable and robust QTL associated with a 6.9% increase in grain weight. The positive interval leads to 4.0% longer grains, with differences first visible 12 d after fertilization. This grain length effect was fine-mapped to a 4.3 cM interval. The locus also has a pleiotropic effect on grain width (1.5%) during late grain development that determines the relative magnitude of the grain weight increase. Positive NILs have increased maternal pericarp cell length, an effect which is independent of absolute grain length. These results provide direct genetic evidence that pericarp cell length affects final grain size and weight in polyploid wheat. We propose that combining genes that control distinct biological mechanisms, such as cell expansion and proliferation, will enhance crop yields. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  17. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n = 892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. CONCLUSION: Based...

  18. Increased post-operative cardiopulmonary fitness in gastric bypass patients is explained by weight loss

    Lund, M. T.; Hansen, M.; Wimmelmann, C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to a major weight loss in obese patients. However, given that most patients remain obese after the weight loss, regular exercise should be part of a healthier lifestyle. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary fitness in obese...... ± 2 kg during the study period. VO2max increased (A: 21 ± 1 vs D: 29 mL/min/kg, P exercise decreased and self......-perceived physical fitness increased after RYGB. Self-reported low- and high-intensity physical activity did not change. With weight loss, self-rated fitness level increased and the limitations to perform exercise decreased in RYGB patients. Nevertheless, as shown by the lower absolute VO2max, RYGB patients do...

  19. Do E-cigarettes induce weight changes and increase cardiometabolic risk? A signal for the future.

    Verhaegen, A; Van Gaal, L

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco use in electronic cigarettes, also called vaping, is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents and young adults, due to attractive marketing techniques promoting them as healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes. Although smoking is associated with weight loss, it increases insulin resistance and attributes to other features of the metabolic syndrome, increasing the cardiometabolic risk profile. Whether vaping has the same deleterious effects on metabolic parameters as regular cigarette smoke has not yet been studied thoroughly in humans. However, animal model experiments attribute comparable effects of e-cigarette smoking, even without nicotine exposure, on weight and metabolic parameters as compared to smoking cigarettes. In this review paper, we want to give an overview of published data on the effects on weight and cardiometabolic parameters of e-cigarette use and formulate some mechanistic hypotheses. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Respirator field performance factors

    Skaggs, B.J.; DeField, J.D.; Strandberg, S.W.; Sutcliffe, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Industrial Hygiene Group assisted OSHA and the NRC in measurements of respirator performance under field conditions. They reviewed problems associated with sampling aerosols within the respirator in order to determine fit factors (FFs) or field performance factor (FPF). In addition, they designed an environmental chamber study to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on a respirator wearer

  1. Skeletal stiffening in an amphibious fish out of water is a response to increased body weight.

    Turko, Andy J; Kültz, Dietmar; Fudge, Douglas; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M; Stoyek, Matthew R; Wright, Patricia A

    2017-10-15

    Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that this change in mechanical properties occurred via increased abundance of proteins responsible for bone mineralization in other fishes as well as in tetrapods. Type X collagen, associated with endochondral bone growth, increased in abundance almost ninefold after terrestrial acclimation. Collagen isoforms known to promote extracellular matrix cross-linking and cause tissue stiffening, such as types IX and XII collagen, also increased in abundance. Finally, more densely packed collagen fibrils in both gill arches and filaments were observed microscopically in terrestrially acclimated fish. Our results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the fish musculoskeletal system can be fine-tuned in response to changes in effective body weight using biochemical pathways similar to those in mammals, suggesting that weight sensing is an ancestral vertebrate trait rather than a tetrapod innovation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. An interaction between NDE1 and high birth weight increases schizophrenia susceptibility.

    Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tomppo, Liisa; Lehto, Ulriika; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina; Hennah, William

    2015-12-15

    Pre- and perinatal environmental factors have been shown to increase schizophrenia risk particularly when combined with genetic liability. The investigation of specific gene environment interactions in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has gained momentum. We used multivariate GEE regression modeling to investigate the interaction between genes of the DISC1 pathway and birth weight, in relation to schizophrenia susceptibility in a Finnish schizophrenia family cohort. The study sample consisted of 457 subjects with both genotype and birth weight information. Gender and place of birth were adjusted for in the models. We found a significant interaction between birth weight and two NDE1 markers in relation to increased schizophrenia risk: a four SNP haplotype spanning NDE1 (b=1.26, SE=0.5, p=0.012) and one of its constituent SNPs rs4781678 (b=1.33, SE=0.51, p=0.010). Specifically, high birth weight (>4000g) was associated with increased schizophrenia risk among subjects homozygous for the previously identified risk alleles. The study was based on a family study sample with high genetic loading for schizophrenia and thus our findings cannot directly be generalized as representing the general population. Our results suggest that the functions mediated by NDE1 during the early stages of neurodevelopment are susceptible to the additional disruptive effects of pre- and perinatal environmental factors associated with high birth weight, augmenting schizophrenia susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  4. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), prespiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration...... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  5. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; Pcost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  6. Step Tracking with Goals Increases Children's Weight Loss in Behavioral Intervention.

    Staiano, Amanda E; Beyl, Robbie A; Hsia, Daniel S; Jarrell, Amber R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Mantzor, Savarra; Newton, Robert L; Tyson, Patrice

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the influence of step goals with pedometers to improve children's weight loss, physical activity, and psychosocial health during obesity treatment. Overweight and obese children ages 8-17 years (n = 105) participated in a 10-week family-based weight management intervention, including physical activity, nutrition, and behavioral modification. A quasi-experimental design was used to group eight cohorts into three conditions: no pedometer (n = 24), pedometer only (n = 25), and pedometer with step goals (i.e., 500 steps/day weekly increase above baseline; n = 56). Height and weight were measured at baseline and week 10 and used to calculate BMI. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine difference by condition for change in weight, BMI, and BMI z-score, controlling for age and baseline value. Differences in steps per day and psychosocial health were compared between the two pedometer conditions. Participants were 12.4 ± 2.5 years of age, including 70% girls and 64% African Americans. The pedometer with goals condition significantly reduced BMI (p = 0.02) and BMI z-score (p = 0.01) compared with the no-pedometer group. The pedometer with goals condition significantly increased steps per day (+1185 ± 425 steps/day) compared with the pedometer-only condition (-162 ± 620 steps/day; p goals was an effective approach to produce weight loss. Further work is needed to increase the strength of interventions to achieve clinically meaningful weight reduction for children with obesity.

  7. Weighting sequence variants based on their annotation increases power of whole-genome association studies

    Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Albrechtsen, Anders; Zink, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The consensus approach to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been to assign equal prior probability of association to all sequence variants tested. However, some sequence variants, such as loss-of-function and missense variants, are more likely than others to affect protein function...... for the family-wise error rate (FWER), using as weights the enrichment of sequence annotations among association signals. We show that this weighted adjustment increases the power to detect association over the standard Bonferroni correction. We use the enrichment of associations by sequence annotation we have...

  8. Increasing donor-recipient weight mismatch in pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation does not adversely affect outcome.

    Kanani, Mazyar; Hoskote, Aparna; Carter, Catherine; Burch, Michael; Tsang, Victor; Kostolny, Martin

    2012-02-01

    postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) support (p recipient weight ratio of 3. These encouraging findings cautiously justify this policy, in an era when marginal donors are increasingly sought.

  9. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  10. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates......, potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  11. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    ; P = 0.02) and birth weight SD score (β = 0.06; P = 0.008) when adjusted for prepregnancy BMI, HbA1c at 36 weeks, smoking, parity, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher gestational weight gain in women with type 1 diabetes was associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of glycemic......OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at ... (prepregnancy BMI Women...

  12. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  13. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    Jesper eKrogh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPsychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years compared to the general population. Most years of lost life are due to excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength and weight.MethodsWe searched Pubmed, Embase, and Psycinfo including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions.ResultsWe identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found.ConclusionBased on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting little is known about the effect on cardiovascular fitness beyond the intervention and weight reduction. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally participants should be assessed beyond the intervention

  14. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb influx and [ 3 H] ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, [ 3 H] ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated 86 Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and 86 Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and 86 Rb influx to normal

  15. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-09-01

    Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated /sup 86/Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx to normal.

  16. Weight increase and overweight are associated with DNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle.

    de la Maza, María-Pía; Olivares, Daniela; Hirsch, Sandra; Sierralta, Walter; Gattás, Vivien; Barrera, Gladys; Bunout, Daniel; Leiva, Laura; Fernández, Mireya

    2006-12-01

    Weight maintenance within normal standards is recommended for prevention of conditions associated with oxidative injury. To compare oxidative damage in a post mitotic tissue, between adults differing in long-term energy balance. During hernia surgery, a sample of skeletal muscle was obtained in 17 non-obese adults. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their self-reported weight change: weight maintainers (WM) reported 5kg increment. Muscle immunohistochemistry for 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), and TNF-alpha, as markers of oxidative injury and inflammation, were performed. As known positive controls for oxidative injury, we included 10 elderly subjects (66-101yr). Anthropometric measures and blood samples for clinical laboratory and serum cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) were obtained. 8OHdG was higher in WG compared with WM (149.1+/-16.2 versus 117.8+/-29.5, P=0.03), and was associated with anthropometric indicators of fat accumulation. 4HNE was similar in WG compared with WM (10.9+/-7.6 versus 9.8+/-6.3) but noticeably higher in elderly subjects (21.5+/-15.3, P=0.059). TNF-alpha protein in WG was higher compared with WM (114.0+/-41.7 versus 70.1+/-23.3, P=0.025), and was associated with weight increase. Moderate self-reported weight increase, and body fat accumulation, suggesting long-term positive energy balance is associated with muscle DNA oxidative injury and inflammation.

  17. Modification of UV absorption profile of polymer film reflectors to increase solar-weighted reflectance

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randall C.; White, David

    2017-05-02

    Provided are reflective thin film constructions including a reduced number of layers, which provides for increased solar-weighted hemispherical reflectance and durability. Reflective films include those comprising an ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coating over a metal layer. Also provided are ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coatings and methods for optimizing the ultraviolet absorption of an abrasion resistant coating. Reflective films disclosed herein are useful for solar reflecting, solar collecting, and solar concentrating applications, such as for the generation of electrical power.

  18. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    Akopians, Alin L.; Madrigal, Vanessa K.; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Thomas, Albert M.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A.; Okeya, Bette L.; Abbott, David H.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. Objective: This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients: Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. Intervention(s): All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Results: Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27571186

  19. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women.

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Akopians, Alin L; Madrigal, Vanessa K; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J; Sarma, Manoj K; Thomas, Albert M; Grogan, Tristan R; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A; Okeya, Bette L; Abbott, David H; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2016-11-01

    Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. This is a prospective cohort study. The setting was an academic medical center. Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction.

  20. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    Chandrasekharan, N; Thompson, L L

    2016-01-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation. (paper)

  1. Quantifying soil respiration at landscape scales. Chapter 11

    John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Soil CO2, efflux, or soil respiration, represents a substantial component of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, quantifying soil respiration over large areas and long time periods is an increasingly important goal. However, soil respiration rates vary dramatically in space and time in response to both environmental conditions...

  2. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  3. ARALAR/AGC1 deficiency, a neurodevelopmental disorder with severe impairment of neuronal mitochondrial respiration, does not produce a primary increase in brain lactate.

    Juaristi, Inés; García-Martín, María L; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Pardo, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    ARALAR/AGC1 (aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carrier 1) is an important component of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). AGC1-deficiency is a rare disease causing global cerebral hypomyelination, developmental arrest, hypotonia, and epilepsy (OMIM ID #612949); the aralar-KO mouse recapitulates the major findings in humans. This study was aimed at understanding the impact of ARALAR-deficiency in brain lactate levels as a biomarker. We report that lactate was equally abundant in wild-type and aralar-KO mouse brain in vivo at postnatal day 17. We find that lactate production upon mitochondrial blockade depends on up-regulation of lactate formation in astrocytes rather than in neurons. However, ARALAR-deficiency decreased cell respiration in neurons, not astrocytes, which maintained unchanged respiration and lactate production. As the primary site of ARALAR-deficiency is neuronal, this explains the lack of accumulation of brain lactate in ARALAR-deficiency in humans and mice. On the other hand, we find that the cytosolic and mitochondrial components of the glycerol phosphate shuttle are present in astrocytes with similar activities. This suggests that glycerol phosphate shuttle is the main NADH shuttle in astrocytes and explains the absence of effects of ARALAR-deficiency in these cells. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Choosing the right respirator

    Bidwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Selecting respirators to help protect workers from airborne contaminants can be a confusing process. The consequences of selecting the incorrect respirator can be intimidating, and worker safety and health may be dramatically and irreparably affected if an inappropriate respirator is chosen. When used in the workplace, a formal respiratory protection program must be established covering the basic requirements outlined in the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134). Education and training must be properly emphasized and conducted periodically. Maintenance, cleaning, and storage programs must be established and routinely followed for reusable respirators. The process of establishing a respiratory protection program can be broken down into four basic steps: Identify respiratory hazards and concentrations; understand the contaminants effects on workers' health; select appropriate respiratory protection; and train in proper respirator use and maintenance. These four steps are the foundation for establishing a basic respirator protection program. Be sure to consult state and federal OSHA requirements to ensure that the program complies. Leading industrial respirator manufacturers should be able to assist with on-site training and education in this four-step process, in addition to helping employers train their workers and conduct respirator fit testing

  6. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    Schrod, L.; Neuhaus, T.; Horwitz, A.E.; Speer, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights 2 x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86 %, followed by albumin/SC ratio. Conclusions. The optimum timing of dexamethasone treatment may be determined by the stage of developing CLD and radiological findings rather than by the age of the premature infant. (orig.)

  7. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  8. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    Greenberg, James A; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without

  9. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    James A Greenberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. METHODS: We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98, and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. RESULTS: Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2 of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44 and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55, respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with

  10. Prematurity and low weight at birth as new conditions predisposing to an increased cardiovascular risk.

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Flore, Giovanna; Fanos, Vassilios; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Scicchitano, Pietro; Laforgia, Nicola; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Although the survival rate for preterm subjects has improved considerably, due to the progress in the field of perinatal medicine, preterm birth is frequently the cause underlying a series of notorious complications: morphological, neurological, ophthalmological, and renal alterations. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated how low gestational age and reduced foetal growth contribute towards an increased cardiovascular risk in preterm neonates. In fact, cardiovascular mortality is higher among former preterm adults than those born at term. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. In the light of the above, an early, constant, and prolonged cardiological followup programme should be implemented in former preterm individuals. The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive literature review about two new emerging conditions predisposing to an increased cardiovascular risk: prematurity and low weight at birth.

  11. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Meditations on birth weight: is it better to reduce the variance or increase the mean?

    Haig, David

    2003-07-01

    A conceptual model is presented here in which the birth weight distribution is decomposed into a distribution of target weights and a distribution of perturbations from the target. The target weight is the adaptive goal of fetal development. In the simplest model, perinatal mortality is independent of variation in target weight and determined solely by the magnitude of the perturbation of birth weight from the target. In this model, mortality risk is concentrated in the tails of the birth weight distribution. A difference between populations in their distributions of target weights will be associated with a corresponding shift in their curves of weight-specific risk, without any difference between the populations in overall risk. In this model, risk would be reduced by decreasing the variance of the distribution of perturbations. The model is discussed in the context of the so-called "paradoxes of low birth weight."

  14. Low-molecular weight heparin increases circulating sFlt-1 levels and enhances urinary elimination.

    Henning Hagmann

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Preeclampsia is a devastating medical complication of pregnancy which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. While the etiology of preeclampsia is unclear, human and animal studies suggest that excessive circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1, an alternatively spliced variant of VEGF-receptor1, contribute to the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Since sFlt-1 binds to heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, we hypothesized that the anticoagulant heparin, which is often used in pregnancy, may interfere with the levels, distribution and elimination of sFlt-1 in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We systematically determined serum and urine levels of angiogenic factors in preeclamptic women before and after administration of low molecular weight heparin and further characterized the interaction with heparin in biochemical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum and urine samples were used to measure sFlt-1 levels before and after heparin administration. Serum levels of sFlt-1 increased by 25% after heparin administration in pregnant women. The magnitude of the increase in circulating sFlt-1 correlated with initial sFlt-1 serum levels. Urinary sFlt-1 levels were also elevated following heparin administration and levels of elimination were dependent on the underlying integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Biochemical binding studies employing cation exchange chromatography revealed that heparin bound sFlt-1 had decreased affinity to negatively charged surfaces when compared to sFlt-1 alone. CONCLUSION: Low molecular weight heparin administration increased circulating sFlt1 levels and enhanced renal elimination. We provide evidence that both effects may be due to heparin binding to sFlt1 and masking the positive charges on sFlt1 protein.

  15. Tributyltin exposure induces gut microbiome dysbiosis with increased body weight gain and dyslipidemia in mice.

    Guo, Hao; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Dong; Wei, Xinglong; Kou, Ruirui; Si, Jiliang

    2018-05-03

    Gut microbiome dysbiosis plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of obesity and tributyltin (TBT) has been found as an environmental obesogen. However, whether TBT could disturb gut microbiome and the relationship between obesity induced by TBT exposure and alteration in gut microbiota are still unknown. In order to assess the association between them, mice were exposed to TBTCl (50 μg kg -1 ) once every three days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 54. The results demonstrated that TBT exposure resulted in increased body weight gain, lager visceral fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in male mice on PND 84. Correspondingly, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that TBT treatment decreased gut microbial species and perturbed the microbiome composition in mice. Furthermore, Pearson's corelation coefficient analysis showed a significantly negative correlation between the body weight and the alpha diversity of gut microbiome. These results suggested that TBT exposure could induce gut microbiome dysbiosis in mice, which might contribute to the obesity pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of low birth weight on the increased risk of post-partum hypertension].

    Wang, Lijiao; Tian, Qi; Wu, Aiping; Kan, Shuting; Tao, Jie; Dong, Yan; Han, Hongfeng; Gao, Xinying; Zheng, Yao; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling

    2014-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of hypertension between low birth weight infant (LBWI) women and non-LBWI women. A retrospective cohort study was applied and 3 172 pregnant women giving births during October 1976 to December 2008 in our hospital and underwent physical check-up between 2010 and 2011 at the Kailuan medical group were included and divided into LBWI group and non-LBWI group by the history of LBWI. Prevalence of hypertension was obtained during the follow-up program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relative risk of hypertension. A total number of 3 172 women, with an average age of 42.3 years old were divided into LBWI group (n = 147) and non-LBWI group (n = 3 025), with the average birth weights of their infants were 2.31 kg and 3.39 kg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension from the follow-up program was significantly higher in LBWI group than that in the non-LBWI group (23.8% vs. 16.9%, P hypertension in LBWI group was 1.60 (95%CI:1.02-2.53) folds higher than that in the non-LBWI group. Prevalence of hypertension in women with LBWI was higher than that in those women without LBWI. History of LBWI seemed to have had an increased risk to develop hypertension.

  17. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  18. Increasing Low Birth Weight Rates: Deliveries in a Tertiary Hospital in Istanbul

    Berrin Telatar; Orhan Ünal; Abdülkadir Piçak; Lale Ger; Serdar Cömert; Cem Turan; Yasemin Akin

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Methods:Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth...

  19. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  20. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-01-01

    of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. PARTICIPANTS....../MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649....../876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P prediabetes and T2D. No normal-weight woman (BMI

  1. Soil Respiration And Respiration Partitioning In An Oak-Savannah With A History Of Fertilization

    Morris, K. A.; Nair, R.; Schrumpf, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil respiration is a combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic components. These components have different controls and structurally complex ecosystems such as oak-savannahs offer an opportunity to study strongly contrasting conditions (ie., soil from under trees versus open areas) in an environment with similar soil mineralogy and climatic patterns. To measure respiration coming from plant roots, fungal hyphae, and free-living microbes we established stations of soil cores comprised of three selectively permeable meshes under tree canopies and in open grassy areas of a Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) savannah in Extremadura, Spain. Large plots of this ecosystem had previously been fertilized as part of a stoichiometeric imbalance study (in 2015). Stations were installed in Dec. 2016 within four plots; control, N added, P added, and N+P added. Respiration from cores was measured in campaigns at key phenological stages with a portable Li-Cor 8100A unit. Six months after installation > 50% of soil respiration was attributable to free-living microbes. There is a persistent effect of the prior fertilization, resulting in increased soil respiration in open areas regardless of fertilizer type, while respiration from under tree canopies had a varied response. Soil under tree canopies showed distinct sensitivity to stoichiometric imbalance, meaning that addition of N or P alone either did not change respiration or decreased it slightly, while N+P stimulated respiration. We determined that respiration from free-living microbes is a major component of soil respiration even in the most active plant growing season. However, because of the lag between the time of fertilization and the time of measurement, it not possible to say whether treatment responses are due solely to nutrient status of the soil or whether changes in plant biomass and species composition also play a role. Additional work planned at the site will shed light on this uncertainty as well as the contribution of

  2. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity.

    Kistorp, Caroline; Bliddal, Henning; Goetze, Jens P; Christensen, Robin; Faber, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal/day) and conventional hypo-energetic diet (1200 kcal/day) for 52 weeks, or to a control group that was offered diet-related counselling. N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) and proADM (MR-proADM) and body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning were determined at baseline and after 52 weeks. Comparisons between groups were analysed using t-tests. Changes from the baseline within the groups were analysed with paired tests. Changes in the variables, delta (∆), were calculated as 52 weeks minus the baseline. In the intervention group, BMI decreased by almost 20% (31.6 ± 6.2 vs. 37.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2); P <0.001) with a loss of body fat of 23.5 ± 15.5% (P < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP and MR-proANP increased (from 55 ± 31 to 97 ± 55 pg/ml; P < 0.001, and from 59 ± 21 to 74 ± 26 pmol/L; P < 0.001), whereas MR-proADM decreased (from 573 ± 153 to 534 ± 173 pmol/L; P <0.001). Changes (Δ) in MR-proANP correlated with Δfat mass (r = -0.359; P = 0.011) and Δglucose (r = -0.495; P <0.001), while increases in NT-proBNP were primarily associated with reduced plasma glucose (r = -0.462; P <0.001). A modest but significant weight loss of 6% (P < 0.001) was found in the control group with no changes in plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP or MR-proANP, and a minor change in MR-proADM. Plasma NT-proBNP and MR

  3. Exaggerated root respiration accounts for growth retardation in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Brauner, Katrin; Hörmiller, Imke; Nägele, Thomas; Heyer, Arnd G

    2014-07-01

    The knock-out mutation of plastidial phosphoglucomutase (pgm) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana, and results in a severe growth reduction of plants cultivated under diurnal conditions. It has been speculated that high soluble sugar levels accumulating during the light phase in leaf mesophyll might cause a reduction of photosynthetic activity or that shortage of reduced carbon during the night is the reason for the slow biomass gain of pgm. Separate simultaneous measurements of leaf net photosynthesis and root respiration demonstrate that photosynthetic activity per unit fresh weight is not reduced in pgm, whereas root respiration is strongly elevated. Comparison with a mutant defective in the dominating vacuolar invertase (AtβFruct4) revealed that high sucrose concentration in the cytosol, but not in the vacuole, of leaf cells is responsible for elevated assimilate transport to the root. Increased sugar supply to the root, as observed in pgm mutants, forces substantial respiratory losses. Because root respiration accounts for 80% of total plant respiration under long-day conditions, this gives rise to retarded biomass formation. In contrast, reduced vacuolar invertase activity leads to reduced net photosynthesis in the shoot and lowered root respiration, and affords an increased root/shoot ratio. The results demonstrate that roots have very limited capacity for carbon storage but exert rigid control of supply for their maintenance metabolism. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  5. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    Maria Teresa Bechere Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018 and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight.

  6. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  8. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Sperling, Or; Earles, J Mason; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq.) cm(-3) yr(-1) on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  9. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of diversity on soil respiration. We hypothesized that plant diversity could affect soil respiration in two ways. On the one hand, more diverse plant communities have been shown to promote plant productivity, which could increase soil respiration. On the other hand, the nutrient concentration in the biomass produced has been shown to decrease with diversity, which could counteract the production-induced increase in soil respiration. Our results clearly show that soil respiration increased with species richness. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was not due to differences in species composition. In general, soil respiration in mixtures was higher than would be expected from the monocultures. Path analysis revealed that species richness predominantly regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity. No evidence supporting the hypothesized negative effect of lower N concentration on soil respiration was found. We conclude that shifts in productivity are the main mechanism by which changes in plant diversity may affect soil respiration.

  11. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  12. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.

  13. Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management.

    Louis-Sylvestre, Jeanine; Lluch, Anne; Neant, Françoise; Blundell, John E

    2003-01-01

    Research on feeding frequency started more than 20 years ago and some studies have shown evidence of nutritional benefits, especially on metabolism and body weight management. Advice on feeding frequency could play an important role in public health policies by reducing levels of overweight and obesity, the prevalence of which has dangerously increased in most countries over the last few decades. The 17th International Congress of Nutrition brought to the forefront the benefits of increasing feeding frequency (i.e. keeping the same total daily energy intake but dividing it into more frequent meals than usual). Recent epidemiological studies, mostly carried out in France, have provided evidence on the beneficial effects of a fourth meal for those individuals who habitually choose this pattern. Supported by metabolic data, these findings have now been supported by experimental studies. The "goûter", commonly eaten in the afternoon in France by most children and many adults, has the biological characteristics of a meal because it is eaten in response to hunger. Suppressing the "goûter" in "habitual fourth meal eaters" soon leads to an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). Further, people who are regular "goûter" eaters have a higher carbohydrate intake and better metabolic profile than other adults, even though their total energy intake is not greater. Increased feeding frequency leads to a reduction in the total secretion of insulin, an improvement in insulin resistance and a better blood glucose control, as well as an improvement in the blood lipid profile. The experts agreed that, as long as we do not consume more energy than we use up and we only eat when we are hungry, it may be useful to split our total energy intake into as many meals as our social pattern allows. However, the pattern of eating cannot be completely dissociated from the composition of foods consumed. Therefore within this energy intake, we must take care to consume not only a good balance of

  14. Vitamin E supplementation of undernourished ewes pre- and post-lambing reduces weight loss of ewes and increases weight of lambs.

    Rosales Nieto, César Augusto; Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Moron Cedillo, Felipe de Jesús; Flores Najera, Manuel de Jesús; Gámez Vázquez, Hector Guillermo; Ventura Pérez, Felipe de Jesús; Liu, Shimin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test if vitamin E supplementation during late gestation and early lactation would affect the weight of ewes under nutritional restriction and the performance of their lambs. Mature Rambouillet ewes (n = 37) were fed a diet that supplied 70 % of the energy and 80 % of recommended protein requirements and randomly assigned to either vitamin E (vit E, n = 20, 4 IU of α-tocopherol kg(-1) of live weight) or control (n = 17, without vitamin E supplementation). During the experimental period, the mean weight of ewes decreased from 74.6 ± 2.4 to 58.1 ± 2.2 kg. Weight loss of ewes was slightly less for the vit E than the control (-65 vs -124 g day(-1), SEM = 46; P = 0.07). Lambs born from vit E-supplemented ewes were heavier than lambs from the control and grew significantly faster (239 vs 195 g day(-1), SEM = 29.3, P ewes are not met, supplementation of vitamin E during late gestation and early lactation might be an effective strategy to minimise ewe weight loss as well as to increase lamb growth.

  15. Increased risk of diabetes development in individuals with weight cycling over 4 years: The Kangbuk Samsung Health study.

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Cho, Jung Hwan; Kwon, Hyemi; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Lee, Won-Young

    2018-05-01

    Weight cycling is defined as cyclical loss and gain of weight and recent studies suggest deleterious effects of weight cycling on cardiometabolic health. We aimed to analyze the risk for diabetes development in association with weight cycling over 4 years of follow-up. A retrospective study performed in 4,818 non-diabetic participants (mean age 43 years, 78.3% men) in a health screening program in whom serial health examinations were performed in 5 consecutive years from 2010 to 2014. Average successive variability of weight (ASVW) was defined by the amount of body weight change in absolute value between the successive years over 5 years summed and divided by four. The subjects were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (<23 kg/m 2 ) and overweight (≥23 kg/m 2 ). Over 4 years, 3.2% developed diabetes. When the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to tertile groups of ASVW, those in the highest tertile showed significantly increased risk for diabetes development compared to those with the lowest tertile {odds ratio (OR) 1.860; 95% CI 1.130-3.063}. When similar analyses were performed according to the 4 groups divided by baseline body weight and ASVW over four years, those who were more than overweight at baseline with high ASVW showed significantly increased risk of diabetes development compared to those had normal weight and low ASVW (OR 2.266; 95% 1.123-4.572). When the subjects were divided into six group according to weight change and ASVW, those with increased weight over 4 years and high ASVW showed the highest risk for diabetes development among the groups compared to those with stable weight and low ASVW over four years (OR 3.660; 95% CI 1.402-9.553). Those with high ASVW showed significantly increased risk for diabetes development over four years compared with those who had low ASVW. Weight cycling was significantly associated with increased risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Diffusion-weighted MRI for detecting prostate tumour in men at increased genetic risk

    Souza, Nandita M. de; Morgan, Veronica A.; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Sohaib, S. Aslam; Giles, Sharon L.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Castro, Elena; Hazell, Steven; Jafar, Maysam; Eeles, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    •Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening.•MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk.•Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening. MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk. Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI is invaluable in detecting prostate cancer. We determined its sensitivity and specificity and established interobserver agreement for detecting tumour in men with a family history of prostate cancer stratified by genetic risk. 51 men with a family history of prostate cancer underwent T2-W + DW-endorectal MRI at 3.0 T. Presence of tumour was noted at right and left apex, mid and basal prostate sextants by 2 independent observers, 1 experienced and the other inexperienced in endorectal MRI. Sensitivity and specificity against a 10-core sampling technique (lateral and medial cores at each level considered together) in men with >2× population risk based on 71 SNP analysis versus those with lower genetic risk scores was established. Interobserver agreement was determined at a subject level. Biopsies indicated cancer in 28 sextants in 13/51 men; 32 of 51 men had twice the population risk (>0.25) based on 71 SNP profiling. Sensitivity/specificity per-subject for patients was 90.0%/86.4% (high-risk) vs. 66.7%/100% (low-risk, observer 1) and 60.0%/86.3% (high-risk) vs. 33.3%/93.8% (low-risk, observer 2) with moderate overall inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.42). Regional sensitivities/specificities for high-risk vs. low-risk for observer 1 apex 72.2%/100% [33.3%/100%], mid 100%/93.1% [100%/97.3%], base 16.7%/98.3% [0%/100%] and for observer 2 apex 36.4%/98.1% [0%/100%], mid 28.6%/96.5% [100%/100%], base 20%/100% [0%/97.3%] were poorer as they failed to detect

  17. Cattle respiration facility

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the emission rate of methane from dairy cows has been calculated using the IPCC standard values for dairy cows in Western countries, due to the lack of national data. Therefore, four respiration chambers for dairy cows were built with the main purpose of measuring methane, but also...

  18. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity

    Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Bliddal, Henning; Gøtze, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations...... of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). RESULTS: A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal...

  20. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO 2 differential (ΔCO 2 ) increased two-fold with no change in apparent R d , when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO 2 . Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO 2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative studies on the increase of uterine weight and related mechanisms of cadmium and p-nonylphenol

    Zhang Wenchang; Yang Jinsong; Wang Jiali; Xia Pincang; Xu Youqiong; Jia Haimei; Chen Yongshan

    2007-01-01

    The research was designed to compare the effect of cadmium and p-nonylphenol on the increase of uterine weight and to study the related mechanisms. It provided basic evidence for us to understand the possible different mechanisms among different EEDs. In this study, both ovaries of 60 Wistar rats (28 days age) were ectomized, and after 21 days recovery, the rats were randomly assigned into six groups and exposed to cadmium (0.12, 1.20 mg/kg), NP (100, 200 mg/kg), control (sterile PBS), and positive control (17β-estradiol) per day for 3 days, respectively, then related indexes were detected. The results showed that the increase of uterine weight induced by cadmium was accompanied by the increase of the thickness of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium but the decrease of nuclear/cytoplasm of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium, while the increase of uterine weight induced by p-nonylphenol was accompanied by the increase of the thickness of luminal epithelium cell, endometrium, and myometrium but the decrease of nuclear/cytoplasm of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium. Cadmium could inhibit the positive expression of PCNA while p-nonylphenol prompted it. Exposure to cadmium and NP both could also stimulate phosphorylation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, implying that this signal pathway had an effect on the increase of the uterine weight induced by cadmium and p-nonylphenol. The results indicate that cadmium may induce the increase of uterine weight, which is accompanied with toxic effect on endometrium, while NP's effect of the increase of uterine weight is due to cell proliferation of endometrium, the mechanisms of which are the same as estrogen, but they may both activate ERK signal pathway

  3. A 7-d exercise program increases high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese adults

    Kelly, Karen R; Blaszczak, Alecia; Haus, Jacob M

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the biologically active form of adiponectin and is related to enhanced insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. Previously, we found that 7 d of exercise improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects; however, whether short-term exercise training...

  4. Iatrogenic hyperthyroidism does not promote weight loss or prevent ageing-related increases in body mass in thyroid cancer survivors.

    Polotsky, Hanah N; Brokhin, Matvey; Omry, Gal; Polotsky, Alex J; Tuttle, R Michael

    2012-04-01

    Thyroid cancer survivors represent a unique population in which the potential long-term effects of brief periods of intentional thyroid hormone withdrawal and/or prolonged periods of iatrogenic hyperthyroidism on body weight and body mass were evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize body mass changes over several years in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and to compare these changes with the expected weight gain in age-matched healthy control populations. We also evaluated the possibility that the method of preparation [thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) vs recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)] for radioactive iodine remnant ablation may be associated with differences in body mass at the time of the final follow-up. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/INTERVENTIONS: A retrospective review identified 153 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy at one major medical centre. Of the 153 patients, 143 also had radioactive iodine remnant ablation: 70 after THW and 73 after rhTSH. Change in weight and BMI at 1-2 and 3-5 years of follow-up points were examined. Annualized weight variation within the cohort was compared with age-matched population controls expressed in kilogram/year. Significant weight gain was noted for the full cohort after 3-5 years of follow-up as compared to baseline (76 ± 21 kg at baseline vs 79 ± 23 kg at 3-5 years of follow-up, P weight, respectively, which is similar or somewhat higher than previously published age-matched population controls (ranging from 0·23 to 0·34 kg/year). When expressed as per cent change and comparing the final weight to the pre-operative baseline, the rhTSH group experienced approximately a 1·7% increase in weight compared with the 3·9% increase seen with THW patients (P = 0·02). When expressed as kg/year change, the rhTSH cohort had 0·34 kg/year change compared with the 0·64 kg/year change seen in the thyroid hormone withdrawal patients (P = 0·02). In

  5. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  6. Soil Respiration under Different Land Uses in Eastern China

    Fan, Li-Chao; Yang, Ming-Zhen; Han, Wen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change has a crucial influence on soil respiration, which further affects soil nutrient availability and carbon stock. We monitored soil respiration rates under different land-use types (tea gardens with three production levels, adjacent woodland, and a vegetable field) in Eastern China at weekly intervals over a year using the dynamic closed chamber method. The relationship between soil respiration and environmental factors was also evaluated. The soil respiration rate exhibited a remarkable single peak that was highest in July/August and lowest in January. The annual cumulative respiration flux increased by 25.6% and 20.9% in the tea garden with high production (HP) and the vegetable field (VF), respectively, relative to woodland (WL). However, no significant differences were observed between tea gardens with medium production (MP), low production (LP), WL, and VF. Soil respiration rates were significantly and positively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorous content. Each site displayed a significant exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature measured at 5 cm depth, which explained 84–98% of the variation in soil respiration. The model with a combination of soil temperature and moisture was better at predicting the temporal variation of soil respiration rate than the single temperature model for all sites. Q10 was 2.40, 2.00, and 1.86–1.98 for VF, WL, and tea gardens, respectively, indicating that converting WL to VF increased and converting to tea gardens decreased the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. The equation of the multiple linear regression showed that identical factors, including soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC), pH, and water soluble aluminum (WSAl), drove the changes in soil respiration and Q10 after conversion of land use. Temporal variations of soil respiration were mainly controlled by soil temperature, whereas spatial variations were

  7. A Mindfulness-Based Decentering Technique Increases the Cognitive Accessibility of Health and Weight Loss Related Goals

    Katy Tapper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants (n = 90 spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control. Finally, all participants completed 20 letter strings, rated their motivation for weight loss and for healthy eating, and indicated whether or not they were dieting to lose weight. As predicted, those who had applied the decentering technique produced a greater number of health and weight loss related words when completing the letter strings, compared to those who had simply let their mind wander (p < 0.001. However, contrary to predictions, these effects were not significantly greater amongst those who were more motivated to lose weight or eat healthily, or amongst those who were dieting to lose weight, though the means were in the predicted directions. The results suggest that this particular mindfulness technique may increase the accessibility of relevant goals. Further research would be needed to (a compare effects with other strategies that prompt individuals to remember their goals, (b examine other potential mechanisms of action, and (c confirm that effects on self-control are mediated by increased goal accessibility.

  8. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  9. Effects of fluoride and 6 benzylaminopurine on growth and respiration of corn and cotton roots

    Thompson, C R

    1967-01-01

    Corn and cotton plants exhibit a wide difference in their susceptibility to atmospheric fluoride. Corn shows leaf lesions when 100 ..gamma../gm on a dry weight basis are accumulated but cotton can tolerate 5000 ..gamma../gm without showing leaf necrosis. A comparison of respirational response of potted seedlings of the two species to 10 ..gamma../M/sup 3/ HF caused an increase of about 10%. Addition of 2 x 10/sup 2/M F/sup -/ to solutions for germinating the plants showed that cotton accumulated about twice as much as F/sup -/ in seedling roots. Growth was reduced about one half by 2 x 10/sup -3/M F/sup -/ in both species but respirational rates of root tips from control and fluoride treated tissues were equal. Prolonged treatment of excised root tips with fluoride reduced respiration. Because fluoride causes cellular changes in roots similar to aging and kinetin seems to act to reverse these changes, corn was germinated with 2 x 10/sup -3/M F/sup -/ and increasing levels of 6-benzylaminopurine. Root growth inhibition (63%) was reversed significantly at 0.2 - 0.8..gamma.. ml. Respirational rates of root tips grown in fluoride, fluoride plus 6-benzylaminopurine and controls were equal.

  10. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  12. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K. [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (Japan); Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  13. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  14. A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    Larrinaga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?" (Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard 2013), researchers test whether business education and (controller) experience influence decision-makers to consider a longer-term perspective and,…

  15. Interpreting diel hysteresis between soil respiration and temperature

    C. Phillips; N. Nickerson; D. Risk; B.J. Bond

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use of automated soil respiration chambers in recent years has demonstrated complex diel relationships between soil respiration and temperature that are not apparent from less frequent measurements. Soil surface flux is often lagged from soil temperature by several hours, which results in semielliptical hysteresis loops when surface flux is plotted as a...

  16. The effects of operational conditions on the respiration rate of Tubificidae.

    Juqing Lou

    Full Text Available Tubificidae is often used in the wastewater treatment systems to minimize the sludge production because it can be fed on the activated sludge. The process conditions have effect on the growth, reproduction, and sludge reduction efficiency of Tubificidae. The effects of the water quality, density of worms, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration on the respiration rate of Tubificidae were investigated to determine the optimal conditions for the growth and metabolism of the worms and reveal the mechanisms involving the efficient sludge reduction in terms of these conditions. It was observed that the respiration rate was highest in the water discharged from an ecosystem that included symbiotic Tubificidae and microbes and was lowest in distilled water. Considering density of the worms, the highest rate was 81.72±5.12 mg O2/g(dry weight·h·L with 0.25 g (wet weight of worms in 1 L test flask. The maximum Tubificidae respiration rate was observed at a pH of 8.0±0.05, a rate that was more than twice as high as those observed at other pH values. The respiration rate increased in the temperature range of ∼8°C-22°C, whereas the rate declined in the temperature range of ∼22°C-30°C. The respiration rate of Tubificidae was very high for DO range of ∼3.5-4.5 mg/L, and the rates were relatively low for out of this DO range. The results of this study revealed the process conditions which influenced the growth, and reproduction of Tubificidae and sludge reduction at a microscopic level, which could be a theoretical basis for the cultivation and application of Tubificidae in wastewater treatment plants.

  17. Knock down of the myostatin gene by RNA interference increased body weight in chicken.

    Bhattacharya, T K; Shukla, R; Chatterjee, R N; Dushyanth, K

    2017-01-10

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscular growth in poultry and other animals. Of several approaches, knocking down the negative regulator is an important aspect to augment muscular growth in chicken. Knock down of myostatin gene has been performed by shRNA acting against the expression of gene in animals. Two methods of knock down of gene in chicken such as embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method have been performed. The hatching percentage in embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method of knock down was 58.0 and 41.5%, respectively. The shRNA in knock down chicken enhanced body weight at 6 weeks by 26.9%. The dressing percentage and serum biochemical parameters such as SGPT and alkaline phosphatase differed significantly (Pknock down and control birds. It is concluded that knocking down the myostatin gene successfully augmented growth in chicken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Children with low birth weight and low gestational age in Oslo, Norway: immigration is not the cause of increasing proportions.

    Stoltenberg, C; Magnus, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the influence of children born to immigrant mothers on the total proportions of low birth weight and preterm deliveries in Oslo and to explain the increases in the proportions of children with low birth weight and low gestational age since 1980-1982. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study based on Norwegian Medical Birth Registry data and information on mothers' country of birth from the Central Bureau of Statistics. SETTING--Oslo, Norway 1968-91. POPULATION--A...

  19. Television in the bedroom and increased body weight: potential explanations for their relationship among European schoolchildren.

    Cameron, A J; van Stralen, M M; Brug, J; Salmon, J; Bere, E; Chinapaw, M J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Jan, N; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; Velde, S J

    2013-04-01

    A television in the bedroom is associated with measures of adiposity. We aimed to test if this association is mediated by any of (i) time spent watching television, (ii) sleep duration, (iii) physical activity level or (iv) consumption of soft drinks. Data were from 7234 boys and girls aged 10-12 years in European countries involved in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth project (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain). Waist circumference, height and weight were measured. The presence of a bedroom television, television viewing time, sleep duration, physical activity time and soft drink consumption were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Almost 40% of schoolchildren had a bedroom television, with the highest percentage among Hungarian children (65%) and lowest for Belgian, Slovenian and Spanish children (all ≈28%). A television in the bedroom was positively associated with time spent watching television, soft drink consumption and overweight and obesity (all P television in the bedroom and measures of body size was partly mediated by total television viewing time (proportion mediated for waist circumference 8.9%; for body mass index 8.3%) but not sleep duration, physical activity time or soft drink consumption. The strong association between a television in the bedroom and adiposity was at least partially mediated by television viewing time. The large proportion of European schoolchildren with a television in their bedroom is of concern. Parents should be aware of the potential consequences when placing a television in a child's bedroom and children should limit viewing time. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Respirable dust and respirable silica exposure in Ontario gold mines.

    Verma, Dave K; Rajhans, Gyan S; Malik, Om P; des Tombe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of respirable dust and respirable silica in Ontario gold mines was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Labor during 1978-1979. The aim was to assess the feasibility of introducing gravimetric sampling to replace the assessment method which used konimeters, a device which gave results in terms of number of particles per cubic centimeter (ppcc) of air. The study involved both laboratory and field assessments. The field assessment involved measurement of airborne respirable dust and respirable silica at all eight operating gold mines of the time. This article describes the details of the field assessment. A total of 288 long-term (7-8 hr) personal respirable dust air samples were collected from seven occupational categories in eight gold mines. The respirable silica (α-quartz) was determined by x-ray diffraction method. The results show that during 1978-1979, the industry wide mean respirable dust was about 1 mg/m(3), and the mean respirable silica was 0.08 mg/m(3.)The mean% silica in respirable dust was 7.5%. The data set would be useful in future epidemiological and health studies, as well as in assessment of workers' compensation claims for occupational diseases such as silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and autoimmune diseases such as renal disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Applying economic incentives to increase effectiveness of an outpatient weight loss program (TRIO) - A randomized controlled trial.

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Tham, Kwang-Wei; Haaland, Benjamin A; Sahasranaman, Aarti

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has more than doubled in the past three decades, leading to rising rates of non-communicable diseases. This study tests whether adding a payment/rewards (term reward) program to an existing evidence-based weight loss program can increase weight loss and weight loss maintenance. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to October 2015 with 161 overweight or obese individuals randomized to either control or reward arm in a 1:2 ratio. Control and reward arm participants received a four month weight loss program at the LIFE (Lifestyle Improvement and Fitness Enhancement) Centre at Singapore General Hospital. Those in the reward arm paid a fee of S$165.00 (1US$ = 1.35S$) to access a program that provided rewards of up to S$660 for meeting weight loss and physical activity goals. Participants could choose to receive rewards as guaranteed cash payments or a lottery ticket with a 1 in 10 chance of winning but with the same expected value. The primary outcome was weight loss at months 4, 8, and 12. 161 participants were randomized to control (n = 54) or reward (n = 107) arms. Average weight loss was more than twice as great in the reward arm compared to the control arm at month 4 when the program concluded (3.4 kg vs 1.4 kg, p rewards concluded (3.3 kg vs 1.8 kg, p rewards program can be used to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance when combined with an evidence-based weight loss program. Future efforts should attempt to replicate this approach and identify how to cost effectively expand these programs to maximize their reach. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01533454). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  3. Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Weight Loss and Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Flores Mateo, Gemma; Granado-Font, Esther; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Montaña-Carreras, Xavier

    2015-11-10

    To our knowledge, no meta-analysis to date has assessed the efficacy of mobile phone apps to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to compare the efficacy of mobile phone apps compared with other approaches to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified by a search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus from their inception through to August 2015. Two members of the study team (EG-F, GF-M) independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. We included all controlled studies that assessed a mobile phone app intervention with weight-related health measures (ie, body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) or physical activity outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across studies using random-effects models. We included 12 articles in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, use of a mobile phone app was associated with significant changes in body weight (kg) and body mass index (kg/m(2)) of -1.04 kg (95% CI -1.75 to -0.34; I2 = 41%) and -0.43 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.74 to -0.13; I2 = 50%), respectively. Moreover, a nonsignificant difference in physical activity was observed between the two groups (standardized mean difference 0.40, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.87; I2 = 93%). These findings were remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was shown. Evidence from this study shows that mobile phone app-based interventions may be useful tools for weight loss.

  4. Genetic analysis of a red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) population undergoing three generations of selection for increased body weight at harvest.

    Hamzah, Azhar; Thoa, Ngo Phu; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis was performed on 10,919 data records collected over three generations from the selection programme for increased body weight at harvest in red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). They were offspring of 224 sires and 226 dams (50 sires and 60 dams per generation, on average). Linear mixed models were used to analyse body traits (weight, length, width and depth), whereas threshold generalised models assuming probit distribution were employed to examine genetic inheritance of survival rate, sexual maturity and body colour. The estimates of heritability for traits studied (body weight, standard length, body width, body depth, body colour, early sexual maturation and survival) across statistical models were moderate to high (0.13-0.45). Genetic correlations among body traits and survival were high and positive (0.68-0.96). Body length and width exhibited negative genetic correlations with body colour (- 0.47 to - 0.25). Sexual maturity was genetically correlated positively with measurements of body traits (weight and length). Direct and correlated genetic responses to selection were measured as estimated breeding values in each generation and expressed in genetic standard deviation units (σ G ). The cumulative improvement achieved for harvest body weight was 1.72 σ G after three generations or 12.5% per generation when the gain was expressed as a percentage of the base population. Selection for improved body weight also resulted in correlated increase in other body traits (length, width and depth) and survival rate (ranging from 0.25 to 0.81 genetic standard deviation units). Avoidance of black spot parent matings also improved the overall red colour of the selected population. It is concluded that the selective breeding programme for red tilapia has succeeded in achieving significant genetic improvement for a range of commercially important traits in this species, and the large genetic variation in body colour and survival also shows that

  5. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  6. Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation.

    Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Andrade, Ana M; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Successful weight management relies on at least two health behaviors, eating and exercise. However, little is known about their interaction on a motivational and behavioral level. Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle weight control program. The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation. Overweight/obese women participated in a 1-year randomized controlled trial (N = 239). The intervention focused on promoting physical activity and internal motivation for exercise and weight loss, following Self-Determination Theory. The control group received general health education. General and exercise specific self-determination, eating self-regulation variables, and physical activity behavior. General self-determination and more autonomous exercise motivation predicted eating self-regulation over 12 months. Additionally, general and exercise self-determination fully mediated the relation between physical activity and eating self-regulation. Increased general self-determination and exercise motivation seem to facilitate improvements in eating self-regulation during weight control in women. These motivational mechanisms also underlie the relationship between improvements in exercise behavior and eating regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  8. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    Mark Robert Dilworth

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8% in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056. Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  9. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y adulto. La selección para aumentar el cociente indicado es un método para maximizar

  10. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  11. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  12. Massive weight loss decreases corticosteroid-binding globulin levels and increases free cortisol in healthy obese patients: an adaptive phenomenon?

    Manco, Melania; Fernández-Real, José M; Valera-Mora, Maria E; Déchaud, Henri; Nanni, Giuseppe; Tondolo, Vincenzo; Calvani, Menotti; Castagneto, Marco; Pugeat, Michel; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2007-06-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and weight loss have been associated with changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. So far, no conclusive data relating to this association are available. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of massive weight loss on cortisol suppressibility, cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), and free cortisol index (FCI) in formerly obese women. Ten glucose-normotolerant, fertile, obese women (BMI >40 kg/m2, aged 38.66 +/- 13.35 years) were studied before and 2 years after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) when stable weight was achieved and were compared with age-matched healthy volunteers. Cortisol suppression was evaluated by a 4-mg intravenous dexamethasone suppression test (DEX-ST). FCI was calculated as the cortisol-to-CBG ratio. Insulin sensitivity was measured by an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and insulin secretion was measured by a C-peptide deconvolution method. No difference was found in cortisol suppression after DEX-ST before or after weight loss. A decrease in ACTH was significantly greater in control subjects than in obese (P = 0.05) and postobese women (P obese subjects, an increase of free cortisol was associated with a simultaneous decrease in CBG levels, which might be an adaptive phenomenon relating to environmental changes. This topic, not addressed before, adds new insight into the complex mechanisms linking HPA activity to obesity.

  13. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion.

  14. Epidemiologic Evidence That Excess Body Weight Increases Risk of Cervical Cancer by Decreased Detection of Precancer.

    Clarke, Megan A; Fetterman, Barbara; Cheung, Li C; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Befano, Brian; Demarco, Maria; Schussler, John; Kinney, Walter K; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Lorey, Thomas S; Poitras, Nancy E; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-20

    Purpose Obesity has been inconsistently linked to increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality; however, the effect of obesity on cervical screening has not been explored. We investigated the hypothesis that increased body mass might decrease detection of cervical precancer and increase risk of cervical cancer even in women undergoing state-of-the-art screening. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 944,227 women age 30 to 64 years who underwent cytology and human papillomavirus DNA testing (ie, cotesting) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (January 2003 to December 2015). Body mass index was categorized as normal/underweight (< 25 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25 to < 30 kg/m 2 ), or obese (≥ 30 kg/m 2 ). We estimated 5-year cumulative risks of cervical precancer and cancer by category of body mass index using logistic Weibull survival models. Results We observed lower risk of cervical precancer (n = 4,489) and higher risk of cervical cancer (n = 490) with increasing body mass index. Specifically, obese women had the lowest 5-year risk of precancer (0.51%; 95% CI, 0.48% to 0.54% v 0.73%; 95% CI, 0.70% to 0.76% in normal/underweight women; P trend < .001). In contrast, obese women had the highest 5-year risk of cancer (0.083%; 95% CI, 0.072% to 0.096% v 0.056%; 95% CI, 0.048% to 0.066% in normal/underweight women; P trend < .001). Results were consistent in subgroups defined by age (30 to 49 v 50 to 64 years), human papillomavirus status (positive v negative), and histologic subtype (glandular v squamous). Approximately 20% of cervical cancers could be attributed to overweight or obesity in the women in our study who underwent routine cervical screening. Conclusion In this large, screened population, overweight and obese women had an increased risk of cervical cancer, likely because of underdiagnosis of cervical precancer. Improvements in equipment and/or technique to assure adequate sampling and visualization of women with elevated body mass

  15. Geochemical importance of isotopic fractionation during respiration

    Schleser, G.; Foerstel, H.

    1975-01-01

    In 1935 it was found that atmospheric oxygen contained a relatively greater abundance of the 18 O isotope than did the oxygen bound in water (Dole effect). A major contribution to the fractionation of the stable oxygen isotopes should result from the respiration of microorganisms. In this respect our interest centers on the soil because nearly all organic material produced on land is decomposed within the soil. The oceans are less important because the primary productivity on land is twice the value for the oceans. In a first approach we measured the oxygen isotope fractionation during the respiration of E. coli K12 for different respiration rates. These results, accomplished with a chemostat, indicate that the fractionation factor α of the oxygen isotopes increases with the increasing respiratory activity, measured as Q/sub O 2 /. At low dilution rates or growth rates respectively of about 0.05 h -1 , the fractionation factor amounts to 1.006 increasing to 1.017 at dilution rates of about 1.0 h -1 . The results are interpreted as a kinetic mass fractionation due to the slightly different diffusion coefficients of 16 O 2 and 18 O 16 O. The respiration rates in conjunction with the corresponding fractionation data are compared with the respiration rates of typical soil microorganisms such as Azotobacter, in order to deduce fractionation data for these organisms. This is necessary to calculate a mean global fractionation factor. Understanding the Dole effect with these fractionation processes should finally give us the opportunity to calculate gas-exchange rates between the atmosphere and the oceans, on the basis of the behavior of the stable oxygen isotopes

  16. Euglycemia in Diabetic Rats Leads to Reduced Liver Weight via Increased Autophagy and Apoptosis through Increased AMPK and Caspase-3 and Decreased mTOR Activities

    Jun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euglycemia is the ultimate goal in diabetes care to prevent complications. However, the benefits of euglycemia in type 2 diabetes are controversial because near-euglycemic subjects show higher mortality than moderately hyperglycemic subjects. We previously reported that euglycemic-diabetic rats on calorie-control lose a critical liver weight (LW compared with hyperglycemic rats. Here, we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of LW in euglycemic-diabetic rats and identified a potential risk in achieving euglycemia by calorie-control. Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats generated by subtotal-pancreatectomy were fed a calorie-controlled diet for 7 weeks to achieve euglycemia using 19 kcal% (19R or 6 kcal% (6R protein-containing chow or fed ad libitum (19AL. The diet in both R groups was isocaloric/kg body weight to the sham-operated group (19S. Compared with 19S and hyperglycemic 19AL, both euglycemic R groups showed lower LWs, increased autophagy, and increased AMPK and caspase-3 and decreased mTOR activities. Though degree of insulin deficiency was similar among the diabetic rats, Akt activity was lower, and PTEN activity was higher in both R groups than in 19AL whose signaling patterns were similar to 19S. In conclusion, euglycemia achieved by calorie-control is deleterious in insulin deficiency due to increased autophagy and apoptosis in the liver via AMPK and caspase-3 activation.

  17. The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. METHODOLOGY: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162 and 13.5% (p = 0.0064 more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05 and 14% (p = 0.035 more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

  18. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2 ) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend  index). Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  19. Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD): Novel Use of Increased Transparency and a Weighted Lottery to Increase a Division's Academic Output.

    Pitt, Michael B; Furnival, Ronald A; Zhang, Lei; Weber-Main, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Jacob, Abraham K

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate a dual incentive model combining positive peer pressure through increased transparency of peers' academic work with a weighted lottery where entries are earned based on degree of productivity. We developed a dual-incentive peer mentoring model, Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD), for faculty in the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. This model provided relative value-based incentives, with points assigned to different scholarly activities (eg. 1 point for abstract submission, 2 points for poster presentation, 3 points for oral presentation, etc.). These points translated into to lottery tickets for a semi-annual drawing for monetary prizes. Productivity was compared among faculty for P-QUAD year to the preintervention year. Fifteen (83%) of 18 eligible faculty members participated. Overall annual productivity per faculty member as measured by total P-QUAD score increased from a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) in the preintervention year to 4 (IQR 0-27) in the P-QUAD year (P = .051). Submissions and acceptances increased in all categories except posters which were unchanged. Annual abstract submissions per faculty member significantly increased from a median of 1 (IQR 0-2) to 2 (IQR 0-2; P = .047). Seventy-three percent (8 of 11) of post-survey respondents indicated that the financial incentive motivated them to submit academic work; 100% indicated that increased awareness of their peers' work was a motivator. The combination of increased awareness of peers' academic productivity and a weighted lottery financial incentive appears to be a useful model for stimulating academic productivity in early-career faculty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.

    Richter, Hans G; Hansell, Jeremy A; Raut, Shruti; Giussani, Dino A

    2009-05-01

    Melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal and reproductive physiology. Melatonin also acts as a potent endogenous antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant pathways. The placenta expresses melatonin receptors and melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia-reperfusion. One of the most common complications in pregnancy is a reduction in fetal nutrient delivery, which is known to promote oxidative stress. However, whether melatonin protects placental function and fetal development in undernourished pregnancy is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal treatment with melatonin on placental efficiency, fetal growth, birth weight and protein expression of placental oxidative stress markers in undernourished pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy, rats were divided into control and undernourished pregnancy (35% reduction in food intake), with and without melatonin treatment (5 microg/mL drinking water). On day 20 of gestation, fetal biometry was carried out, the placenta was weighed and subsequently analyzed by Western blot for xanthine oxidase, heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 70, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). A separate cohort was allowed to deliver to assess effects on birth weight. Maternal undernutrition led to a fall in placental efficiency, disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation and a reduction in birth weight. Maternal treatment with melatonin in undernourished pregnancy improved placental efficiency and restored birth weight, and it increased the expression of placental Mn-SOD and catalase. The data show that in pregnancy complicated by undernutrition, melatonin may improve placental efficiency and birth weight by upregulating placental antioxidant enzymes.

  1. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  2. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, Joanna C.; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Burton, Andrew J.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Emmett, Bridget; Frey, Serita D.; Heskel, Mary A.; Jiang, Lifen; Machmuller, Megan B.; Mohan, Jacqueline; Panetta, Anne Marie; Reich, Peter B.; Reinsch, Sabine; Wang, Xin; Allison, Steven D.; Bamminger, Chris; Bridgham, Scott; Collins, Scott L.; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Eddy, William C.; Enquist, Brian J.; Estiarte, Marc; Harte, John; Henderson, Amanda; Johnson, Bart R.; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Luo, Yiqi; Marhan, Sven; Melillo, Jerry M.; Penuelas, Josep; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Poll, Christian; Rastetter, Edward B.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Lorien L.; Schmidt, Inger K.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Suseela, Vidya; Tietema, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation of soil respiration to experimental warming in several major biome types, contrary to the results from multiple single-site studies. Moreover, across all nondesert biomes, respiration rates with and without experimental warming follow a Gaussian response, increasing with soil temperature up to a threshold of ∼25 °C, above which respiration rates decrease with further increases in temperature. This consistent decrease in temperature sensitivity at higher temperatures demonstrates that rising global temperatures may result in regionally variable responses in soil respiration, with colder climates being considerably more responsive to increased ambient temperatures compared with warmer regions. Our analysis adds a unique cross-biome perspective on the temperature response of soil respiration, information critical to improving our mechanistic understanding of how soil carbon dynamics change with climatic warming.

  3. Changes in mitochondrial respiration in the human placenta over gestation.

    Holland, Olivia J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Alvsaker, Anna; Moran, Stephanie; Hedges, Christopher; Chamley, Lawrence W; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-09-01

    Placental mitochondria are subjected to micro-environmental changes throughout gestation, in particular large variations in oxygen. How placental mitochondrial respiration adapts to changing oxygen concentrations remains unexplored. Additionally, placental tissue is often studied in culture; however, the effect of culture on placental mitochondria is unclear. Placental tissue was obtained from first trimester and term (laboured and non-laboured) pregnancies, and selectively permeabilized to access mitochondria. Respirometry was used to compare respiration states and substrate use in mitochondria. Additionally, explants of placental tissue were cultured for four, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h and respiration measured. Mitochondrial respiration decreased at 11 weeks compared to earlier gestations (p = 0.05-0.001), and mitochondrial content increased at 12-13 weeks compared to 7-10 weeks (p = 0.042). In term placentae, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) through mitochondrial complex IV (p Respiration was increased (p ≤ 0.006-0.001) in laboured compared to non-laboured placenta. After four hours of culture, respiration was depressed compared to fresh tissue from the same placenta and continued to decline with time in culture. Markers of apoptosis were increased, while markers of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased after four hours of culture. Respiration and mitochondrial content alter over gestation/with labour. Decreased respiration at 11 weeks and increased mitochondrial content at 12-13 weeks may relate to onset of maternal blood flow, and increased respiration as a result of labour may be an adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion. At term, mitochondria were more susceptible to changes in respiratory function relative to first trimester when cultured in vitro, perhaps reflecting changes in metabolic demands as gestation progresses. Metabolic plasticity of placental mitochondria has relevance to placenta

  4. Expression of a truncated ATHB17 protein in maize increases ear weight at silking.

    Elena A Rice

    Full Text Available ATHB17 (AT2G01430 is an Arabidopsis gene encoding a member of the α-subclass of the homeodomain leucine zipper class II (HD-Zip II family of transcription factors. The ATHB17 monomer contains four domains common to all class II HD-Zip proteins: a putative repression domain adjacent to a homeodomain, leucine zipper, and carboxy terminal domain. However, it also possesses a unique N-terminus not present in other members of the family. In this study we demonstrate that the unique 73 amino acid N-terminus is involved in regulation of cellular localization of ATHB17. The ATHB17 protein is shown to function as a transcriptional repressor and an EAR-like motif is identified within the putative repression domain of ATHB17. Transformation of maize with an ATHB17 expression construct leads to the expression of ATHB17Δ113, a truncated protein lacking the first 113 amino acids which encodes a significant portion of the repression domain. Because ATHB17Δ113 lacks the repression domain, the protein cannot directly affect the transcription of its target genes. ATHB17Δ113 can homodimerize, form heterodimers with maize endogenous HD-Zip II proteins, and bind to target DNA sequences; thus, ATHB17Δ113 may interfere with HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional activity via a dominant negative mechanism. We provide evidence that maize HD-Zip II proteins function as transcriptional repressors and that ATHB17Δ113 relieves this HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional repression activity. Expression of ATHB17Δ113 in maize leads to increased ear size at silking and, therefore, may enhance sink potential. We hypothesize that this phenotype could be a result of modulation of endogenous HD-Zip II pathways in maize.

  5. Expression of a truncated ATHB17 protein in maize increases ear weight at silking.

    Rice, Elena A; Khandelwal, Abha; Creelman, Robert A; Griffith, Cara; Ahrens, Jeffrey E; Taylor, J Philip; Murphy, Lesley R; Manjunath, Siva; Thompson, Rebecca L; Lingard, Matthew J; Back, Stephanie L; Larue, Huachun; Brayton, Bonnie R; Burek, Amanda J; Tiwari, Shiv; Adam, Luc; Morrell, James A; Caldo, Rico A; Huai, Qing; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Kuehn, Rosemarie; Sant, Anagha M; Wingbermuehle, William J; Sala, Rodrigo; Foster, Matt; Kinser, Josh D; Mohanty, Radha; Jiang, Dongming; Ziegler, Todd E; Huang, Mingya G; Kuriakose, Saritha V; Skottke, Kyle; Repetti, Peter P; Reuber, T Lynne; Ruff, Thomas G; Petracek, Marie E; Loida, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    ATHB17 (AT2G01430) is an Arabidopsis gene encoding a member of the α-subclass of the homeodomain leucine zipper class II (HD-Zip II) family of transcription factors. The ATHB17 monomer contains four domains common to all class II HD-Zip proteins: a putative repression domain adjacent to a homeodomain, leucine zipper, and carboxy terminal domain. However, it also possesses a unique N-terminus not present in other members of the family. In this study we demonstrate that the unique 73 amino acid N-terminus is involved in regulation of cellular localization of ATHB17. The ATHB17 protein is shown to function as a transcriptional repressor and an EAR-like motif is identified within the putative repression domain of ATHB17. Transformation of maize with an ATHB17 expression construct leads to the expression of ATHB17Δ113, a truncated protein lacking the first 113 amino acids which encodes a significant portion of the repression domain. Because ATHB17Δ113 lacks the repression domain, the protein cannot directly affect the transcription of its target genes. ATHB17Δ113 can homodimerize, form heterodimers with maize endogenous HD-Zip II proteins, and bind to target DNA sequences; thus, ATHB17Δ113 may interfere with HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional activity via a dominant negative mechanism. We provide evidence that maize HD-Zip II proteins function as transcriptional repressors and that ATHB17Δ113 relieves this HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional repression activity. Expression of ATHB17Δ113 in maize leads to increased ear size at silking and, therefore, may enhance sink potential. We hypothesize that this phenotype could be a result of modulation of endogenous HD-Zip II pathways in maize.

  6. Increased ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa: impact of weight gain.

    Wanby, P; Berglund, J; Brudin, L; Hedberg, D; Carlsson, M

    2016-09-01

    A few recent studies have found elevated ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), indicating ferritin as a potential biomarker of disease severity. The purpose of this study was to study how body mass index (BMI) and changes in BMI affect plasma ferritin concentrations in Swedish patients with eating disorders. In a retrospective computer search from 2009 to 2014, 662 patients with an eating disorder were identified from more than 200,000 individuals with electronic medical records. Three hundred and eighty-nine patients (374 females and 15 males) were found to have at least one p-ferritin value with a corresponding BMI value. Patients with AN were compared to a combined group consisting of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Patients with AN had lower BMI compared to the combined group of patients with other eating disorders (BMI = 16.5 ± 1.5, n = 77 vs. 21.0 ± 4.7, n = 312, p < 0.001). Patients with AN also had higher plasma ferritin levels (median 42 μg/L (range 3.3-310) vs. 31 μg/L (range 2.8-280); p < 0.001). As BMI increased in patients with AN, ferritin levels decreased (from a median of 40 μg/L (7-400) to 26 (4-170), n = 47; p < 0.001). Measuring ferritin in patients with AN could be valuable in monitoring improvements of nutritional status, but the full clinical value of following ferritin in individual patients has yet to be determined. The study also shows how research can benefit from electronically captured clinical data using electronic health records.

  7. Expression of a Truncated ATHB17 Protein in Maize Increases Ear Weight at Silking

    Creelman, Robert A.; Griffith, Cara; Ahrens, Jeffrey E.; Taylor, J. Philip; Murphy, Lesley R.; Manjunath, Siva; Thompson, Rebecca L.; Lingard, Matthew J.; Back, Stephanie L.; Larue, Huachun; Brayton, Bonnie R.; Burek, Amanda J.; Tiwari, Shiv; Adam, Luc; Morrell, James A.; Caldo, Rico A.; Huai, Qing; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K.; Kuehn, Rosemarie; Sant, Anagha M.; Wingbermuehle, William J.; Sala, Rodrigo; Foster, Matt; Kinser, Josh D.; Mohanty, Radha; Jiang, Dongming; Ziegler, Todd E.; Huang, Mingya G.; Kuriakose, Saritha V.; Skottke, Kyle; Repetti, Peter P.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Ruff, Thomas G.; Petracek, Marie E.; Loida, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    ATHB17 (AT2G01430) is an Arabidopsis gene encoding a member of the α-subclass of the homeodomain leucine zipper class II (HD-Zip II) family of transcription factors. The ATHB17 monomer contains four domains common to all class II HD-Zip proteins: a putative repression domain adjacent to a homeodomain, leucine zipper, and carboxy terminal domain. However, it also possesses a unique N-terminus not present in other members of the family. In this study we demonstrate that the unique 73 amino acid N-terminus is involved in regulation of cellular localization of ATHB17. The ATHB17 protein is shown to function as a transcriptional repressor and an EAR-like motif is identified within the putative repression domain of ATHB17. Transformation of maize with an ATHB17 expression construct leads to the expression of ATHB17Δ113, a truncated protein lacking the first 113 amino acids which encodes a significant portion of the repression domain. Because ATHB17Δ113 lacks the repression domain, the protein cannot directly affect the transcription of its target genes. ATHB17Δ113 can homodimerize, form heterodimers with maize endogenous HD-Zip II proteins, and bind to target DNA sequences; thus, ATHB17Δ113 may interfere with HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional activity via a dominant negative mechanism. We provide evidence that maize HD-Zip II proteins function as transcriptional repressors and that ATHB17Δ113 relieves this HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional repression activity. Expression of ATHB17Δ113 in maize leads to increased ear size at silking and, therefore, may enhance sink potential. We hypothesize that this phenotype could be a result of modulation of endogenous HD-Zip II pathways in maize. PMID:24736658

  8. [Effects of management regime on soil respiration from agroecosystems].

    Chen, Shu-tao; Zhu, Da-wei; Niu, Chuan-po; Zou, Jian-wen; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wen-juan

    2009-10-15

    In order to examine the effects of management regime, such as nitrogen application and plowing method, on soil respiration from farmland, the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure soil CO2 fluxes in situ. The field measurement was carried out for 5 growing seasons, which were the 2002-2003 wheat, 2003 maize and soybean, 2003-2004 wheat, 2004 maize and 2004-2005 wheat seasons. Our results showed that soil respiration increased in fertilizer-applied treatments compared with no fertilizer treatment after 3 times of fertilizer application on 9 November 2002, 14 February and 26 March 2003. And the most obvious increase appeared following the third fertilizer application. No significant difference in soil respiration was found among several fertilizer application treatments. The effect of plowing depth on soil respiration was contingent on preceding cropping practice. Over the 2003-2004 wheat-growing seasons (its preceding cropping practice was rice paddy), mean soil respiration rates were not significant different (p > 0.05) between no plowing treatment and shallow plowing treatment. The shallow plowing treatment CT2 led to higher soil CO2 losses compared with no plowing treatment of NT2 in the 2004 maize-growing season, however, the significant higher (p soil respiration rates occurred with no plowing treatment of NT3 in the following 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Intensive plowing (25 cm depth), compared with no plowing practice (NT4), increased soil respiration significantly during the 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Regression analysis showed that the exponential function could be employed to fit the relationship between soil respiration and temperature. The exponential relationship yielded the Q10 values which were varied from 1.26 to 3.60, with a mean value of 2.08. To evaluate the effect of temperature on soil respiration, the CO2 emission fluxes were normalized for each treatment and each crop growing season. Plotting the

  9. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rate of perceived exertion (RPE is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR, and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  10. Global spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration modeled using a global database

    Hashimoto, S.; Carvalhais, N.; Ito, A.; Migliavacca, M.; Nishina, K.; Reichstein, M.

    2015-07-01

    The flux of carbon dioxide from the soil to the atmosphere (soil respiration) is one of the major fluxes in the global carbon cycle. At present, the accumulated field observation data cover a wide range of geographical locations and climate conditions. However, there are still large uncertainties in the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of global soil respiration. Using a global soil respiration data set, we developed a climate-driven model of soil respiration by modifying and updating Raich's model, and the global spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration was examined using this model. The model was applied at a spatial resolution of 0.5°and a monthly time step. Soil respiration was divided into the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of respiration using an empirical model. The estimated mean annual global soil respiration was 91 Pg C yr-1 (between 1965 and 2012; Monte Carlo 95 % confidence interval: 87-95 Pg C yr-1) and increased at the rate of 0.09 Pg C yr-2. The contribution of soil respiration from boreal regions to the total increase in global soil respiration was on the same order of magnitude as that of tropical and temperate regions, despite a lower absolute magnitude of soil respiration in boreal regions. The estimated annual global heterotrophic respiration and global autotrophic respiration were 51 and 40 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The global soil respiration responded to the increase in air temperature at the rate of 3.3 Pg C yr-1 °C-1, and Q10 = 1.4. Our study scaled up observed soil respiration values from field measurements to estimate global soil respiration and provide a data-oriented estimate of global soil respiration. The estimates are based on a semi-empirical model parameterized with over one thousand data points. Our analysis indicates that the climate controls on soil respiration may translate into an increasing trend in global soil respiration and our analysis emphasizes the relevance of the soil carbon flux from soil to

  11. respiration and transpiration characteristics of selected fresh fruits

    AISA

    were higher in optimal atmospheres. The Q10 values ... High respiration rates increase tissue aging and decrease the ability of the product to repel ... Two types of containers were used for the ..... availability of oxygen around the product also.

  12. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 μL L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  14. Weight loss after bariatric surgery reverses insulin-induced increases in brain glucose metabolism of the morbidly obese.

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Karlsson, Henry K; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Bucci, Marco; Helmiö, Mika; Ovaska, Jari; Soinio, Minna; Salminen, Paulina; Savisto, Nina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain glucose metabolism. Here, we studied brain glucose metabolism in 22 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Seven healthy subjects served as control subjects. Brain glucose metabolism was measured twice per imaging session: with and without insulin stimulation (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose scanning. We found that during fasting, brain glucose metabolism was not different between groups. However, the hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism in a widespread manner in the obese but not control subjects, and brain glucose metabolism was significantly higher during clamp in obese than in control subjects. After follow-up, 6 months postoperatively, the increase in glucose metabolism was no longer observed, and this attenuation was coupled with improved peripheral insulin sensitivity after weight loss. We conclude that obesity is associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in the brain and that this abnormality can be reversed by bariatric surgery.

  15. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well.

  17. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  18. Root Zone Respiration on Hydroponically Grown Wheat Plant Systems

    Soler-Crespo, R. A.; Monje, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Root respiration is a biological phenomenon that controls plant growth and physiological development during a plant's lifespan. This process is dependent on the availability of oxygen in the system where the plant is located. In hydroponic systems, where plants are submerged in a solution containing vital nutrients but no type of soil, the availability of oxygen arises from the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution. This oxygen concentration is dependent on the , gas-liquid interface formed on the upper surface of the liquid, as given by Henry's Law, depending on pressure and temperature conditions. Respiration rates of the plants rise as biomass and root zone increase with age. The respiration rate of Apogee wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was measured as a function of light intensity (catalytic for photosynthesis) and CO2 concentration to determine their effect on respiration rates. To determine their effects on respiration rate and plant growth microbial communities were introduced into the system, by Innoculum. Surfactants were introduced, simulating gray-water usage in space, as another factor to determine their effect on chemical oxygen demand of microbials and on respiration rates of the plants. It is expected to see small effects from changes in CO2 concentration or light levels, and to see root respiration decrease in an exponential manner with plant age and microbial activity.

  19. Does the earned income tax credit increase children's weight? The impact of policy-driven income on childhood obesity.

    Jo, Young

    2018-07-01

    I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy-driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain than income. The paper's finding shows that a program that is not designed for health purposes, such as earned income tax credit, can have unintended effects on health outcomes. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  1. Respirable versus inhalable dust sampling

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ICRP uses a total inhalable dust figure as the basis of calculations on employee lung dose. This paper was written to look at one aspect of the Olympic Dam dust situation, namely, the inhalable versus respirable fraction of the dust cloud. The results of this study will determine whether it is possible to use respirable dust figures, as obtained during routine monitoring to help in the calculations of employee exposure to internal radioactive contaminants

  2. Interpreting, measuring, and modeling soil respiration

    Michael G. Ryan; Beverly E. Law

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of soil respiration in determining ecosystem carbon balance, and the conceptual basis for measuring and modeling soil respiration. We developed it to provide background and context for this special issue on soil respiration and to synthesize the presentations and discussions at the workshop. Soil respiration is the largest component of...

  3. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, Joanna C; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific...... attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies......, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation...

  4. Continuous daylight in the high-Arctic summer supports high plankton respiration rates compared to those supported in the dark

    Mesa, Elena; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Paloma; Garcí a-Corral, Lara S.; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Wassmann, Paul; Reigstad, Marit; Sejr, Mikael; Dalsgaard, Tage; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Plankton respiration rate is a major component of global CO2 production and is forecasted to increase rapidly in the Arctic with warming. Yet, existing assessments in the Arctic evaluated plankton respiration in the dark. Evidence that plankton

  5. Risk factors for the increasing trend in low birth weight among live births born by vaginal delivery, Brazil

    Barbieri Marco A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for low birth weight (LBW among live births by vaginal delivery and to determine if the disappearance of the association between LBW and socioeconomic factors was due to confounding by cesarean section. METHODS: Data were obtained from two population-based cohorts of singleton live births in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil. The first one comprised 4,698 newborns from June 1978 to May 1979 and the second included 1,399 infants born from May to August 1994. The risks for LBW were tested in a logistic model, including the interaction of the year of survey and all independent variables under analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of LBW among vaginal deliveries increased from 7.8% in 1978--79 to 10% in 1994. The risk was higher for: female or preterm infants; newborns of non-cohabiting mothers; newborns whose mothers had fewer prenatal visits or few years of education; first-born infants; and those who had smoking mothers. The interaction of the year of survey with gestational age indicated that the risk of LBW among preterm infants fell from 17.75 to 8.71 in 15 years. The mean birth weight decreased more significantly among newborns from qualified families, who also had the highest increase in preterm birth and non-cohabitation. CONCLUSIONS: LBW among vaginal deliveries increased mainly due to a rise in the proportion of preterm births and non-cohabiting mothers. The association between cesarean section and LBW tended to cover up socioeconomic differences in the likelihood of LBW. When vaginal deliveries were analyzed independently, these socioeconomic differences come up again.

  6. Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan Supplementation Increases the Population of Prevotella in the Cecal Contents of Weanling Pigs

    Ting Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC promoted growth in weaned piglets as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics. To investigate the influence of LC supplementation on piglets' gut microbiome and compare the differences in community composition between LC and antibiotics with ZnO addition, we assessed the cecal microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with three treatments consisting of basal diet (CTR group, basal diet with low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC group, and basal diet with antibiotic and ZnO (AZ group. LC decreased pH more than AZ did in the cecum (both compared to CTR. Beta diversity analysis showed that community structure was distinctly different among the CTR, LC, and AZ treatments, indicating that either LC or AZ treatment modulated the piglet microbiota. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria dominated the community [>98% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs] in piglet cecal contents. Compared to CTR, both LC, and AZ increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes while they decreased the count of Firmicutes and AZ decreased the population of Proteobacteria. In CTR the top four abundant genera were Prevotella (~10.4%, Succinivibrio (~6.2%, Lactobacillus (~5.6%, and Anaerovibrio (5.4%. Both LC and AZ increased the relative abundance of Prevotella but decreased the ratio of Lactobacillus when they compared with CTR. Moreover, LC increased the relative abundance of Succinivibrio and Anaerovibrio while AZ decreased them. The microbial function prediction showed LC enriched more pathways in the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins than CTR or AZ did. LC may potentially function as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics in weaned piglets due to its beneficial regulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  7. MooPoong (Gye Young Jeong) increases HDL-cholesterol but decreases LDL cholesterol and body-weight.

    Chung, Hwan-Suck; Hong, Seung-Heon; Do, Keum-Rok; Rhee, Hyung-Koo; Jung, Sung-Ki; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-05-01

    MooPoong (MP, Gye Young Jeong), a Korean traditional wine, has been used as a prevention and treatment agent of blood circulatory trouble. To evaluate such an effect of MP, we analyzed whether the plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and body weight change after rats were fed on high fat diet with MP for 8 weeks. Plasma LDL cholesterol level decreased by 5.6% in 0.128% MP treated group and by 11.1% in 0.640% MP treated group. However, HDL cholesterol was increased by 6.7% in 0.128% MP diet group and 33.3% in 0.640% MP diet group. In addition, there was a significant weight loss in the MP treated group compared with the high-fat diet group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that MP may contain compounds with actions which can treat blood circulatory trouble as well as overweight.

  8. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  9. Effects of long-term microgravitation exposure on cell respiration of the rat musculus soleus fibers.

    Veselova, O M; Ogneva, I V; Larina, I M

    2011-07-01

    Cell respiration of the m. soleus fibers was studied in Wistar rats treated with succinic acid and exposed to microgravitation for 35 days. The results indicated that respiration rates during utilization of endogenous and exogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate decreased in animals subjected to microgravitation without succinate treatment. The respiration rate during utilization of exogenous substrate did not increase in comparison with that on endogenous substrates. Succinic acid prevented the decrease in respiration rate on endogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate. On the other hand, the respiration rate on exogenous substrates was reduced in vivarium control rats receiving succinate in comparison with intact control group. That could indicate changed efficiency of complex I of the respiratory chain due to reciprocal regulation of the tricarbonic acid cycle.

  10. Stimulation of respiration in rat thymocytes induced by ionizing radiation

    Gudz, T.I.; Pandelova, I.G.; Novgorodov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of X irradiation on the respiration of rat thymocytes was studied. An increase in the rate of O 2 uptake was observed 1 h after cells were irradiated with doses of 6-10 Gy. The radiation-induced increase in respiration could be blocked by oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting control by increased cytoplasmic ATP turnover. The stimulation of respiration was not associated with changes in the activity of mitochondrial electron transfer enzymes or permeability of the inner membrane. Several inhibitors of processes which used ATP were screened for their effects on the basal respiration rate and on the radiation response. In irradiated thymocytes, an enhancement of inhibition of respiration by ouabain, La 3+ and cycloheximide was observed. These results indicate that the radiation-induced stimulation of respiration is due to changes in ion homeostasis and protein synthesis. The effect of X irradiation was shown to be independent of the redox status of nonprotein thiols and was not associated with detectable changes in some products of lipid peroxidation. The radiation-induced decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase suggests free radical involvement in deleterious effects of radiation. 43 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11......: Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found...... a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children...

  12. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  13. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...... in the control group (ptotal and arm-leg BMC loss was 4 times greater in the control group compared to the liraglutide group (estimated difference 27g (95% CI 5-48), p=0.01), although the 12% weight loss was maintained in both groups...

  14. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  15. An herbal medicine, Go-sha-jinki-gan (GJG, increases muscle weight in severe muscle dystrophy model mice

    Yusei Takemoto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Go-sha-jinki-gan (GJG, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine has a clinical implication to alleviate age-related symptoms, especially in some motor disorders. However, the scientific evidence is limited, and there is a possibility to expand the medical application range of GJG. Using senescence-accelerated mice, our group showed that GJG exerted an effect to prevent sarcopenia, the aged-related loss of skeletal muscle. Because muscular dystrophy is characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle, we examined the effects of GJG on a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Using a newly established mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, DBA/2-mdx, we showed that GJG significantly increased the body and skeletal muscle weights in comparison to the control DBA/2-mdx mice, regardless of gender. The increased skeletal muscle mass resulted from an increment in the myofiber size, but not from the myofiber number. Both the skeletal muscle regenerative ability and the accumulation of fibrosis (the dystrophic pathology in GJG-fed DBA/2-mdx mice were comparable to those in control DBA/2-mdx mice, suggesting that the cellular target of GJG is myofibers, with no contribution from the muscle satellite cells neither in an direct nor in an indirect manner. Taken together, GJG increased the skeletal muscle mass in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy, in addition to our previously tested sarcopenia mouse model.

  16. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  17. [Changes in cell respiration of postural muscle fibers under long-term gravitational unloading after dietary succinate supplementation].

    Ogneva, I V; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of cell respiration of the rat m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius c.m. and tibialis anterior fibers during 35-day gravitational unloading, with the addition of succinate in the diet at a dosage rate of 50 mg per 1 kg animal weight has been investigated. The gravitational unloading was modeled by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The intensity of cell respiration was estimated by polarography. It was shown that the rate of oxygen consumption by soleus and gastrocnemius fibers on endogenous and exogenous substrates and with the addition of ADP decreases after the discharge. This may be associated with the transition to the glycolytic energy path due to a decrease in the EMG-activity. At the same time, the respiration rate after the addition of exogenous substrates in soleus fibers did not increase, indicating a disturbance in the function of the NCCR-section of the respiratory chain and more pronounced changes in the structure of muscle fibers. In tibialis anterior fibers, no changes in oxygen consumption velocity were observed. The introduction of succinate to the diet of rats makes it possible to prevent the negative effects of hypokinesia, although it reduces the basal level of intensity of cell respiration.

  18. Sarcopenia, but not excess weight or increased caloric intake, is associated with coronary subclinical atherosclerosis in the very elderly.

    Campos, Alessandra M; Moura, Filipe A; Santos, Simone N; Freitas, Wladimir M; Sposito, Andrei C

    2017-03-01

    Excess weight is a widespread condition related to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sarcopenia is a catabolic pathway common of the aging process and also associated with CHD. In the elderly, both changes occur concurrently and it remains unclear the relative contribution on CHD risk. We aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia, excess weight, or both are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in very elderly individuals. We performed a cross-sectional study of cohort enrolled individuals, aged 80 years or older (n = 208), who had never manifested cardiovascular diseases. Blood tests, medical and nutritional evaluations, cardiac computed tomography, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and physical performance tests were obtained at the study admission. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated by multivariate regression models using coronary calcium score (CCS) categories and FMD as dependent variables. Adjustment for potential confounders was done. Muscle mass, but not fatty mass, was inversely associated with CCS categories [OR:2.54(1.06-6.06); p = 0.018]. The lowering of gait speed was negatively related to CCS>100 [OR:2.36 (1.10-5.06); p = 0.028] and skeletal muscle index was directly associated with FMD [OR:5.44 (1.22-24.24); p = 0.026]. Total caloric intake was positively related to fatty mass [OR:2.71 (1.09-6.72); p = 0.031], but was not related to CCS. This study reveals that sarcopenia - comprised by reduction of muscle mass and its strength - is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Surprisingly, the excess of fatty mass seems not to be related to atherosclerotic burden in very elderly individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Taha, Dalal K; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S; Dysart, Kevin C; Aghai, Zubair H

    2016-06-01

    To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This is a retrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035-1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Taha, Dalal K.; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Aghai, Zubair H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Study design This is aretrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤ 1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. Results A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P < .05). Similarly, adjusted odds of developing BPD or death was greater in the HFNC ± CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035–1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. Conclusions In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. PMID:27004673

  1. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss.

    Schmitz, J; Evers, N; Awazawa, M; Nicholls, H T; Brönneke, H S; Dietrich, A; Mauer, J; Blüher, M; Brüning, J C

    2016-05-01

    Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and certain cancer entities. Treatment of obesity is hindered by the long-term maintenance of initially reduced body weight, and it remains unclear whether all pathologies associated with obesity are fully reversible even upon successfully maintained weight loss. We compared high fat diet-fed, weight reduced and lean mice in terms of body weight development, adipose tissue and liver insulin sensitivity as well as inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, we assessed similar parameters in a human cohort before and after bariatric surgery. Compared to lean animals, mice that demonstrated successful weight reduction showed increased weight gain following exposure to ad libitum control diet. However, pair-feeding weight-reduced mice with lean controls efficiently stabilized body weight, indicating that hyperphagia was the predominant cause for the observed weight regain. Additionally, whereas glucose tolerance improved rapidly after weight loss, systemic insulin resistance was retained and ameliorated only upon prolonged pair-feeding. Weight loss enhanced insulin action and resolved pro-inflammatory gene expression exclusively in the liver, whereas visceral adipose tissue displayed no significant improvement of metabolic and inflammatory parameters compared to obese mice. Similarly, bariatric surgery in humans (n = 55) resulted in massive weight reduction, improved hepatic inflammation and systemic glucose homeostasis, while adipose tissue inflammation remained unaffected and adipocyte-autonomous insulin action only exhibit minor improvements in a subgroup of patients (42%). These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice as

  2. Higher molecular weight polyethylene glycol increases cell proliferation while improving barrier function in an in vitro colon cancer model.

    Bharadwaj, Shruthi; Vishnubhotla, Ramana; Shan, Sun; Chauhan, Chinmay; Cho, Michael; Glover, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been previously shown to protect against enteric pathogens and prevent colon cancer invasion. To determine if PEG could indeed protect against previously observed pro-invasive effects of commensal E. coli and EPEC, Caco-2 cells grown in an in vitro model of colon cancer were infected with strains of human commensal E. coli or EPEC and treated with 10% PEG 3350, PEG 8000, and PEG 20,000, respectively. At 24 hours after infection, MMP-1 and MMP-13 activities, cell cluster thickness, depth of invasion, and proliferation were determined using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. We found that higher molecular weight PEG, especially PEG 8000 and 20,000, regardless of bacterial infection, increased proliferation and depth of invasion although a decrease in cellular density and MMP-1 activity was also noted. Maximum proliferation and depth of invasion of Caco-2 cells was observed in scaffolds treated with a combination of commensal E. coli strain, HS4 and PEG 8000. In conclusion, we found that PEG 8000 increased cell proliferation and led to the preservation of cell density in cells treated with commensal bacteria. This is important, because the preservation of a proliferative response in colon cancer results in a more chemo-responsive tumor.

  3. Higher Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol Increases Cell Proliferation While Improving Barrier Function in an In Vitro Colon Cancer Model

    Shruthi Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been previously shown to protect against enteric pathogens and prevent colon cancer invasion. To determine if PEG could indeed protect against previously observed pro-invasive effects of commensal E. coli and EPEC, Caco-2 cells grown in an in vitro model of colon cancer were infected with strains of human commensal E. coli or EPEC and treated with 10% PEG 3350, PEG 8000, and PEG 20,000, respectively. At 24 hours after infection, MMP-1 and MMP-13 activities, cell cluster thickness, depth of invasion, and proliferation were determined using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. We found that higher molecular weight PEG, especially PEG 8000 and 20,000, regardless of bacterial infection, increased proliferation and depth of invasion although a decrease in cellular density and MMP-1 activity was also noted. Maximum proliferation and depth of invasion of Caco-2 cells was observed in scaffolds treated with a combination of commensal E. coli strain, HS4 and PEG 8000. In conclusion, we found that PEG 8000 increased cell proliferation and led to the preservation of cell density in cells treated with commensal bacteria. This is important, because the preservation of a proliferative response in colon cancer results in a more chemo-responsive tumor.

  4. Does Short-term Litter Input Manipulation Affect Soil Respiration and the Carbon-isotopic Signature of Soil Respired CO2

    Cheng, X.; Wu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Global change greatly alters the quality and quantity of plant litter inputs to soils, and further impacts soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and soil respiration. However, the process-based understanding of how soil respiration may change with future shift in litter input is not fully understood. The Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) experiment was conducted in coniferous forest (Platycladus orientalis (Linn.) Franco) ecosystem of central China to investigate the impact of above- and belowground litter input on soil respiration and the carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2. Short-term (1-2 years) litter input manipulation significantly affected soil respiration, based on annual flux values, soil respiration was 31.9%, 20.5% and 37.2% lower in no litter (NL), no root (NR) and no input (NRNL), respectively, compared to control (CK). Whereas double litter (DL) treatment increased soil respiration by 9.1% compared to CK. The recalcitrance index of carbon (RIC) and the relative abundance of fungi increased under litter removal or root exclusion treatment (NL, NR and NRNL) compared to CK. Basal soil respiration was positively related to liable C and microbial biomass and negatively related to RIC and fungi to bacteria (F: B) ratio. The carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2 enriched under litter removal and no input treatment, and slightly depleted under litter addition treatment compared to CK. Our results suggest that short-term litter input manipulation can affect the soil respiration by altering substrate availability and microbial community structure, and also impact the carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2 possibly duo to change in the component of soil respiration and soil microclimate.

  5. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  6. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (ppostural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part from optimization of this multi-system interaction. Copyright © 2015

  7. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  9. Changes in respiration rates and biomass attributes of epilithon due to extended exposure to zinc

    Colwell, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of extended dosing of zinc on the carbon cycling and biomass characteristics of freshwater epilithon. Experiments were conducted in artificial streams continuously dosed with 0.00, 0.05, or 1.00 mg Zn liter -1 for 20 to 30 days during summer and fall, 1984 and 1985. Repeated measurement of epilithon structure and function included estimates of 14 C-glucose respiration, 14 C-glutamate respiration, O 2 and CO 2 flux rates, ash-free dry weight (AFDW), protein, carbohydrate, and algal pigment concentrations, and total and zinc-tolerant colony forming units. An increase in epilithic glucose respiration per unit biomass consistently occurred 5 to 10 days after dosing with 1.0 mg Zn liter -1 was started. At the same time significantly lower epilithon biomass occurred in the high dosed streams relative to controls in 3 out of 4 studies. Although algal pigment concentrations were lowest in the high dose streams at the midpoint of the studies, the chlorophyll a-to-pheophytin a ratio remained high, indicating that the minimal algal population was not senescing in situ. After 30 days, the epilithon dosed with 1.0 mg Zn liter -1 had higher AFDW, protein, and carbohydrate concentrations than the other treatments. The development of unique epilithon communities that are acclimated to prolonged zinc exposure is evident in the eventual recolonization of the artificial surfaces, glucose respiration rates that are comparable to controls, and presence of zinc-tolerant heterotrophs

  10. Glycolysis-respiration relationships in a neuroblastoma cell line.

    Swerdlow, Russell H; E, Lezi; Aires, Daniel; Lu, Jianghua

    2013-04-01

    Although some reciprocal glycolysis-respiration relationships are well recognized, the relationship between reduced glycolysis flux and mitochondrial respiration has not been critically characterized. We concomitantly measured the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under free and restricted glycolysis flux conditions. Under conditions of fixed energy demand ECAR and OCR values showed a reciprocal relationship. In addition to observing an expected Crabtree effect in which increasing glucose availability raised the ECAR and reduced the OCR, a novel reciprocal relationship was documented in which reducing the ECAR via glucose deprivation or glycolysis inhibition increased the OCR. Substituting galactose for glucose, which reduces net glycolysis ATP yield without blocking glycolysis flux, similarly reduced the ECAR and increased the OCR. We further determined how reduced ECAR conditions affect proteins that associate with energy sensing and energy response pathways. ERK phosphorylation, SIRT1, and HIF1a decreased while AKT, p38, and AMPK phosphorylation increased. These data document a novel intracellular glycolysis-respiration effect in which restricting glycolysis flux increases mitochondrial respiration. Since this effect can be used to manipulate cell bioenergetic infrastructures, this particular glycolysis-respiration effect can practically inform the development of new mitochondrial medicine approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase

    Nejib Kasmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV isopropoxide (TIS, tetrabutyltitanate (TBT, and dibutyltin (IV oxide (DBTO, via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP was conducted at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. The resultant polymers were analyzed according to their intrinsic viscosity (IV, end groups (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry. DSC results showed that the post polymerization process was favorable to enhance the melting point of the prepared PEF samples. As was expected, the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF increased with the SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-groups was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polymers IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl content of PEF during the SSP. From both the experimental measurements and the theoretical simulation results it was proved that the presence of the TIS catalyst resulted in higher transesterification kinetic rate constants and higher reaction rates. The activation energies were not much affected by the presence of different catalysts. Finally, using DBTO as a catalyst, the polyesters produced have higher crystallinity, and as a consequence, higher number of inactive carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  12. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  13. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  14. Divergent Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Soil Respiration in a Semiarid Grassland

    Cheng Zhu; Yiping Ma; Honghui Wu; Tao Sun; Kimberly J. La Pierre; Zewei Sun; Qiang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has been steadily increasing for decades, with consequences for soil respiration. However, we have a limited understanding of how soil respiration responds to N availability. Here, we investigated the soil respiration responses to low and high levels of N addition (0.4?mol N m?2 yr?1 vs 1.6?mol N m?2 yr?1) over a two-year period in a semiarid Leymus chinensis grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results show that low-level N addition increased soil respiration, plan...

  15. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  16. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  17. Use of Facemasks and Respirators

    2007-05-15

    This program demonstrates the differences of facemasks and respirators that are to be used in public settings during an influenza pandemic.  Created: 5/15/2007 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/25/2007.

  18. Can alginate-based preloads increase weight loss beyond calorie restriction? A pilot study in obese individuals.

    Georg Jensen, M; Kristensen, M; Astrup, A

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, controlled, 2-week intervention study in 24 obese subjects tested the effect on body weight loss and gastrointestinal tolerance of consuming low viscous alginate fibre-based preloads of 3% concentration (500 ml volume) three times a day as an adjuvant to a calorie-restricted diet. The pilot study showed that intake of the alginate preloads was moderately acceptable to the majority of subjects but did not produce additional body weight loss beyond calorie restriction (-1.42 ± 0.38 kg) (n=12) compared to control group (-1.56 ± 0.21 kg) (n=8). These results do not support that alginate supplementation enhance the weight loss effects of a hypo-caloric diet, but a sufficiently powered long-term study is needed to explore whether alginate could be an aid for improving weight loss during caloric-restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased reactive oxygen species production and lower abundance of complex I subunits and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B protein despite normal mitochondrial respiration in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle.

    Lefort, Natalie; Glancy, Brian; Bowen, Benjamin; Willis, Wayne T; Bailowitz, Zachary; De Filippis, Elena A; Brophy, Colleen; Meyer, Christian; Højlund, Kurt; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. Comparative proteomics are being applied to generate new hypotheses in human biology and were applied here to isolated mitochondria to identify novel changes in mitochondrial protein abundance present in insulin-resistant muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from vastus lateralis muscle from lean and insulin-sensitive individuals and from obese and insulin-resistant individuals who were otherwise healthy. Respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates were measured in vitro. Relative abundances of proteins detected by mass spectrometry were determined using a normalized spectral abundance factor method. NADH- and FADH(2)-linked maximal respiration rates were similar between lean and obese individuals. Rates of pyruvate and palmitoyl-DL-carnitine (both including malate) ROS production were significantly higher in obesity. Mitochondria from obese individuals maintained higher (more negative) extramitochondrial ATP free energy at low metabolic flux, suggesting that stronger mitochondrial thermodynamic driving forces may underlie the higher ROS production. Tandem mass spectrometry identified protein abundance differences per mitochondrial mass in insulin resistance, including lower abundance of complex I subunits and enzymes involved in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and fatty acids (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B). We provide data suggesting normal oxidative capacity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle in parallel with high rates of ROS production. Furthermore, we show specific abundance differences in proteins involved in fat and BCAA oxidation that might contribute to the accumulation of lipid and BCAA frequently associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  20. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  1. 78 FR 18535 - Respirator Certification Fees

    2013-03-27

    ... facepiece respirators. The North American respiratory protection market generated revenues around $1,830 million in 2007, the most recent data available.\\4\\ A summary of market segmentation, by respirator type... management. Of the U.S. respirator market of products approved by NIOSH, approximately 35 percent of approval...

  2. Naturally occurring workplace facilities to increase the leisure time physical activity of workers: A propensity-score weighted population study.

    Biswas, Aviroop; Smith, Peter M; Gignac, Monique A M

    2018-06-01

    The benefit of providing access to physical activity facilities at or near work to support the leisure time physical activity (LTPA) of workers is uncertain. We examined the association between access to physical activity facilities at or near work and the LTPA of workers after adjusting for a range of individual and occupational characteristics. Data was obtained from 60,650 respondents to the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Participants were employed adults ≥18 years of age who had no long-term health condition which reduced their participation in physical activity. Latent class analysis determined naturally occurring combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work. Each combination was balanced by 19 individual and occupational covariate characteristics using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores. The association between combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work on LTPA level was estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Five different combinations of physical activity facilities were available to respondents at or near work. Data were analyzed in 2017. All possible physical facilities increased the likelihood for LTPA (OR, 2.08, 95% CI, 1.03-4.20) and other combinations were also positively associated. Respondents with no physical activity facilities were characterized as having a low education, low income, high physically demanding work, poor health and mental health, non-white racial background, and being an immigrant. Access to supportive workplace environments can help workers be physically active. Future research should assess a range of personal, social and environmental factors that may be driving this relationship.

  3. Naturally occurring workplace facilities to increase the leisure time physical activity of workers: A propensity-score weighted population study

    Aviroop Biswas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of providing access to physical activity facilities at or near work to support the leisure time physical activity (LTPA of workers is uncertain. We examined the association between access to physical activity facilities at or near work and the LTPA of workers after adjusting for a range of individual and occupational characteristics. Data was obtained from 60,650 respondents to the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Participants were employed adults ≥18 years of age who had no long-term health condition which reduced their participation in physical activity. Latent class analysis determined naturally occurring combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work. Each combination was balanced by 19 individual and occupational covariate characteristics using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores. The association between combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work on LTPA level was estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Five different combinations of physical activity facilities were available to respondents at or near work. Data were analyzed in 2017. All possible physical facilities increased the likelihood for LTPA (OR, 2.08, 95% CI, 1.03–4.20 and other combinations were also positively associated. Respondents with no physical activity facilities were characterized as having a low education, low income, high physically demanding work, poor health and mental health, non-white racial background, and being an immigrant. Access to supportive workplace environments can help workers be physically active. Future research should assess a range of personal, social and environmental factors that may be driving this relationship. Keywords: Physical activity, Workplace, Built environment, Health promotion, Exercise

  4. Motivational Interviewing as an intervention to increase adolescent self-efficacy and promote weight loss: Methodology and design

    Morrongiello Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is associated with serious physiological and psychological consequences including type 2 diabetes, higher rates of depression and low self-esteem. With the population of overweight and obese youth increasing, appropriate interventions are needed that speak to the issue of readiness to change and motivation to maintain adherence to healthy behavior changes. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a method of therapy found to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behavior changes. While MI has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive lifestyle change, little is known about the effectiveness of MI with overweight and obese youth. This study aims to: 1 demonstrate that MI is an effective intervention for increasing a person's self-efficacy; 2 demonstrate that exposure to MI will facilitate healthy behavior changes; 3 explore psychological changes related to participation in MI and 4 compare physiological and anthropometric outcomes before and after intervention. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted with ongoing participants who regularly attend an outpatient pediatric care center for weight-loss. Overweight youth (BMI > 85th %ile between the ages of 10 and 18 who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to a control group (social skills training or a treatment group (MI. Participants will meet with the therapist for approximately 30 minutes prior to seeing the dietician, over the course of 6 months. Participants will also undergo a full day assessment at the beginning and end of psychology intervention to evaluate body fat, and metabolic risk (screening for diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and fitness level. The paper and pencil portions of the assessments as well as the clinical testing will occur at baseline and at the conclusion of

  5. Selective estrogen receptor modulator promotes weight loss in ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by decreasing food intake and increasing activity.

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Shearin, Jean; Koegler, Frank H; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on body weight in postmenopausal women is controversial, with studies reporting an increase, a decrease, and no change in body weight. To examine estrogen receptor actions on body weight, we investigated the effects of treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on body weight, food intake, and activity and metabolic rate in a nonhuman primate model. Eighteen ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys were treated with a nonsteroidal SERM (GSK232802A, 5 mg/kg po) for 3 mo. GSK232802A decreased lutenizing hormone (P Physical activity increased during the 3rd mo of treatment (P = 0.04). Baseline activity level and the change in activity due to treatment were correlated, with the most sedentary individuals exhibiting increased physical activity during the 1st mo of treatment (P = 0.02). Metabolic rate did not change (P = 0.58). These results indicate that GSK232802A treatment reduces body weight and adiposity in ovariectomized nonhuman primates by suppressing food intake and increasing activity, particularly in the most sedentary individuals. These findings suggest that SERM treatment may counteract weight gain in postmenopausal women.

  6. Relationship of low lean body mass with body weight increase until one year of age and current lifestyles in Japanese young women.

    Miyamoto, Shoji; Murotani, Kenta; Yanagawa, Takashi; Kato, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Satoshi

    2010-06-01

    To investigate factors affecting the low lean body mass (LBM) of young women, we focused on the increase in body weight until one year of age and current lifestyles. In 442 young women, the increase in body weight from birth until one year of age, breast-feeding method in infancy, current physique index and body composition, and physique and lifestyles were investigated using a questionnaire. Subjects with an LBM percentile of less than 33.3 (less than 36.8 kg) were classified as having a low LBM (n = 150), and those with a 33.3 or higher LBM percentile as the control (n = 293). Based on body weight changes from birth to days 3 and 7, the subjects were divided into a rapid weight gain group and two non-rapid weight gain groups (groups 1-3). To analyze factors involved in a low LBM, multivariate analysis using a logistic model was employed. The prevalence of a low LBM in the rapid weight gain group was 0.41 times higher than in the others. The prevalence of a low LBM with a low birth weight was 0.58 times higher, indicating that a low birth weight is likely to result in a low LBM. Regarding the lifestyles, the prevalence of a low LBM in subjects with a current breakfasting habit was 0.60 times higher than in those without one. These findings suggest that the thinness of young women characterized by a low LBM is associated with the increase in body weight until one year of age and current lifestyles.

  7. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  8. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  9. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, J.C.; Tang, J.; Templer, P.H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crowther, T.W.; Burton, A.J.; Dukes, J.S.; Emmett, B.; Frey, S.D.; Heskel, M.A.; Jiang, L.; Machmuller, M.B.; Mohan, J.; Panetta, A.M.; Reich, P.B.; Reinsch, S.; Wang, X.; Allison, S.D.; Bamminger, C.; Bridgham, S.; Collins, S.L.; de Dato, G.; Eddy, W.C.; Enquist, B.J.; Estiarte, M.; Harte, J.; Henderson, A.; Johnson, B.R.; Larsen, K.S.; Luo, Y.; Marhan, S.; Melillo, J.M.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Rastetter, E.; Reinmann, A.B.; Reynolds, L.L.; Schmidt, I.K.; Shaver, G.R.; Strong, A.L.; Suseela, V.; Tietema, A.

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific

  10. Opposite effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Rabøl, R; Boushel, R; Almdal, T

    2010-01-01

    mitochondrial respiration per milligram muscle was measured in saponin-treated skinned muscle fibres using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: Mitochondrial respiration per milligram muscle was lower in T2DM compared to controls at baseline and decreased during ROSI treatment but increased during PIO...... of ROSI and PIO on mitochondrial respiration, and also show that insulin sensitivity can be improved independently of changes in mitochondrial respiration. We confirm that mitochondrial respiration is reduced in T2DM compared to age- and BMI-matched control subjects....

  11. Influence of gamma irradiation, cold storage and pulsing on post harvest life and respiration rate of 'golden gate' cut roses

    Palanikumar, S.; Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S.K.; Pal, Madan

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation at 0.025 kGy increased the respiration rate of 'Golden Gate' cut roses. The irradiation followed by cold storage (at 4 deg C) brought down the respiration rate after storage duration of 3 days. The respiration rate was found maximum in the sucrose (3% ) pulsed flowers immediately after pulsing. However, the rate of respiration is decreased in all the treatments. The irradiated flowers recorded lowest amount of respiration at senescence and the vase life was maximum in these flowers. (author)

  12. Improved synthesis with high yield and increased molecular weight of poly(alpha,beta-malic acid) by direct polycondensation.

    Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(alpha-hydroxy acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing high molecular weight poly(malic acid) (HMW--PMA) as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable water-soluble polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of l-malic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalysts. The molecular weight of synthesized alpha,beta-PMA is dependent on both the reaction temperature and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain alpha,beta-PMA by direct polycondensation using tin(II) chloride as a catalyst was thus determined to be 110 degrees C for 45 h with a molecular weight of 5300. The method for alpha,beta-PMA synthesis established here will facilitate production of alpha,beta-PMA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

  13. Reduced brachial flow-mediated vasodilation in young adult ex extremely low birth weight preterm: a condition predictive of increased cardiovascular risk?

    Bassareo, P P; Fanos, V; Puddu, M; Demuru, P; Cadeddu, F; Balzarini, M; Mercuro, G

    2010-10-01

    Sporadic data present in literature report how preterm birth and low birth weight constitute the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in later life. To assess the presence of potential alterations to endothelial function in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (Cesarea, Israel). Endothelial function was significantly reduced in ex-ELBW subjects compared to C (1.94 +/- 0.37 vs. 2.68 +/- 0.41, p < 0.0001). Moreover, this function correlated significantly with gestational age (r = 0.56, p < 0.0009) and birth weight (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). The results obtained reveal a significant decrease in endothelial function of ex-ELBW subjects compared to controls, underlining a probable correlation with preterm birth and low birth weight. Taken together, these results suggest that an ELBW may underlie the onset of early circulatory dysfunction predictive of increased cardiovascular risk.

  14. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1α Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight.

    Villareal, Myra O; Matsukawa, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroko

    2018-05-24

    L-citrulline has recently been reported as a more effective supplement for promoting intracellular NO production compared to L-arginine. Here, the effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle and its influence on exercise performance were investigated. The underlying mechanism of its effect, specifically on the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), was also elucidated. Six-week-old ICR mice were orally supplemented with L-citrulline (250 mg kg -1 ) daily, and their performance in weight-loaded swimming exercise every other day for 15 days, was evaluated. In addition, mice muscles were weighed and evaluated for the expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1α-regulated genes. Mice orally supplemented with L-citrulline had significantly higher gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscle mass. Although not statistically significant, L-citrulline prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion. PGC-1α upregulation was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGFα) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) upregulation. VEGFα and IGF1 are important for angiogenesis and muscle growth, respectively, and are regulated by PGC-1α. Treatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, suppressed the L-citrulline-induced PGC-1α upregulation in-vitro. Supplementation with L-citrulline upregulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels resulting to higher skeletal muscle weight that improves time to exhaustion during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Reduced in Atherosclerosis, Promoting Necrotic Core Formation and Reducing Relative Fibrous Cap Thickness.

    Yu, Emma P K; Reinhold, Johannes; Yu, Haixiang; Starks, Lakshi; Uryga, Anna K; Foote, Kirsty; Finigan, Alison; Figg, Nichola; Pung, Yuh-Fen; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P; Bennett, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from plaques showed impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced complex I expression, and increased mitophagy, which was induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice showed decreased mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial respiration, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. To determine whether alleviating mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis, we studied ApoE -/- mice overexpressing the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle (Tw + /ApoE -/- ). Tw + /ApoE -/- mice showed increased mtDNA integrity, copy number, respiratory complex abundance, and respiration. Tw + /ApoE -/- mice had decreased necrotic core and increased fibrous cap areas, and Tw + /ApoE -/- bone marrow transplantation also reduced core areas. Twinkle increased vascular smooth muscle cell mtDNA integrity and respiration. Twinkle also promoted vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protected both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Endogenous mtDNA damage in mouse and human atherosclerosis is associated with significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration. Reducing mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration decrease necrotic core and increase fibrous cap areas independently of changes in

  16. Nutrition management methods effective in increasing weight, survival time and functional status in ALS patients: a systematic review.

    Kellogg, Jaylin; Bottman, Lindsey; Arra, Erin J; Selkirk, Stephen M; Kozlowski, Frances

    2018-02-01

    Poor prognosis and decreased survival time correlate with the nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Various studies were reviewed which assessed weight, body mass index (BMI), survival time and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R) in order to determine the best nutrition management methods for this patient population. A systematic review was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed, and various search terms in order to determine the most recent clinical trials and observational studies that have been conducted concerning nutrition and ALS. Four articles met criteria to be included in the review. Data were extracted from these articles and were inputted into the Data Extraction Tool (DET) provided by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Results showed that nutrition supplementation does promote weight stabilisation or weight gain in individuals with ALS. Given the low risk and low cost associated with intervention, early and aggressive nutrition intervention is recommended. This systematic review shows that there is a lack of high quality evidence regarding the efficacy of any dietary interventions for promoting survival in ALS or slowing disease progression; therefore more research is necessary related to effects of nutrition interventions.

  17. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid increases the differentiation potential of the murine chondrocytic ATDC5 cell line.

    Sato, Eiichi; Ando, Takashi; Ichikawa, Jiro; Okita, Genki; Sato, Nobutaka; Wako, Masanori; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ochiai, Satoshi; Hagino, Tetsuo; Jacobson, Richard; Haro, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a group of common, chronic, and painful inflammatory joint diseases. One important finding in OA patients is a remarkable decrease in the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial fluid of affected joints. Therapeutic HA is available to patients in most parts of the world as a viscosupplementation product for the treatment of OA. Previous clinical reports show that high molecular weight HA (HMWHA) more effectively relieves pain than low molecular weight HA (LMWHA). However, the mechanism behind this finding remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether a LMWHA (Low-0.9 MDa) and two types of HMWHA (High-1.9 MDa and 6 MDa) differentially affected chondroregulatory action. We tested this using ATDC5 cell, a murine chondrocytic cell line widely used in culture systems to study chondrogenic differentiation. We found that HMWHA, especially hylan G-F 20 (High-6 MDa), significantly induced aggrecan and proteoglycan accumulation, nodule formation, and mRNA expression of chondrogenic differentiation markers in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, we showed that HMWHA prevented TNF-α induced inhibition of chondrogenic differentiation, with no effect on cell proliferation or viability. These results reveal that HMWHA significantly promotes chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells in vitro, and suggest that HMWHA plays a significant chondroregulatory role in vivo. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall.

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-11-15

    Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. The results showed that the temporal patterns of soil respiration rates were mainly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content, and a combined soil temperature and soil water content model explained 54-80% of the variation. However, these two factors affected soil respiration differently. Soil temperature positively contributed to soil respiration, but a bidirectional relationship between soil respiration and soil water content was revealed. Higher soil moisture content resulted in higher soil respiration rates at the lowland plantations but led to adverse effects at the mid-elevation plantation. The annual soil respiration rates were estimated as 14.3-20.0 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the lowland plantations and 7.0-12.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the mid-elevation plantation. When assembled with the findings of previous studies, the annual soil respiration rates increased with the mean annual temperature and litterfall but decreased with elevation and the mean annual precipitation. A conceptual model of the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of the soil respiration rate was developed. Three determinant factors were proposed: (i) elevation, (ii) stand characteristics, and (iii) soil temperature and soil moisture. The results indicated that changes in temperature and precipitation significantly affect soil respiration. Because of the high variability of soil respiration, more studies and data syntheses are required to accurately predict soil respiration in Taiwanese forests.

  19. Dependence of Soil Respiration on Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Successional Forests in Southern China

    Xu-Li Tang; Guo-Yi Zhou; Shu-Guang Liu; De-Qiang Zhang; Shi-Zhong Liu; Jiong Li; Cun-Yu Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (± SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0±4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year, ranging from (6.1±3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in early successional forests to (10.7±4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  20. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, Ji; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (±SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ± 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ± 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ± 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  1. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VII. Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1949-07-21

    The relationship of respiration to photosynthesis in barley seedling leaves and the algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, has been investigated using radioactive carbon dioxide and the techniques of paper chromatography and radioautography. The plants are allowed to photosynthesize normally for thirty seconds in c{sup 14}O{sub 2} after which they are allowed to respire in air or helium in the light or dark. Respiration of photosynthetic intermediates as evidenced by the appearance of labeled glutomic, isocitric, fumaric and succinic acids is slower in the light than in the dark. Labeled glycolic acid is observed in barley and algae. It disappears rapidly in the dark and is maintained and increased in quantity in the light in C0{sub 2}-free air.

  2. Personal exposure versus monitoring station data for respirable particles

    Sega, K; Fugas, M

    1982-01-01

    Personal exposure to respirable particles of 12 subjects working at the same location, but living in various parts of Zagreb, was monitored for 7 consecutive days and compared with simultaneously obtained data from the outdoor network station nearest to subject's home. Although personal exposure is related to the outdoor pollution, other sources play a considerable role. Indoor exposure takes, on the average, more than 80% of the total time. The ratio between average personal exposure and respirable particle levels in the outdoor air decreases with the increased outdoor concentration (r = -0.93), indicating that this relationship might serve as a basis for a rough estimate of possible personal exposure.

  3. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-05-01

    There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Respiration shutoff in Escherichia coli K12 strains is induced by far ultraviolet radiations and by mitomycin C

    Swenson, P.A.; Norton, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    Near ultraviolet radiations (UV) cause respiration to shutoff in Escherichia coli B/r. It has been reported that E. coli K12 strains do not shut off respiration after UV. It is also reported that mitomycin C did not cause this 'SOS' response. In this paper it is reported that higher UV fluences than were previously used will cause respiration shutoff in K12 strain W3110 and that cyclic AMP increases the sensitivity of respiration shutoff of irradiated cell suspensions. Also mitomycin C shuts off respiration in this strain. Neither UV nor mitomycin C causes respiration shutoff in the recA56 derivative of W3110. Thus respiration shutoff is a recA dependent response to UV and mitomycin C in E. coli K12 strains. (Auth.)

  5. Boreal and temperate trees show strong acclimation of respiration to warming.

    Reich, Peter B; Sendall, Kerrie M; Stefanski, Artur; Wei, Xiaorong; Rich, Roy L; Montgomery, Rebecca A

    2016-03-31

    Plant respiration results in an annual flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that is six times as large as that due to the emissions from fossil fuel burning, so changes in either will impact future climate. As plant respiration responds positively to temperature, a warming world may result in additional respiratory CO2 release, and hence further atmospheric warming. Plant respiration can acclimate to altered temperatures, however, weakening the positive feedback of plant respiration to rising global air temperature, but a lack of evidence on long-term (weeks to years) acclimation to climate warming in field settings currently hinders realistic predictions of respiratory release of CO2 under future climatic conditions. Here we demonstrate strong acclimation of leaf respiration to both experimental warming and seasonal temperature variation for juveniles of ten North American tree species growing for several years in forest conditions. Plants grown and measured at 3.4 °C above ambient temperature increased leaf respiration by an average of 5% compared to plants grown and measured at ambient temperature; without acclimation, these increases would have been 23%. Thus, acclimation eliminated 80% of the expected increase in leaf respiration of non-acclimated plants. Acclimation of leaf respiration per degree temperature change was similar for experimental warming and seasonal temperature variation. Moreover, the observed increase in leaf respiration per degree increase in temperature was less than half as large as the average reported for previous studies, which were conducted largely over shorter time scales in laboratory settings. If such dampening effects of leaf thermal acclimation occur generally, the increase in respiration rates of terrestrial plants in response to climate warming may be less than predicted, and thus may not raise atmospheric CO2 concentrations as much as anticipated.

  6. Soil and Root Respiration Under Elevated CO2 Concentrations During Seedling Growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of higher CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol mol-1) in atmosphere on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. During the four growing seasons (May-October) from 1999 to 2003, the seedlings were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 in open-top chambers. The total soil respiration and contribution of root respiration were measured using an LI-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber on June 15 and October 8, 2003. To separate root respiration from total soil respiration, three PVC cylinders were inserted approximately 30 cm deep into the soil in each chamber. There were marked diurnal changes in air and soil temperatures on June 15. Both the total soil respiration and the soil respiration without roots showed a strong diurnal pattern, increasing from before sunrise to about 14:00in the afternoon and then decreasing before the next sunrise. No increase in the mean total soil respiration and mean soil respiration with roots severed was observed under the elevated CO2 treatments on June 15, 2003, as compared to the open field and control chamber with ambient CO2. However, on October 8, 2003, the total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed in the open field were lower than those in the control and elevated CO2 chambers. The mean contribution of root respiration measured on June 15, 2003, ranged from 8.3% to 30.5% and on October 8, 2003,from 20.6% to 48.6%.

  7. Effects of respirator use on worker performance

    Cardarelli, R. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In 1993, EPRI funded Yankee Atomic Electric Company to examine the effects of respirator use on worker efficiency. Phase I of Yankee`s effort was to develop a study design to determine respirator effects. Given success in Phase I, a larger population will be tested to determine if a stasitically significant respirator effect on performance can be measured. This paper summarizes the 1993 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Effects of Pilot Study, and describes the study design for the 1994 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Study to be conducted at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Also described is a summary of respirator effect studies that have been conducted during the last ten (10) years.

  8. Supplementation with a new trypsin inhibitor from peanut is associated with reduced fasting glucose, weight control, and increased plasma CCK secretion in an animal model.

    Serquiz, Alexandre C; Machado, Richele J A; Serquiz, Raphael P; Lima, Vanessa C O; de Carvalho, Fabiana Maria C; Carneiro, Marcella A A; Maciel, Bruna L L; Uchôa, Adriana F; Santos, Elizeu A; Morais, Ana H A

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of peanuts may have a beneficial effect on weight control, possibly due to the satietogenic action of trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to isolate a new trypsin inhibitor in a typical Brazilian peanut sweet (paçoca) and evaluate its effect in biochemical parameters, weight gain and food intake in male Wistar rats. The trypsin inhibitor in peanut paçoca (AHTI) was isolated. Experimental diets were prepared with AIN-93G supplemented with AHTI. Animals had their weight and food intake monitored. Animals were anesthetized, euthanized, and their bloods collected by cardiac puncture for dosage of cholecystokinin (CCK) and other biochemical parameters. Supplementation with AHTI significantly decreased fasting glucose, body weight gain, and food intake. These effects may be attributed to increased satiety, once supplemented animals showed no evidence of impaired nutritional status and also because AHTI increased CCK production. Thus, our results indicate that AHTI, besides reducing fasting glucose, can reduce weight gain via food intake reduction.

  9. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  10. A strategy of faster movements used by elderly humans to lift objects of increasing weight in ecological context.

    Hoellinger, Thomas; McIntyre, Joseph; Jami, Lena; Hanneton, Sylvain; Cheron, Guy; Roby-Brami, Agnes

    2017-08-15

    It is not known whether, during the course of aging, changes occur in the motor strategies used by the CNS for lifting objects of different weights. Here, we analyzed the kinematics of object-lifting in two different healthy groups (young and elderly people) plus one well-known deafferented patient (GL). The task was to reach and lift onto a shelf an opaque cylindrical object with changing weight. The movements of the hand and object were recorded with electromagnetic sensors. In an ecological context (i.e. no instruction was given about movement speed), we found that younger participants, elderly people and GL did not all move at the same speed and that, surprisingly, elder people are faster. We also observed that the lifting trajectories were constant for both the elderly and the deafferented patient while younger participants raised their hand higher when the object weighed more. It appears that, depending on age and on available proprioceptive information, the CNS uses different strategies of lifting. We suggest that elder people tend to optimize their feedforward control in order to compensate for less functional afferent feedback, perhaps to optimize movement time and energy expenditure at the expense of high precision. In the case of complete loss of proprioceptive input, however, compensation follows a different strategy as suggested by GL's behavior who moved more slowly compared to both our younger and older participants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Increase in 4-coumaryl alcohol units during lignification in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) alters the extractability and molecular weight of lignin.

    Ziebell, Angela; Gracom, Kristen; Katahira, Rui; Chen, Fang; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Art; Dixon, Richard A; Davis, Mark

    2010-12-10

    The lignin content of biomass can impact the ease and cost of biomass processing. Lignin reduction through breeding and genetic modification therefore has potential to reduce costs in biomass-processing industries (e.g. pulp and paper, forage, and lignocellulosic ethanol). We investigated compositional changes in two low-lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lines with antisense down-regulation of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT). We investigated whether the difference in reactivity during lignification of 4-coumaryl alcohol (H) monomers versus the naturally dominant sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol lignin monomers alters the lignin structure. Sequential base extraction readily reduced the H monomer content of the transgenic lines, leaving a residual lignin greatly enriched in H subunits; the extraction profile highlighted the difference between the control and transgenic lines. Gel permeation chromatography of isolated ball-milled lignin indicated significant changes in the weight average molecular weight distribution of the control versus transgenic lines (CTR1a, 6000; C3H4a, 5500; C3H9a, 4000; and HCT30a, 4000).

  12. Increased performance in the short-term water demand forecasting through the use of a parallel adaptive weighting strategy

    Sardinha-Lourenço, A.; Andrade-Campos, A.; Antunes, A.; Oliveira, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on water demand short-term forecasting has shown that models using univariate time series based on historical data are useful and can be combined with other prediction methods to reduce errors. The behavior of water demands in drinking water distribution networks focuses on their repetitive nature and, under meteorological conditions and similar consumers, allows the development of a heuristic forecast model that, in turn, combined with other autoregressive models, can provide reliable forecasts. In this study, a parallel adaptive weighting strategy of water consumption forecast for the next 24-48 h, using univariate time series of potable water consumption, is proposed. Two Portuguese potable water distribution networks are used as case studies where the only input data are the consumption of water and the national calendar. For the development of the strategy, the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method and a short-term forecast heuristic algorithm are used. Simulations with the model showed that, when using a parallel adaptive weighting strategy, the prediction error can be reduced by 15.96% and the average error by 9.20%. This reduction is important in the control and management of water supply systems. The proposed methodology can be extended to other forecast methods, especially when it comes to the availability of multiple forecast models.

  13. Interpersonal rejection results in increased appearance satisfaction for women who rely on body weight for self-worth.

    O'Driscoll, Lauren M; Jarry, Josée L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether body weight contingent self-worth (BWCSW), the tendency to base self-worth on body weight, moderates the effects of interpersonal rejection on self-esteem and body satisfaction. In an online survey, female undergraduates (N=148) completed measures of trait self-esteem, depression, and BWCSW. In a subsequent lab session, participants were assigned to either an interpersonal rejection or to a neutral control condition, after which they completed measures of state self-esteem and body satisfaction. Compared to women with lower BWCSW, women with higher BWCSW reported lower appearance self-esteem (p=.001) and body satisfaction (p=.004) across conditions. However, they reacted to rejection by reporting greater appearance self-esteem (p=.034) and body satisfaction (p=.021). Rejection had no effect on women with lower BWCSW. The reaction of women with higher BWCSW is interpreted as a compensatory self-enhancement response to interpersonal rejection within a self-important domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RESEARCH ON WEIGHT EVOLUTION AND DAILY AVERAGE INCREASE TO FOUR DIFFERENT GROUPS OF LITTLE CROSSBREED BULLS EXPOSED TO INTENSIVE FATTENING

    I.R. MOLDOVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed to highlight the weight differences and daily growth average of four groups of little crossbreed bulls raised in the same environmental conditions and having the same feeding diet. Farm in which they do research is TCE 3 abis SRL Piatra Neamt, located in Zanesti village at 14 km from the city of Piatra Neamt. Location of the farm is on the old IAS Zanesti and is endowed eight shelters from which two are still functional. Shelters are divided into collective lumber rooms, on which are housed an optimal number of calves depending on their age, number varied from 25 calves at 0 - 3 months up to 6 heads during growing and finishing period when they reach weights of 600-700 kg. Farm population is obtained with calves from reformed cows from milk farm belonging to the same company. Forage base is provided from the company's vegetable farm, farm exploits about 14,000 ha of arable land in Neamt County. Feeding (in three phases is made with the technological trailer once-daily in morning and drinking is made at discretion at constant.

  15. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss

    J. Schmitz

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice as well as in a significant subpopulation of obese patients.

  16. Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study #43442

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This course, Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study (#43442), addresses training requirements for supervisors of respirator wearers as specified by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard for Respiratory Protection, ANSI Z88.2, and as incorporated by reference in the Department of Energy (DOE) Worker Health and Safety Rule, 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 851. This course also presents the responsibilities of supervisors of respirator wearers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  17. Effects of rhizobacteria on the respiration and growth of Cerasus sachalinensis Kom. seedlings

    Qin, S.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.; Lyu, D.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of rhizosphere microorganisms on seed germination and root metabolism in Cerasus sachalinensis Kom. We inoculated C. sachalinensis plants with suspensions of dominant bacterial strains isolated from their rhizosphere. Four bacterial strains each with significant growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting effects were screened from the efficient root-colonizing microorganisms. The number of actinomycetes increased and that of fungi decreased significantly in the seedling rhizospheres after rhizobacteria treatment. The growth-promoting bacteria slightly affected the respiration rates and respiratory pathway enzymes, but significantly improved root viability, root carbohydrate concentration and seedling growth. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens were identified as the growth-promoting rhizobacteria; one strain could not be identified. After inoculation with the growth-inhibiting bacteria, the number of fungal colonies in the seedling rhizospheres increased and root viability and respiration rate as well as starch and sucrose accumulation in the roots significantly decreased. The glycolysis, pentose phosphate and alternative oxidase pathways became the major pathways of respiratory metabolism after inoculation with the growth-inhibiting bacteria. The height, leaf number, growth and dry weight of the seedlings decreased significantly in plants inoculated with the growth-inhibiting bacteria. Inoculation of C. sachalinensis rhizosphere with growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting bacteria affected the soil environmental factors such as microbial group composition, nutrient concentration and seedling biomass. (Author)

  18. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals

    Coker Robert H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess adipose tissue and sarcopenia presents a multifaceted clinical challenge that promotes morbidity and mortality in the obese, elderly population. Unfortunately, the mortality risks of muscle loss may outweigh the potential benefits of weight loss in the elderly. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of whey protein and essential amino acids towards the preservation of lean tissue, even under the conditions of strict bedrest in the elderly. Methods In the context of caloric restriction-based weight loss, we hypothesized that a similar formulation given as a meal replacement (EAAMR would foster the retention of lean tissue through an increase in the skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR. We also proposed that EAAMR would promote the preferential loss of adipose tissue through the increased energy cost of skeletal muscle FSR. We recruited and randomized 12 elderly individuals to an 8 week, caloric restriction diet utilizing equivalent caloric meal replacements (800 kcal/day: 1 EAAMR or a 2 competitive meal replacement (CMR in conjunction with 400 kcal of solid food that totaled 1200 kcal/day designed to induce 7% weight loss. Combined with weekly measurements of total body weight and body composition, we also measured the acute change in the skeletal muscle FSR to EAAMR and CMR. Results By design, both groups lost ~7% of total body weight. While EAAMR did not promote a significant preservation of lean tissue, the reduction in adipose tissue was greater in EAAMR compared to CMR. Interestingly, these results corresponded to an increase in the acute skeletal muscle protein FSR. Conclusion The provision of EAAMR during caloric restriction-induced weight loss promotes the preferential reduction of adipose tissue and the modest loss of lean tissue in the elderly population.

  19. Greater early and mid-pregnancy gestational weight gain are associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study.

    Zhong, Chunrong; Li, Xiating; Chen, Renjuan; Zhou, Xuezhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Wu, Jiangyue; Xu, Shangzhi; Wang, Weiye; Xiao, Mei; Xiong, Guoping; Wang, Jing; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and the offspring. To examine the relationship between the rates of gestational weight gain (RGWG) during early and mid-pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). 2090 singleton pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort (TMCHC) without overt diabetes before pregnancy were analyzed in our study. Gestational weight were measured regularly in every antenatal visit. Gestational diabetes mellitus was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate effect of RGWG on GDM. A total of 8.3% (n = 173) of pregnant women were diagnosed with GDM. Women with elevated rate of gestational weight gain prior to glucose screening test (RGWG-PG) increased the risk of GDM (adjusted p-trend = 0.004; odds ratios (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01-2.68 and OR 2.30,95% CI 1.44-3.66 for 0.297-0.384 kg/wk and 0.385 kg/wk or more vs. 0.213 kg/wk or less, respectively). Women with greater rate of gestational weight gain in the first trimester (RGWG-F) increased the risk of GDM (adjusted p-trend = 0.048; OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.94 and OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.10-2.83 for 0.086-0.200 kg/wk and 0.201 kg/wk or more vs. -0.025 kg/wk or less, respectively). The rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) was significantly associated with GDM only among women with RGWG-F more than 0.086 kg/wk (adjusted p-trend = 0.035; OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.16-3.59 for 0.658 kg/wk or more vs. 0.418 kg/wk or less). Greater early pregnancy weight gain are associated with increased risk of GDM. Elevated weight gain in mid-pregnancy increased the risk of GDM only among pregnant women with greater weight gain in the first trimester. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Influence of temperature and organic matter content on soil respiration in a deciduous oak forest

    Zsolt Kotroczó

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing temperature enhances soil respiration differently depend on different conditions (soil moisture, soil organic matter, the activity of soil microbes. It is an essential factor to predicting the effect of climate change on soil respiration. In a temperate deciduous forest (North-Hungary we added or removal aboveground and belowground litter to determine total soil respiration. We investigated the relationship between total soil CO2 efflux, soil moisture and soil temperature. Soil CO2 efflux was measured at each plot using chamber based soil respiration measurements. We determined the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The effect of doubled litter was less than the effect of removal. We found that temperature was more influential in the control of soil respiration than soil moisture in litter removal treatments, particularly in the wetter root exclusion treatments (NR and NI (R2: 0.49-0.61. Soil moisture (R2: 0.18-0.24 and temperature (R2: 0.18-0.20 influenced soil respiration similarly in treatments, where soil was drier (Control, Double Litter, Double Wood. A significantly greater increase in temperature induced higher soil respiration were significantly higher (2-2.5-fold in root exclusion treatments, where soil was wetter throughout the year, than in control and litter addition treatments. The highest bacterial and fungal count was at the DL treatment but the differences is not significant compared to the Control. The bacterial number at the No Litter, No Root, No Input treatment was significantly lower at the Control. Similar phenomenon can be observed at the fungal too, but the differences are not significant. The results of soil respiration suggest that the soil aridity can reduce soil respiration increases with the temperature increase. Soil bacterial and fungal count results show the higher organic matter content and soil surface cover litter favors the activity.

  1. Effect of nitrogen on the seasonal course of growth and maintenance respiration in stems of Norway spruce trees.

    Stockfors, Jan; Linder, Sune

    1998-03-01

    To determine effects of stem nitrogen concentration ([N]) on the seasonal course of respiration, rates of stem respiration of ten control and ten irrigated-fertilized (IL), 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), growing in northern Sweden, were measured on seven occasions from June 1993 to April 1994. To explore sources of seasonal variation and mechanisms of fertilization effects on respiration, we separated total respiration into growth and maintenance respiration for both xylem and phloem bark. Stem respiration increased in response to the IL treatment and was positively correlated with growth rate, volume of living cells and stem nitrogen content. However, no significant effect of IL treatment or [N] in the living cells was found for respiration per unit volume of live cells. Total stem respiration during the growing season (June to September) was estimated to be 16.7 and 29.7 mol CO(2) m(-2) for control and IL-treated trees, respectively. Respiration during the growing season accounted for approximately 64% of total annual respiration. Depending on the method, estimated growth respiration varied between 40 and 60% of total respiration during the growing season. Between 75 and 80% of the live cell volume in the stems was in the phloem, and phloem maintenance accounted for about 70% of maintenance respiration. Because most of the living cells were found in the phloem, and the living xylem cells were concentrated in the outer growth rings, we concluded that the best base for expressing rates of stem growth and maintenance respiration in young Norway spruce trees is stem surface area.

  2. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P soil respiration using exponential function equation. However, there was no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. Root respiration accounted for 45.13%-56.86% of the proportion of soil respiratio n with the mean value 51.72% during the summer corn growing season under different tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon.

  3. Leptin promoter gene polymorphism on -2549 position decreases plasma leptin and increases appetite in normal weight volunteers

    Sandra Bragança Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigate whether polymorphism in the promoter region encoding leptin and leptin receptor gene, in normal weight individuals, affects hormonal and appetite responses to peanuts.Materials and methods: Appetite, anthropometric indices, body composition, physical activity, dietary intake and leptin, ghrelin and insulin levels were monitored. Polymorphism analyses were also carried out.Results: None of the treatments led to statistical differences in the analyzed hormones. No polymorphism was found for leptin receptor gene, while for leptin gene, 50% of the volunteers presented one polymorphic allele and 13% presented both polymorphic alleles. These last ones presented lower body fat mass, leptin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, and fullness rates. They also presented higher hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat sweet and salty foods.Conclusions: Peanut did not affect appetite and presented no different hormonal responses, compared to other foods studied. Polymorphic allele carriers in both alleles presented higher probability to develop obesity. However, the magnitude of this probability could not be measured.

  4. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....... Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline...... and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P

  5. Soil respiration in relation to photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica trees at elevated CO2.

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-12-06

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO(2) is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO(2)-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO(2) (EC = 500 µmol mol(-1)) and ambient CO(2) (AC = 370 µmol mol(-1)) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO(2) assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO(2) fixation of plants in a CO(2)-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration.

  6. Stimulation of mitochondrial respiration induced by laser irradiation in the presence of rhodamine dyes

    Krasnikov, B.F.; Zorov, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of micromolar concentration of rhodamine 123 (methylrhodamine) and ethyl and amyl esters of unsubstituted rhodamine on oxygen consumption by rat liver mitochondria was studied under irradiation by an argon laser (488 and 514 nm). Irradiation of mitochondria in the presence of rhodamine stimulates their respiration. Light-induced stimulation of respiration is not inhibited by free radical scavenger ionol and by inhibitor of the permeability transition pore cyclosporine A. Stimulation of respiration by moderate doses of radiation is reversed in the dark. Increase in radiation dose resulted in only partial reversal of stimulated respiration in the dark. Rhodamine efficacy in stimulation of mitochondrial respiration depends on its structure (amyl > ethyl > methylrhodamine). 22 refs.; 4 figs

  7. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Trinity, Joel D; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-08-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production.

  8. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. EFFECTIVITY OF EXTRACT RED BETEL LEAF (Piper crocatum WITH WEIGHT INCREASE OF MALE WHITE MICE (Rattus novergicus IN CONDUTION DIABETES WHICH INDUCE ALLOXAN

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.

  10. Soil respiration fluxes in a temperate mixed forest: seasonality and temperature sensitivities differ among microbial and root-rhizosphere respiration.

    Ruehr, Nadine K; Buchmann, Nina

    2010-02-01

    Although soil respiration, a major CO(2) flux in terrestrial ecosystems, is known to be highly variable with time, the response of its component fluxes to temperature and phenology is less clear. Therefore, we partitioned soil respiration (SR) into microbial (MR) and root-rhizosphere respiration (RR) using small root exclusion treatments in a mixed mountain forest in Switzerland. In addition, fine root respiration (FRR) was determined with measurements of excised roots. RR and FRR were strongly related to each other (R(2) = 0.92, n = 7), with RR contributing about 46% and FRR about 32% to total SR. RR rates increased more strongly with temperature (Q(10) = 3.2) than MR rates (Q(10) = 2.3). Since the contribution of RR to SR was found to be higher during growing (50%) than during dormant periods (40%), we separated the 2-year data set into phenophases. During the growing period of 2007, the temperature sensitivity of RR (Q(10) = 2.5, R(2) = 0.62) was similar to that of MR (Q(10) = 2.2, R(2) = 0.57). However, during the dormant period of 2006/2007, RR was not related to soil temperature (R(2) = 0.44, n.s.), in contrast to MR (Q(10) = 7.2; R(2) = 0.92). To better understand the influence of plant activity on root respiration, we related RR and FRR rates to photosynthetic active radiation (both R(2) = 0.67, n = 7, P = 0.025), suggesting increased root respiration rates during times with high photosynthesis. During foliage green-up in spring 2008, i.e., from bud break to full leaf expansion, RR increased by a factor of 5, while soil temperature increased only by about 5 degrees C, leading to an extraordinary high Q(10) of 10.6; meanwhile, the contribution of RR to SR increased from 29 to 47%. This clearly shows that root respiration and its apparent temperature sensitivity highly depend on plant phenology and thus on canopy assimilation and carbon allocation belowground.

  11. Mitochondrial respiration is sensitive to cytoarchitectural breakdown.

    Kandel, Judith; Angelin, Alessia A; Wallace, Douglas C; Eckmann, David M

    2016-11-07

    An abundance of research suggests that cellular mitochondrial and cytoskeletal disruption are related, but few studies have directly investigated causative connections between the two. We previously demonstrated that inhibiting microtubule and microfilament polymerization affects mitochondrial motility on the whole-cell level in fibroblasts. Since mitochondrial motility can be indicative of mitochondrial function, we now further characterize the effects of these cytoskeletal inhibitors on mitochondrial potential, morphology and respiration. We found that although they did not reduce mitochondrial inner membrane potential, cytoskeletal toxins induced significant decreases in basal mitochondrial respiration. In some cases, basal respiration was only affected after cells were pretreated with the calcium ionophore A23187 in order to stress mitochondrial function. In most cases, mitochondrial morphology remained unaffected, but extreme microfilament depolymerization or combined intermediate doses of microtubule and microfilament toxins resulted in decreased mitochondrial lengths. Interestingly, these two particular exposures did not affect mitochondrial respiration in cells not sensitized with A23187, indicating an interplay between mitochondrial morphology and respiration. In all cases, inducing maximal respiration diminished differences between control and experimental groups, suggesting that reduced basal respiration originates as a largely elective rather than pathological symptom of cytoskeletal impairment. However, viability experiments suggest that even this type of respiration decrease may be associated with cell death.

  12. Elemental Concentration of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate ...

    20537 and respirable foam for I.O.M sampler. The elemental composition (Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cr, Mn and Cd) were analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS). The data generated were subjected to descriptive analysis. In inhalable fraction,the enrichment factor ranged from 1-73.3 while in respirable ...

  13. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-07-13

    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  14. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Vivi F. H. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls. The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  15. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain.

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid B

    2017-01-01

    The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30-50% (4-6 mM versus 7-9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  16. Respiration of Mediterranean cold-water corals is not affected by ocean acidification as projected for the end of the century

    Maier, C.; Bils, F.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Watremez, P.; Peck, M. A.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2013-08-01

    The rise of CO2 has been identified as a major threat to life in the ocean. About one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 produced in the last 200 yr has been taken up by the ocean, leading to ocean acidification. Surface seawater pH is projected to decrease by about 0.4 units between the pre-industrial revolution and 2100. The branching cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are important, habitat-forming species in the deep Mediterranean Sea. Although previous research has investigated the abundance and distribution of these species, little is known regarding their ecophysiology and potential responses to global environmental change. A previous study indicated that the rate of calcification of these two species remained constant up to 1000 μatm CO2, a value that is at the upper end of changes projected to occur by 2100. We examined whether the ability to maintain calcification rates in the face of rising pCO2 affected the energetic requirements of these corals. Over the course of three months, rates of respiration were measured at a pCO2 ranging between 350 and 1100 μatm to distinguish between short-term response and longer-term acclimation. Respiration rates ranged from 0.074 to 0.266 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 and 0.095 to 0.725 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 for L. pertusa and M. oculata, respectively, and were independent of pCO2. Respiration increased with time likely due to regular feeding, which may have provided an increased energy supply to sustain coral metabolism. Future studies are needed to confirm whether the insensitivity of respiration to increasing pCO2 is a general feature of deep-sea corals in other regions.

  17. Effect of Simvastatin, Coenzyme Q10, Resveratrol, Acetylcysteine and Acetylcarnitine on Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Fišar, Z; Hroudová, J; Singh, N; Kopřivová, A; Macečková, D

    2016-01-01

    Some therapeutic and/or adverse effects of drugs may be related to their effects on mitochondrial function. The effects of simvastatin, resveratrol, coenzyme Q10, acetylcysteine, and acetylcarnitine on Complex I-, Complex II-, or Complex IV-linked respiratory rate were determined in isolated brain mitochondria. The protective effects of these biologically active compounds on the calcium-induced decrease of the respiratory rate were also studied. We observed a significant inhibitory effect of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration (IC50 = 24.0 μM for Complex I-linked respiration, IC50 = 31.3 μM for Complex II-linked respiration, and IC50 = 42.9 μM for Complex IV-linked respiration); the inhibitory effect of resveratrol was found at very high concentrations (IC50 = 162 μM for Complex I-linked respiration, IC50 = 564 μM for Complex II-linked respiration, and IC50 = 1454 μM for Complex IV-linked respiration). Concentrations required for effective simvastatin- or resveratrol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration were found much higher than concentrations achieved under standard dosing of these drugs. Acetylcysteine and acetylcarnitine did not affect the oxygen consumption rate of mitochondria. Coenzyme Q10 induced an increase of Complex I-linked respiration. The increase of free calcium ions induced partial inhibition of the Complex I+II-linked mitochondrial respiration, and all tested drugs counteracted this inhibition. None of the tested drugs showed mitochondrial toxicity (characterized by respiratory rate inhibition) at drug concentrations achieved at therapeutic drug intake. Resveratrol, simvastatin, and acetylcarnitine had the greatest neuroprotective potential (characterized by protective effects against calcium-induced reduction of the respiratory rate).

  18. Pore-scale investigation on the response of heterotrophic respiration to moisture conditions in heterogeneous soils

    Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Chongxuan; Todd-Brown, Katherine E.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between microbial respiration rate and soil moisture content is an important property for understanding and predicting soil organic carbon degradation, CO2 production and emission, and their subsequent effects on climate change. This paper reports a pore-scale modeling study to investigate the response of heterotrophic respiration to moisture conditions in soils and to evaluate various factors that affect this response. X-ray computed tomography was used to derive soil pore structures, which were then used for pore-scale model investigation. The pore-scale results were then averaged to calculate the effective respiration rates as a function of water content in soils. The calculated effective respiration rate first increases and then decreases with increasing soil water content, showing a maximum respiration rate at water saturation degree of 0.75 that is consistent with field and laboratory observations. The relationship between the respiration rate and moisture content is affected by various factors, including pore-scale organic carbon bioavailability, the rate of oxygen delivery, soil pore structure and physical heterogeneity, soil clay content, and microbial drought resistivity. Simulations also illustrates that a larger fraction of CO2 produced from microbial respiration can be accumulated inside soil cores under higher saturation conditions, implying that CO2 flux measured on the top of soil cores may underestimate or overestimate true soil respiration rates under dynamic moisture conditions. Overall, this study provides mechanistic insights into the soil respiration response to the change in moisture conditions, and reveals a complex relationship between heterotrophic microbial respiration rate and moisture content in soils that is affected by various hydrological, geochemical, and biophysical factors.

  19. Physiological behavior of hydrogen sulfide in rice plant. Part 5. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on respiration of rice roots

    Okajima, H; Takagi, S

    1955-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of hydrogen sulfide on the respiration of rice plant roots were investigated using Warburg's manometory technique. Hydrogen sulfide inhibited not only aerobic respiration but anaerobic respiration process of roots. Inhibitory action of hydrogen sulfide and potassium cyanide on the respiration were apparently reversible, but the style of recovery reaction from inhibition was somewhat different in each case. Oxygen consumption of roots was increased by addition of ammonium salts, but the same effects were not recognized by the addition of any other salt examined (except nitrate salts). There was close relationship between respiration of roots and assimilation of nitrogen by roots. The increased oxygen uptake by addition of ammonium salt was also inhibited by hydrogen sulfide. The reactivation of this reaction occurred with the recovery of endogenous respiration of roots. 19 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  1. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  2. Increasing effect of body weight perception on suicidal ideation among young Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 and 2005

    Dong-Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dong-Sik KimDepartment of Gender Equality and Social Cohesion Research, Korean Women's Development Institute, Seoul, Republic of KoreaObjective: To examine the prevalence of actual and perceived overweight and to compare the mediating effect of perceived overweight on the relationship between actual overweight and suicidal ideation among young Korean women between 2001 and 2005.Methods: Data were gathered from the 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys involving a nationally representative sample of young women (568 in 2001 and 385 in 2005 aged 20–29 years.Results: Over the 5-year period, the prevalence of actual overweight (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and perceived overweight increased by 10.5% and 22.8%, respectively. The discrepancy between actual and perceived body weights was much wider in 2005 than in 2001. After controlling for covariates (age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise, overweight women were more likely to think about suicide than their normal-weight counterparts in both periods. However, in both periods, the association between overweight and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant when perceived weight was considered. In both periods, a self-perception of overweight was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, but the association was much stronger in 2005 than in 2001.Conclusion: This study suggests a need for educational programs or effective treatments to help young women who perceive themselves as overweight to reduce the potential risk of suicidal ideation in later life.Keywords: body mass index, perceived body weight, body weight, body image, suicidal ideation 

  3. Soil respiration in Mexico: Advances and future directions

    Alejandro Cueva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (RS is a CO2 efflux from the soil to the atmosphere defined as the sum of autotrophic (respiration by roots and mycorrhizae, and heterotrophic (respiration of microorganisms that decompose fractions of organic matter and of soil fauna respiration. Globally, RS is considered to be the second largest flux of C to the atmosphere. From published literature it is clear that its main controls are soil temperature, soil moisture, photosynthesis, organic matter inputs and soil biota composition. Despite its relevance in C cycle science, there have been only twenty eight studies in Mexico in the last decade where direct measurement of gas exchange was conducted in the field. These studies were held mostly in agricultural and forest ecosystems, in Central and Southern Mexico where mild subtropical conditions prevail. However, arid, semi-arid, tropical and wetland ecosystems may have an important role in Mexico’s CO2 emissions because of their extent and extensive land use changes. From the twenty eight studies, only two provided continuous measurements of RS with high temporal resolution, highlighting the need for long-term studies to evaluate the complex biophysical controls of this flux and associated processes over different ecological succession stages. We conclude that Mexico represents an important opportunity to understand its complex dynamics, in national and global context, as ecosystems in the country cover a wide range of climatic conditions. This is particularly important because deforestation and degradation of Mexican ecosystems is rapidly increasing along with expected changes in climate.

  4. Plant community structure regulates responses of prairie soil respiration to decadal experimental warming.

    Xu, Xia; Shi, Zheng; Li, Dejun; Zhou, Xuhui; Sherry, Rebecca A; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-10-01

    Soil respiration is recognized to be influenced by temperature, moisture, and ecosystem production. However, little is known about how plant community structure regulates responses of soil respiration to climate change. Here, we used a 13-year field warming experiment to explore the mechanisms underlying plant community regulation on feedbacks of soil respiration to climate change in a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma, USA. Infrared heaters were used to elevate temperature about 2 °C since November 1999. Annual clipping was used to mimic hay harvest. Our results showed that experimental warming significantly increased soil respiration approximately from 10% in the first 7 years (2000-2006) to 30% in the next 6 years (2007-2012). The two-stage warming stimulation of soil respiration was closely related to warming-induced increases in ecosystem production over the years. Moreover, we found that across the 13 years, warming-induced increases in soil respiration were positively affected by the proportion of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) contributed by C3 forbs. Functional composition of the plant community regulated warming-induced increases in soil respiration through the quantity and quality of organic matter inputs to soil and the amount of photosynthetic carbon (C) allocated belowground. Clipping, the interaction of clipping with warming, and warming-induced changes in soil temperature and moisture all had little effect on soil respiration over the years (all P > 0.05). Our results suggest that climate warming may drive an increase in soil respiration through altering composition of plant communities in grassland ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J.P.; Jethwa, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological...

  6. Repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol does not lead to increased signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images - a voxel-based whole brain analysis

    Langner, Soenke; Kromrey, Marie-Luise [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); University Hospital, Carl Gustav Carus University Dresden, Institute for Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Grothe, Matthias [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Neurology, Greifswald (Germany); Domin, Martin [University Medicine Greifswald, Functional Imaging Unit, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol. Using the ''Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra'' (DARTEL) normalisation process, tissue templates for grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were calculated, as were GM-CSF and WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis was used to calculate the signal intensity for each voxel in each data set. Paired t-test was applied to test differences to baseline MRI for significance. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis demonstrated no significant changes in signal intensity of grey and white matter after up to five gadobutrol administrations. There was no significant change in GM-CSF and grey WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis did not demonstrate increased signal intensity of GM and WM on unenhanced T1-weighted images after repeated gadobutrol administration. The molecular structure of gadolinium-based contrast agent preparations may be an essential factor causing SI increase on unenhanced T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  7. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body size and longitudinal body weight changes do not increase mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients of the Brazilian peritoneal dialysis multicenter study

    da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index 30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: +7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157

  9. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture

    Cable, Jessica M.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Ogle, Kiona; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell; Scott, Russell L.; Williams, David G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2012-03-01

    A greater abundance of shrubs in semiarid grasslands affects the spatial patterns of soil temperature, moisture, and litter, resulting in fertile islands with potentially enhanced soil metabolic activity. The goal of this study was to quantify the microsite specificity of soil respiration in a semiarid riparian ecosystem experiencing shrub encroachment. We quantified the response of soil respiration to different microsite conditions created by big mesquite shrubs (near the trunk and the canopy edge), medium-sized mesquite, sacaton bunchgrasses, and open spaces. We hypothesized that soil respiration would be more temperature sensitive and less moisture sensitive and have a greater magnitude in shrub microsites compared with grass and open microsites. Field and incubation soil respiration data were simultaneously analyzed in a Bayesian framework to quantify the microsite-specific temperature and moisture sensitivities and magnitude of respiration. The analysis showed that shrub expansion increases the heterogeneity of respiration. Respiration has greater temperature sensitivity near the shrub canopy edge, and respiration rates are higher overall under big mesquite compared with those of the other microsites. Respiration in the microsites beneath medium-sized mesquites does not behave like a downscaled version of big mesquite microsites. The grass microsites show more similarity to big mesquite microsites than medium-sized shrubs. This study shows there can be a great deal of fine-scale spatial heterogeneity that accompanies shifts in vegetation structure. Such complexity presents a challenge in scaling soil respiration fluxes to the landscape for systems experiencing shrub encroachment, but quantifying this complexity is significantly important in determining overall ecosystem metabolic behavior.

  10. Increased signal intensity of prostate lesions on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a predictive sign of malignancy

    Quentin, Michael; Schimmoeller, Lars; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk; Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of lesions detected in prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with increased signal intensity (SI) on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a sign of malignancy. One hundred and three consecutive patients with prostate MRI examination and MRI-guided in-bore biopsy were retrospectively included in the study. MRI-guided in-bore biopsy histologically confirmed prostate cancer in 50 patients (n = 92 lesions). The other 53 patients (n = 122 lesions) had negative bioptical results. In patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 46 of the 92 lesions had visually increased SI on the high b-value images compared with the peripheral zone (SI = +27 ± 16%) or the central gland (SI = +37 ± 19%, P < 0.001 respectively). In patients with a negative biopsy, ten of the 122 lesions had visually increased SI (compared with the peripheral zone, SI = +29 ± 18%, and with the central gland, SI = +41 ± 15%, P < 0.001 respectively). Neither the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values nor the Gleason Score of lesions with increased SI were significantly different from lesions without increased SI. Visually increased SI on the high b-value images of diffusion-weighted imaging using standard b-values is a sign of malignancy but can occasionally also be a feature of benign lesions. However, it does not indicate more aggressive tumours. (orig.)

  11. Endoglin Expression and The Level of TGF- β are Increased in The Placental Tissue and Correlated with Low Fetal Weight in Malaria Infected Mice

    Sujarot Dwi Sasmito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause accumulation of infected red blood cells in placental intervillous space and induces placental tissue inflammation and hypoxia. This condition triggers endoglin expressionand release of soluble endoglin that can interfere TGF-β binding with the receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between placental endoglin expression and TGF-β level with low fetal weight (LFW in malaria-infected mice. Nine pregnant mice infected with Plasmodium berghei on the day ninth post mating (malaria-infected group and eight normal pregnant mice (non-infected group were used in this study. The mice were sacrificed on the day 18th post mating, and all fetal body weights were measured by analytical scale. Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was done to determine the level of placental TGF-β while immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine endoglin expression in placental tissue. The mean of fetal body weights of malaria-infected group was significantly lower than non-infected group (p= 0,002, while the expression of placental endoglin in malaria- infected group was substantially higher than non-infected group (p= 0.003. The level of placental TGF-β in malaria-infected group was also considerably higher than non-infected group, but the difference was not significant (p= 0.064. Pearson correlation test showed that there were significant negative correlations between fetal body weights with the level of placental TGF-β (p= 0.017, r= -0.568 and the expression of placental endoglin (p= 0.002, r= -0.694. Malaria infection in pregnant mice will increase both TGF-β and endoglin in placenta tissue and correlate with low fetal weight.

  12. Influence of vestibular activation on respiration in humans

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Sharpe, Melissa K.; Drury, Daniel; Ertl, Andrew C.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the semicircular canals and otolith organs on respiration in humans. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that vestibular activation would elicit a vestibulorespiratory reflex. To test this hypothesis, respiratory measures, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during engagement of semicircular canals and/or otolith organs. Dynamic upright pitch and roll (15 cycles/min), which activate the otolith organs and semicircular canals, increased respiratory rate (Delta2 +/- 1 and Delta3 +/- 1 breaths/min, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic yaw and lateral pitch (15 cycles/min), which activate the semicircular canals, increased respiration similarly (Delta3 +/- 1 and Delta2 +/- 1, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic chair rotation (15 cycles/min), which mimics dynamic yaw but eliminates neck muscle afferent, increased respiration (Delta3 +/- 1; P < 0.05) comparable to dynamic yaw (15 cycles/min). Increases in respiratory rate were graded as greater responses occurred during upright (Delta5 +/- 2 breaths/min) and lateral pitch (Delta4 +/- 1) and roll (Delta5 +/- 1) performed at 30 cycles/min. Increases in breathing frequency resulted in increases in minute ventilation during most interventions. Static head-down rotation, which activates otolith organs, did not alter respiratory rate (Delta1 +/- 1 breaths/min). Collectively, these data indicate that semicircular canals, but not otolith organs or neck muscle afferents, mediate increased ventilation in humans and support the concept that vestibular activation alters respiration in humans.

  13. Significance of heme-based respiration in meat spoilage caused by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum.

    Jääskeläinen, Elina; Johansson, Per; Kostiainen, Olli; Nieminen, Timo; Schmidt, Georg; Somervuo, Panu; Mohsina, Marzia; Vanninen, Paula; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-02-01

    Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) which causes spoilage in cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) meat products. In addition to the fermentative metabolism, L. gasicomitatum is able to respire when exogenous heme and oxygen are available. In this study, we investigated the respiration effects on growth rate, biomass, gene expression, and volatile organic compound (VOC) production in laboratory media and pork loin. The meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel every second or third day for 29 days. We observed that functional respiration increased the growth (rate and yield) of L. gasicomitatum in laboratory media with added heme and in situ meat with endogenous heme. Respiration increased enormously (up to 2,600-fold) the accumulation of acetoin and diacetyl, which are buttery off-odor compounds in meat. Our transcriptome analyses showed that the gene expression patterns were quite similar, irrespective of whether respiration was turned off by excluding heme from the medium or mutating the cydB gene, which is essential in the respiratory chain. The respiration-based growth of L. gasicomitatum in meat was obtained in terms of population development and subsequent development of sensory characteristics. Respiration is thus a key factor explaining why L. gasicomitatum is so well adapted in high-oxygen packed meat.

  14. Increased Interleukin-32 Levels in Obesity Promote Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: Effect of Weight Loss.

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Landecho, Manuel F; Silva, Camilo; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently described cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammation. We aimed to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory and angiogenic factor in human obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. Samples obtained from 90 subjects were used in the study. Obese patients exhibited higher expression levels of IL-32 in visceral adipose tissue (AT) as well as in subcutaneous AT and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL32 was mainly expressed by stromovascular fraction cells, and its expression was significantly enhanced by inflammatory stimuli and hypoxia, whereas no changes were found after the incubation with anti-inflammatory cytokines. The addition of exogenous IL-32 induced the expression of inflammation and extracellular matrix-related genes in human adipocyte cultures, and IL32-silenced adipocytes showed a downregulation of inflammatory genes. Furthermore, adipocyte-conditioned media obtained from obese patients increased IL32 gene expression in human monocyte cultures, whereas the adipocyte-conditioned media from lean volunteers had no effect on IL32 mRNA levels. These findings provide evidence, for the first time, about the inflammatory and remodeling properties of IL-32 in AT, implicating this cytokine in obesity-associated comorbidities. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Respiration in heterotrophic unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

    Fenchel, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Surface:volume quotient, mitochondrial volume fraction, and their distribution within cells were investigated and oxygen gradients within and outside cells were modelled. Cell surface increases allometrically with cell size. Mitochondrial volume fraction is invariant with cell size and constitutes about 10% and mitochondria are predominantly found close to the outer membrane. The results predict that for small and medium sized protozoa maximum respiration rates should be proportional to cell volume (scaling exponent ≈1) and access to intracellular O2 is not limiting except at very low ambient O2-tensions. Available data do not contradict this and some evidence supports this interpretation. Cell size is ultimately limited because an increasing fraction of the mitochondria becomes exposed to near anoxic conditions with increasing cell size. The fact that mitochondria cluster close to the cell surface and the allometric change in cell shape with increasing cell size alleviates the limitation of aerobic life at low ambient O2-tension and for large cell size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Short Communication: HIV Patient Systemic Mitochondrial Respiration Improves with Exercise.

    Kocher, Morgan; McDermott, Mindy; Lindsey, Rachel; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Gerschenson, Mariana; Chow, Dominic C; Kohorn, Lindsay B; Hetzler, Ronald K; Kimura, Iris F

    2017-10-01

    In HIV-infected individuals, impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to cardiometabolic disease as well as to fatigue and frailty. Aerobic exercise improves total body energy reserves; however, its impact at the cellular level is unknown. We assessed alterations in cellular bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a 12-week aerobic exercise study in sedentary HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy who successfully completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program. In this prospective study, participants underwent supervised 20-40 min of light aerobic exercise (walking or jogging) performed three times per week for 12 weeks, gradually increasing to maintain an intensity of 50%-80% of heart rate reserve. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2MAX ) was assessed by a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer before and after completion of the study. PBMC from compliant subjects (attended at least 70% of exercise sessions) were assessed for mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 Bio-Analyzer. Seven of 24 enrolled subjects were compliant with the exercise regimen. In these individuals, a significant increase (p = .04) in VO 2MAX over 12 weeks was found with a median increase of 14%. During the same interval, a 2.45-fold increase in PBMC mitochondrial respiratory capacity (p = .04), a 5.65-fold increase in spare respiratory capacity (p = .01), and a 3.15-fold (p = .04) increase in nonmitochondrial respiration was observed. Aerobic exercise improves respiration at the cellular level. The diagnostic and prognostic value of such improved cellular respiration in the setting of chronic HIV warrants further investigation.

  17. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  18. BOREAS TE-5 Soil Respiration Data

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Soil respiration data were collected from 26-May-94 to 07-Sep-94 in the BOREAS NSA and SSA to compare the soil respiration rates in different forest sites using a LI-COR 6200 soil respiration chamber (model 6299). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. [Soil Microbial Respiration Under Different Soil Temperature Conditions and Its Relationship to Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon and Invertase].

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Shu-tao; Hu, Zheng-hua; Zhang, Xu

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the soil microbial respiration under different temperature conditions and its relationship to soil dissolved organic carbon ( DOC) and invertase, an indoor incubation experiment was performed. The soil samples used for the experiment were taken from Laoshan, Zijinshan, and Baohuashan. The responses of soil microbial respiration to the increasing temperature were studied. The soil DOC content and invertase activity were also measured at the end of incubation. Results showed that relationships between cumulative microbial respiration of different soils and soil temperature could be explained by exponential functions, which had P values lower than 0.001. The coefficient of temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) varied from 1.762 to 1.895. The Q10 value of cumulative microbial respiration decreased with the increase of soil temperature for all soils. The Q10 value of microbial respiration on 27 days after incubation was close to that of 1 day after incubation, indicating that the temperature sensitivity of recalcitrant organic carbon may be similar to that of labile organic carbon. For all soils, a highly significant ( P = 0.003 ) linear relationship between cumulative soil microbial respiration and soil DOC content could be observed. Soil DOC content could explain 31.6% variances of cumulative soil microbial respiration. For the individual soil and all soils, the relationship between cumulative soil microbial respiration and invertase activity could be explained by a highly significant (P soil microbial respiration.

  20. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  1. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  2. Soil fauna communities and microbial respiration in high Arctic tundra soils at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    Sørensen, Louise I.; Holmstrup, Martin; Maraldo, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    The soil fauna communities were described for three dominant vegetation types in a high arctic site at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. Soil samples were extracted to quantify the densities of mites, collembolans, enchytraeids, diptera larvae, nematodes and protozoa. Rates of microbial respiration...... densities (naked amoeba and heterotrophic flagellates) were equal. Respiration rate of unamended soil was similar in soil from the three plots. However, a higher respiration rate increase in carbon + nutrient amended soil and the higher densities of soil fauna (with the exception of mites and protozoa...

  3. A study of respiration-correlated cone-beam CT scans to correct target positioning errors in radiotherapy of thoracic cancer

    Santoro, J. P.; McNamara, J.; Yorke, E.; Pham, H.; Rimner, A.; Rosenzweig, K. E.; Mageras, G. S. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: There is increasingly widespread usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for guiding radiation treatment in advanced-stage lung tumors, but difficulties associated with daily CBCT in conventionally fractionated treatments include imaging dose to the patient, increased workload and longer treatment times. Respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) can improve localization accuracy in mobile lung tumors, but further increases the time and workload for conventionally fractionated treatments. This study investigates whether RC-CBCT-guided correction of systematic tumor deviations in standard fractionated lung tumor radiation treatments is more effective than 2D image-based correction of skeletal deviations alone. A second study goal compares respiration-correlated vs respiration-averaged images for determining tumor deviations. Methods: Eleven stage II-IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients are enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective off-line protocol using RC-CBCT guidance to correct for systematic errors in GTV position. Patients receive a respiration-correlated planning CT (RCCT) at simulation, daily kilovoltage RC-CBCT scans during the first week of treatment and weekly scans thereafter. Four types of correction methods are compared: (1) systematic error in gross tumor volume (GTV) position, (2) systematic error in skeletal anatomy, (3) daily skeletal corrections, and (4) weekly skeletal corrections. The comparison is in terms of weighted average of the residual GTV deviations measured from the RC-CBCT scans and representing the estimated residual deviation over the treatment course. In the second study goal, GTV deviations computed from matching RCCT and RC-CBCT are compared to deviations computed from matching respiration-averaged images consisting of a CBCT reconstructed using all projections and an average-intensity-projection CT computed from the RCCT. Results: Of the eleven patients in the GTV-based systematic correction protocol, two required no correction

  4. A study of respiration-correlated cone-beam CT scans to correct target positioning errors in radiotherapy of thoracic cancer

    Santoro, J. P.; McNamara, J.; Yorke, E.; Pham, H.; Rimner, A.; Rosenzweig, K. E.; Mageras, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is increasingly widespread usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for guiding radiation treatment in advanced-stage lung tumors, but difficulties associated with daily CBCT in conventionally fractionated treatments include imaging dose to the patient, increased workload and longer treatment times. Respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) can improve localization accuracy in mobile lung tumors, but further increases the time and workload for conventionally fractionated treatments. This study investigates whether RC-CBCT-guided correction of systematic tumor deviations in standard fractionated lung tumor radiation treatments is more effective than 2D image-based correction of skeletal deviations alone. A second study goal compares respiration-correlated vs respiration-averaged images for determining tumor deviations. Methods: Eleven stage II–IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients are enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective off-line protocol using RC-CBCT guidance to correct for systematic errors in GTV position. Patients receive a respiration-correlated planning CT (RCCT) at simulation, daily kilovoltage RC-CBCT scans during the first week of treatment and weekly scans thereafter. Four types of correction methods are compared: (1) systematic error in gross tumor volume (GTV) position, (2) systematic error in skeletal anatomy, (3) daily skeletal corrections, and (4) weekly skeletal corrections. The comparison is in terms of weighted average of the residual GTV deviations measured from the RC-CBCT scans and representing the estimated residual deviation over the treatment course. In the second study goal, GTV deviations computed from matching RCCT and RC-CBCT are compared to deviations computed from matching respiration-averaged images consisting of a CBCT reconstructed using all projections and an average-intensity-projection CT computed from the RCCT. Results: Of the eleven patients in the GTV-based systematic correction protocol, two required no correction

  5. Gastrocnemius mitochondrial respiration: are there any differences between men and women?

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Swanson, Stanley A; Casale, George P; Johanning, Jason M; Papoutsi, Evlampia; Koutakis, Panagiotis; Miserlis, Dimitrios; Zhu, Zhen; Pipinos, Iraklis I

    2013-11-01

    Work on human and mouse skeletal muscle by our group and others has demonstrated that aging and age-related degenerative diseases are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which may be more prevalent in males. There have been, however, no studies that specifically examine the influence of male or female sex on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. The purpose of this study was to compare mitochondrial respiration in the gastrocnemius of adult men and women. Gastrocnemius muscle was obtained from male (n = 19) and female (n = 11) human subjects with healthy lower-extremity musculoskeletal and arterial systems and normal ambulatory function. All patients were undergoing operations for the treatment of varicose veins in their legs. Mitochondrial respiration was determined with a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles. Complex I-, II-, III-, and IV-dependent respiration was measured individually and normalized to muscle weight, total protein content, and citrate synthase (CS, index of mitochondrial content). Male and female patients had no evidence of musculoskeletal or arterial disease and did not differ with regard to age, race, body mass index, or other clinical characteristics. Complex I-, II-, III-, and IV-dependent respiration normalized to muscle weight, total protein content, and CS did not statistically differ for males compared with females. Our study evaluates, for the first time, gastrocnemius mitochondrial respiration of adult men and women who have healthy musculoskeletal and arterial systems and normal ambulatory function. Our data demonstrate there are no differences in the respiration of gastrocnemius mitochondria between men and women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level.

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors and Biological Soil Crust Types on Soil Respiration in a Desert Ecosystem

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93±0.43 µmol m−2 s−1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73±0.31 µmol m−2 s−1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m−3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

  8. Relationship between elevated triglyceride levels with the increase of HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodriguez-Morán, Martha; Aradillas-García, Celia; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7%) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

  9. Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8-week equi-energetic energy-restricted diet.

    Cameron, Jameason D; Cyr, Marie-Josée; Doucet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    There have been reports of an inverse relationship between meal frequency (MF) and adiposity. It has been postulated that this may be explained by favourable effects of increased MF on appetite control and possibly on gut peptides as well. The main goal of the present study was to investigate whether using a high MF could lead to a greater weight loss than that obtained with a low MF under conditions of similar energy restriction. Subjects were randomised into two treatment arms (high MF = 3 meals+3 snacks/d or low MF = 3 meals/d) and subjected to the same dietary energy restriction of - 2931 kJ/d for 8 weeks. Sixteen obese adults (n 8 women and 8 men; age 34.6 (sd 9.5); BMI 37.1 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) completed the study. Overall, there was a 4.7 % decrease in body weight (P weight loss under the conditions described in the present study.

  10. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  11. Delayed ultraviolet light-induced cessation of respiration by inadequate aeration of Escherichia coli

    Joshi, J.G.; Swenson, P.A.; Schenley, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inadequately aerated Escherichia coli B/r cultures did not shut their respiration off 60 min after ultraviolet light (52 J/m 2 at 254 nm) as they did when well supplied with oxygen. Since cessation of respiration is associated with cell death, the result suggested that oxygen toxicity by superoxide radicals generated by cell metabolism might be responsible for cell death. The specific activity of superoxide dismutase, which scavenges O 2 - radicals, increased twofold after 90 min of adequate aeration, but the specific activity of catalase remained constant. Respiration and viability of irradiated cells were affected not at all by the presence of superoxide dismutase and only slightly by the presence of catalase. Metal ions such as Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ , inducers of superoxide dismutase, had no effect on respiration and viability. When irradiated cells were incubated under N 2 for 90 min, the respiration, growth, and viability time-course responses were the same as for cells not exposed to anaerobiosis. We conclude that superoxide anions generated at the time of irradiation play no part in cessation of respiration and cell death and that inadequate aeration or anaerobiosis delays the ultraviolet light-induced synthesis of proteins responsible for the irreversible cessation of respiration

  12. The role of p38 in mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice.

    Ju, Xiaohua; Wen, Yi; Metzger, Daniel; Jung, Marianna

    2013-06-07

    p38 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase and mediates cell growth, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which p38 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice under a normal condition. To achieve this aim, we have generated transgenic mice that lack p38 in cerebellar Purkinje neurons by crossing Pcp2 (Purkinje cell protein 2)-Cre mice with p38(loxP/loxP) mice. Mitochondria from cerebellum were then isolated from the transgenic and wild-type mice to measure mitochondrial respiration using XF24 respirometer. The mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in cerebellum were also measured using RT-PCR and immunoblot methods. Separately, HT22 cells were used to determine the involvement of 17β-estradiol (E2) and COX in mitochondrial respiration. The genetic knockout of p38 in Purkinje neurons suppressed the mitochondrial respiration only in male mice and increased COX expression only in female mice. The inhibition of COX by sodium azide (SA) sharply suppressed mitochondrial respiration of HT22 cells in a manner that was protected by E2. These data suggest that p38 is required for the mitochondrial respiration of male mice. When p38 is below a normal level, females may maintain mitochondrial respiration through COX up-regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement and Modeling of Respiration Rate of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.

    Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe.

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-28

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m(-2) across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons.

  15. Acclimation and soil moisture constrain sugar maple root respiration in experimentally warmed soil.

    Jarvi, Mickey P; Burton, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The response of root respiration to warmer soil can affect ecosystem carbon (C) allocation and the strength of positive feedbacks between climatic warming and soil CO2 efflux. This study sought to determine whether fine-root (maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)-dominated northern hardwood forest would adjust to experimentally warmed soil, reducing C return to the atmosphere at the ecosystem scale to levels lower than that would be expected using an exponential temperature response function. Infrared heating lamps were used to warm the soil (+4 to +5 °C) in a mature sugar maple forest in a fully factorial design, including water additions used to offset the effects of warming-induced dry soil. Fine-root-specific respiration rates, root biomass, root nitrogen (N) concentration, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured from 2009 to 2011, with experimental treatments conducted from late 2010 to 2011. Partial acclimation of fine-root respiration to soil warming occurred, with soil moisture deficit further constraining specific respiration rates in heated plots. Fine-root biomass and N concentration remained unchanged. Over the 2011 growing season, ecosystem root respiration was not significantly greater in warmed soil. This result would not be predicted by models that allow respiration to increase exponentially with temperature and do not directly reduce root respiration in drier soil.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m-2 across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons.

  17. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  18. Economic analysis of implementing respirator program or ventilation system in a manufacturing environment

    Saidi-Mehrabab, M.

    2000-01-01

    The techniques and methods of developing cost models for respirators are discussed. Models are developed and implemented in this study for nineteen types of respirators in two major classes (air-purifying and supplied-air) and one L EV system. One respirator model is selected for detailed discussion from among the twenty models. The technical cost method is used in constructing the cost models for each of the respirators and the L EV system. In this methodology, the costs of purchasing and using a typical respirator or L EV system are divided into two categories, variable costs and fixed costs. Variable costs consists of the cost of replaceable components and probabilistic mortality cost. Fixed cost is the annualized capital requirement plus interest cost. The criteria for estimating some of the cost elements are based on existing equations in the literature, engineering judgement and manufacturer-provided information. A technical cost model results from the integration of this information into a computerized framework. The cost models for discussion are presented in the order of increasing computational complexity. Through the economic analysis, the lowest cost type in each class of respirator is determined. The determination criteria are based on the minimum total annual cost and highest benefit cost ratio. The selected lowest cost respirators are compared with the L EV system from the economic standpoint to reveal the cost optimal alternative

  19. How much work is expended for respiration?

    Johnson, A T

    1993-01-01

    The rate of work expended to move air in the respiratory system has been determined for five different airflow waveshapes, a non-linear respiratory model and five exercise levels. As expected, the rectangular waveshape was the most efficient. Model conditions were then changed one a time: (i) starting lung volume was allowed to vary, (ii) exhalation flow limitation was added, (iii) respiration was considered to be a metabolic burden determining part of the ventilation requirement and (iv) a respirator mask was added. Although there is no direct work advantage to varying initial lung volume, such volume changes appear to be dictated by the asymmetry of lung recoil pressure about the lung relaxation volume; allowing the work of respiration to become a metabolic burden clearly shows why respiratory waveforms change from rest to exercise; and, adding a respirator imposes a severe respiratory burden on the wearer engaging in moderate, heavy and very heavy exercise.

  20. Preterm birth and/or low birth weight are associated with periodontal disease and the increased placental immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory markers.

    Pozo, Elena; Mesa, Francisco; Ikram, Mohamed H; Puertas, Alberto; Torrecillas-Martínez, Laura; Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Magán-Fernández, Antonio; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether gynecological and periodontal clinical parameters and the immunohistochemical expression in placental chorionic villi of the markers cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), podoplanin, and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) are associated with preterm birth (PB) and/or low birth weight (LBW) neonates. An observational case-control study was performed in 130 puerperal women: mothers of PB/LBW neonates (cases, n=65) and mothers of full-term normal-weight neonates (controls, n=65). Data were gathered from all participants on socio-demographic, gynecological, and periodontal variables and on placental immunohistochemical COX-2, IL-1β, VEGFR1, podoplanin, and HSP70 expression. Among the 42 women with mild/moderate periodontitis or gingivitis, the studied periodontal variables were significantly worse and the placental COX-2 (p=0.043), HSP70 (p=0.001), IL-1β (p=0.001), VEGFR1 (p=0.032), and podoplanin (p=0.058) expressions were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. In comparison to the mothers without periodontitis, only COX-2 (p=0.026) and VEGFR1 (p=0.005) expressions were significantly increased in those with the disease. Increased COX-2 values were detected in the women with a history of genitourinary infection (p=0.036), premature rupture of membrane (p=0.012), or drug treatment (p=0.050). The etiology of preterm birth and/or low birth weight is multifactorial and involves consumption habits, social-health factors, and infectious episodes. These adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with periodontitis and the increased placental expression of IL-1β, COX-2, VEGFR1, and HSP70.

  1. Children with atopic dermatitis and frequent emollient use have increased urinary levels of low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites and parabens

    Overgaard, L E K; Main, K M; Frederiksen, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation purposes. Low-molecular weight (LMW) phthalate diesters function as plasticizers, fixatives or solvents in such products, but may also be found in small quantities as contaminants from plastic containers...... whether the difference is explained by increased use of the specific emollients that are used to treat pruritic and inflamed skin, and/or whether the impaired skin barrier allows chemicals to penetrate more easily. Moreover, the putative toxicological burden is unknown....

  2. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  3. Separating rhizosphere respiration from total soil respiration in two larch plantations in northeastern China.

    Jiang, Lifen; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiquan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2005-09-01

    The potential capacity of soil to sequester carbon in response to global warming is strongly regulated by the ratio of rhizosphere respiration to respiration by soil microbial decomposers, because of their different temperature sensitivities. To quantify relative contributions of rhizosphere respiration to total soil respiration as influenced by forest stand development, we conducted a trenching study in two larch (Larix gmelini (Rupr.) Rupr.) plantations, aged 17 and 31 years, in northeastern China. Four plots in each plantation were randomly selected and trenched in early May 2001. Soil surface CO2 effluxes both inside and outside the plots were measured from May 2001 to August 2002. Soil respiration (i.e., the CO2 effluxes outside the trenched plots) varied similarly in the two plantations from 0.8 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 6.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in summer. Rhizosphere respiration (i.e., CO2 efflux outside the trenched plots minus that inside the plots) varied from 0.2 to 2.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the old forest and from 0.3 to 4.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the young forest over the seasons. Rhizosphere respiration, on average, accounted for 25% of soil respiration in the old forest and 65% in the young forest. Rhizosphere and soil respiration were significantly correlated with soil temperature but not with soil water content. We conclude that the role forests play in regulating climate change may depend on their age.

  4. An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial

    García Olga P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main emphasis of dietary advice for control of obesity has been on reducing dietary fat. Increasing ready to eat cereal (RTEC consumption could be a strategy to reduce fat intake and increase carbohydrate intake resulting in a diet with lower energy density. Objectives 1. To determine if an increase in RTEC intake is an effective strategy to reduce excess body weight and blood lipids in overweight or at risk of overweight children. 2. To determine if a nutrition education program would make a difference on the response to an increase in cereal intake. 3 To determine if increase in RTEC intake alone or with a nutrition education program has an effect on plasma lipid profile. Experimental design One hundred and forty seven overweight or at risk of overweight children (6–12 y of age were assigned to one of four different treatments: a. One serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast; b. one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast and another one for dinner; c. one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast and a nutrition education program. d. Non intervention, control group. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity and blood lipids were measured at baseline, before treatments, and 12 weeks after treatments. Results After 12 weeks of intervention only the children that received 33 ± 7 g of RTEC and nutrition education had significantly lower body weight [-1.01 (-1.69, -0.34 ], p Conclusion A strategy to increase RTEC consumption, as a source of carbohydrate, to reduce obesity is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education. The need for education could be extrapolated to other strategies intended for treatment of obesity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clincial Trial Registry. Request no: ACTRN12608000025336

  5. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...

  8. Soil respiration and organic carbon dynamics with grassland conversions to woodlands in temperate china.

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007-Dec. 2008 from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR, shrubland (SH, as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC, deciduous coniferous (DC and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB, to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China.

  9. Coordinate regulation of cytochrome and alternative pathway respiration in tobacco.

    Vanlerberghe, G C; McIntosh, L

    1992-12-01

    In suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow), inhibition of the cytochrome pathway of respiration with antimycin A induced a large increase in the capacity of the alternative pathway over a period of approximately 12 h, as confirmed in both whole cells and isolated mitochondria. The increase in alternative pathway capacity required de novo RNA and protein synthesis and correlated closely with the increase of a 35-kD alternative oxidase protein. When the cytochrome pathway of intact cells was inhibited by antimycin A, respiration proceeded exclusively through the alternative pathway, reached rates significantly higher than before antimycin A addition, and was not stimulated by p-trifluoromethoxycarbonylcyanide (FCCP). When inhibition of the cytochrome pathway was relieved, alternative pathway capacity and the level of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein declined. Respiration rate also declined and could once again be stimulated by FCCP. These observations show that the capacities of the mitochondrial electron transport pathways can be regulated in a coordinate fashion.

  10. Effects of season on the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens: water content, respiration, and excretion

    Hiller-Adams, Page; Childress, James J.

    1983-06-01

    Water contents, oxygen consumption rates and ammonia excretion rates of individuals of the large bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens were measured as a function of size and season (winter and summer). Individuals of the sizes studied live permanently beneath the euphotic zone. Water content, as a percent of wet weight, is higher in winter than in summer, suggesting seasonal variability in the midwater environment. Our data suggest that the seasonal change in water content increases with increasing size. We suggest that the changes are due in part to seasonal changes in food intake. Seasonal differences were not observed in wet-weight-specific rates of either respiration or ammonia excretion. Both rates decrease with increasing size. The constancy of the atomic O:N ratio and its high value (geometric mean = 44.3) indicate that the average proportions of lipid and protein metabolized by individuals were independent of size and season and that lipid stores were not sufficiently depleted, even in small animals, to cause a shift to predominantly protein metabolism in winter or summer. On the average, metabolic rates of individuals were unaffected by seasonal variation in the midwater environment.

  11. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  12. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Londo, A.J.; Messina, M.G.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbance on C cycling has become an issue, given concerns about escalating atmospheric C content. The authors examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and laboratory mineral soil respiration in an East Texas bottomland hardwood forest between 6 and 22 mo after harvesting. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut wherein approximately 58% of the basal area was removed, and an unharvested control. The soda-lime absorption technique was used for in situ respiration (CO 2 efflux) and the wet alkali method (NaOH) was used for laboratory mineral soil respiration. Soil temperature and moisture content were also measured. Harvesting significantly increased in situ respiration during most sampling periods. This effect was attributed to an increase in live root and microflora activity associated with postharvesting revegetation. In situ respiration increased exponentially (Q 10 relationship) as treatment soil temperatures increased, but followed a parabolic-type pattern through the range of soil moisture measured (mean range 10.4--31.5%). Mean rates of laboratory mineral soil respiration measured during the study were unaffected by cutting treatment for most sampling sessions. Overall, the mean rate of CO 2 efflux in the clearcuts was significantly higher than that in the partial cuts, which in turn was significantly higher than that in the controls. Mass balance estimates indicate that these treatment differences will have little or no long-term effect on C sequestration of these managed forests

  13. Maternal Therapy with Ad.VEGF-A165 Increases Fetal Weight at Term in a Guinea-Pig Model of Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Swanson, Anna M; Rossi, Carlo A; Ofir, Keren; Mehta, Vedanta; Boyd, Michael; Barker, Hannah; Ledwozyw, Agata; Vaughan, Owen; Martin, John; Zachary, Ian; Sebire, Neil; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-12-01

    In a model of growth-restricted sheep pregnancy, it was previously demonstrated that transient uterine artery VEGF overexpression can improve fetal growth. This approach was tested in guinea-pig pregnancies, where placental physiology is more similar to humans. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) was attained through peri-conceptual nutrient restriction in virgin guinea pigs. Ad.VEGF-A 165 or Ad.LacZ (1 × 10 10 vp) was applied at mid-gestation via laparotomy, delivered externally to the uterine circulation with thermosensitive gel. At short-term (3-8 days post surgery) or at term gestation, pups were weighed, and tissues were sampled for vector spread analysis, VEGF expression, and its downstream effects. Fetal weight at term was increased (88.01 ± 13.36 g; n = 26) in Ad.VEGF-A 165 -treated animals compared with Ad.LacZ-treated animals (85.52 ± 13.00 g; n = 19; p = 0.028). The brain, liver, and lung weight and crown rump length were significantly larger in short-term analyses, as well as VEGF expression in transduced tissues. At term, molecular analyses confirmed the presence of VEGF transgene in target tissues but not in fetal samples. Tissue histology analysis and blood biochemistry/hematological examination were comparable with controls. Uterine artery relaxation in Ad.VEGF-A 165 -treated dams was higher compared with Ad.LacZ-treated dams. Maternal uterine artery Ad.VEGF-A 165 increases fetal growth velocity and term fetal weight in growth-restricted guinea-pig pregnancy.

  14. Aiming to increase birth weight: a randomised trial of pre-pregnancy information, advice and counselling in inner-urban Melbourne

    Donohue Lisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 1980s there was substantial interest in early pregnancy and pre-pregnancy interventions to increase birth weight and reduce preterm birth. We developed an inter-pregnancy intervention, implemented in a randomised controlled trial, to be provided by midwives at home soon after women's first birth. Methods MCH nurses invited women to take part during their home visit to new mothers. Women's contact details, with their permission, were passed to the study midwife. She had a randomisation schedule to which women's names were added before she met the women or their partners. All women recruited had a home visit from the study midwife with a discussion of their first pregnancy, labour and birth and the postpartum experience. Women in the intervention arm received in addition a pre-pregnancy intervention with discussion of social, health or lifestyle problems, preparation and timing for pregnancy, family history, rubella immunisation, referrals for health problems, and a reminder card. The primary outcome was defined as a birth weight difference in the second birth of 100 g (one-sided in favour of the intervention. Additional data collected were gestational age, perinatal deaths and birth defects. Analyses used EPI-INFO and STATA. Results Intervention and comparison groups were comparable on socioeconomic factors, prior reproductive history and first birth outcomes. Infant birth weight in the second birth was lower (-97.4 g, among infants in the intervention arm. There were no significant differences between intervention and comparison arms in the proportion of women having a preterm birth, an infant with low birthweight, or an infant with a birth weight th percentile. There were more adverse outcomes in the intervention arm: ten births Conclusion As the primary outcome was envisaged to be either improved birth weight or no effect, the study was not designed to identify the alternative outcome with confidence. Despite

  15. [Soil respiration characteristics in winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    Chen, Shuyue; Li, Jun; Lu, Peiling; Wang, Yinghong; Yu, Qiang

    2004-09-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences during 2002-2003 to investigate the respiration of a pulverous sandstone soil under cultivation of winter wheat over a growth season. The effluent CO2 was collected and analyzed by the static-chamber/gas chromatography (GC) method at a frequency of once a week in spring and autumn, once two weeks in winter, twice a week for straw manure treatment, once a week for no straw manure treatment and nitrogen fertilization treatment in summer. The results indicated that diurnal variation of soil respiration rate showed a single peak in typical winter wheat farmlands in the North China Plain, and reached the highest at about 13 o'clock, and the lowest at about 4 o'clock in the early morning. In winter wheat growth season, the soil respiration rate was 31.23-606.85 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) under straw manure, 28.99-549.66 x m(-2) x h(-1) under no straw manure, 10.46-590.86 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N0, 16.11-349.88 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N100, 12.25-415.00 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N200, and 23.01-410.58 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N300, showing a similar seasonal variation tendency with soil temperature. Among all treatments, the straw manure had the most distinct soil respiration, though the soil respiration also increased slightly with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Soil respiration increased exponentially with increasing soil temperature, and the correlation of soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm was the best. This relationship was usually described with the Q10 model, which represented the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. Q10 was not a fixed value, which varied with the depth at which the temperature was measured and the depth of the active soil layer and soil temperature. At same time, the Q10 value decreased with increasing soil temperature. Soil water content was another important factor affecting soil respiration rate, but in this region, the relationship

  16. Stem respiration of Populus species in the third year of free-air CO2 enrichment

    GIELEN, Birgit; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.; Ceulemans, R.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon cycling in ecosystems, and especially in forests, is intensively studied to predict the effects of global climate change, and the role which forests may play in 'changing climate change'. One of the questions is whether the carbon balance of forests will be affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Regarding this question, effects of elevated [CO2 ] on woody-tissue respiration have frequently been neglected. Stem respiration of three Populus species (P. alba L. (Clone 2AS-...

  17. ABCC8 R1420H Loss-of-Function Variant in a Southwest American Indian Community: Association With Increased Birth Weight and Doubled Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Baier, Leslie J; Muller, Yunhua Li; Remedi, Maria Sara; Traurig, Michael; Piaggi, Paolo; Wiessner, Gregory; Huang, Ke; Stacy, Alyssa; Kobes, Sayuko; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Nichols, Colin G; Bogardus, Clifton

    2015-12-01

    Missense variants in KCNJ11 and ABCC8, which encode the KIR6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the β-cell KATP channel, have previously been implicated in type 2 diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (HHI). To determine whether variation in these genes affects risk for type 2 diabetes or increased birth weight as a consequence of fetal hyperinsulinemia in Pima Indians, missense and common noncoding variants were analyzed in individuals living in the Gila River Indian Community. A R1420H variant in SUR1 (ABCC8) was identified in 3.3% of the population (N = 7,710). R1420H carriers had higher mean birth weights and a twofold increased risk for type 2 diabetes with a 7-year earlier onset age despite being leaner than noncarriers. One individual homozygous for R1420H was identified; retrospective review of his medical records was consistent with HHI and a diagnosis of diabetes at age 3.5 years. In vitro studies showed that the R1420H substitution decreases KATP channel activity. Identification of this loss-of-function variant in ABCC8 with a carrier frequency of 3.3% affects clinical care as homozygous inheritance and potential HHI will occur in 1/3,600 births in this American Indian population. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...

  19. [Research progress on photosynthesis regulating and controlling soil respiration].

    Jing, Yan-Li; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil respiration and accurately estimate its magnitude are the crucial basis of evaluating global carbon balance. However, the previously built soil respiration forecast models usually neglect the physiological processes that photosynthesis supplies substrates for rhizospheric respiration, leading to the defect in evaluating the mechanisms of soil respiration. This paper summarized the research progress on the mechanisms of photosynthetic regulation and control of soil respiration, introduced the related main research methods, and discussed the existing problems and research hotspots.

  20. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program

    Pamela McCoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52. Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30. The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03, while the control group’s exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity.

  1. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Jensen, Vivi F. H.; Molck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different...... substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain......The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels...

  2. Betaine is a positive regulator of mitochondrial respiration

    Lee, Icksoo, E-mail: icksoolee@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaine’s anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study we investigated whether betaine directly targets mitochondria. We show that betaine treatment leads to an upregulation of mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity in H2.35 cells, the proposed rate limiting enzyme of ETC in vivo. Following treatment, the mitochondrial membrane potential was increased and cellular energy levels were elevated. We propose that the anti-proliferative effects of betaine on cancer cells might be due to enhanced mitochondrial function contributing to a reversal of the Warburg effect.

  3. Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects

    Bruhn, D.

    2002-04-01

    Plant respiration is one of the key processes in terms of an understanding of plant growth and functioning in a future climate. Short- and long-term effects of temperature and CO 2 on plant respiration were investigated in a number of plant species. The experiments tested effects of either temperature and/or CO 2 from the level of individual respiratory enzymes, isolated mitochondria, whole-tissue, and up to the whole canopy level. The short-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on plant respiration appeared to be less than suggested so far in the literature. This was true both at the tissue level and for intact mitochondria. Respiratory enzymes can, however, be affected already at low CO 2 . These effects did not manifest itself at the tissue level, though, due to low degrees of control on the whole respiratory process exerted by the particular enzymes. Plant respiration on the other hand was affected by long-term growth at elevated atmospheric CO 2 . The findings of the reduced plant respiration at the leaf level were consistent with the literature and potential causes are discussed. Short-term effects of temperature on plant respiration were demonstrated to be dependent on the actual measurement temperature. Further, it is shown that mitochondrial leaf respiration in darkness and light differ substantially in the temperature sensitivity with the former being the far most sensitive. This has implications for modelling CO 2 exchange between vegetation and atmosphere as demonstrated here, since this has so far been neglected. Long-term effects of temperature resulted in respiratory acclimation in a number of species. Respiratory acclimation appeared not to occur to any one single type of growth temperature. The implications of this finding in combination with the timing of acclimation are discussed for modelling respiratory CO 2 release. (au)

  4. Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects

    Bruhn, D

    2002-04-01

    Plant respiration is one of the key processes in terms of an understanding of plant growth and functioning in a future climate. Short- and long-term effects of temperature and CO{sub 2} on plant respiration were investigated in a number of plant species. The experiments tested effects of either temperature and/or CO{sub 2} from the level of individual respiratory enzymes, isolated mitochondria, whole-tissue, and up to the whole canopy level. The short-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on plant respiration appeared to be less than suggested so far in the literature. This was true both at the tissue level and for intact mitochondria. Respiratory enzymes can, however, be affected already at low CO{sub 2}. These effects did not manifest itself at the tissue level, though, due to low degrees of control on the whole respiratory process exerted by the particular enzymes. Plant respiration on the other hand was affected by long-term growth at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The findings of the reduced plant respiration at the leaf level were consistent with the literature and potential causes are discussed. Short-term effects of temperature on plant respiration were demonstrated to be dependent on the actual measurement temperature. Further, it is shown that mitochondrial leaf respiration in darkness and light differ substantially in the temperature sensitivity with the former being the far most sensitive. This has implications for modelling CO{sub 2} exchange between vegetation and atmosphere as demonstrated here, since this has so far been neglected. Long-term effects of temperature resulted in respiratory acclimation in a number of species. Respiratory acclimation appeared not to occur to any one single type of growth temperature. The implications of this finding in combination with the timing of acclimation are discussed for modelling respiratory CO{sub 2} release. (au)

  5. Action of γ-rays on the respiration and growth of perilla

    Sergeeva, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    The respiration rate of leaves of different stroyes and the growth rate of the main steam of perilla plants have been studied after irradiation with γ-rays (3 and 6 kR). Three periods have been distinguished in the rate of the processes under study. The growth and respiration were inhibited in the initial post-irradiation period, then their rate increased till it exceeded the control values at the end of the restoration period. During the subsequent third period, the rate of growth and respiration processes decreased reaching the values observed in unirradiated plants. Changes in the radiosensitive process of growth of irradiated plants are suggested to be the cause for changes in the respiration rate

  6. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Jonasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    While substantial cold-season respiration has been documented in most arctic and alpine ecosystems in recent years, the significance of cold-season photosynthesis in these biomes is still believed to be small. In a mesic, subartic heath during both the cold and warm season, we measured in situ...... ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis with a chamber technique at ambient conditions and at artificially, increased frequency of freeze-thaw (FT) cycles during fall and spring. We fitted the measured ecosystem exchange rates to respiration and photosynthesis models with R-2-values ranging from 0.81 to 0.......85. As expected, estimated cold-season (October, November, April and May) respiration was significant and accounted for at least 22% of the annual respiratory CO2 flux. More surprisingly, estimated photosynthesis during this period accounted for up to 19% of the annual gross CO2 uptake, suggesting that cold...

  7. Girdling and summer pruning in apple increase soil respiration

    The root system of plants derives all its energy from photosynthate translocated from the canopy to the root system. Canopy manipulations that alter either the rate of canopy photosynthesis or the translocation of photosynthate are expected to alter dry matter partitioning to the root system. Fiel...

  8. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS.

    Carvalho, R Piccolotto; Lemos, J R Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R Souza; Martins, M Gassen; Nascimento, C H; Bayona, M; Marcon, J L; Monteiro, J Barros

    2013-09-01

    The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI

  9. Succession after fire: variation in \\delta13C of organic tissues and respired CO2 in boreal forests

    Fessenden, J. E.; Li, H.; Mack, M.; Schuur, T.; Warren, S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2001-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and leaf organic matter were measured in 5 neighboring forests of varying ages: 7, 14, 45, 140, and 160 years. These forests are composed primarily of black spruce (Picea Mariana) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) with a shift in species dominance from aspen to spruce 50 years after fire disturbance. Research on the carbon isotope ratios of leaf material and CO2 was conducted to look for influences from species composition, forest age, and time after most recent burn. Samples of organic \\delta13C in whole leaf tissue were collected from the dominant species of each forest. Concurrent aboveground NPP measurements allowed us to estimate total ecosystem \\delta13C by providing a method for weighting \\delta13C of individual species and plant tissues. \\delta13CO2 and [CO2] were measured on canopy CO2 to determine the isotopic ratio of ecosystem respiration. The atmospheric results indicated that the \\delta13C of ecosystem respiration changes with successional stage. Specifically, the aspen dominating forests showed 13C depleted values relative to the spruce dominated forests. Organic results showed more 13C-enriched values with increased forest age and vegetation functional type. Specifically, oldest trees within the coniferous species had the most 13C-enriched values in leaf tissues. These results suggest that increases in the disturbance regime of northern boreal forests will lead to a decrease in the \\delta13C of ecosystem carbon with consequences for the atmospheric \\delta13C budget.

  10. Ecosystem warming does not affect photosynthesis or aboveground autotrophic respiration for boreal black spruce

    Bronson, D.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Gower, S.T. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management

    2010-04-15

    Substantial increases in climatic temperatures may cause boreal forests to become a carbon source. An improved understanding of the effect of climatic warming on photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration is needed in order to determine the impact of temperature increases on net carbon balances. This study measured the light-saturated photosynthesis foliage respiration and stem respiration of black spruce in heated and control plots during a 3-year period at a site located in Thompson, Manitoba. Greenhouses and soil-heating cables were used to maintain air and soil temperatures at 5 degrees C above ambient air and soil temperatures. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of soil and air warming; soil-only warming; and greenhouses maintained at ambient temperatures. The study showed that treatment differences for photosynthesis, foliage respiration, and stem respiration were not significant over the 3-year period. Results suggested that black spruce may not have significant changes in photosynthesis or respiration rates in warmer climates. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice.

    Jessberger, Jakob; Zhong, Weiwei; Brankačk, Jurij; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that local field potentials (LFP) in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB) follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR) in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG) and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC). During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  12. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice

    Jakob Jessberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that local field potentials (LFP in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC. During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  13. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  14. Cisplatin cytotoxicity is dependent on mitochondrial respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Santhipriya Inapurapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To understand the role of mitochondrial respiration in cisplatin sensitivity, we have employed wild-type and mitochondrial DNA depleted Rho0 yeast cells. Materials and Methods: Wild type and Rho0 yeast cultured in fermentable and non-fermentable sugar containing media, were studied for their sensitivity against cisplatin by monitoring growth curves, oxygen consumption, pH changes in cytosol/mitochondrial compartments, reactive oxygen species production and respiratory control ratio. Results: Wild-type yeast grown on glycerol exhibited heightened sensitivity to cisplatin than yeast grown on glucose. Cisplatin (100 μM, although significantly reduced the growth of wild- type cells, only slightly altered the growth rate of Rho0 cells. Cisplatin treatment decreased both pHcyt and pHmit to a similar extent without affecting the pH difference. Cisplatin dose-dependently increased the oxidative stress in wild-type, but not in respiration-deficient Rho0 strain. Cisplatin decreased the respiratory control ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that cisplatin toxicity is influenced by the respiratory capacity of the cells and the intracellular oxidative burden. Although cisplatin per se slightly decreased the respiration of yeast cells grown in glucose, it did not disturb the mitochondrial chemiosmotic gradient.

  15. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  16. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  17. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  18. Increased rate of whole body lipolysis before and after 9 days of bed rest in healthy young men born with low birth weight

    Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Hojbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which may be precipitated by physical inactivity. Methods: 22 LBW and 23 controls were studied before and after bed rest by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with indirect...... calorimetry, infusion of stable isotope tracers, preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results: LBW subjects had similar BMI, but elevated abdominal obesity compared with controls. The basal rate of whole body lipolysis (WBL) was elevated in LBW subjects with and without correction for abdominal...... insulin resistance when exposed to bed rest in LBW subjects. Nine days of bed rest causes severe peripheral insulin resistance, reduced WBL and skeletal muscle HSL activity, as well as a compensatory increased insulin secretion, with no differences in LBW subjects and controls....

  19. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental study on effects of drilling parameters on respirable dust production during roof bolting operations.

    Jiang, Hua; Luo, Yi; McQuerrey, Joe

    2018-02-01

    Underground coalmine roof bolting operators exhibit a continued risk for overexposure to airborne levels of respirable coal and crystalline silica dust from the roof drilling operation. Inhaling these dusts can cause coal worker's pneumoconiosis and silicosis. This research explores the effect of drilling control parameters, specifically drilling bite depth, on the reduction of respirable dust generated during the drilling process. Laboratory drilling experiments were conducted and results demonstrated the feasibility of this dust control approach. Both the weight and size distribution of the dust particles collected from drilling tests with different bite depths were analyzed. The results showed that the amount of total inhalable and respirable dust was inversely proportional to the drilling bite depth. Therefore, control of the drilling process to achieve proper high-bite depth for the rock can be an important approach to reducing the generation of harmful dust. Different from conventional passive engineering controls, such as mist drilling and ventilation approaches, this approach is proactive and can cut down the generation of respirable dust from the source. These findings can be used to develop an integrated drilling control algorithm to achieve the best drilling efficiency as well as reducing respirable dust and noise.

  1. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia.

    Hals, Ingrid K; Bruerberg, Simon Gustafson; Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20-22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of mitochondrial complexes also in pancreatic islets

  2. Respiration intensiveness and inclusion of 32P in the composition of phosphorus-organic combinations in radiomutants of cotton plants and their initial forms under salinization of soil

    Nazirov, N.N.; Tashmatov, N.T.; Vakhabov, A.; Nabiev, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Salinization of soil affects respiration intensity, 32 P introduction into plants and its inclusion in the content of phosphoric organic compounds as well as their content in tissues of cotton plants. Respiration intensity increases: respiration intensity of weakly-stable plants increases to a greater degree. General character of changes caused by the salinization effect of different cotton sorts, is analogous, differences are only in the destruction degree [ru

  3. Increased synthesis of high-molecular-weight cPLA2 mediates early UV-induced PGE2 in human skin.

    Gresham, A; Masferrer, J; Chen, X; Leal-Khouri, S; Pentland, A P

    1996-04-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) B-induced inflammation is characterized by dramatic increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis due to enhanced arachidonate deacylation from the membrane. Therefore, the effect of UV on sythesis, mass, and distribution of the high-molecular-weight phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in cultured human keratinocytes and human skin was studied. The 105-kDa cPLA2 was demonstrated to be the critical enzyme in UV-induced PGE2 synthesis and erythema in the first 6 h postirradiation. Immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled protein showed cPLA2 synthesis increased three- to fourfold 6 h after irradiation. Immunoprecipitated 32P-labeled cPLA2 demonstrated phosphorylation of cPLA2 was concurrently induced, suggesting that UV also activates cPLA2. This increase in cPLA2 synthesis and activation also closely correlated with increased PGE2 synthesis and [3H]arachidonic acid release and was effectively blocked by both an S-oligonucleotide antisense to cPLA2 and methyl arachidonate fluorophosphate, a specific inhibitor of cPLA2. Biopsy and histochemical examination of erythematous sites expressed increased amounts of cPLA2 whereas nonerythematous irradiated sites did not. In contrast, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in cultures and skin explants were unaffected 6 h post-UV, and no change in cyclooxygenase activity was observed at this time. These results suggest that increased cPLA2 synthesis occurs only when skin is exposed to UV doses that are sufficient to cause erythema and indicate expression of cPLA2 participates in acute UV inflammation.

  4. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    Hurt, Richard A.; Robeson, Michael S.; Shakya, Migun; Moberly, James G.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Gu, Baohua; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.22±2.33 µg DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46±0.25 µg DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio). Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1–V3 region) pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ∼80% and ∼400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU) recovered. PMID:25033199

  5. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF PERMEABILIZED HEPATOCYTES MODEL FOR INVESTIGATION OF MITOCHONDRIA IN SITU RESPIRATION.

    Merlavsky, V M; Manko, B O; Ikkert, O V; Manko, V V

    2015-01-01

    To verify experimentally the model of permeabilized hepatocytes, the degree of cell permeability was assessed using trypan blue and polarographycally determined cell respiration rate upon succinate (0.35 mM) and a-ketoglutarate (1 mM) oxidation. Oxidative phosphorylation was stimulated by ADP (750 μM). Hepatocyte permeabilization depends on digitonin concentraion in medium and on the number of cells in suspension. Thus, the permeabilization of 0.9-1.7 million cells/ml was completed by 25 μg/ml of digitonin, permeabilization of 2.0-3.0 million cells/ml--by 50 μg/ml of digitonin and permeabilization of 4.0-5.6 million cells/ml--by 100 μg/ml. Thus, the higher is the suspension density, the higher digitonin concentration is required. Treatment of hepatocytes with digitonin resulted in a decrease of endogenous respiration rate to a minimum upon 20-22 μg of digitonin per 1 million cells. Supplementation of permeabilized hepatocytes with α-ketoglutarate maintained stable respiration rate, on the level higher than endogenous respiration at the corresponding digitonin concentration, unlike the intact cells. Respiration rate of permeabilized hepatocytes at the simultaneous addition of α-ketoglutarate and ADP increased to the level of intact cell respiration, irrespective of digitonin concentration. Addition of solely succinate and especially succinate plus ADP markedly intensified the respiration of permeabilized hepatocytes to the level higher than that of intact cells. The dependence of succinate-stimulated respiration on digitonin concentration reached maximum at 20-22 αg of digitonin per 1 million cells. Optimal ratio of digitonin amount and the cell number in suspension is expected to be different in various tissues.

  7. [A comparative study on soil respiration between grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppe, Inner Mongolia].

    Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Yuhui

    2004-09-01

    With enclosed chamber Method, this paper studied the soil respiration in grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppes, Inner Mongolia, and its relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that the daily pattern of soil respiration could be expressed as a one-humped curve, and the highest values appeared at 13:00-15:00 in the fenced and grazing plots. The diurnal dynamics of soil respiration mainly depended on the surface temperature at the fenced plots and the soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the grazing plots. In June and July, the average soil respiration rate was 2.7 times greater at the fenced plots than that at the grazing plots, while the difference was not distinct in August and September, which was similar with the change of the belowground biomass. The reason was probably that the plant was influenced differently in different phenological phases by grazing and the change of environmental factors. It showed that human activity may not result in the increase of soil respiration rate. The seasonal dynamics of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil water content at the 0-10 cm depth at the fenced and grazing sites, and the maximum R2 was 0.853 and 0.741, respectively. The difference was that the correlation of soil respiration seasonal dynamics with soil water content was larger at the fenced plots than at the grazing plots. The correlations of soil respiration diurnal and seasonal dynamics with temperature and soil water content at lower profiles were larger than those at deeper profiles at the fenced and grazing sites.

  8. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: causes and consequences.

    Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Genta, Pedro R; Figueiredo, Adelaide C; Inoue, Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a form of periodic breathing in which central apneas and hypopneas alternate with periods of hyperventilation, producing a waxing and waning pattern of tidal volume. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure, in whom the prevalence is strikingly high and ranges from 30% to 50%. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, including low cardiac output and recurrent hypoxia. The key pathophysiological mechanism triggering Cheyne-Stokes respiration is hyperventilation and low arterial CO2 (PaCO2) that when below the apneic threshold triggers a central apnea. Hyperventilation is associated with pulmonary congestion, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration is more prone to occur during sleep, when the respiratory system is mainly dependent on chemical control. It is associated with recurrent dips in oxygen saturation and arousals from sleep, with oscillations in blood pressure and heart rate, sympathetic activation and increased risk of ventricular tachycardia. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an independent marker of poor prognosis and may participate in a vicious cycle, further stressing the failing heart.

  10. Roots affect the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature in tussock grass microcosms.

    Graham, Scott L; Millard, Peter; Hunt, John E; Rogers, Graeme N D; Whitehead, David

    2012-07-01

    While the temperature response of soil respiration (R(S)) has been well studied, the partitioning of heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) by soil microbes from autotrophic respiration (R(A)) by roots, known to have distinct temperature sensitivities, has been problematic. Further complexity stems from the presence of roots affecting R(H), the rhizosphere priming effect. In this study the short-term temperature responses of R(A) and R(H) in relation to rhizosphere priming are investigated. Temperature responses of R(A), R(H) and rhizosphere priming were assessed in microcosms of Poa cita using a natural abundance δ(13)C discrimination approach. The temperature response of R(S) was found to be regulated primarily by R(A), which accounted for 70 % of total soil respiration. Heterotrophic respiration was less sensitive to temperature in the presence of plant roots, resulting in negative priming effects with increasing temperature. The results emphasize the importance of roots in regulating the temperature response of R(S), and a framework is presented for further investigation into temperature effects on heterotrophic respiration and rhizosphere priming, which could be applied to other soil and vegetation types to improve models of soil carbon turnover.

  11. Seasonal and episodic moisture controls on plant and microbial contributions to soil respiration.

    Carbone, Mariah S; Still, Christopher J; Ambrose, Anthony R; Dawson, Todd E; Williams, A Park; Boot, Claudia M; Schaeffer, Sean M; Schimel, Joshua P

    2011-09-01

    Moisture inputs drive soil respiration (SR) dynamics in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. However, determining the contributions of root and microbial respiration to SR, and their separate temporal responses to periodic drought and water pulses, remains poorly understood. This study was conducted in a pine forest ecosystem with a Mediterranean-type climate that receives seasonally varying precipitation inputs from both rainfall (in the winter) and fog-drip (primarily in the summer). We used automated SR measurements, radiocarbon SR source partitioning, and a water addition experiment to understand how SR, and its separate root and microbial sources, respond to seasonal and episodic changes in moisture. Seasonal changes in SR were driven by surface soil water content and large changes in root respiration contributions. Superimposed on these seasonal patterns were episodic pulses of precipitation that determined the short-term SR patterns. Warm season precipitation pulses derived from fog-drip, and rainfall following extended dry periods, stimulated the largest SR responses. Microbial respiration dominated these SR responses, increasing within hours, whereas root respiration responded more slowly over days. We conclude that root and microbial respiration sources respond differently in timing and magnitude to both seasonal and episodic moisture inputs. These findings have important implications for the mechanistic representation of SR in models and the response of dry ecosystems to changes in precipitation patterns.

  12. Mitochondrial impairment by PPAR agonists and statins identified via immunocaptured OXPHOS complex activities and respiration

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Dykens, James A.; Bernal, Autumn; Capaldi, Roderick A.; Will, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial impairment is increasingly implicated in the etiology of toxicity caused by some thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and statins. We examined the effects of members of these drug classes on respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria using a phosphorescent oxygen sensitive probe and on the activity of individual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes using a recently developed immunocapture technique. Of the six thiazolidinediones examined, ciglitazone, troglitazone, and darglitazone potently disrupted mitochondrial respiration. In accord with these data, ciglitazone and troglitazone were also potent inhibitors of Complexes II + III, IV, and V, while darglitazone predominantly inhibited Complex IV. Of the six statins evaluated, lovastatin, simvastatin, and cerivastatin impaired mitochondrial respiration the most, with simvastatin and lovastatin impairing multiple OXPHOS Complexes. Within the class of fibrates, gemfibrozil more potently impaired respiration than fenofibrate, clofibrate, or ciprofibrate. Gemfibrozil only modestly inhibited Complex I, fenofibrate inhibited Complexes I, II + III, and V, and clofibrate inhibited Complex V. Our findings with the two complementary methods indicate that (1) some members of each class impair mitochondrial respiration, whereas others have little or no effect, and (2) the rank order of mitochondrial impairment accords with clinical adverse events observed with these drugs. Since the statins are frequently co-prescribed with the fibrates or thiazolidinediones, various combinations of these three drug classes were also analyzed for their mitochondrial effects. In several cases, the combination additively uncoupled or inhibited respiration, suggesting that some combinations are more likely to yield clinically relevant drug-induced mitochondrial side effects than others

  13. Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight.

    Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J; Veldkamp, T

    2018-04-01

    1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.

  14. Plasma Amino Acids Stimulate Uncoupled Respiration of Muscle Subsarcolemmal Mitochondria in Lean but Not Obese Humans.

    Kras, Katon A; Hoffman, Nyssa; Roust, Lori R; Patel, Shivam H; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in lean individuals. To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondrial function during saline (i.e., control) and AA infusions. Eligible participants were healthy lean (body mass index, mass index >30 kg/m2; age 35 ± 3 years; n = 11) subjects. Single trial of saline infusion followed by AA infusion. SS and IMF mitochondria were isolated from muscle biopsies collected at the end of the saline and AA infusions. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. AA infusion increased adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration and ATP production rates of SS mitochondria in the lean (P lean subjects only (P lean or obese subjects (P > 0.05). Increasing the plasma AA concentrations enhances the capacity for respiration and ATP production of muscle SS, but not IMF, mitochondria in lean individuals, in parallel with increases in uncoupled respiration. However, neither of these parameters increases in muscle SS or IMF mitochondria in obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus—a prospective, population-based cohort study

    Ollila, M.-M.E.; West, S.; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Jokelainen, J.; Auvinen, J.; Puukka, K.; Ruokonen, A.; Järvelin, M.-R.; Tapanainen, J.S.; Franks, S.; Piltonen, T.T.; Morin-Papunen, L.C.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? SUMMARY ANSWER The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28–4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years

  16. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus-a prospective, population-based cohort study.

    Ollila, M-M E; West, S; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Jokelainen, J; Auvinen, J; Puukka, K; Ruokonen, A; Järvelin, M-R; Tapanainen, J S; Franks, S; Piltonen, T T; Morin-Papunen, L C

    2017-02-01

    What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years was significantly greater in women with PCOS developing T2DM than in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance, with the most significant increase occurring

  17. Soil Respiration Declines Following Beetle - Induced Forest Mortality in a Lodgepole Pine Forest

    Borkhuu, B.; Peckham, S. D.; Norton, U.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests in northern Colorado and southeast Wyoming have been undergoing a major mortality event owing to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation since 2007. We studied biotic and abiotic drivers of growing season soil respiration in four mature stands experiencing different levels of mortality between 2008 and 2012 in the Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA. For five years, beetle infestation significantly altered forest structure. Stand mortality was 30% and more than 80% in stands with the lowest and highest mortality, respectively. Understory vegetation cover increased by 50% for five years following beetle infestation. Needlefall was increased by more than 50% during first two years of beetle infestation compared to the pre-disturbance period. We did not observe an immediate increase in soil respiration following beetle infestation as suggested by some researchers. Soil respiration rates in midsummer ranged from 1.4 ± 0.1 μmol m-2 s-1 in stands with highest mortality to 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol m-2s-1 in uninfested stand. Live tree basal area was the dominant factor controlling soil respiration, explaining more than 60% of the interannual and spatial variations in response to the disturbance. In addition, soil respiration was significantly correlated with fine root biomass, which explained 55% of variations, providing strong evidence that autotrophic respiration dominated the forest soil respiration flux. Furthermore, the seasonality of soil respiration was controlled mainly by mean monthly precipitation and mid-day photosynthetically active radiation. Each factor predicted from 30% to 50% of seasonal soil respiration variability with the highest correlation coefficients in stand with the lowest mortality. Our results clearly indicate that the reduction of photosynthesis in trees over the infestation period significantly reduced soil respiration. The remaining activity in dead stands may

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of the hydrocephalus in patients with acute or chronic increase in cerebral pressure

    Dorenbeck, U.; Schlaier, J.; Feuerbach, S.; Seitz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides additional information about the periventricular white matter for the assessment of hydrocephalus. Materials and methods: sixteen MRI examinations (11 with acutely increased cerebral pressure, 5 without symptoms) on 15 patients with hydrocephalus (4 patients with communicating hydrocephalus and 11 patients with obstructive hydrocephalus) were analyzed. One symptomatic patient subsequently became asymptomatic. We investigated the ''apparent diffusion coefficient'' (ADC) in the subcortical and periventricular white matter. The ADCs of the study patients were compared with those of a healthy control group. Results: symptomatic patients with hydrocephalus, 6/11 showed periventricular edema and a significantly higher ADC values in the periventricular region than in the subcortical white matter. 5/11 symptomatic patients showed significantly higher ADC values even in the absence of periventricular interstitial edema (both groups contained patients with communicating and obstructive hydrocephalus). All 5 asymptomatic patients with hydrocephalus did not have a significantly higher ADC values in the periventricular region. Conclusion: in patients with hydrocephalus and acutely increased cerebral pressure, DWI showed a significantly higher ADC values in the periventricular region even without visible interstitial edema on conventional MRI sequences. (orig.)

  19. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  20. Untangling the effects of root age and tissue nitrogen on root respiration in Populus tremuloides at different nitrogen supply.

    Ceccon, Christian; Tagliavini, Massimo; Schmitt, Armin Otto; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-05-01

    Root respiration is a major contributor to terrestrial carbon flux. Many studies have shown root respiration to increase with an increase in root tissue nitrogen (N) concentration across species and study sites. Studies have also shown that both root respiration and root N concentration typically decrease with root age. The effects of added N may directly increase respiration of existing roots or may affect respiration by shifting the age structure of a root population by stimulating growth. To the best of our knowledge, no study has ever examined the effect of added N as a function of root age on root respiration. In this study, root respiration of 13-year-old Populus tremuloides Michx. trees grown in the field and 1-year-old P. tremuloides seedlings grown in containers was analyzed for the relative influence of root age and root N concentration independent of root age on root respiration. Field roots were first tracked using root windows and then sampled at known age. Nitrogen was either applied or not to small patches beneath the windows. In a pot experiment, each plant was grown with its root system split between two separate pots and N was applied at three different levels, either at the same or at different rates between pots. Root N concentration ranged between 1.4 and 1.7% in the field experiment and 1.8 and 2.6% in the seedling experiment. We found that addition of N increased root N concentration of only older roots in the field but of roots of all ages in the potted seedlings. In both experiments, the age-dependent decline in root respiration was largely consistent, and could be explained by a negative power function. Respiration decreased ∼50% by 3 weeks of age. Although root age was the dominant factor affecting respiration in both experiments, in the field experiment, root N also contributed to root respiration independent of root age. These results add further insight into respiratory responses of roots to N addition and mechanisms underlying the

  1. Impacts of temperature on primary productivity and respiration in naturally structured macroalgal assemblages.

    Leigh W Tait

    Full Text Available Rising global temperatures caused by human-mediated change has already triggered significant responses in organismal physiology, distribution and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of rising temperature on the physiology of individual organisms are well understood, the effect on community-wide processes has remained elusive. The fixation of carbon via primary productivity is an essential ecosystem function and any shifts in the balance of primary productivity and respiration could alter the carbon balance of ecosystems. Here we show through a series of tests that respiration of naturally structured algal assemblages in southern New Zealand greatly increases with rising temperature, with implications for net primary productivity (NPP. The NPP of in situ macroalgal assemblages was minimally affected by natural temperature variation, possibly through photo-acclimation or temperature acclimation responses, but respiration rates and compensating irradiance were negatively affected. However, laboratory experiments testing the impacts of rising temperature on several photosynthetic parameters showed a decline in NPP, increasing respiration rates and increasing compensating irradiance. The respiration Q10 of laboratory assemblages (the difference in metabolic rates over 10°C averaged 2.9 compared to a Q10 of 2 often seen in other autotrophs. However, gross primary productivity (GPP Q10 averaged 2, indicating that respiration was more severely affected by rising temperature. Furthermore, combined high irradiance and high temperature caused photoinhibition in the laboratory, and resulted in 50% lower NPP at high irradiance. Our study shows that communities may be more severely affected by rising global temperatures than would be expected by responses of individual species. In particular, enhanced respiration rates and rising compensation points have the potential to greatly affect the carbon balance of macroalgal assemblages through declines in

  2. Persistent reduced ecosystem respiration after insect disturbance in high elevation forests.

    Moore, David J P; Trahan, Nicole A; Wilkes, Phil; Quaife, Tristan; Stephens, Britton B; Elder, Kelly; Desai, Ankur R; Negron, Jose; Monson, Russell K

    2013-06-01

    Amid a worldwide increase in tree mortality, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) have led to the death of billions of trees from Mexico to Alaska since 2000. This is predicted to have important carbon, water and energy balance feedbacks on the Earth system. Counter to current projections, we show that on a decadal scale, tree mortality causes no increase in ecosystem respiration from scales of several square metres up to an 84 km(2) valley. Rather, we found comparable declines in both gross primary productivity and respiration suggesting little change in net flux, with a transitory recovery of respiration 6-7 years after mortality associated with increased incorporation of leaf litter C into soil organic matter, followed by further decline in years 8-10. The mechanism of the impact of tree mortality caused by these biotic disturbances is consistent with reduced input rather than increased output of carbon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  4. LIMITATION OF SOIL RESPIRATION DURING DRY PERIOD

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Acosta, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 47-52. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : moisture * Norway spruce * precipitation * respiration * soil CO2 efflux Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Internal current generation in respiration chambers

    Saborowski, R.; Buchholz, F.

    1998-06-01

    A technical device generating a constant and directed current within a sealed respiration chamber is described. It does not involve any external pumps or tubing. This system is easy to handle, and improved the maintenance of rheotactic pelagic species like the Northern krill ( Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Crustacea) or small fishes ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) under experimental conditions.

  6. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    2010-10-01

    ...; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84...., dust clouds produced in mining, quarrying, and tunneling, and in dusts produced during industrial... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying...

  7. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a open-quotes waffle-ironclose quotes effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors

  8. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response.

    Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Hopkins, David W; Prosser, James I; Singh, Brajesh K; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A; Agren, Göran I; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Gouriveau, Fabrice; Bergkvist, Göran; Meir, Patrick; Nottingham, Andrew T; Salinas, Norma; Hartley, Iain P

    2014-09-04

    Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system models, which suggest that warming-induced increases in carbon dioxide release from soils represent an important positive feedback loop that could influence twenty-first-century climate change. The magnitude of this feedback remains uncertain, however, not least because the response of soil microbial communities to changing temperatures has the potential to either decrease or increase warming-induced carbon losses substantially. Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid- to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. Furthermore, the strongest enhancing responses were observed in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold climatic regions. After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. This suggests that the substantial carbon stores in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  9. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  10. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  11. Decadal warming causes a consistent and persistent shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic respiration in contrasting permafrost ecosystems.

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin E; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Schuur, Edward A G; Natali, Susan M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Aerts, Rien; Dorrepaal, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon in permafrost ecosystems has the potential to become a major positive feedback to climate change if permafrost thaw increases heterotrophic decomposition. However, warming can also stimulate autotrophic production leading to increased ecosystem carbon storage-a negative climate change feedback. Few studies partitioning ecosystem respiration examine decadal warming effects or compare responses among ecosystems. Here, we first examined how 11 years of warming during different seasons affected autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in a bryophyte-dominated peatland in Abisko, Sweden. We used natural abundance radiocarbon to partition ecosystem respiration into autotrophic respiration, associated with production, and heterotrophic decomposition. Summertime warming decreased the age of carbon respired by the ecosystem due to increased proportional contributions from autotrophic and young soil respiration and decreased proportional contributions from old soil. Summertime warming's large effect was due to not only warmer air temperatures during the growing season, but also to warmer deep soils year-round. Second, we compared ecosystem respiration responses between two contrasting ecosystems, the Abisko peatland and a tussock-dominated tundra in Healy, Alaska. Each ecosystem had two different timescales of warming (permafrost ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Acceptable respiratory protection program and LASL respirator research

    Skaggs, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A short history is presented on the LASL Respiratory Protection Training Programs. Then a discussion is given on the major points of an acceptable respiratory protection program utilizing the points required by the Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulation 29 CFR 1910.134. Contributions to respirator research are reviewed. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: program administration; respirator selection; respirator use; fitting and training; respirator maintenance; medical clearance and surveillance; special problems; program evaluation; and documentation

  13. Contribution of root to soil respiration and carbon balance in ...

    Soil respiration varied from 2.5 to 11.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1 and from 1.5 to 9.3 g CO2 m-2 d-1, and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration from 38% to 76% and from 25% to 72% in Communities 1 and 2, respectively. During the growing season (May–September), soil respiration, shoot biomass, live root ...

  14. Reproductive performance response to the male effect in goats is improved when doe live weight/body condition score is increasing.

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the nutritional and metabolic cue-induced modulation of the reproductive performance response of female goats to the male effect. During natural anoestrus, 48 Blanca Andaluza does were isolated from bucks for 45 days and distributed into two groups: (1) low body weight (BW)/low body condition score (BCS) animals (LL-gain group, N=18), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements; and (2) high BW/high BCS animals (HH-loss group, N=30), which were fed 0.4 times their maintenance requirements. Following isolation, oestrous activity was recorded daily by visual observation of the marks left by harness-equipped males. Weekly blood samples were taken for the determination of progesterone, glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and leptin concentrations. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. Significantly greater ovarian and oestrous responses, and productivity, were observed in the LL-gain group compared to the HH-loss group (Preproductive performances of does subjected to the male effect in spring are poorer in those with a decreasing BW and BCS and better in those with increasing scores. This might be explained by the differences between groups in terms of their plasma insulin concentrations. The NEFA concentration was clearly modified by introduction to the males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (PExercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (PExercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A.; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 year-1 (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013–2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration. PMID:26629695

  17. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field.

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013-2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013-2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration.

  18. Thermal adaptation of heterotrophic soil respiration in laboratory microcosms.

    Mark A. Bradford; Brian W. Watts; Christian A. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Respiration of heterotrophic microorganisms decomposing soil organic carbon releases carbon dioxide from soils to the atmosphere. In the short term, soil microbial respiration is strongly dependent on temperature. In the long term, the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature is uncertain. However, following established evolutionary tradeoffs, mass-...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  1. What controls respiration rate in stored sugarbeet roots

    Although respiration is estimated to be responsible for 60 to 80% of the sucrose lost during storage, the mechanisms by which sugarbeet roots regulate their respiration rate are unknown. In plants, respiration rate is regulated by (1) available respiratory capacity, (2) cellular energy status, (3) ...

  2. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  3. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    C. A. Sierra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long-term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen the release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. These effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  4. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  5. Impaired ALDH2 activity decreases the mitochondrial respiration in H9C2 cardiomyocytes.

    Mali, Vishal R; Deshpande, Mandar; Pan, Guodong; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Palaniyandi, Suresh S

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated reactive aldehydes induce cellular stress. In cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, lipid-peroxidation derived reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) are known to contribute to the pathogenesis. 4HNE is involved in ROS formation, abnormal calcium handling and more importantly defective mitochondrial respiration. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily contains NAD(P)(+)-dependent isozymes which can detoxify endogenous and exogenous aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids. Therefore we hypothesize that 4HNE afflicts mitochondrial respiration and leads to cell death by impairing ALDH2 activity in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell lines. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with 25, 50 and 75 μM 4HNE and its vehicle, ethanol as well as 25, 50 and 75 μM disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of ALDH2 and its vehicle (DMSO) for 4 h. 4HNE significantly decreased ALDH2 activity, ALDH2 protein levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity, and increased 4HNE adduct formation and cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. ALDH2 inhibition by DSF and ALDH2 siRNA attenuated ALDH2 activity besides reducing ALDH2 levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and increased cell death. Our results indicate that ALDH2 impairment can lead to poor mitochondrial respiration and increased cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low birth weight is associated with adiposity, impaired skeletal muscle energetics, and weight loss resistance in mice

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Ghosh, Sujoy; Dysart, Michael; Kanaan, Georges N.; Chu, Alphonse; Blais, Alexandre; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Tsai, Eve C.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Background In utero undernutrition is associated with obesity and insulin resistance, although its effects on skeletal muscle remain poorly defined. Therefore, in the current study we explored the effects of in utero food restriction on muscle energy metabolism in mice. Methods We used an experimental mouse model system of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy to examine offspring from undernourished dams (U) and control offspring from ad libitum fed dams (C). Weight loss of 10 wk old offspring on a 4 wk 40% calorie restricted diet was also followed. Experimental approaches included bioenergetic analyses in isolated mitochondria, intact (permeabilized) muscle and at the whole body level. Results U have increased adiposity and decreased glucose tolerance compared to C. Strikingly, when U are put on a 40% calorie restricted diet they lose half as much weight as calorie restricted controls. Mitochondria from muscle overall from U had decreased coupled (state 3) and uncoupled (state 4) respiration and increased maximal respiration compared to C. Mitochondrial yield was lower in U than C. In permeabilized fiber preparations from mixed fiber type muscle U had decreased mitochondrial content and decreased adenylate free leak respiration, fatty acid oxidative capacity, and state 3 respiratory capacity through complex I. Fiber maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity did not differ between U and C but was decreased with calorie restriction. Conclusions Our results reveal that in utero undernutrition alters metabolic physiology through a profound effect on skeletal muscle energetics and blunts response to a hypocaloric diet in adulthood. We propose that mitochondrial dysfunction links undernutrition in utero with metabolic disease in adulthood. PMID:25091727

  7. The association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and increased birth weight, adiposity and inflammation in the newborn.

    McCloskey, K; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Allen, K; Tang, M L K; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Skilton, M R; Cheung, M; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Burgner, D; Vuillermin, P

    2018-01-01

    Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074). Data on maternal comorbidities and infant birth anthropomorphic measures were compiled, and infant aortic intima-media thickness was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound. In a selected subgroup of term infants (n = 161), matched maternal and cord lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and maternal soluble CD14 were measured. Analysis was completed by using pairwise correlation and linear regression. Because of their non-normal distribution, pathology blood measures were log transformed prior to analysis. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with increased birth weight (mean difference 17.8 g per kg m -2 , 95% CI 6.6 to 28.9; p = 0.002), newborn mean skin-fold thickness (mean difference 0.1 mm per kg m -2 , 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; p pregnancy BMI, 95% CI 0.6 to 7.7%, p = 0.02), but not cord blood soluble CD14. Inclusion of maternal hsCRP as a covariate attenuated the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and both newborn skin-fold thickness and cord blood hsCRP. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased newborn adiposity and inflammation. These associations may be partially mediated by maternal inflammation during pregnancy. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Quality Improvement Approach Increases Breastmilk Availability at Discharge from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for the Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infant.

    Bixby, Christine; Baker-Fox, Cindy; Deming, Crystal; Dhar, Vijay; Steele, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants often struggle to establish and maintain a milk supply. Children's Hospital of Orange County (CHOC Children's) data from 2005 to 2011 showed that while the total percentage of all neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) babies being discharged on breastmilk had remained stable, the percentage of VLBW babies with breastmilk at discharge had declined. This information resulted in a quality improvement initiative to remove barriers and implement programs shown to have the greatest impact on initiating and sustaining lactation in this patient subset. The objective of this initiative was to increase breastmilk availability at discharge for the VLBW population. A multidisciplinary program was initiated, which included NICU parent and staff education, clarification of roles, and improved access to pumping supplies. Physicians and nurses completed online education. An algorithm defining roles in lactation support was developed, and a resource team of trained bedside nurses was formed. Lactation consultant time was then refocused on the VLBW population. In addition, "Lactation Support" was added to the physician daily documentation to bring the topic to daily bedside rounds. Twice weekly lactation rounds between the lactation consultant and neonatologist addressed lactation concerns for each dyad. To address pumping issues, the loaner pump program was enhanced. To assess the effectiveness of the initiative, breastmilk availability at discharge for the VLBW population at CHOC Children's was compared from baseline (2011) to the end of June 2015. VLBW breastmilk availability at discharge upon project initiation was 58.7% and increased by 36% to a final rate of 80% by 2013--a rate sustained through the first 6 months of 2015. The results of this initiative suggest that a multidisciplinary approach, including education, changes in workflow, and redefinition of roles, is effective in improving breastmilk rates at discharge in the VLBW

  9. Increased signal intensities in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images: evidence in children undergoing multiple gadolinium MRI exams

    Hu, Houchun H.; Pokorney, Amber; Towbin, Richard B.; Miller, Jeffrey H. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Recent reports have suggested residual gadolinium deposition in the brain in subjects undergoing multiple contrast-enhanced MRI exams. These findings have raised some concerns regarding gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) usage and retention in brain tissues. To summarize findings of hyperintense brain structures on precontrast T1-weighted images in 21 children undergoing multiple GBCA MRI exams. This retrospective study involved 21 patients, each of whom received multiple MRI examinations (range: 5-37 exams) with GBCA over the course of their medical treatment (duration from first to most recent exam: 1.2-12.9 years). The patients were between 0.9 and 14.4 years of age at the time of their first GBCA exam. Regions of interest were drawn in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus on 2-D fast spin echo images acquired at 1.5 T. The signal intensities of these two structures were normalized by that of the corpus callosum genu. Signal intensity ratios from these patients were compared to control patients of similar ages who have never received GBCA. Signal intensity ratios increased between the first and the most recent MRI exam in all 21 patients receiving GBCA, with an increase of 18.6%±12.7% (range: 0.5% to 47.5%) for the dentate nucleus and 12.4%±7.4% (range: -1.2% to 33.7%) for the globus pallidus (P<0.0001). Signal intensity ratios were also higher in GBCA patients than in controls (P<0.01). The degree of signal intensity enhancement did not correlate with statistical significance to the cumulative number or volume of GBCA administrations each patient received, the patient's age or the elapsed time between the first and most recent GBCA MRI exams. These results in children are consistent with recent findings in adults, suggesting possible gadolinium deposition in the brain. (orig.)

  10. Adenylate control contributes to thermal acclimation of sugar maple fine-root respiration in experimentally warmed soil.

    Jarvi, Mickey P; Burton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the occurrence of and mechanisms responsible for acclimation of fine-root respiration of mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum) after 3+ years of experimental soil warming (+4 to 5 °C) in a factorial combination with soil moisture addition. Potential mechanisms for thermal respiratory acclimation included changes in enzymatic capacity, as indicated by root N concentration; substrate limitation, assessed by examining nonstructural carbohydrates and effects of exogenous sugar additions; and adenylate control, examined as responses of root respiration to a respiratory uncoupling agent. Partial acclimation of fine-root respiration occurred in response to soil warming, causing specific root respiration to increase to a much lesser degree (14% to 26%) than would be expected for a 4 to 5 °C temperature increase (approximately 55%). Acclimation was greatest when ambient soil temperature was warmer or soil moisture availability was low. We found no evidence that enzyme or substrate limitation caused acclimation but did find evidence supporting adenylate control. The uncoupling agent caused a 1.4 times greater stimulation of respiration in roots from warmed soil. Sugar maple fine-root respiration in warmed soil was at least partially constrained by adenylate use, helping constrain respiration to that needed to support work being performed by the roots. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forest

    E.A. Davidson; A.D. Richardson; K.E. Savage; D.Y. Hollinger

    2006-01-01

    Annual budgets and fitted temperature response curves for soil respiration and ecosystem respiration provide useful information for partitioning annual carbon budgets of ecosystems, but they may not adequately reveal seasonal variation in the ratios of these two fluxes. Soil respiration (Rs) typically contributes 30-80% of...

  12. Global convergence in leaf respiration from estimates of thermal acclimation across time and space.

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Slot, Martijn; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Reich, Peter B; Kattge, Jens; Atkin, Owen K; Bloomfield, Keith J; Tjoelker, Mark G; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2015-09-01

    Recent compilations of experimental and observational data have documented global temperature-dependent patterns of variation in leaf dark respiration (R), but it remains unclear whether local adjustments in respiration over time (through thermal acclimation) are consistent with the patterns in R found across geographical temperature gradients. We integrated results from two global empirical syntheses into a simple temperature-dependent respiration framework to compare the measured effects of respiration acclimation-over-time and variation-across-space to one another, and to a null model in which acclimation is ignored. Using these models, we projected the influence of thermal acclimation on: seasonal variation in R; spatial variation in mean annual R across a global temperature gradient; and future increases in R under climate change. The measured strength of acclimation-over-time produces differences in annual R across spatial temperature gradients that agree well with global variation-across-space. Our models further project that acclimation effects could potentially halve increases in R (compared with the null model) as the climate warms over the 21st Century. Convergence in global temperature-dependent patterns of R indicates that physiological adjustments arising from thermal acclimation are capable of explaining observed variation in leaf respiration at ambient growth temperatures across the globe. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. LPS-Induced Low-Grade Inflammation Increases Hypothalamic JNK Expression and Causes Central Insulin Resistance Irrespective of Body Weight Changes.

    Rorato, Rodrigo; Borges, Beatriz de Carvalho; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Elias, Carol Fuzeti; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara

    2017-07-04

    Metabolic endotoxemia contributes to low-grade inflammation in obesity, which causes insulin resistance due to the activation of intracellular proinflammatory pathways, such as the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) cascade in the hypothalamus and other tissues. However, it remains unclear whether the proinflammatory process precedes insulin resistance or it appears because of the development of obesity. Hypothalamic low-grade inflammation was induced by prolonged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to investigate if central insulin resistance is induced by an inflammatory stimulus regardless of obesity. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS) or repeated injections (6 LPS) of LPS (100 μg/kg, IP) to evaluate the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), Protein kinase B (AKT), and JNK in the hypothalamus. Single LPS increased the expression of pIRS1, pAKT, and pJNK, whereas the repeated LPS treatment failed to recruit pIRS1 and pAKT. The 6 LPS treated rats showed increased total JNK and pJNK. The 6 LPS rats became unresponsive to the hypophagic effect induced by central insulin administration (12 μM/5 μL, ICV). Prolonged exposure to LPS (24 h) impaired the insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and the translocation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cultured hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Central administration of the JNK inhibitor (20 μM/5 μL, ICV) restored the ability of insulin to phosphorylate IRS1 and AKT in 6 LPS rats. The present data suggest that an increased JNK activity in the hypothalamus underlies the development of insulin resistance during prolonged exposure to endotoxins. Our study reveals that weight gain is not mandatory for the development of hypothalamic insulin resistance and the blockade of proinflammatory pathways could be useful for restoring the insulin signaling during prolonged low-grade inflammation as seen in obesity.

  14. Soil respiration sensitivities to water and temperature in a revegetated desert

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Dong, Xue-Jun; Xu, Bing-Xin; Chen, Yong-Le; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yi-Gang; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration in water-limited ecosystems is affected intricately by soil water content (SWC), temperature, and soil properties. Eight sites on sand-fixed dunes that revegetated in different years since 1950s, with several topographical positions and various biological soil crusts (BSCs) and soil properties, were selected, as well as a moving sand dune (MSD) and a reference steppe in the Tengger Desert of China. Intact soil samples of 20 cm in depth were taken and incubated randomly at 12 levels of SWC (0 to 0.4 m3 m-3) and at 9 levels of temperature (5 to 45°C) in a growth chamber; additionally, cryptogamic and microbial respirations (RM) were measured. Total soil respiration (RT, including cryptogamic, microbial, and root respiration) was measured for 2 years at the MSD and five sites of sand-fixed dunes. The relationship between RM and SWC under the optimal SWC condition (0.25 m3 m-3) is linear, as is the entire range of RT and SWC. The slope of linear function describes sensitivity of soil respiration to water (SRW) and reflects to soil water availability, which is related significantly to soil physical properties, BSCs, and soil chemical properties, in decreasing importance. Inversely, Q10 for RM is related significantly to abovementioned factors in increasing importance. However, Q10 for RT and respiration rate at 20°C are related significantly to soil texture and depth of BSCs and subsoil only. In conclusion, through affecting SRW, soil physical properties produce significant influences on soil respiration, especially for RT. This indicates that a definition of the biophysical meaning of SRW is necessary, considering the water-limited and coarse-textured soil in most desert ecosystems.

  15. SMG-1 kinase attenuates mitochondrial ROS production but not cell respiration deficits during hyperoxia.

    Resseguie, Emily A; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    Supplemental oxygen (hyperoxia) used to treat individuals in respiratory distress causes cell injury by enhancing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. The suppressor of morphogenesis of genitalia (SMG-1) kinase is activated during hyperoxia and promotes cell survival by phosphorylating the tumor suppressor p53 on serine 15. Here, we investigate whether SMG-1 and p53 blunt this vicious cycle of progressive ROS production and decline in mitochondrial respiration seen during hyperoxia. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 or colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were depleted of SMG-1, UPF-1, or p53 using RNA interference, and then exposed to room air (21% oxygen) or hyperoxia (95% oxygen). Immunoblotting was used to evaluate protein expression; a Seahorse Bioanalyzer was used to assess cellular respiration; and flow cytometry was used to evaluate fluorescence intensity of cells stained with mitochondrial or redox sensitive dyes. Hyperoxia increased mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ROS and suppressed mitochondrial respiration without changing mitochondrial mass or membrane potential. Depletion of SMG-1 or its cofactor, UPF1, significantly enhanced hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial but not cytosolic ROS abundance. They did not affect mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, or hyperoxia-induced deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Genetic depletion of p53 in A549 cells and ablation of the p53 gene in H1299 or HCT116 cells revealed that SMG-1 influences mitochondrial ROS through activation of p53. Our findings show that hyperoxia does not promote a vicious cycle of progressive mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction because SMG-1-p53 signaling attenuates production of mitochondrial ROS without preserving respiration. This suggests antioxidant therapies that blunt ROS production during hyperoxia may not suffice to restore cellular respiration.

  16. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Aromaa, Mikko; Koponen, Ismo K.; Fransman, Wouter; Jensen, Keld A.; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10 6 cm −3 . During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO 2 or Cu x O y nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10 6 to 40 × 10 6 cm −3 , and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm −3 . However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm −3 . The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10 6 , which is more than 40 × 10 3 times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly

  17. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    Koivisto, Antti J., E-mail: jok@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Aromaa, Mikko [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Fransman, Wouter [TNO (Netherlands); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mäkelä, Jyrki M. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Hämeri, Kaarle J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO{sub 2} or Cu{sub x}O{sub y} nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 40 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}, and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm{sup −3}. However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm{sup −3}. The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10{sup 6}, which is more than 40 × 10{sup 3} times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly.

  18. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    those of wild-type controls. Comparison of profiles of phospho-antibody array data indicated that the deletion of SirT1 was accompanied by constitutive activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-¿B pathway, which is key for STAT3 induction and increased cellular respiration in Sirt1-KO cells. Thus, SIRT1...... cells exhibited higher mitochondrial respiration as compared with wild-type MEFs. Two independent approaches, including ectopic expression of SIRT1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3, led to reduction in intracellular ATP levels and increased lactate production in Sirt1-KO cells that were approaching...

  19. [Features of noradrenaline stimulation of rat liver mitochondria respiration by ADP and calcium ions].

    Stefankiv, Iu S; Babskyĭ, A M; Shostakovska, Y V

    1995-01-01

    A single administration of a physiological dose of noradrenaline to animals. in contrast to adrenaline, stimulates the respiration of mitochondria not only under oxidation of FAD-dependent Krebbs cycle substrate of the succinase but also HAD-dependent substrate of alpha-ketoglutarate. In the both cases the phosphorylation rate increases, since the action of noradrenaline, separating the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, was not found. Noradrenaline increases the capacity of mitochondria to more actively absorb calcium ions under oxidation of succinate than under that of alpha-ketoglutarate.

  20. Effects of fire disturbance on soil respiration in the non-growing season in a Larix gmelinii forest in the Daxing'an Mountains, China.

    Tongxin Hu

    Full Text Available In boreal forests, fire is an important part of the ecosystem that greatly influences soil respiration, which in turn affects the carbon balance. Wildfire can have a significant effect on soil respiration and it depends on the fire severity and environmental factors (soil temperature and snow water equivalent after fire disturbance. In this study, we quantified post-fire soil respiration during the non-growing season (from November to April in a Larix gmelinii forest in Daxing'an Mountains of China. Soil respiration was measured in the snow-covered and snow-free conditions with varying degrees of natural burn severity forests. We found that soil respiration decreases as burn severity increases. The estimated annual C efflux also decreased with increased burn severity. Soil respiration during the non-growing season approximately accounted for 4%-5% of the annual C efflux in all site types. Soil temperature (at 5 cm depth was the predominant determinant of non-growing season soil respiration change in this area. Soil temperature and snow water equivalent could explain 73%-79% of the soil respiration variability in winter snow-covering period (November to March. Mean spring freeze-thaw cycle (FTC period (April soil respiration contributed 63% of the non-growing season C efflux. Our finding is key for understanding and predicting the potential change in the response of boreal forest ecosystems to fire disturbance under future climate change.

  1. Effects of fire disturbance on soil respiration in the non-growing season in a Larix gmelinii forest in the Daxing'an Mountains, China.

    Hu, Tongxin; Sun, Long; Hu, Haiqing; Guo, Futao

    2017-01-01

    In boreal forests, fire is an important part of the ecosystem that greatly influences soil respiration, which in turn affects the carbon balance. Wildfire can have a significant effect on soil respiration and it depends on the fire severity and environmental factors (soil temperature and snow water equivalent) after fire disturbance. In this study, we quantified post-fire soil respiration during the non-growing season (from November to April) in a Larix gmelinii forest in Daxing'an Mountains of China. Soil respiration was measured in the snow-covered and snow-free conditions with varying degrees of natural burn severity forests. We found that soil respiration decreases as burn severity increases. The estimated annual C efflux also decreased with increased burn severity. Soil respiration during the non-growing season approximately accounted for 4%-5% of the annual C efflux in all site types. Soil temperature (at 5 cm depth) was the predominant determinant of non-growing season soil respiration change in this area. Soil temperature and snow water equivalent could explain 73%-79% of the soil respiration variability in winter snow-covering period (November to March). Mean spring freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) period (April) soil respiration contributed 63% of the non-growing season C efflux. Our finding is key for understanding and predicting the potential change in the response of boreal forest ecosystems to fire disturbance under future climate change.

  2. Can we relate respiration rates of bark and wood with tissue nitrogen concentrations and branch-level CO2 fluxes across woody species?

    Eller, A. S.; Wright, I.; Cernusak, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 efflux rates measured on branch exterior surfaces may be driven more strongly by bark respiration than wood respiration and a better understanding of bark respiration will increase our ability to predict CO2 efflux from branches

  3. Did Respiration or Photosynthesis Come First

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    The similarity of the mechanisms in photosynthetic and in oxidative phosphorylation suggests a common origin ( convers ion hypothesis). It is proposed that an early form of electron flow with oxidative phosphorylation ("prerespiration"), to terminal electron acceptors available in a reducing biosphere, was supplemented by a photocatalyst capable of a redox reaction. In this way, cyclic photophosphorylation arose. Further stages in evolution were reverse electron flow powered by ATP, to make NADH as a reductant for CO2 , and subsequently noncyclic electron flow. These processes concomitantly provided the oxidants indispensable for full development of oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. for normal respiration: sulphate, O2 and with participation of the nitrificants, nitrite and nitrate. Thus, prerespiration preceded photosynthesis, and this preceded respiration. It is also suggested that nonredox photoprocesses of the Halobacterium type are not part of the mainstream of bioenergetic evolution. They do not lead to photoprocesses with electron flow. (author)

  4. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  5. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by the anticancer agent 2-methoxyestradiol

    Hagen, Thilo; D'Amico, Gabriela; Quintero, Marisol; Palacios-Callender, Miriam; Hollis, Veronica; Lam, Francis; Moncada, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a naturally occurring metabolite of estradiol, is known to have antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic activity. Mechanistically, 2ME2 has been shown to downregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and to induce apoptosis in tumour cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study we report that 2ME2 inhibits mitochondrial respiration in both intact cells and submitochondrial particles, and that this effect is due to inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The prevention by 2ME2 of hypoxia-induced stabilisation of HIF1α in HEK293 cells was found not to be due to an effect on HIF1α synthesis but rather to an effect on protein degradation. This is in agreement with our recent observation using other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration which bring about rapid degradation of HIF1α in hypoxia due to increased availability of oxygen and reactivation of prolyl hydroxylases. The concentrations of 2ME2 that inhibited complex I also induced the generation of ROS. 2ME2 did not, however, cause generation of ROS in 143B rho - cells, which lack a functional mitochondrial ETC. We conclude that inhibition of mitochondrial respiration explains, at least in part, the effect of 2ME2 on hypoxia-dependent HIF1α stabilisation and cellular ROS production. Since these actions of 2ME2 occur at higher concentrations than those known to inhibit cell proliferation, it remains to be established whether they contribute to its therapeutic effect

  6. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  7. Estimation of fractional contribution of root respiration to a forest-floor CO2 flux using carbon isotopes

    Hachiya, Masashi; Moriizumi, Jun; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    Efflux of soil respired carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) is very important component for the global carbon cycle and dynamics of 14 C in environment, and to predict the global climate changes caused by increasing CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere. There are two components that generate CO 2 in soil, soil organic matter decomposition and root respiration. Although the former is relatively well understood, the root-derived CO 2 efflux has not been evaluated sufficiently. The objective of our research is to estimate depth profile of the root respiration rate. Thus we developed a box model which calculates the depth profile. In this paper, we discussed about (1) the adequacy of calculated result by comparing it to the to observed soil respired CO 2 flux with trenching method and (2) sensitivity of the box model to uncertainty in the input data. The result showed that the depth profile of root respiration rate decreased with soil depth. This is attributed to the distribution of fine roots which dominate root respiration. The model results reasonable agreed with the measurement results and characteristics of root respiration. The output of the model was robust to the variation of the input data. (author)

  8. Heterotrophic soil respiration in forestry-drained peatlands

    Minkkinen, K.; Shurpali, N. J.; Alm, J.; Penttilae, T.

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrophic soil respiration (CO 2 efflux from the decomposition of peat and root litter) in three forestry-drained peatlands with different site types and with a large climatic gradient from the hemi-boreal (central Estonia) to south (southern Finland) and north boreal (northern Finland) conditions was studied. Instantaneous fluxes varied between 0 and 1.3 g CO 2 -C m -2 h -1 , and annual fluxes between 248 and 515 g CO 2 -C m -2 a -1 . Variation in the annual fluxes among site types was studied only in the south-boreal site where we found a clear increase from nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich site types. More than half of the within-site variation was temporal and explained by soil surface (-5 cm) temperature (T5). The response of soil respiration to T5 varied between the sites; the most northerly site had the highest response to T5 and the most southerly the lowest. This trend further resulted in increased annual fluxes towards north. This unexpected result is hypothesised to be related to differences in site factors like substrate quality, nutrient status and hydrology but also to temperature acclimation, i.e., adaptation of decomposer populations to different climates. (orig.)

  9. Microchambers with Solid-State Phosphorescent Sensor for Measuring Single Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Pham, Ted D; Wallace, Douglas C; Burke, Peter J

    2016-07-09

    It is now well established that, even within a single cell, multiple copies of the mitochondrial genome may be present (genetic heteroplasmy). It would be interesting to develop techniques to determine if and to what extent this genetic variation results in functional variation from one mitochondrion to the next (functional heteroplasmy). Measuring mitochondrial respiration can reveal the organelles' functional capacity for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and determine mitochondrial damage that may arise from genetic or age related defects. However, available technologies require significant quantities of mitochondria. Here, we develop a technology to assay the respiration of a single mitochondrion. Our "micro-respirometer" consists of micron sized chambers etched out of borofloat glass substrates and coated with an oxygen sensitive phosphorescent dye Pt(II) meso-tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) mixed with polystyrene. The chambers are sealed with a polydimethylsiloxane layer coated with oxygen impermeable Viton rubber to prevent diffusion of oxygen from the environment. As the mitochondria consume oxygen in the chamber, the phosphorescence signal increases, allowing direct determination of the respiration rate. Experiments with coupled vs. uncoupled mitochondria showed a substantial difference in respiration, confirming the validity of the microchambers as single mitochondrial respirometers. This demonstration could enable future high-throughput assays of mitochondrial respiration and benefit the study of mitochondrial functional heterogeneity, and its role in health and disease.

  10. Effects of Spartina alterniflora Invasion on Soil Respiration in the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Bu, Naishun; Qu, Junfeng; Li, Zhaolei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Zhao, Bin; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Fang, Changming

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP) and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m−2 h−1 in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m−2 h−1 in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP), SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change. PMID:25799512

  11. Secondary mineral formation associated with respiration of nontronite, NAu-1 by iron reducing bacteria

    Furukawa Yoko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental batch and miscible-flow cultures were studied in order to determine the mechanistic pathways of microbial Fe(III respiration in ferruginous smectite clay, NAu-1. The primary purpose was to resolve if alteration of smectite and release of Fe precedes microbial respiration. Alteration of NAu-1, represented by the morphological and mineralogical changes, occurred regardless of the extent of microbial Fe(III reduction in all of our experimental systems, including those that contained heat-killed bacteria and those in which O2, rather than Fe(III, was the primary terminal electron acceptor. The solid alteration products observed under transmission electron microscopy included poorly crystalline smectite with diffuse electron diffraction signals, discrete grains of Fe-free amorphous aluminosilicate with increased Al/Si ratio, Fe-rich grains, and amorphous Si globules in the immediate vicinity of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances. In reducing systems, Fe was also found as siderite. The small amount of Fe partitioned to the aqueous phase was primarily in the form of dissolved Fe(III species even in the systems in which Fe(III was the primary terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. From these observations, we conclude that microbial respiration of Fe(III in our laboratory systems proceeded through the following: (1 alteration of NAu-1 and concurrent release of Fe(III from the octahedral sheets of NAu-1; and (2 subsequent microbial respiration of Fe(III.

  12. Sustained stimulation of soil respiration after 10 years of experimental warming

    Reth, S; Graf, W; Reichstein, M; Munch, J C

    2009-01-01

    A number of forest and grassland studies indicated that stimulation of the soil respiration by soil warming ceases after a couple of years (Luo et al 2001 Nature 413 622-5). Here we present results from a long-term soil warming lysimeter experiment in southern Germany showing sustained stimulation of soil respiration after 10 years. Moreover, both warmed and control treatments exhibited a similar temperature response of soil respiration, indicating that adaptation in terms of temperature sensitivity was absent. Carbon dioxide concentration measurements within the profiles are supporting these findings. The increased soil respiration occurred although vegetation productivity in the warmed treatment was not higher than in the control plots. These findings strongly contrast with current soil carbon modeling concepts, where carbon pools decay according to first-order kinetics, and thus a depletion of labile soil carbon pools leads to an apparent down-regulation of microbial respiration (Knorr et al 2005 Nature 433 298-301). Consequently, the potential for positive climate carbon cycle feedback may be larger than represented in current models of soil carbon turnover.

  13. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration in the Yangtze River estuary, China.

    Bu, Naishun; Qu, Junfeng; Li, Zhaolei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Zhao, Bin; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Fang, Changming

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP) and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP), SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change.

  14. Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

    Stefani, Angelo; Felício, Joanna D'Arc; de Andréa, Mara M

    2012-01-01

    As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

  15. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures

    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.

  16. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration in the Yangtze River estuary, China.

    Naishun Bu

    Full Text Available Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP, SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change.

  17. Weight Management

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  18. Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB......-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi...

  19. Response of Respiration of Soybean Leaves Grown at Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Day-to-day Variation in Light and Temperature under Field Conditions

    BUNCE, JAMES A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Respiration is an important component of plant carbon balance, but it remains uncertain how respiration will respond to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and there are few measurements of respiration for crop plants grown at elevated [CO2] under field conditions. The hypothesis that respiration of leaves of soybeans grown at elevated [CO2] is increased is tested; and the effects of photosynthesis and acclimation to temperature examined. • Methods Net rates of carbon dioxide exchange were recorded every 10 min, 24 h per day for mature upper canopy leaves of soybeans grown in field plots at the current ambient [CO2] and at ambient plus 350 µmol mol−1 [CO2] in open top chambers. Measurements were made on pairs of leaves from both [CO2] treatments on a total of 16 d during the middle of the growing seasons of two years. • Key Results Elevated [CO2] increased daytime net carbon dioxide fixation rates per unit of leaf area by an average of 48 %, but had no effect on night-time respiration expressed per unit of area, which averaged 53 mmol m−2 d−1 (1·4 µmol m−2 s−1) for both the ambient and elevated [CO2] treatments. Leaf dry mass per unit of area was increased on average by 23 % by elevated [CO2], and respiration per unit of mass was significantly lower at elevated [CO2]. Respiration increased by a factor of 2·5 between 18 and 26 °C average night temperature, for both [CO2] treatments. • Conclusions These results do not support predictions that elevated [CO2] would increase respiration per unit of area by increasing photosynthesis or by increasing leaf mass per unit of area, nor the idea that acclimation of respiration to temperature would be rapid enough to make dark respiration insensitive to variation in temperature between nights. PMID:15781437

  20. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  1. Test-positive rate at CT colonography is increased by rectal bleeding and/or unexplained weight loss, unlike other common gastrointestinal symptoms

    Hock, D.; Materne, R.; Ouhadi, R.; Mancini, I.; Aouachria, S.A.; Nchimi, A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), according to symptoms and age. We retrospectively evaluated 7361 consecutive average-risk subjects (3073 males, average age: 60.3 ± 13.9; range 18–96 years) for colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent CTC. They were divided into three groups according to clinical symptoms: 1343 asymptomatic individuals (group A), 899 patients with at least one “alarm” symptom for CRC, including rectal bleeding and unexplained weight loss (group C), and 5119 subjects with other gastrointestinal symptoms (group B). Diagnostic and test-positive rates of CTC were established using optical colonoscopy (OC) and/or surgery as reference standard. In addition, clinically significant extra-colonic findings were noted. 903 out of 7361 (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.13) subjects had at least one clinically significant colonic finding at CTC. CTC true positive fraction and false positive fraction were respectively 637/642 (99.2%, 95%CI 0.98–0.99) and 55/692 (7.95%, 95%CI 0.05–0.09). The pooled test-positive rate in group C (138/689, 20.0%, 95%CI 0.17–0.23) was significantly higher than in both groups A (79/1343, 5.9%, 95%CI 0.04–0.07) and B (420/5329, 7.5%, 95%CI 0.07–0.08) (p < 0.001). Aging and male gender were associated to a higher test positive rate. The rate of clinically significant extra-colonic findings was significantly higher in group C (44/689, 6.4%, 95%CI 0.04–0.08) versus groups A (26/1343, 1.9%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) and B (64/5329, 1.2%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) (p < 0.001). Both test-positive and significant extra-colonic finding rates at CTC are significantly increased in the presence of “alarm” gastrointestinal symptoms especially in older patients

  2. Accelerating Net Terrestrial Carbon Uptake During the Warming Hiatus Due to Reduced Respiration

    Ballantyne, Ashley; Smith, William; Anderegg, William; Kauppi, Pekka; Sarmiento, Jorge; Tans, Pieter; Shevliakova, Elena; Pan, Yude; Poulter, Benjamin; Anav, Alessandro; hide

    2017-01-01

    The recent warming hiatus presents an excellent opportunity to investigate climate sensitivity of carbon cycle processes. Here we combine satellite and atmospheric observations to show that the rate of net biome productivity (NBP) has significantly accelerated from - 0.007 +/- 0.065 PgC yr(exp -2) over the warming period (1982 to 1998) to 0.119 +/- 0.071 PgC yr(exp -2) over the warming hiatus (19982012). This acceleration in NBP is not due to increased primary productivity, but rather reduced respiration that is correlated (r = 0.58; P = 0.0007) and sensitive ( y = 4.05 to 9.40 PgC yr(exp -1) per C) to land temperatures. Global land models do not fully capture this apparent reduced respiration over the warming hiatus; however, an empirical model including soil temperature and moisture observations better captures the reduced respiration.

  3. Unraveling net carbon exchange into its component processes of photosynthesis and respiration

    Ballantyne, A.

    2017-12-01

    The recent `warming hiatus' presents an excellent opportunity to investigate climate sensitivity of carbon cycle processes. Herewe combine satellite and atmospheric observations to show that the rate of net biome productivity (NBP) has significantlyaccelerated from 0.007+/-0.065 PgC yr-2 over the warming period (1982 to 1998) to 0.119+/-0.071 PgC yr-2 over thewarminghiatus (1998-2012). This acceleration in NBP is not due to increased primary productivity, but rather reduced respiration thatis correlated (r2 0.58; P = 0.0007) and sensitive ( gamma= 4.05 to 9.40 PgC yr-1 per deg C) to land temperatures. Global landmodels do not fully capture this apparent reduced respiration over the warming hiatus; however, an empirical model includingsoil temperature and moisture observations seems to better captures the reduced respiration.

  4. Soil fauna communities and microbial respiration in high Arctic tundra soils at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    Sørensen, Louise I.; Holmstrup, Martin; Maraldo, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    The soil fauna communities were described for three dominant vegetation types in a high arctic site at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. Soil samples were extracted to quantify the densities of mites, collembolans, enchytraeids, diptera larvae, nematodes and protozoa. Rates of microbial respiration...... densities (naked amoeba and heterotrophic flagellates) were equal. Respiration rate of unamended soil was similar in soil from the three plots. However, a higher respiration rate increase in carbon + nutrient amended soil and the higher densities of soil fauna (with the exception of mites and protozoa...... were also assessed. Collembolans were found in highest densities in dry heath soil, about 130,000 individuals m-2, more than twice as high as in mesic heath soils. Enchytraeids, diptera larvae and nematodes were also more abundant in the dry heath soil than in mesic heath soils, whereas protozoan...

  5. Effects of moisture content on coarse woody debris respiration in a tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam

    Roh, Y.; Li, G.; Han, S. H.; Abu Salim, K.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since coarse woody debris (CWD) respiration (Rcwd) has an important role in carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems, it is a significant parameter in an investigation of CWD decomposition rate. Rcwd is known as to be influenced not only by environmental factors but also by CWD properties (e.g., moisture content). This study investigated the effects of CWD moisture content on Rcwd in a lowland mixed Dipterocarp tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam. CWDs in the forest were selected and categorized into two decay classes (sound and partially decomposed), and three diameter classes (10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, more than 30 cm). Samplings of CWDs were conducted in February and October, 2016. The fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were measured within 24 h of sampling. Rcwd measurements were conducted using a closed chamber system with a diffusion-type, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor. In February, the fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were remeasured, after submerging them in the fresh water for 24, 48, and 72 h. The Rcwd increased significantly with moisture content in February (r2=0.25, p0.05). Rcwd was lowest in the largest diameter class (p0.05). On the basis of these results, the Rcwd in this site was in the range of Rcwd in previous studies conducted in other tropical rainforests. Rcwd increased with moisture content, however, the contribution of moisture content to changes in Rcwd might not be influential during the eight months study period.*Supported by research grants from the Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01).

  6. In situ respiration testing: A field treatability test for bioventing

    Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.; Vogel, C.; Hoeppel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of aerating subsurface soils to stimulate in situ biological activity and promote bioremediation. Bioventing differs from soil venting in remedial approach. Soil venting is designed and operated to maximize the volatilization of low-molecular-weight compounds, with some biodegradation occurring. In contrast, bioventing is designed to maximize biodegradation of aerobically biodegradable compounds, regardless of their molecular weight, with some volatilization occurring. Bioventing is gaining wide acceptance as a remediation alternative at petroleum-contaminated sites. However, site variability usually requires that a short term treatability test be conducted in situ at potential sites to determine the applicability of bioventing. Battelle has worked with the US Air Force and the US Navy to develop a simple and inexpensive field test to evaluate bioventing potential-contaminated sites. This test has been used to evaluate the applicability of bioventing at over 50 sites. The in situ respiration test consists of injecting air and an inert tracer gas (helium) over a 24-hour period to aerate soils at an oxygen-deficient, petroleum-contaminated site. Soil vapor samples are collected to determine oxygen utilization rates and carbon dioxide production rates. The stoichiometric relationship for the oxidation of hexane is used to calculate the biodegradation rate. The tracer gas is monitored to estimate the effect of diffusion on changes in soil-gas concentrations

  7. Cheyne-stokes respiration in patients with heart failure.

    AlDabal, Laila; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2010-01-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is a form of central sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in which there are cyclical fluctuations in breathing that lead to periods of central apneas/hypopnea, which alternate with periods of hyperpnea. The crescendo-decrescendo pattern of respiration in CSR is a compensation for the changing levels of blood oxygen and carbon dioxide. Severe congestive heart failure seems to be the most important risk factor for the development of CSR. A number of pathophysiologic changes, such as sleep disruption, arousals, hypoxemia-reoxygenation, hypercapnia/hypocapnia, and changes in intrathoracic pressure have harmful effects on the cardiovascular system, and the presence of CSR is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in subjects with variable degrees of heart failure. The management of CSR involves optimal control of underlying heart failure, oxygen therapy, and positive airway pressure support. In this review, we initially define and describe the epidemiology of central sleep apnea (CSA) and CSR, its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, and then discuss the recent developments in the management in patients with heart failure.

  8. Respirable quartz hazard associated with coal mine roof bolter dust

    Joy, G.J.; Beck, T.W.; Listak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis has been reported to be increasing among underground coal miners in the Southern Appalachian Region. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study to examine the particle size distribution and quartz content of dust generated by the installation of roof bolts in mines. Forty-six bulk samples of roof bolting machine pre-cleaner cyclone dump dust and collector box dust were collected from 26 underground coal mines. Real-time and integrated airborne respirable dust concentrations were measured on 3 mining sections in 2 mines. The real-time airborne dust concentrations profiles were examined to identify any concentration changes that might be associated with pre-cleaner cyclone dust discharge events. The study showed that bolter dust is a potential inhalation hazard due to the fraction of dust less than 10 μm in size, and the quartz content of the dust. The pre-cleaner cyclone dust was significantly larger than the collector box dust, indicating that the pre-cleaner functioned properly in removing the larger dust size fraction from the airstream. However, the pre-cleaner dust still contained a substantial amount of respirable dust. It was concluded that in order to maintain the effectiveness of a roof bolter dust collector, periodic removal of dust is required. Appropriate work procedures and equipment are necessary to minimize exposure during this cleaning task. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Characterization of small-to-medium head-and-face dimensions for developing respirator fit test panels and evaluating fit of filtering facepiece respirators with different faceseal design

    Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A respirator fit test panel (RFTP) with facial size distribution representative of intended users is essential to the evaluation of respirator fit for new models of respirators. In this study an anthropometric survey was conducted among youths representing respirator users in mid-Taiwan to characterize head-and-face dimensions key to RFTPs for application to small-to-medium facial features. The participants were fit-tested for three N95 masks of different facepiece design and the results compared to facial size distribution specified in the RFTPs of bivariate and principal component analysis design developed in this study to realize the influence of facial characteristics to respirator fit in relation to facepiece design. Nineteen dimensions were measured for 206 participants. In fit testing the qualitative fit test (QLFT) procedures prescribed by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration were adopted. As the results show, the bizygomatic breadth of the male and female participants were 90.1 and 90.8% of their counterparts reported for the U.S. youths (P < 0.001), respectively. Compared to the bivariate distribution, the PCA design better accommodated variation in facial contours among different respirator user groups or populations, with the RFTPs reported in this study and from literature consistently covering over 92% of the participants. Overall, the facial fit of filtering facepieces increased with increasing facial dimensions. The total percentages of the tests wherein the final maneuver being completed was “Moving head up-and-down”, “Talking” or “Bending over” in bivariate and PCA RFTPs were 13.3–61.9% and 22.9–52.8%, respectively. The respirators with a three-panel flat fold structured in the facepiece provided greater fit, particularly when the users moved heads. When the facial size distribution in a bivariate RFTP did not sufficiently represent petite facial size, the fit testing was inclined to overestimate the general fit

  10. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  11. A novel fission-independent role of dynamin-related protein 1 in cardiac mitochondrial respiration.

    Zhang, Huiliang; Wang, Pei; Bisetto, Sara; Yoon, Yisang; Chen, Quan; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Wang, Wang

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria in adult cardiomyocytes exhibit static morphology and infrequent dynamic changes, despite the high abundance of fission and fusion regulatory proteins in the heart. Previous reports have indicated that fusion proteins may bear functions beyond morphology regulation. Here, we investigated the role of fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), on mitochondrial respiration regu