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Sample records for respiration abnormal muscle

  1. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), prespiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration...... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  3. Oxygen dependence of respiration in rat spinotrapezius muscle in situ

    Golub, Aleksander S.; Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen dependence of respiration in striated muscle in situ was studied by measuring the rate of decrease of interstitial Po2 [oxygen disappearance curve (ODC)] following rapid arrest of blood flow by pneumatic tissue compression, which ejected red blood cells from the muscle vessels and made the ODC independent from oxygen bound to hemoglobin. After the contribution of photo-consumption of oxygen by the method was evaluated and accounted for, the corrected ODCs were converted into the Po...

  4. Oxygen dependence of respiration in rat spinotrapezius muscle in situ

    Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen dependence of respiration in striated muscle in situ was studied by measuring the rate of decrease of interstitial Po2 [oxygen disappearance curve (ODC)] following rapid arrest of blood flow by pneumatic tissue compression, which ejected red blood cells from the muscle vessels and made the ODC independent from oxygen bound to hemoglobin. After the contribution of photo-consumption of oxygen by the method was evaluated and accounted for, the corrected ODCs were converted into the Po2 dependence of oxygen consumption, V̇o2, proportional to the rate of Po2 decrease. Fitting equations obtained from a model of heterogeneous intracellular Po2 were applied to recover the parameters describing respiration in muscle fibers, with a predicted sigmoidal shape for the dependence of V̇o2 on Po2. This curve consists of two regions connected by the point for critical Po2 of the cell (i.e., Po2 at the sarcolemma when the center of the cell becomes anoxic). The critical Po2 was below the Po2 for half-maximal respiratory rate (P50) for the cells. In six muscles at rest, the rate of oxygen consumption was 139 ± 6 nl O2/cm3·s and mitochondrial P50 was k = 10.5 ± 0.8 mmHg. The range of Po2 values inside the muscle fibers was found to be 4–5 mmHg at the critical Po2. The oxygen dependence of respiration can be studied in thin muscles under different experimental conditions. In resting muscle, the critical Po2 was substantially lower than the interstitial Po2 of 53 ± 2 mmHg, a finding that indicates that V̇o2 under this circumstance is independent of oxygen supply and is discordant with the conventional hypothesis of metabolic regulation of the oxygen supply to tissue. PMID:22523254

  5. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Trinity, Joel D; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-08-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production.

  6. Opposite effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Rabøl, R; Boushel, R; Almdal, T

    2010-01-01

    mitochondrial respiration per milligram muscle was measured in saponin-treated skinned muscle fibres using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: Mitochondrial respiration per milligram muscle was lower in T2DM compared to controls at baseline and decreased during ROSI treatment but increased during PIO...... of ROSI and PIO on mitochondrial respiration, and also show that insulin sensitivity can be improved independently of changes in mitochondrial respiration. We confirm that mitochondrial respiration is reduced in T2DM compared to age- and BMI-matched control subjects....

  7. Plasma Amino Acids Stimulate Uncoupled Respiration of Muscle Subsarcolemmal Mitochondria in Lean but Not Obese Humans.

    Kras, Katon A; Hoffman, Nyssa; Roust, Lori R; Patel, Shivam H; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in lean individuals. To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondrial function during saline (i.e., control) and AA infusions. Eligible participants were healthy lean (body mass index, mass index >30 kg/m2; age 35 ± 3 years; n = 11) subjects. Single trial of saline infusion followed by AA infusion. SS and IMF mitochondria were isolated from muscle biopsies collected at the end of the saline and AA infusions. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. AA infusion increased adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration and ATP production rates of SS mitochondria in the lean (P lean subjects only (P lean or obese subjects (P > 0.05). Increasing the plasma AA concentrations enhances the capacity for respiration and ATP production of muscle SS, but not IMF, mitochondria in lean individuals, in parallel with increases in uncoupled respiration. However, neither of these parameters increases in muscle SS or IMF mitochondria in obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. Mitochondrial respiration is decreased in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Sahlin, Kent; Fernström, Maria

    2007-01-01

    , and the proportion of type 2X fibers correlated with markers of insulin resistance (P type 2X fibers in muscle of type 2 diabetic patients. These alterations may contribute to the development......We tested the hypothesis of a lower respiratory capacity per mitochondrion in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients compared with obese subjects. Muscle biopsies obtained from 10 obese type 2 diabetic and 8 obese nondiabetic male subjects were used for assessment of 3-hydroxy....... Maximal ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3) with pyruvate plus malate and respiration through the electron transport chain (ETC) were reduced in type 2 diabetic patients, and the proportion of type 2X fibers were higher in type 2 diabetic patients compared with obese subjects (all P

  9. Microbiopsies versus Bergström needle for skeletal muscle sampling: impact on maximal mitochondrial respiration rate.

    Isner-Horobeti, M E; Charton, A; Daussin, F; Geny, B; Dufour, S P; Richard, R

    2014-05-01

    Microbiopsies are increasingly used as an alternative to the standard Bergström technique for skeletal muscle sampling. The potential impact of these two different procedures on mitochondrial respiration rate is unknown. The objective of this work was to compare microbiopsies versus Bergström procedure on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. 52 vastus lateralis muscle samples were obtained from 13 anesthetized pigs, either with a Bergström [6 gauges (G)] needle or with microbiopsy needles (12, 14, 18G). Maximal mitochondrial respiration (V GM-ADP) was assessed using an oxygraphic method on permeabilized fibers. The weight of the muscle samples and V GM-ADP decreased with the increasing gauge of the needles. A positive nonlinear relationship was observed between the weight of the muscle sample and the level of maximal mitochondrial respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration compared to the standard Bergström needle.Therefore, the higher the gauge (i.e. the smaller the size) of the microbiopsy needle, the lower is the maximal rate of respiration. Microbiopsies of skeletal muscle underestimate the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate, and this finding needs to be highlighted for adequate interpretation and comparison with literature data.

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...

  11. Dose Response of Endotoxin on Hepatocyte and Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Vitro

    Brandt, Sebastian; Porta, Francesca; Jakob, Stephan M.; Takala, Jukka; Djafarzadeh, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Results on mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis are controversial. We aimed to assess effects of LPS at wide dose and time ranges on hepatocytes and isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria. Methods. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were exposed to placebo or LPS (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) for 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours and primary human hepatocytes to 1 μg/mL LPS or placebo (4, 8, and 16 hours). Mitochondria from porcine skeletal muscle samples were exposed to increasing doses of LPS (0.1–100 μg/mg) for 2 and 4 hours. Respiration rates of intact and permeabilized cells and isolated mitochondria were measured by high-resolution respirometry. Results. In HepG2 cells, LPS reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP content but did not modify basal respiration. Stimulated complex II respiration was reduced time-dependently using 1 μg/mL LPS. In primary human hepatocytes, stimulated mitochondrial complex II respiration was reduced time-dependently using 1 μg/mL LPS. In isolated porcine skeletal muscle mitochondria, stimulated respiration decreased at high doses (50 and 100 μg/mL LPS). Conclusion. LPS reduced cellular ATP content of HepG2 cells, most likely as a result of the induced decrease in membrane potential. LPS decreased cellular and isolated mitochondrial respiration in a time-dependent, dose-dependent and complex-dependent manner. PMID:25649304

  12. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2012-01-01

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl 2 supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl 2 supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl 2 supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl 2 for 15 days along with training. ► CoCl 2 supplementation

  13. Regional anatomic differences in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    Rabøl, R; Larsen, S; Højberg, P M V

    2010-01-01

    respiration and markers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle of arm and leg in patients with T2DM and obese control subjects. Patients: Ten patients with T2DM (age, 52.3 +/- 2.7 yr; body mass index, 30.1 +/- 1.2 kg/m(2)) (mean +/- se) were studied after a 2-wk washout period of oral antihyperglycemic...... agents. Ten control subjects (age, 54.3 +/- 2.8 yr; body mass index, 30.4 +/- 1.2 kg/m(2)) with normal fasting and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test blood glucose levels were also included. Main Outcome Measure: We measured mitochondrial respiration in saponin-treated skinned muscle fibers from biopsies...

  14. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead a(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism...... and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued...... the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems...

  15. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    Saxena, Saurabh [Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054 (India); Shukla, Dhananjay [Department of Biotechnology, Gitam University, Gandhi Nagar, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-530 045 Andhra Pradesh (India); Bansal, Anju, E-mail: anjubansaldipas@gmail.com [Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054 (India)

    2012-11-01

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl{sub 2} for 15 days along with training. ► Co

  16. Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Are Localized in Striated Muscle Mitochondria and Regulate Mitochondrial Respiration

    Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs where it regulates cellular functions and metabolism. In the brain, CB1 is mainly localized on presynaptic axon terminals but is also found on mitochondria (mtCB1, where it regulates cellular respiration and energy production. Likewise, CB1 is localized on muscle mitochondria, but very little is known about it. The aim of this study was to further investigate in detail the distribution and functional role of mtCB1 in three different striated muscles. Immunoelectron microscopy for CB1 was used in skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis and myocardium from wild-type and CB1-KO mice. Functional assessments were performed in mitochondria purified from the heart of the mice and the mitochondrial oxygen consumption upon application of different acute delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol (Δ9-THC concentrations (100 nM or 200 nM was monitored. About 26% of the mitochondrial profiles in gastrocnemius, 22% in the rectus abdominis and 17% in the myocardium expressed CB1. Furthermore, the proportion of mtCB1 versus total CB1 immunoparticles was about 60% in the gastrocnemius, 55% in the rectus abdominis and 78% in the myocardium. Importantly, the CB1 immunolabeling pattern disappeared in muscles of CB1-KO mice. Functionally, acute 100 nM or 200 nM THC treatment specifically decreased mitochondria coupled respiration between 12% and 15% in wild-type isolated mitochondria of myocardial muscles but no significant difference was noticed between THC treated and vehicle in mitochondria isolated from CB1-KO heart. Furthermore, gene expression of key enzymes involved in pyruvate synthesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated in the striated muscle of CB1-WT and CB1-KO. CB1-KO showed an increase in the gene expression of Eno3, Pkm2, and Pdha1, suggesting an increased production of pyruvate. In contrast, no significant

  17. Reincarnation in cultured muscle of mitochondrial abnormalities. Two patients with epilepsy and lactic acidosis.

    Askanas, V; Engel, W K; Britton, D E; Adornato, B T; Eiben, R M

    1978-12-01

    Two unrelated 9-year-old boys failed to thrive from ages 5 and 4 years, and had focal cerebral seizures followed by transcent hemipareses. Histochemistry of their muscle biopsies showed "ragged-red" fibers, which ultrastructurally contained clusters of mitochondria having loss of crisp delineation of crista membranes and contained amorphous inclusion material and parallel-packed cristae and sometimes paracrystalline inclusions. In the patients' cultured muscles, similar mitochondrial abnormalities were present. 2,4-Dinitrophenol, introduced to the medium of cultures of normal human muscle, produced mitochondrial abnormalities similar to those of the patients', and the medium of the patients' muscle cultures worsened the mitochondrial abnormalities. This study, in demonstrating a mitochondrial defect reproducible in the cultured muscle fibers and, therefore, intrinsic to the ragged-red muscle fibers themselves, raises the possibility of a collateral mitochondrial defect in CNS cells as part of a multicellular mitochondriopathy.

  18. [Parameters of fibers cell respiration and desmin content in rat soleus muscle at early stages of gravitational unloading].

    Mirzoev, T M; Biriukov, N S; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M; Shenkman, B S; Ogneva, I V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the parameters of fibers cell respiration and desmin content in Wistar rat soleus muscle after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of gravitational unloading. Gravitational unloading was simulated by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The parameters of cell respiration were determined using the polarography, and desmin content was assessed by means of Western blotting. The results showed that the intensity of cell respiration is reduced after three days of gravitational unloading, reaches a minimum level after seven days and slightly increases by the fourteenth day of hindlimb unloading, as well as the content of desmin, which, however, to the fourteenth day returns to the control level. Taking into account that mitochondrial function depends on the state of cytoskeleton the data allow us to assume that early reduction of the intensity of cell respiration under unloading could be caused by degradation of the protein desmin that determines intracellular localization of mitochondria.

  19. Muscle-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography are common in symptomatic hip dysplasia

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Bolvig, Lars; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hip dysplasia is characterized by reduced acetabular coverage of the femoral head leading to an increased mechanical load on the hip joint and the acting hip muscles. Potentially, the muscles and tendons functioning close to the hip joint may present with overuse......-related ultrasonography findings. The primary aim was to report the prevalence of muscle-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in 100 patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to investigate correlations between muscle-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography......-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in the hip and groin region are common in patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia, and the ultrasonography findings of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius/minimus tendons are weakly to moderately correlated to pain related to muscles and tendons in these structures. Both...

  20. Absent abdominal muscles, nephro-urologic abnormalities, and ...

    Absent abdominal muscles, cryptorchidism, and hydroureteronephrosis are known to occur in the prune belly syndrome (PBS). We present a male with absent abdominal muscles, severe neurologic damage, with global developmental delay, hydroureteronephrosis, and cryptorchidism. The patient also had arthrogryposis ...

  1. Abnormal muscle MRI in a patient with systemic juvenile arthritis

    Miller, M.L.; Levinson, L.; Pachman, L.M.; Poznanski, A.

    1995-01-01

    Although myositis has been described in children with systemic-onset juvenile arthritis (JA), its documentation by MRI has not been reported. We describe a 13-year-old boy with systemic-onset JA, severe myalgia, and elevated muscle enzymes, but normal muscle strength, who had an MRI consistent with myositis. Magnetic resonance imaging can identify the specific location of myositis, allowing more precise definition of a potential complication of systemic JA. (orig.)

  2. Abnormal muscle MRI in a patient with systemic juvenile arthritis

    Miller, M.L. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Levinson, L. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Pachman, L.M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Poznanski, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Although myositis has been described in children with systemic-onset juvenile arthritis (JA), its documentation by MRI has not been reported. We describe a 13-year-old boy with systemic-onset JA, severe myalgia, and elevated muscle enzymes, but normal muscle strength, who had an MRI consistent with myositis. Magnetic resonance imaging can identify the specific location of myositis, allowing more precise definition of a potential complication of systemic JA. (orig.)

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning with elevated muscle enzymes and abnormal spinal MRI.

    Wasay, Mohammad; Sarangzai, Amanullah; Siddiqi, Ather; Nizami, Qamaruddin

    2008-03-01

    We report three cases of ciguatera fish poisoning. One patient died secondary to respiratory failure. Two patients showed elevated muscle enzymes and one patients had an abnormal cervical spinal MRI. MRI findings have not been previously described. MRI findings explain the mechanism of the L'hermitte phenomenon (a common complaint) among these patients. Respiratory failure is rare in ciguatera fish poisoning. Our findings suggest this could be related to respiratory muscles involvement.

  4. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and exercise capacity in adults with a Fontan circulation.

    Cordina, Rachael; O'Meagher, Shamus; Gould, Haslinda; Rae, Caroline; Kemp, Graham; Pasco, Julie A; Celermajer, David S; Singh, Nalin

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral muscle pump is key in promoting cardiac filling during exercise, especially in subjects who lack a subpulmonary ventricle (the Fontan circulation). A muscle-wasting syndrome exists in acquired heart failure but has not been assessed in Fontan subjects. We sought to investigate whether adults with the Fontan circulation exhibit reduced skeletal muscle mass and/or metabolic abnormalities. Sixteen New York Heart Association Class I/II Fontan adults (30±2 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lean mass quantification with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); eight had calf muscle (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy as did eight healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. DXA results were compared with Australian reference data. Single tertiary referral centre. Peak VO2 was 1.9±0.1 L/min (66±3% of predicted values). Skeletal muscle mass assessed by relative appendicular lean mass index was significantly reduced compared with age-matched and sex-matched reference values (Z-score -1.46±0.22, pskeletal muscle mass correlated with poorer VO2 max (r=0.67, p=0.004). Overall, skeletal muscle mass T-score (derived from comparison with young normal reference mean) was -1.47±0.21; 4/16 Fontan subjects had sarcopenic range muscle wasting (T-score Muscle aerobic capacity, measured by the rate constant (k) of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis, was significantly impaired in Fontan adults versus controls (1.48±0.13 vs 2.40±0.33 min(-1), p=0.02). Fontan adults have reduced skeletal muscle mass and intrinsic muscle metabolic abnormalities.

  5. [Changes in cell respiration of postural muscle fibers under long-term gravitational unloading after dietary succinate supplementation].

    Ogneva, I V; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of cell respiration of the rat m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius c.m. and tibialis anterior fibers during 35-day gravitational unloading, with the addition of succinate in the diet at a dosage rate of 50 mg per 1 kg animal weight has been investigated. The gravitational unloading was modeled by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The intensity of cell respiration was estimated by polarography. It was shown that the rate of oxygen consumption by soleus and gastrocnemius fibers on endogenous and exogenous substrates and with the addition of ADP decreases after the discharge. This may be associated with the transition to the glycolytic energy path due to a decrease in the EMG-activity. At the same time, the respiration rate after the addition of exogenous substrates in soleus fibers did not increase, indicating a disturbance in the function of the NCCR-section of the respiratory chain and more pronounced changes in the structure of muscle fibers. In tibialis anterior fibers, no changes in oxygen consumption velocity were observed. The introduction of succinate to the diet of rats makes it possible to prevent the negative effects of hypokinesia, although it reduces the basal level of intensity of cell respiration.

  6. Petri net-based prediction of therapeutic targets that recover abnormally phosphorylated proteins in muscle atrophy.

    Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon

    2018-03-05

    Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value net. We generated a list of the potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers abnormally phosphorylated proteins in an atrophic state. They were evaluated by various approaches, such as Western blotting, GO terms, literature, known muscle atrophy-related genes and shortest path analysis. We expect the new proposed strategy to provide an understanding of phosphorylation status in muscle atrophy and to provide assistance towards

  7. Abnormal splicing switch of DMD's penultimate exon compromises muscle fibre maintenance in myotonic dystrophy.

    Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis

    2015-05-28

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1.

  8. Copper pyrithione, a booster biocide, induces abnormal muscle and notochord architecture in zebrafish embryogenesis.

    Almond, Kelly M; Trombetta, Louis D

    2017-09-01

    The metal pyrithiones, principally zinc (ZnPT) and copper (CuPT), are replacing tributyltin (TBT) as antifouling agents. Zebrafish embryos were exposed within the first hour after fertilization to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT for 24 h. Morphological abnormalities in notochord and muscle architecture were observed at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). TEM revealed abnormal electron dense deposits in the notochord sheath and muscle fiber degeneration in animals treated with 12 µg/L of CuPT. Embryos that were exposed to 64 µg/L of CuPT displayed severe muscle fiber degeneration including abnormal A and I band patterning and altered z disk arrangement. Abnormalities in the notochord sheath, swelling of the mitochondria and numerous lipid whorls were also noted. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly decreased in embryos exposed to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT. Acridine orange staining revealed an increase in apoptosis particularly in the brain, eye, heart and tail regions of both treatment groups. Apoptosis was confirmed with an increase in caspase 3/7 activity in both treatment groups. Severe alternations in primary motor neuron axon extensions, slow tonic muscle fibers and fast twitch fibers were observed in CuPT treated embryos. There was a significant upregulation in sonic hedgehog and myod1 expression at 24 hpf in the 12 µg/L treatment group. Exposed zebrafish embryos showed ultra-structural hallmarks of peroxidative injury and cell death via apoptosis. These changes question the use of copper pyrithione as an antifouling agent.

  9. Verapamil reverses PTH- or CRF-induced abnormal fatty acid oxidation in muscle

    Perna, A.F.; Smogorzewski, M.; Massry, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impaired long chain fatty acids (LCFA) oxidation by skeletal muscle mitochondria. This is due to reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT). These derangements were attributed to the secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF, since prior parathyroidectomy in CRF rats reversed these abnormalities and PTH administration to normal rats reproduced them. It was proposed that these effects of PTH are mediated by its ionophoric property leading to increased entry of calcium into skeletal muscle. A calcium channel blocker may, therefore, correct these derangements. The present study examined the effects of verapamil on LCFA oxidation, CPT activity by skeletal muscle mitochondria, and 45 Ca uptake by skeletal muscle obtained from CRF rats and normal animals treated with PTH with and without verapamil. Both four days of PTH administration and 21 days of CRF produced significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in LCFA oxidation and CPT activity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, and significant (P less than 0.01) increment in 45 Ca uptake by skeletal muscle. Simultaneous treatment with verapamil corrected all these derangements. Administration of verapamil alone to normal rats did not cause a significant change in any of these parameters. The data are consistent with the proposition that the alterations in LCFA in CRF or after PTH treatment are related to the ionophoric action of the hormone and could be reversed by a calcium channel blocker

  10. Proteomics analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals novel abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Hwang, Hyonson; Bowen, Benjamin P; Lefort, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    changes involving the use of proteomics was used here. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic volunteers (n = 8 each); glucose clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Muscle protein was subjected to mass spectrometry......OBJECTIVE : Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Studies of insulin resistance usually are highly focused. However, approaches that give a more global picture of abnormalities in insulin resistance are useful in pointing out new......-based quantification using normalized spectral abundance factors. RESULTS: Of 1,218 proteins assigned, 400 were present in at least half of all subjects. Of these, 92 were altered by a factor of 2 in insulin resistance, and of those, 15 were significantly increased or decreased by ANOVA (P

  11. Effect of physical training on mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species release in skeletal muscle in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Højlund, K; Vind, B F

    2010-01-01

    of obese participants with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic men (n = 13) and control (n = 14) participants matched for age, BMI and physical activity completed 10 weeks of aerobic training. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were obtained before a euglycaemic...... in type 2 diabetic participants. Mitochondrial ROS release tended to be higher in participants with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Aerobic training improves muscle respiration and intrinsic mitochondrial respiration in untrained obese participants with and without type 2 diabetes...

  12. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis

    May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.

    1987-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH/sub 4/Cl x 100 g body wt/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-(1-/sup 14/C)-valine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase.

  13. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis

    May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH 4 Cl x 100 g body wt -1 x day -1 . Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-[1- 14 C]-valine and L-[1- 14 C]leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase

  14. High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Mouse Muscle Mitochondrial Phospholipids Do Not Impair Mitochondrial Respiration Despite Insulin Resistance

    Hulshof, Martijn F. M.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Schaart, Gert; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smit, Egbert; Mariman, Edwin C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD) increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. Methodology C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD) or HFD (45 kcal%). Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA) composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. Principal Findings At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9) were decreased (−4.0%, p<0.001), whereas saturated FA (16∶0) were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001) in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6) showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001). Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002) and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. Conclusions/Interpretation Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  15. High fat diet-induced changes in mouse muscle mitochondrial phospholipids do not impair mitochondrial respiration despite insulin resistance.

    Joris Hoeks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY: C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD or HFD (45 kcal%. Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9 were decreased (-4.0%, p<0.001, whereas saturated FA (16∶0 were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001 in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6 showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001. Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002 and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  16. Complex Anatomic Abnormalities of the Lower Leg Muscles and Tendons Associated With Phocomelia: A Case Report.

    Hodo, Thomas; Hamrick, Mark; Melenevsky, Yulia

    Musculoskeletal anatomy is widely known to have components that stray from the norm in the form of variant muscle and tendon presence, absence, origin, insertion, and bifurcation. Although these variant muscles and tendons might be deemed incidental and insignificant findings by most, they can be important contributors to pathologic physiology or, more importantly, an option for effective treatment. In the present case report, we describe a patient with phocomelia and Müllerian abnormalities secondary to in utero thalidomide exposure. The patient had experienced recurrent bilateral foot pain accompanied by numbness, stiffness, swelling, and longstanding pes planus. These symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment with orthotics, steroids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Radiographic imaging showed dysmorphic and degenerative changes of the ankle and foot joints. Further investigation with magnetic resonance imaging revealed complex anatomic abnormalities, including the absence of the posterior tibialis and peroneus brevis, lateralization of the peroneus longus, and the presence of a variant anterior compartment muscle. The variant structure was likely a previously described anterior compartment variant, anterior fibulocalcaneus, and might have been a source of the recurrent pain. Also, the absence of the posterior tibialis might have caused the pes planus in the present patient, considering that posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired pes planus. Although thalidomide infrequently affects the lower extremities, its effects on growth and development were likely the cause of this rare array of anatomic abnormalities and resulting ankle and foot pathologic features. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiration-related discharge of hyoglossus muscle motor units in the rat.

    Powell, Gregory L; Rice, Amber; Bennett-Cross, Seres J; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2014-01-01

    Although respiratory muscle motor units have been studied during natural breathing, simultaneous measures of muscle force have never been obtained. Tongue retractor muscles, such as the hyoglossus (HG), play an important role in swallowing, licking, chewing, breathing, and, in humans, speech. The HG is phasically recruited during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Moreover, in urethane anesthetized rats the drive to the HG waxes and wanes spontaneously, providing a unique opportunity to study motor unit firing patterns as the muscle is driven naturally by the central pattern generator for breathing. We recorded tongue retraction force, the whole HG muscle EMG and the activity of 38 HG motor units in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats under low-force and high-force conditions. Activity in all cases was confined to the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Changes in the EMG were correlated significantly with corresponding changes in force, with the change in EMG able to predict 53-68% of the force variation. Mean and peak motor unit firing rates were greater under high-force conditions, although the magnitude of discharge rate modulation varied widely across the population. Changes in mean and peak firing rates were significantly correlated with the corresponding changes in force, but the correlations were weak (r(2) = 0.27 and 0.25, respectively). These data indicate that, during spontaneous breathing, recruitment of HG motor units plays a critical role in the control of muscle force, with firing rate modulation playing an important but lesser role.

  18. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Hayes, Graham M; Granger, Nicolas; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J; Jeffery, Nick D

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs are poorly understood. In this study hamstring muscle reflexes in response to cranial tibial translation were analysed to determine whether these active stabilisers of the stifle joint are differently activated in dogs with CCLR compared to control dogs. In a prospective clinical study reflex muscle activity from the lateral and medial hamstring muscles (biceps femoris and semimembranosus) was recorded using surface electrodes in control dogs (n=21) and dogs with CCLR (n=22). These electromyographic recordings were analysed using an algorithm previously validated in humans. The hamstring reflex was reliably and reproducibly recorded in normal dogs. Both a short latency response (SLR, 17.6±2.1ms) and a medium latency response (MLR, 37.7±2.7ms) could be identified. In dogs with unilateral CCLR, the SLR and MLR were not significantly different between the affected and the unaffected limbs, but the MLR latency of both affected and unaffected limbs in CCLR dogs were significantly prolonged compared to controls. In conclusion, the hamstring reflex can be recorded in dogs and the MLR is prolonged in dogs with CCLR. Since both affected and unaffected limbs exhibit prolonged MLR, it is possible that abnormal hamstring reflex activation is a mechanism by which progressive CCL damage may occur. The methodology allows for further investigation of the relationship between neuromuscular imbalance and CCLR or limitations in functional recovery following surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Wen Miao

    Full Text Available To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1 patients using multimodal MRI imaging.T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls.Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (p<0.001 uncorrected in the left precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus.CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  20. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  1. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study

    Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A.; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. Methods T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Results Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. Conclusions CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1. PMID:26186732

  2. PGC-1alpha Deficiency Causes Multi-System Energy Metabolic Derangements: Muscle Dysfunction, Abnormal Weight Control and Hepatic Steatosis

    Leone Teresa C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  3. PGC-1alpha deficiency causes multi-system energy metabolic derangements: muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis.

    Teresa C Leone

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha(-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  4. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism.

    McLoon, Linda K; Willoughby, Christy L; Anderson, Jill S; Bothun, Erick D; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.

  5. Abnormal muscle membrane function in fibromyalgia patients and its relationship to the number of tender points

    Klaver-Krol, E.G.; Zwarts, M.J.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterised by chronic widespreadpain in soft tissues, especially in muscles. Previous research has demonstrateda higher muscle fibre conduction velocity (CV) in painful muscles of FM patients. The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether

  6. Abnormalities of AMPK activation and glucose uptake in cultured skeletal muscle cells from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Audrey E Brown

    Full Text Available Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects.Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise.In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16 h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16 h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured.EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets.

  7. Abnormal muscle afferent function in a model of Taxol chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite muscle pain being a well-described symptom in patients with diverse forms of peripheral neuropathy, the role of neuropathic mechanisms in muscle pain have received remarkably little attention. We have recently demonstrated in a well-established model of chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN) that the anti-tumor drug paclitaxel (Taxol) produces mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle, of similar time course to and with shared mechanism with cutaneous symptoms. In the present...

  8. Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles on MR images in patients with achilles tendon abnormalities

    Hoffmann, Adrienne; Mamisch, Nadja; Buck, Florian M.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Zanetti, Marco; Espinosa, Norman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. Forty-five consecutive patients (mean 51 years; range 14-84 years) with achillodynia were examined with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the calf. The frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was determined in patients with normal tendons, tendinopathy and in patients with a partial tear or a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. Oedema was encountered in 35% (7/20) of the patients with tendinopathy (n = 20; range 13-81 years), and in 47% (9/19) of the patients with partial tears or complete tears (n = 19; 28-78 years). Fatty degeneration was encountered in 10% (2/20) of the patients with tendinopathy, and in 32% (6/19) of the patients with tears. The prevalence of fatty degeneration was significantly more common in patients with a partial or complete tear compared with the patients with a normal Achilles tendon (p = 0.032 and p = 0.021, respectively). Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are common in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  9. Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles on MR images in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities.

    Hoffmann, Adrienne; Mamisch, Nadja; Buck, Florian M; Espinosa, Norman; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. Forty-five consecutive patients (mean 51 years; range 14-84 years) with achillodynia were examined with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the calf. The frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was determined in patients with normal tendons, tendinopathy and in patients with a partial tear or a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. Oedema was encountered in 35% (7/20) of the patients with tendinopathy (n = 20; range 13-81 years), and in 47% (9/19) of the patients with partial tears or complete tears (n = 19; 28-78 years). Fatty degeneration was encountered in 10% (2/20) of the patients with tendinopathy, and in 32% (6/19) of the patients with tears. The prevalence of fatty degeneration was significantly more common in patients with a partial or complete tear compared with the patients with a normal Achilles tendon (p = 0.032 and p = 0.021, respectively). Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are common in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities.

  10. Opportunities to Target Specific Contractile Abnormalities with Smooth Muscle Protein Kinase Inhibitors

    Annegret Ulke-Lemée

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle is a major component of most hollow organ systems (e.g., airways, vasculature, bladder and gut/gastrointestine; therefore, the coordinated regulation of contraction is a key property of smooth muscle. When smooth muscle functions normally, it contributes to general health and wellness, but its dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK is central to calcium-independent, actomyosin-mediated contractile force generation in the vasculature, thereby playing a role in smooth muscle contraction, cell motility and adhesion. Recent evidence supports an important role for ROCK in the increased vasoconstriction and remodeling observed in various models of hypertension. This review will provide a commentary on the development of specific ROCK inhibitors and their clinical application. Fasudil will be discussed as an example of bench-to-bedside development of a clinical therapeutic that is used to treat conditions of vascular hypercontractility. Due to the wide spectrum of biological processes regulated by ROCK, many additional clinical indications might also benefit from ROCK inhibition. Apart from the importance of ROCK in smooth muscle contraction, a variety of other protein kinases are known to play similar roles in regulating contractile force. The zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK and integrin-linked kinase (ILK are two well-described regulators of contraction. The relative contribution of each kinase to contraction depends on the muscle bed as well as hormonal and neuronal stimulation. Unfortunately, specific inhibitors for ZIPK and ILK are still in the development phase, but the success of fasudil suggests that inhibitors for these other kinases may also have valuable clinical applications. Notably, the directed inhibition of ZIPK with a pseudosubstrate molecule shows unexpected effects on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  11. An application of dynamic CT for diagnosis of abnormal external ocular muscle movement

    Tomita, Kazumi; Ogura, Yuuko; Takeshita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the movements of retrobulbar structures radiologically, we have developed a new technique called 'external ocular muscle movement CT' (EOM CT), in which dynamic CT scanning is performed while the patient performs controlled eye movements. This new technique was applied in one volunteer and 72 patients with external ophthalmoplegia due to orbital mass lesion, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, blowout fracture, and other retrobulbar lesions. EOM CT permits the assessment of extraocular muscle contraction in cases of blowout fracture, the evaluation of muscular contraction in hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, and the diagnosis of adhesions between the extraocular muscles and intraorbital masses. Radiation dose to the lens from EOM CT was measured using a phantom and TLD, and was compared with that of conventional CT scanning with a 5 mm slice thickness. The dose to the lens from EOM CT was three times higher than that for conventional CT in axial scanning, but in the coronal section of the retrobulbar region, the dose to the lens from EOM CT decreases to one twelfth of that of conventional CT. EOM CT promises to be a powerful modality for functional evaluation of the extraocular muscles and other retrobulbar structures. (author)

  12. Transcriptional abnormalities of hamstring muscle contractures in children with cerebral palsy.

    Smith, Lucas R; Chambers, Henry G; Subramaniam, Shankar; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a spectrum of movement disorders. Secondary to the neurological lesion, muscles from patients with CP are often spastic and form debilitating contractures that limit range of motion and joint function. With no genetic component, the pathology of skeletal muscle in CP is a response to aberrant complex neurological input in ways that are not fully understood. This study was designed to gain further understanding of the skeletal muscle response in CP using transcriptional profiling correlated with functional measures to broadly investigate muscle adaptations leading to mechanical deficits.Biopsies were obtained from both the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from a cohort of patients with CP (n = 10) and typically developing patients (n = 10) undergoing surgery. Biopsies were obtained to define the unique expression profile of the contractures and passive mechanical testing was conducted to determine stiffness values in previously published work. Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 chips (n = 40) generated expression data, which was validated for selected transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR. Chips were clustered based on their expression and those from patients with CP clustered separately. Significant genes were determined conservatively based on the overlap of three summarization algorithms (n = 1,398). Significantly altered genes were analyzed for over-representation among gene ontologies and muscle specific networks.The majority of altered transcripts were related to increased extracellular matrix expression in CP and a decrease in metabolism and ubiquitin ligase activity. The increase in extracellular matrix products was correlated with mechanical measures demonstrating the importance in disability. These data lay a framework for further studies and development of novel therapies.

  13. Transcriptional abnormalities of hamstring muscle contractures in children with cerebral palsy.

    Lucas R Smith

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a spectrum of movement disorders. Secondary to the neurological lesion, muscles from patients with CP are often spastic and form debilitating contractures that limit range of motion and joint function. With no genetic component, the pathology of skeletal muscle in CP is a response to aberrant complex neurological input in ways that are not fully understood. This study was designed to gain further understanding of the skeletal muscle response in CP using transcriptional profiling correlated with functional measures to broadly investigate muscle adaptations leading to mechanical deficits.Biopsies were obtained from both the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from a cohort of patients with CP (n = 10 and typically developing patients (n = 10 undergoing surgery. Biopsies were obtained to define the unique expression profile of the contractures and passive mechanical testing was conducted to determine stiffness values in previously published work. Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 chips (n = 40 generated expression data, which was validated for selected transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR. Chips were clustered based on their expression and those from patients with CP clustered separately. Significant genes were determined conservatively based on the overlap of three summarization algorithms (n = 1,398. Significantly altered genes were analyzed for over-representation among gene ontologies and muscle specific networks.The majority of altered transcripts were related to increased extracellular matrix expression in CP and a decrease in metabolism and ubiquitin ligase activity. The increase in extracellular matrix products was correlated with mechanical measures demonstrating the importance in disability. These data lay a framework for further studies and development of novel therapies.

  14. Abnormal muscle and hematopoietic gene expression may be important for clinical morbidity in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Reppe, Sjur; Stilgren, Lis; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    out in biopsies obtained before and 1 yr after parathyroidectomy in seven patients discovered by routine blood [Ca(2+)] screening. The tissue distribution of PTH receptor (PTHR1 and PTHR2) mRNAs were quantitated using real-time RT-PCR in unrelated persons to define PTH target tissues. Of about 10......, muscle, and hematopoietic cells have to be considered as one independent, important cause of molecular disease in PHPT leading to profound alterations in gene expression that may help explain symptoms like muscle fatigue, cardiovascular pathology, and precipitation of psychiatric illness....

  15. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship...... between mitochondrial function, IMTG, and insulin resistance. Nine obese women (age, 32.3 years [SD, 3.0]; body mass index, 33.4 kg/m(2) [SD, 2.6]) completed a 53-day (SE, 3.8) very low calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 to 600 kcal/d without altering physical activity. The target of the intervention was a 10...... resistance in young obese women and do not support a direct relationship between IMTG and insulin sensitivity in young obese women during weight loss....

  16. Ca2+ handling abnormalities in early-onset muscle diseases: Novel concepts and perspectives.

    Treves, S.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N.C.; Muntoni, F.; Zorzato, F.

    2017-01-01

    The physiological process by which Ca2+ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is called excitation-contraction coupling; it is initiated by an action potential which travels deep into the muscle fiber where it is sensed by the dihydropyridine receptor, a voltage sensing L-type Ca2+channel

  17. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    enzymes and genes previously not linked to myogenesis, including IL32, metallothioneins, and pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoproteins. Functional studies demonstrated IL-32 as a novel target that regulates human myogenesis, insulin sensitivity and ATP levels in muscle cells. Furthermore, IL32 transgenic...

  18. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Ramos-Filho, Dionizio; Chicaybam, Gustavo; de-Souza-Ferreira, Eduardo; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Galina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage) in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10) and HIIT (n=10, swimming training). We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast), gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow) and soleus (SOL-slow) muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS) activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P), pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate) approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH) was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  19. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Dionizio Ramos-Filho

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10 and HIIT (n=10, swimming training. We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast, gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow and soleus (SOL-slow muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P, pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  20. Zebrafish embryos exposed to alcohol undergo abnormal development of motor neurons and muscle fibers.

    Sylvain, Nicole J; Brewster, Daniel L; Ali, Declan W

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero have significantly delayed gross and fine motor skills, as well as deficiencies in reflex development. The reasons that underlie the motor deficits caused by ethanol (EtOH) exposure remain to be fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure (1.5%, 2% and 2.5% EtOH) on motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) larval zebrafish. EtOH treated fish exhibited morphological deformities and fewer bouts of swimming in response to touch, compared with untreated fish. Immunolabelling with anti-acetylated tubulin indicated that fish exposed to 2.5% EtOH had significantly higher rates of motor neuron axon defects. Immunolabelling of primary and secondary motor neurons, using znp-1 and zn-8, revealed that fish exposed to 2% and 2.5% EtOH exhibited significantly higher rates of primary and secondary motor neuron axon defects compared to controls. Examination of red and white muscle fibers revealed that fish exposed to EtOH had significantly smaller fibers compared with controls. These findings indicate that motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology is affected by early alcohol exposure in zebrafish embryos, and that this may be related to deficits in locomotion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries.

  2. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with [14C]glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

  3. Regulation of mitochondrial respiration by inorganic phosphate; comparing permeabilized muscle fibers and isolated mitochondria prepared from type-1 and type-2 rat skeletal muscle

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    ADP is generally accepted as a key regulator of oxygen consumption both in isolated mitochondria and in permeabilized fibers from skeletal muscle. The present study explored inorganic phosphate in a similar regulatory role. Saponin permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria from type-I and type...

  4. Mitochondrial abnormalities and low grade inflammation are present in the skeletal muscle of a minority of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; an observational myopathology study.

    Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Cleveland, Matt; Pradat, Pierre-François; Corse, Andrea; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Peter Nigel; Abila, Bams; Bates, Stewart; Wurthner, Jens; Meininger, Vincent

    2014-12-14

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a primary progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by neuronal loss of lower motor neurons (in the spinal cord and brainstem) and/or upper motor neurons (in the motor cortex) and subsequent denervation atrophy of skeletal muscle. A comprehensive examination of muscle pathology from a cohort of clinically confirmed ALS patients, including an investigation of inflammation, complement activation, and deposition of abnormal proteins in order to compare them with findings from an age-matched, control group. 31 muscle biopsies from clinically confirmed ALS patients and 20 normal controls underwent a comprehensive protocol of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, including HLA-ABC, C5b-9, p62, and TDP-43. Neurogenic changes were confirmed in 30/31 ALS cases. In one case, no neurogenic changes could be detected. Muscle fibre necrosis was seen in 5/31 cases and chronic mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in 5/31 (2 of them overlapped with those showing muscle necrosis). In four biopsies there was an increase in the proportion of cytochrome oxidase (COX) negative fibres (2-3%). p62 faintly stained cytoplasmic bodies in eight cases and none were immunoreactive to TDP-43. This large series of muscle biopsies from patients with ALS demonstrates neurogenic atrophy is a nearly uniform finding and that mild mitochondrial abnormalities and low-grade inflammation can be seen and do not rule out the diagnosis of ALS. These findings could lend support to the notion that ALS is a complex and heterogeneous disorder.

  5. Increased reactive oxygen species production and lower abundance of complex I subunits and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B protein despite normal mitochondrial respiration in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle.

    Lefort, Natalie; Glancy, Brian; Bowen, Benjamin; Willis, Wayne T; Bailowitz, Zachary; De Filippis, Elena A; Brophy, Colleen; Meyer, Christian; Højlund, Kurt; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. Comparative proteomics are being applied to generate new hypotheses in human biology and were applied here to isolated mitochondria to identify novel changes in mitochondrial protein abundance present in insulin-resistant muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from vastus lateralis muscle from lean and insulin-sensitive individuals and from obese and insulin-resistant individuals who were otherwise healthy. Respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates were measured in vitro. Relative abundances of proteins detected by mass spectrometry were determined using a normalized spectral abundance factor method. NADH- and FADH(2)-linked maximal respiration rates were similar between lean and obese individuals. Rates of pyruvate and palmitoyl-DL-carnitine (both including malate) ROS production were significantly higher in obesity. Mitochondria from obese individuals maintained higher (more negative) extramitochondrial ATP free energy at low metabolic flux, suggesting that stronger mitochondrial thermodynamic driving forces may underlie the higher ROS production. Tandem mass spectrometry identified protein abundance differences per mitochondrial mass in insulin resistance, including lower abundance of complex I subunits and enzymes involved in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and fatty acids (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B). We provide data suggesting normal oxidative capacity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle in parallel with high rates of ROS production. Furthermore, we show specific abundance differences in proteins involved in fat and BCAA oxidation that might contribute to the accumulation of lipid and BCAA frequently associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  6. Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC—the sequential link between action potentials (AP, intracellular Ca2+ release, and the contractile machinery. Yet, little is known about the impact of acute elevated glucose on the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients and ionic underlying mechanisms that lead to muscle dysfunction. Here, we used high-speed confocal Ca2+ imaging to investigate the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients, an intermediate step of ECC, using an acute in cellulo model of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (25 mM, 48 h.. Control and elevated glucose-exposed muscle fibers cultured for five days displayed four distinct patterns of AP-induced Ca2+ transients (phasic, biphasic, phasic-delayed, and phasic-slow decay; most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed biphasic Ca2+ transients upon single field stimulation. We hypothesize that these changes in the temporal profile of the AP-induced Ca2+ transients are due to changes in the intrinsic excitable properties of the muscle fibers. We propose that these changes accompany early stages of diabetic myopathy.

  7. The role of weight loss and exercise in correcting skeletal muscle mitochondrial abnormalities in obesity, diabetes and aging.

    Toledo, Frederico G S; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2013-10-15

    Mitochondria within skeletal muscle have been implicated in insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as impaired muscle function with normal aging. Evaluating the potential of interventions to improve mitochondria is clearly relevant to the prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases and age-related dysfunction. This review provides an overview and critical evaluation of the effects of weight loss and exercise interventions on skeletal muscle mitochondria, along with implications for insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. The available literature strongly suggests that the lower mitochondrial capacity associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging is not an irreversible lesion. However, weight loss does not appear to affect this response, even when the weight loss is extreme. In contrast, increasing physical activity improves mitochondrial content and perhaps the function of individual mitochondrion. Despite the consistent effect of exercise to improve mitochondrial capacity, studies mechanistically linking mitochondria to insulin resistance, reductions in intramyocellular lipid or improvement in muscle function remain inconclusive. In summary, studies of diet and exercise training have advanced our understanding of the link between mitochondrial oxidative capacity and insulin resistance in obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. Nevertheless, additional inquiry is necessary to establish the significance and clinical relevance of those perturbations, which could lead to targeted therapies for a myriad of conditions and diseases involving mitochondria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to internal muscle tissue loads under the ischial tuberosities during sitting is elevated at abnormally high or low body mass indices.

    Sopher, Ran; Nixon, Jane; Gorecki, Claudia; Gefen, Amit

    2010-01-19

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe pressure ulcer characteristic of chairfast or bedfast individuals, such as those with impaired mobility or neurological disorders. A DTI differs from superficial pressure ulcers in that the onset of DTI occurs under intact skin, in skeletal muscle tissue overlying bony prominences, and progression of the wound continues subcutaneously until skin breakdown. Due to the nature of this silently progressing wound, it is highly important to screen potentially susceptible individuals for their risk of developing a DTI. Abnormally low and high values of the body mass index (BMI) have been proposed to be associated with pressure ulcers, but a clear mechanism is lacking. We hypothesize that during sitting, exposure to internal muscle tissue loads under the ischial tuberosities (IT) is elevated at abnormally high or low body mass indices. Our aims in this study were: (a) to develop biomechanical models of the IT region in the buttocks that represent an individual who is gaining or losing weight drastically. (b) To determine changes in internal tissue load measures: principal compression strain, strain energy density (SED), principal compression stress and von Mises stress versus the BMI. (c) To determine percentage volumes of muscle tissue exposed to critical levels of the above load measures, which were defined based on our previous animal and tissue engineered model experiments: strain>or=50%, stress>or=2 kPa, SED>or=0.5 kPa. A set of 21 finite element models, which represented the same individual, but with different BMI values within the normal range, above it and below it, was solved for the outcome measures listed above. The models had the same IT shape, size, distance between the IT, and (non-linear) mechanical properties for all soft tissues, but different thicknesses of gluteus muscles and fat tissue layers, corresponding to the BMI level. The resulted data indicated a trend of progressive increase in internal tissue loading

  9. Similar mitochondrial activation kinetics in wild-type and creatine kinase-deficient fast-twitch muscle indicate significant Pi control of respiration

    Jeneson, J.A.L.; Veld, ter F.; Schmitz, J.P.J.; Meyer, R.A.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2011-01-01

    Past simulations of oxidative ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle have predicted that elimination of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction should result in dramatically faster oxygen consumption dynamics during transitions in ATP turnover rate. This hypothesis was investigated. Oxygen consumption of

  10. Normal anatomy and abnormal patterns of the supraspinatus muscle: Ultrasound versus surgery. Analysis of the possible sources of misdiagnosis

    Montrucchio, Edgardo; Iovane, Angelo; Midiri, Massimo; Finazzo, Mario; La Tona, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    The supraspinatus muscle performs about 60 % of the elevation-abduction motion of the arm; it has a prominent functional role among the extra rotational muscles of the shoulder and is the most injured in subacromial space conditions. Seventy-four patients, aged 21-64 years, were examined to compare ultrasonography (US) results with surgical findings in supraspinatus conditions and to analyze the possible pitfalls in US diagnosis. All the patients underwent conventional X-ray US and then surgery or arthroscopy. The following criteria were considered: morphology, thickness, echotexture, the convexity of the superior border of supraspinatus tendon, the relationships with the subacromial bursa and the tendon of the biceps long head, the regularity of the bone cortex of the humeral head. US showed: perforating focal injuries in 21 patients; deep focal injuries in 10 patients; intramural focal injuries in 6 patients; superficial focal injuries in 8 patients; complete tendon tear with detachment in 19 cases. 62/74 US diagnoses were surgically confirmed, with a specificity of 83.7 %. In their experience, US provided very useful information about the pattern, size and site of the injuries and was very helpful in the surgical planning

  11. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Respirator field performance factors

    Skaggs, B.J.; DeField, J.D.; Strandberg, S.W.; Sutcliffe, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Industrial Hygiene Group assisted OSHA and the NRC in measurements of respirator performance under field conditions. They reviewed problems associated with sampling aerosols within the respirator in order to determine fit factors (FFs) or field performance factor (FPF). In addition, they designed an environmental chamber study to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on a respirator wearer

  13. Choosing the right respirator

    Bidwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Selecting respirators to help protect workers from airborne contaminants can be a confusing process. The consequences of selecting the incorrect respirator can be intimidating, and worker safety and health may be dramatically and irreparably affected if an inappropriate respirator is chosen. When used in the workplace, a formal respiratory protection program must be established covering the basic requirements outlined in the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134). Education and training must be properly emphasized and conducted periodically. Maintenance, cleaning, and storage programs must be established and routinely followed for reusable respirators. The process of establishing a respiratory protection program can be broken down into four basic steps: Identify respiratory hazards and concentrations; understand the contaminants effects on workers' health; select appropriate respiratory protection; and train in proper respirator use and maintenance. These four steps are the foundation for establishing a basic respirator protection program. Be sure to consult state and federal OSHA requirements to ensure that the program complies. Leading industrial respirator manufacturers should be able to assist with on-site training and education in this four-step process, in addition to helping employers train their workers and conduct respirator fit testing

  14. Experimental evidence against the mitochondrial theory of aging. A study of isolated human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Rasmussen, Ulla F.; Krustrup, Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2003-01-01

    age effects, ATP formation, BSA effects, collagen content, low temperature spectroscopy, oxygen uptakes, quadriceps muscle, respiration, specific enzyme activities......age effects, ATP formation, BSA effects, collagen content, low temperature spectroscopy, oxygen uptakes, quadriceps muscle, respiration, specific enzyme activities...

  15. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  16. The role of nitric oxide in muscle fibers with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    Tengan, Celia H.; Kiyomoto, Beatriz H.; Godinho, Rosely O.; Gamba, Juliana; Neves, Afonso C.; Schmidt, Beny; Oliveira, Acary S.B.; Gabbai, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    NO has been pointed as an important player in the control of mitochondrial respiration, especially because of its inhibitory effect on cytochrome c oxidase (COX). However, all the events involved in this control are still not completely elucidated. We demonstrate compartmentalized abnormalities on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity on muscle biopsies of patients with mitochondrial diseases. NOS activity was reduced in the sarcoplasmic compartment in COX deficient fibers, whereas increased activity was found in the sarcolemma of fibers with mitochondrial proliferation. We observed increased expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in patients and a correlation between nNOS expression and mitochondrial content. Treatment of skeletal muscle culture with an NO donor induced an increase in mitochondrial content. Our results indicate specific roles of NO in compensatory mechanisms of muscle fibers with mitochondrial deficiency and suggest the participation of nNOS in the signaling process of mitochondrial proliferation in human skeletal muscle

  17. Cattle respiration facility

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the emission rate of methane from dairy cows has been calculated using the IPCC standard values for dairy cows in Western countries, due to the lack of national data. Therefore, four respiration chambers for dairy cows were built with the main purpose of measuring methane, but also...

  18. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  19. Walking abnormalities

    ... head trauma Brain tumor Stroke Cerebral palsy Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (a problem with the vertebrae in ... spinal cord) Steppage gait: Guillain-Barre syndrome Herniated lumbar disk Multiple sclerosis Muscle weakness of the tibia ...

  20. The effect of facial expressions on respirators contact pressures.

    Cai, Mang; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of four typical facial expressions (calmness, happiness, sadness and surprise) on contact characteristics between an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a headform. The respirator model comprised two layers (an inner layer and an outer layer) and a nose clip. The headform model was comprised of a skin layer, a fatty tissue layer embedded with eight muscles, and a skull layer. Four typical facial expressions were generated by the coordinated contraction of four facial muscles. After that, the distribution of the contact pressure on the headform, as well as the contact area, were calculated. Results demonstrated that the nasal clip could help make the respirator move closer to the nose bridge while causing facial discomfort. Moreover, contact areas varied with different facial expressions, and facial expressions significantly altered contact pressures at different key areas, which may result in leakage.

  1. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  2. Congenital Abnormalities

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  3. Respirable dust and respirable silica exposure in Ontario gold mines.

    Verma, Dave K; Rajhans, Gyan S; Malik, Om P; des Tombe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of respirable dust and respirable silica in Ontario gold mines was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Labor during 1978-1979. The aim was to assess the feasibility of introducing gravimetric sampling to replace the assessment method which used konimeters, a device which gave results in terms of number of particles per cubic centimeter (ppcc) of air. The study involved both laboratory and field assessments. The field assessment involved measurement of airborne respirable dust and respirable silica at all eight operating gold mines of the time. This article describes the details of the field assessment. A total of 288 long-term (7-8 hr) personal respirable dust air samples were collected from seven occupational categories in eight gold mines. The respirable silica (α-quartz) was determined by x-ray diffraction method. The results show that during 1978-1979, the industry wide mean respirable dust was about 1 mg/m(3), and the mean respirable silica was 0.08 mg/m(3.)The mean% silica in respirable dust was 7.5%. The data set would be useful in future epidemiological and health studies, as well as in assessment of workers' compensation claims for occupational diseases such as silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and autoimmune diseases such as renal disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Reduced in Atherosclerosis, Promoting Necrotic Core Formation and Reducing Relative Fibrous Cap Thickness.

    Yu, Emma P K; Reinhold, Johannes; Yu, Haixiang; Starks, Lakshi; Uryga, Anna K; Foote, Kirsty; Finigan, Alison; Figg, Nichola; Pung, Yuh-Fen; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P; Bennett, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from plaques showed impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced complex I expression, and increased mitophagy, which was induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice showed decreased mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial respiration, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. To determine whether alleviating mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis, we studied ApoE -/- mice overexpressing the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle (Tw + /ApoE -/- ). Tw + /ApoE -/- mice showed increased mtDNA integrity, copy number, respiratory complex abundance, and respiration. Tw + /ApoE -/- mice had decreased necrotic core and increased fibrous cap areas, and Tw + /ApoE -/- bone marrow transplantation also reduced core areas. Twinkle increased vascular smooth muscle cell mtDNA integrity and respiration. Twinkle also promoted vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protected both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Endogenous mtDNA damage in mouse and human atherosclerosis is associated with significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration. Reducing mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration decrease necrotic core and increase fibrous cap areas independently of changes in

  5. Effect of 4-Horizontal Rectus Muscle Tenotomy on Visual Function and Eye Movement Records in Patients with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome without Abnormal Head Posture and Strabismus: A Prospective Study

    Ahmad Ameri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tenotomy on visual function and eye movement records in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS without abnormal head posture (AHP and strabismusMethods: A prospective interventional case-series of patients with INS with no AHP or strabismus. Patients underwent 4-horizontal muscle tenotomy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and eye movement recordings were compared pre and postoperatively.Results: Eight patients were recruited in this study with 3 to 15.5 months of follow-up. Patients showed significant improvement in their visual function. Overall nystagmus amplitude and velocity was decreased 30.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Improvements were more marked at right and left gazes. Conclusion: Tenotomy improves both visual function and eye movement records in INS with no strabismus and eccentric null point. The procedure has more effect on lateral gazes with worse waveforms, thus can broaden area with better visual function. We recommend this surgery in patients with INS but no associated AHP or strabismus.

  6. Gastrocnemius mitochondrial respiration: are there any differences between men and women?

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Swanson, Stanley A; Casale, George P; Johanning, Jason M; Papoutsi, Evlampia; Koutakis, Panagiotis; Miserlis, Dimitrios; Zhu, Zhen; Pipinos, Iraklis I

    2013-11-01

    Work on human and mouse skeletal muscle by our group and others has demonstrated that aging and age-related degenerative diseases are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which may be more prevalent in males. There have been, however, no studies that specifically examine the influence of male or female sex on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. The purpose of this study was to compare mitochondrial respiration in the gastrocnemius of adult men and women. Gastrocnemius muscle was obtained from male (n = 19) and female (n = 11) human subjects with healthy lower-extremity musculoskeletal and arterial systems and normal ambulatory function. All patients were undergoing operations for the treatment of varicose veins in their legs. Mitochondrial respiration was determined with a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles. Complex I-, II-, III-, and IV-dependent respiration was measured individually and normalized to muscle weight, total protein content, and citrate synthase (CS, index of mitochondrial content). Male and female patients had no evidence of musculoskeletal or arterial disease and did not differ with regard to age, race, body mass index, or other clinical characteristics. Complex I-, II-, III-, and IV-dependent respiration normalized to muscle weight, total protein content, and CS did not statistically differ for males compared with females. Our study evaluates, for the first time, gastrocnemius mitochondrial respiration of adult men and women who have healthy musculoskeletal and arterial systems and normal ambulatory function. Our data demonstrate there are no differences in the respiration of gastrocnemius mitochondria between men and women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  8. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  9. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well.

  10. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  11. Respirable versus inhalable dust sampling

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ICRP uses a total inhalable dust figure as the basis of calculations on employee lung dose. This paper was written to look at one aspect of the Olympic Dam dust situation, namely, the inhalable versus respirable fraction of the dust cloud. The results of this study will determine whether it is possible to use respirable dust figures, as obtained during routine monitoring to help in the calculations of employee exposure to internal radioactive contaminants

  12. Interpreting, measuring, and modeling soil respiration

    Michael G. Ryan; Beverly E. Law

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of soil respiration in determining ecosystem carbon balance, and the conceptual basis for measuring and modeling soil respiration. We developed it to provide background and context for this special issue on soil respiration and to synthesize the presentations and discussions at the workshop. Soil respiration is the largest component of...

  13. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  14. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  15. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  16. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  17. Use of Facemasks and Respirators

    2007-05-15

    This program demonstrates the differences of facemasks and respirators that are to be used in public settings during an influenza pandemic.  Created: 5/15/2007 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/25/2007.

  18. Influence of vestibular activation on respiration in humans

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Sharpe, Melissa K.; Drury, Daniel; Ertl, Andrew C.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the semicircular canals and otolith organs on respiration in humans. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that vestibular activation would elicit a vestibulorespiratory reflex. To test this hypothesis, respiratory measures, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during engagement of semicircular canals and/or otolith organs. Dynamic upright pitch and roll (15 cycles/min), which activate the otolith organs and semicircular canals, increased respiratory rate (Delta2 +/- 1 and Delta3 +/- 1 breaths/min, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic yaw and lateral pitch (15 cycles/min), which activate the semicircular canals, increased respiration similarly (Delta3 +/- 1 and Delta2 +/- 1, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic chair rotation (15 cycles/min), which mimics dynamic yaw but eliminates neck muscle afferent, increased respiration (Delta3 +/- 1; P < 0.05) comparable to dynamic yaw (15 cycles/min). Increases in respiratory rate were graded as greater responses occurred during upright (Delta5 +/- 2 breaths/min) and lateral pitch (Delta4 +/- 1) and roll (Delta5 +/- 1) performed at 30 cycles/min. Increases in breathing frequency resulted in increases in minute ventilation during most interventions. Static head-down rotation, which activates otolith organs, did not alter respiratory rate (Delta1 +/- 1 breaths/min). Collectively, these data indicate that semicircular canals, but not otolith organs or neck muscle afferents, mediate increased ventilation in humans and support the concept that vestibular activation alters respiration in humans.

  19. 78 FR 18535 - Respirator Certification Fees

    2013-03-27

    ... facepiece respirators. The North American respiratory protection market generated revenues around $1,830 million in 2007, the most recent data available.\\4\\ A summary of market segmentation, by respirator type... management. Of the U.S. respirator market of products approved by NIOSH, approximately 35 percent of approval...

  20. Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon; Sebastien Bonnet; Poonpipope Kasemsap; Savitri Garivait

    2013-01-01

    The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to ...

  1. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  2. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  3. Tooth - abnormal colors

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  4. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  5. Abnormal 201Tl limb scan due to unilateral tremor

    Simons, M.; Schelstraete, K.; Bratzlavsky, M.

    1982-01-01

    A abnormal intra- and interextremity distribution pattern on 201 Tl was observed on the limb scan of a patient with a unilateral tremor. This is ascribed to the increased blood flow in the muscles responsible for the tremor. The suggestion is made that the existence of tremor should be considered as a possible explanation for unexpected abnormalities on 201 Tl limb scintigrams

  6. Management effects on European cropland respiration

    Eugster, Werner; Moffat, Antje M.; Ceschia, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Increases in respiration rates following management activities in croplands are considered a relevant anthropogenic source of CO2. In this paper, we quantify the impact of management events on cropland respiration fluxes of CO2 as they occur under current climate and management conditions. Our....... This allowed us to address the question of how management activities influence ecosystem respiration. This was done by comparing respiration fluxes during 7, 14, and 28 days after the management with those observed during the matching time period before management. Median increases in respiration ranged from...... than management alone are also important at a given site. Temperature is the climatic factor that showed best correlation with site-specific respiration fluxes. Therefore, the effect of temperature changes between the time periods before and after management were taken into account for a subset of 13...

  7. Effects of respirator use on worker performance

    Cardarelli, R. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In 1993, EPRI funded Yankee Atomic Electric Company to examine the effects of respirator use on worker efficiency. Phase I of Yankee`s effort was to develop a study design to determine respirator effects. Given success in Phase I, a larger population will be tested to determine if a stasitically significant respirator effect on performance can be measured. This paper summarizes the 1993 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Effects of Pilot Study, and describes the study design for the 1994 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Study to be conducted at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Also described is a summary of respirator effect studies that have been conducted during the last ten (10) years.

  8. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products

    Möller, Philip; Liu, Xiaochen; Schuster, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the “Warburg effect”. The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited. PMID:29415045

  9. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products.

    Möller, Philip; Liu, Xiaochen; Schuster, Stefan; Boley, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the "Warburg effect". The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited.

  10. Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study #43442

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This course, Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study (#43442), addresses training requirements for supervisors of respirator wearers as specified by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard for Respiratory Protection, ANSI Z88.2, and as incorporated by reference in the Department of Energy (DOE) Worker Health and Safety Rule, 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 851. This course also presents the responsibilities of supervisors of respirator wearers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  11. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  12. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P soil respiration using exponential function equation. However, there was no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. Root respiration accounted for 45.13%-56.86% of the proportion of soil respiratio n with the mean value 51.72% during the summer corn growing season under different tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon.

  13. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    Larsen, Steen; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E

    2012-01-01

    functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...

  14. Plant abnormality inspection device

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  15. Mitochondrial respiration is sensitive to cytoarchitectural breakdown.

    Kandel, Judith; Angelin, Alessia A; Wallace, Douglas C; Eckmann, David M

    2016-11-07

    An abundance of research suggests that cellular mitochondrial and cytoskeletal disruption are related, but few studies have directly investigated causative connections between the two. We previously demonstrated that inhibiting microtubule and microfilament polymerization affects mitochondrial motility on the whole-cell level in fibroblasts. Since mitochondrial motility can be indicative of mitochondrial function, we now further characterize the effects of these cytoskeletal inhibitors on mitochondrial potential, morphology and respiration. We found that although they did not reduce mitochondrial inner membrane potential, cytoskeletal toxins induced significant decreases in basal mitochondrial respiration. In some cases, basal respiration was only affected after cells were pretreated with the calcium ionophore A23187 in order to stress mitochondrial function. In most cases, mitochondrial morphology remained unaffected, but extreme microfilament depolymerization or combined intermediate doses of microtubule and microfilament toxins resulted in decreased mitochondrial lengths. Interestingly, these two particular exposures did not affect mitochondrial respiration in cells not sensitized with A23187, indicating an interplay between mitochondrial morphology and respiration. In all cases, inducing maximal respiration diminished differences between control and experimental groups, suggesting that reduced basal respiration originates as a largely elective rather than pathological symptom of cytoskeletal impairment. However, viability experiments suggest that even this type of respiration decrease may be associated with cell death.

  16. Elemental Concentration of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate ...

    20537 and respirable foam for I.O.M sampler. The elemental composition (Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cr, Mn and Cd) were analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS). The data generated were subjected to descriptive analysis. In inhalable fraction,the enrichment factor ranged from 1-73.3 while in respirable ...

  17. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-07-13

    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  18. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  19. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  20. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  1. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  2. Muscle Cramps

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  3. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  4. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  5. Effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones on tissue respiration of streaked frog, Rana limnocharis, at low temperature.

    Gupta, B B; Chakrabarty, P

    1990-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied on the rate of liver and skeletal muscle respiration in both the sexes of R. limnocharis during active and inactive phases of the annual activity cycle. Triiodothyronine (L-T3) and thyroxine (L-T4) did not stimulate tissue (liver and muscle) respiration in any of the experiments irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone stimulated O2 uptake significantly irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline also stimulated tissue respiration significantly during the winter month. Since the ambient temperature was low even during the active phase (max. temperature 21 degrees C), it seems that the frog might have developed tissue sensitivity for gonadal and adrenal hormones at low temperatures when thyroid hormones are calorigenically ineffective.

  6. Impaired ALDH2 activity decreases the mitochondrial respiration in H9C2 cardiomyocytes.

    Mali, Vishal R; Deshpande, Mandar; Pan, Guodong; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Palaniyandi, Suresh S

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated reactive aldehydes induce cellular stress. In cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, lipid-peroxidation derived reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) are known to contribute to the pathogenesis. 4HNE is involved in ROS formation, abnormal calcium handling and more importantly defective mitochondrial respiration. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily contains NAD(P)(+)-dependent isozymes which can detoxify endogenous and exogenous aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids. Therefore we hypothesize that 4HNE afflicts mitochondrial respiration and leads to cell death by impairing ALDH2 activity in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell lines. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with 25, 50 and 75 μM 4HNE and its vehicle, ethanol as well as 25, 50 and 75 μM disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of ALDH2 and its vehicle (DMSO) for 4 h. 4HNE significantly decreased ALDH2 activity, ALDH2 protein levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity, and increased 4HNE adduct formation and cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. ALDH2 inhibition by DSF and ALDH2 siRNA attenuated ALDH2 activity besides reducing ALDH2 levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and increased cell death. Our results indicate that ALDH2 impairment can lead to poor mitochondrial respiration and increased cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  8. Normal anatomy and abnormal patterns of the supraspinatus muscle: Ultrasound versus surgery. Analysis of the possible sources of misdiagnosis; Anatomia normale e quadri patologici del muscolo sovraspinato: Confronto tra ecografia e chirurgia. Analisi delle possibili fonti di errore diagnostico

    Montrucchio, Edgardo [Ospedale S. Andrea, La Spezia (Italy); Iovane, Angelo; Midiri, Massimo; Finazzo, Mario; La Tona, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto [Palermo, Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia ``Piero Cignolini``

    1997-04-01

    The supraspinatus muscle performs about 60 % of the elevation-abduction motion of the arm; it has a prominent functional role among the extra rotational muscles of the shoulder and is the most injured in subacromial space conditions. Seventy-four patients, aged 21-64 years, were examined to compare ultrasonography (US) results with surgical findings in supraspinatus conditions and to analyze the possible pitfalls in US diagnosis. All the patients underwent conventional X-ray US and then surgery or arthroscopy. The following criteria were considered: morphology, thickness, echotexture, the convexity of the superior border of supraspinatus tendon, the relationships with the subacromial bursa and the tendon of the biceps long head, the regularity of the bone cortex of the humeral head. US showed: perforating focal injuries in 21 patients; deep focal injuries in 10 patients; intramural focal injuries in 6 patients; superficial focal injuries in 8 patients; complete tendon tear with detachment in 19 cases. 62/74 US diagnoses were surgically confirmed, with a specificity of 83.7 %. In their experience, US provided very useful information about the pattern, size and site of the injuries and was very helpful in the surgical planning.

  9. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BOREAS TE-5 Soil Respiration Data

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Soil respiration data were collected from 26-May-94 to 07-Sep-94 in the BOREAS NSA and SSA to compare the soil respiration rates in different forest sites using a LI-COR 6200 soil respiration chamber (model 6299). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. How much work is expended for respiration?

    Johnson, A T

    1993-01-01

    The rate of work expended to move air in the respiratory system has been determined for five different airflow waveshapes, a non-linear respiratory model and five exercise levels. As expected, the rectangular waveshape was the most efficient. Model conditions were then changed one a time: (i) starting lung volume was allowed to vary, (ii) exhalation flow limitation was added, (iii) respiration was considered to be a metabolic burden determining part of the ventilation requirement and (iv) a respirator mask was added. Although there is no direct work advantage to varying initial lung volume, such volume changes appear to be dictated by the asymmetry of lung recoil pressure about the lung relaxation volume; allowing the work of respiration to become a metabolic burden clearly shows why respiratory waveforms change from rest to exercise; and, adding a respirator imposes a severe respiratory burden on the wearer engaging in moderate, heavy and very heavy exercise.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  16. Separating rhizosphere respiration from total soil respiration in two larch plantations in northeastern China.

    Jiang, Lifen; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiquan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2005-09-01

    The potential capacity of soil to sequester carbon in response to global warming is strongly regulated by the ratio of rhizosphere respiration to respiration by soil microbial decomposers, because of their different temperature sensitivities. To quantify relative contributions of rhizosphere respiration to total soil respiration as influenced by forest stand development, we conducted a trenching study in two larch (Larix gmelini (Rupr.) Rupr.) plantations, aged 17 and 31 years, in northeastern China. Four plots in each plantation were randomly selected and trenched in early May 2001. Soil surface CO2 effluxes both inside and outside the plots were measured from May 2001 to August 2002. Soil respiration (i.e., the CO2 effluxes outside the trenched plots) varied similarly in the two plantations from 0.8 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 6.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in summer. Rhizosphere respiration (i.e., CO2 efflux outside the trenched plots minus that inside the plots) varied from 0.2 to 2.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the old forest and from 0.3 to 4.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the young forest over the seasons. Rhizosphere respiration, on average, accounted for 25% of soil respiration in the old forest and 65% in the young forest. Rhizosphere and soil respiration were significantly correlated with soil temperature but not with soil water content. We conclude that the role forests play in regulating climate change may depend on their age.

  17. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...

  20. Abnormal sound detection device

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  1. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  2. Soil Respiration And Respiration Partitioning In An Oak-Savannah With A History Of Fertilization

    Morris, K. A.; Nair, R.; Schrumpf, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil respiration is a combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic components. These components have different controls and structurally complex ecosystems such as oak-savannahs offer an opportunity to study strongly contrasting conditions (ie., soil from under trees versus open areas) in an environment with similar soil mineralogy and climatic patterns. To measure respiration coming from plant roots, fungal hyphae, and free-living microbes we established stations of soil cores comprised of three selectively permeable meshes under tree canopies and in open grassy areas of a Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) savannah in Extremadura, Spain. Large plots of this ecosystem had previously been fertilized as part of a stoichiometeric imbalance study (in 2015). Stations were installed in Dec. 2016 within four plots; control, N added, P added, and N+P added. Respiration from cores was measured in campaigns at key phenological stages with a portable Li-Cor 8100A unit. Six months after installation > 50% of soil respiration was attributable to free-living microbes. There is a persistent effect of the prior fertilization, resulting in increased soil respiration in open areas regardless of fertilizer type, while respiration from under tree canopies had a varied response. Soil under tree canopies showed distinct sensitivity to stoichiometric imbalance, meaning that addition of N or P alone either did not change respiration or decreased it slightly, while N+P stimulated respiration. We determined that respiration from free-living microbes is a major component of soil respiration even in the most active plant growing season. However, because of the lag between the time of fertilization and the time of measurement, it not possible to say whether treatment responses are due solely to nutrient status of the soil or whether changes in plant biomass and species composition also play a role. Additional work planned at the site will shed light on this uncertainty as well as the contribution of

  3. [Research progress on photosynthesis regulating and controlling soil respiration].

    Jing, Yan-Li; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil respiration and accurately estimate its magnitude are the crucial basis of evaluating global carbon balance. However, the previously built soil respiration forecast models usually neglect the physiological processes that photosynthesis supplies substrates for rhizospheric respiration, leading to the defect in evaluating the mechanisms of soil respiration. This paper summarized the research progress on the mechanisms of photosynthetic regulation and control of soil respiration, introduced the related main research methods, and discussed the existing problems and research hotspots.

  4. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  5. Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects

    Bruhn, D.

    2002-04-01

    Plant respiration is one of the key processes in terms of an understanding of plant growth and functioning in a future climate. Short- and long-term effects of temperature and CO 2 on plant respiration were investigated in a number of plant species. The experiments tested effects of either temperature and/or CO 2 from the level of individual respiratory enzymes, isolated mitochondria, whole-tissue, and up to the whole canopy level. The short-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on plant respiration appeared to be less than suggested so far in the literature. This was true both at the tissue level and for intact mitochondria. Respiratory enzymes can, however, be affected already at low CO 2 . These effects did not manifest itself at the tissue level, though, due to low degrees of control on the whole respiratory process exerted by the particular enzymes. Plant respiration on the other hand was affected by long-term growth at elevated atmospheric CO 2 . The findings of the reduced plant respiration at the leaf level were consistent with the literature and potential causes are discussed. Short-term effects of temperature on plant respiration were demonstrated to be dependent on the actual measurement temperature. Further, it is shown that mitochondrial leaf respiration in darkness and light differ substantially in the temperature sensitivity with the former being the far most sensitive. This has implications for modelling CO 2 exchange between vegetation and atmosphere as demonstrated here, since this has so far been neglected. Long-term effects of temperature resulted in respiratory acclimation in a number of species. Respiratory acclimation appeared not to occur to any one single type of growth temperature. The implications of this finding in combination with the timing of acclimation are discussed for modelling respiratory CO 2 release. (au)

  6. Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects

    Bruhn, D

    2002-04-01

    Plant respiration is one of the key processes in terms of an understanding of plant growth and functioning in a future climate. Short- and long-term effects of temperature and CO{sub 2} on plant respiration were investigated in a number of plant species. The experiments tested effects of either temperature and/or CO{sub 2} from the level of individual respiratory enzymes, isolated mitochondria, whole-tissue, and up to the whole canopy level. The short-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on plant respiration appeared to be less than suggested so far in the literature. This was true both at the tissue level and for intact mitochondria. Respiratory enzymes can, however, be affected already at low CO{sub 2}. These effects did not manifest itself at the tissue level, though, due to low degrees of control on the whole respiratory process exerted by the particular enzymes. Plant respiration on the other hand was affected by long-term growth at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The findings of the reduced plant respiration at the leaf level were consistent with the literature and potential causes are discussed. Short-term effects of temperature on plant respiration were demonstrated to be dependent on the actual measurement temperature. Further, it is shown that mitochondrial leaf respiration in darkness and light differ substantially in the temperature sensitivity with the former being the far most sensitive. This has implications for modelling CO{sub 2} exchange between vegetation and atmosphere as demonstrated here, since this has so far been neglected. Long-term effects of temperature resulted in respiratory acclimation in a number of species. Respiratory acclimation appeared not to occur to any one single type of growth temperature. The implications of this finding in combination with the timing of acclimation are discussed for modelling respiratory CO{sub 2} release. (au)

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain.

    Fukuda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, these potential alternate causes should be considered. In this clinical review, we have presented a case of referred pain from the digastric muscle (Patient 1), of pulpectomized (Patient 2), and of pulpectomized pain (Patient 3) to illustrate referred, neuromodulatory, and neuropathic pain, respectively. The Patient 1 was advised muscle stretching and gentle massage of the trigger points, as well as pain relief using a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. The pain in Patient 2 was relieved completely by the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. In Patient 3, the pain was controlled using either a continuous drip infusion of adenosine triphosphate or intravenous Mg2+ and lidocaine administered every 2 weeks. In each case of abnormal dental pain, the patient's diagnostic chart was used (Fig.2 and 3). Pain was satisfactorily relieved in all cases.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of muscle tears

    De Smet, A.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Heiner, J.P.; Keene, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance scans were obtained on 17 patients with acute, subacute, or chronic muscle tears. These patients presented with complaints of persistent pain or a palpable mass. Magnetic resonance findings were characterized according to alterations in muscle shape and the presence of abnormal high signal within the injured muscle. These areas of high signal were noted on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans and were presumed to represent areas of intramuscular hemorrhage. (orig.)

  9. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO 2 differential (ΔCO 2 ) increased two-fold with no change in apparent R d , when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO 2 . Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO 2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  11. Effect of Hyperglycemia on Mitochondrial Respiration in Type 2 Diabetes

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Højberg, Patricia M V; Almdal, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Whether hyperglycemia inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis and/or function is unknown. This study examined the effect of different levels of glycemia on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in patients with T2......DM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with T2DM [9 males, 2 females; age, 52.8 +/- 2.5 yr (mean +/- se); body mass index, 30.2 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)] in poor glycemic control were treated with insulin aspart and NPH insulin for a median period of 46 d (range, 31-59). Mitochondrial respiration...... and citrate synthase activity (a marker of mitochondrial content) were measured before and after treatment. Eleven healthy subjects (age, 53.3 +/- 2.7 yr; body mass index, 30.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) were included as controls. RESULTS: Hemoglobin A1c (9.1 +/- 0.5 to 7.5 +/- 0.3%; P

  12. Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles

    E.W. Taylor

    Full Text Available Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the reticular formation. In air-breathing fishes and amphibians, there may be separate RRG for gill and lung ventilation. There is some evidence for multiple RRG in reptiles. Both amphibians and reptiles show episodic breathing patterns that may be centrally generated, though they do respond to changes in oxygen supply. Fish and larval amphibians have chemoreceptors sensitive to oxygen partial pressure located on the gills. Hypoxia induces increased ventilation and a reflex bradycardia and may trigger aquatic surface respiration or air-breathing, though these latter activities also respond to behavioural cues. Adult amphibians and reptiles have peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid arteries and central chemoreceptors sensitive to blood carbon dioxide levels. Lung perfusion may be regulated by cardiac shunting and lung ventilation stimulates lung stretch receptors.

  13. Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles.

    Taylor, E W; Leite, C A C; McKenzie, D J; Wang, T

    2010-05-01

    Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG) located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the reticular formation. In air-breathing fishes and amphibians, there may be separate RRG for gill and lung ventilation. There is some evidence for multiple RRG in reptiles. Both amphibians and reptiles show episodic breathing patterns that may be centrally generated, though they do respond to changes in oxygen supply. Fish and larval amphibians have chemoreceptors sensitive to oxygen partial pressure located on the gills. Hypoxia induces increased ventilation and a reflex bradycardia and may trigger aquatic surface respiration or air-breathing, though these latter activities also respond to behavioural cues. Adult amphibians and reptiles have peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid arteries and central chemoreceptors sensitive to blood carbon dioxide levels. Lung perfusion may be regulated by cardiac shunting and lung ventilation stimulates lung stretch receptors.

  14. Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles

    E.W. Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the reticular formation. In air-breathing fishes and amphibians, there may be separate RRG for gill and lung ventilation. There is some evidence for multiple RRG in reptiles. Both amphibians and reptiles show episodic breathing patterns that may be centrally generated, though they do respond to changes in oxygen supply. Fish and larval amphibians have chemoreceptors sensitive to oxygen partial pressure located on the gills. Hypoxia induces increased ventilation and a reflex bradycardia and may trigger aquatic surface respiration or air-breathing, though these latter activities also respond to behavioural cues. Adult amphibians and reptiles have peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid arteries and central chemoreceptors sensitive to blood carbon dioxide levels. Lung perfusion may be regulated by cardiac shunting and lung ventilation stimulates lung stretch receptors.

  15. Contribution of Cell Elongation to the Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Anaerobic Respiration

    Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO2 −) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process. PMID:21267455

  16. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  17. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  18. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  19. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...

  20. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  1. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Haymon, M.L.; Willis, R.B.; Ehlayel, M.S.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Lacassie, Y.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Children's Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1997-01-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20 1 / 2 -year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  2. Muscle Contraction.

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. How to read an electrocardiogram (ECG). Part 2:Abnormalities of ...

    Ann Burgess

    Electrical conduction and its abnormalities. Contraction of the heart muscle occurs in response to electrical depolarisation – the rapid spread of electrical activity throughout the myocardium which is facilitated by specialised conduction tissue. This process normally begins with spontaneous depolarisation of cells in the sinus ...

  4. Diseases and disorders of muscle.

    Pearson, A M; Young, R B

    1993-01-01

    Muscle may suffer from a number of diseases or disorders, some being fatal to humans and animals. Their management or treatment depends on correct diagnosis. Although no single method may be used to identify all diseases, recognition depends on the following diagnostic procedures: (1) history and clinical examination, (2) blood biochemistry, (3) electromyography, (4) muscle biopsy, (5) nuclear magnetic resonance, (6) measurement of muscle cross-sectional area, (7) tests of muscle function, (8) provocation tests, and (9) studies on protein turnover. One or all of these procedures may prove helpful in diagnosis, but even then identification of the disorder may not be possible. Nevertheless, each of these procedures can provide useful information. Among the most common diseases in muscle are the muscular dystrophies, in which the newly identified muscle protein dystrophin is either absent or present at less than normal amounts in both Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy. Although the identification of dystrophin represents a major breakthrough, treatment has not progressed to the experimental stage. Other major diseases of muscle include the inflammatory myopathies and neuropathies. Atrophy and hypertrophy of muscle and the relationship of aging, exercise, and fatigue all add to our understanding of the behavior of normal and abnormal muscle. Some other interesting related diseases and disorders of muscle include myasthenia gravis, muscular dysgenesis, and myclonus. Disorders of energy metabolism include those caused by abnormal glycolysis (Von Gierke's, Pompe's, Cori-Forbes, Andersen's, McArdle's, Hers', and Tauri's diseases) and by the acquired diseases of glycolysis (disorders of mitochondrial oxidation). Still other diseases associated with abnormal energy metabolism include lipid-related disorders (carnitine and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase deficiencies) and myotonic syndromes (myotonia congenita, paramyotonia congenita, hypokalemic and hyperkalemic

  5. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use......Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  6. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  7. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  8. LIMITATION OF SOIL RESPIRATION DURING DRY PERIOD

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Acosta, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 47-52. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : moisture * Norway spruce * precipitation * respiration * soil CO2 efflux Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Internal current generation in respiration chambers

    Saborowski, R.; Buchholz, F.

    1998-06-01

    A technical device generating a constant and directed current within a sealed respiration chamber is described. It does not involve any external pumps or tubing. This system is easy to handle, and improved the maintenance of rheotactic pelagic species like the Northern krill ( Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Crustacea) or small fishes ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) under experimental conditions.

  10. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    2010-10-01

    ...; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84...., dust clouds produced in mining, quarrying, and tunneling, and in dusts produced during industrial... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying...

  11. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a open-quotes waffle-ironclose quotes effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors

  12. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  13. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  14. Geochemical importance of isotopic fractionation during respiration

    Schleser, G.; Foerstel, H.

    1975-01-01

    In 1935 it was found that atmospheric oxygen contained a relatively greater abundance of the 18 O isotope than did the oxygen bound in water (Dole effect). A major contribution to the fractionation of the stable oxygen isotopes should result from the respiration of microorganisms. In this respect our interest centers on the soil because nearly all organic material produced on land is decomposed within the soil. The oceans are less important because the primary productivity on land is twice the value for the oceans. In a first approach we measured the oxygen isotope fractionation during the respiration of E. coli K12 for different respiration rates. These results, accomplished with a chemostat, indicate that the fractionation factor α of the oxygen isotopes increases with the increasing respiratory activity, measured as Q/sub O 2 /. At low dilution rates or growth rates respectively of about 0.05 h -1 , the fractionation factor amounts to 1.006 increasing to 1.017 at dilution rates of about 1.0 h -1 . The results are interpreted as a kinetic mass fractionation due to the slightly different diffusion coefficients of 16 O 2 and 18 O 16 O. The respiration rates in conjunction with the corresponding fractionation data are compared with the respiration rates of typical soil microorganisms such as Azotobacter, in order to deduce fractionation data for these organisms. This is necessary to calculate a mean global fractionation factor. Understanding the Dole effect with these fractionation processes should finally give us the opportunity to calculate gas-exchange rates between the atmosphere and the oceans, on the basis of the behavior of the stable oxygen isotopes

  15. Acceptable respiratory protection program and LASL respirator research

    Skaggs, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A short history is presented on the LASL Respiratory Protection Training Programs. Then a discussion is given on the major points of an acceptable respiratory protection program utilizing the points required by the Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulation 29 CFR 1910.134. Contributions to respirator research are reviewed. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: program administration; respirator selection; respirator use; fitting and training; respirator maintenance; medical clearance and surveillance; special problems; program evaluation; and documentation

  16. Contribution of root to soil respiration and carbon balance in ...

    Soil respiration varied from 2.5 to 11.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1 and from 1.5 to 9.3 g CO2 m-2 d-1, and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration from 38% to 76% and from 25% to 72% in Communities 1 and 2, respectively. During the growing season (May–September), soil respiration, shoot biomass, live root ...

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. Nutrients and temperature additively increase stream microbial respiration

    David W. P. Manning; Amy D. Rosemond; Vladislav Gulis; Jonathan P. Benstead; John S. Kominoski

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co‐occurring global‐change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon, but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across...

  19. Thermal adaptation of heterotrophic soil respiration in laboratory microcosms.

    Mark A. Bradford; Brian W. Watts; Christian A. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Respiration of heterotrophic microorganisms decomposing soil organic carbon releases carbon dioxide from soils to the atmosphere. In the short term, soil microbial respiration is strongly dependent on temperature. In the long term, the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature is uncertain. However, following established evolutionary tradeoffs, mass-...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  2. What controls respiration rate in stored sugarbeet roots

    Although respiration is estimated to be responsible for 60 to 80% of the sucrose lost during storage, the mechanisms by which sugarbeet roots regulate their respiration rate are unknown. In plants, respiration rate is regulated by (1) available respiratory capacity, (2) cellular energy status, (3) ...

  3. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  4. Quantifying soil respiration at landscape scales. Chapter 11

    John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Soil CO2, efflux, or soil respiration, represents a substantial component of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, quantifying soil respiration over large areas and long time periods is an increasingly important goal. However, soil respiration rates vary dramatically in space and time in response to both environmental conditions...

  5. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  9. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forest

    E.A. Davidson; A.D. Richardson; K.E. Savage; D.Y. Hollinger

    2006-01-01

    Annual budgets and fitted temperature response curves for soil respiration and ecosystem respiration provide useful information for partitioning annual carbon budgets of ecosystems, but they may not adequately reveal seasonal variation in the ratios of these two fluxes. Soil respiration (Rs) typically contributes 30-80% of...

  10. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  11. Your Muscles

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  12. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  14. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  16. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Sperling, Or; Earles, J Mason; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq.) cm(-3) yr(-1) on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  17. Did Respiration or Photosynthesis Come First

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    The similarity of the mechanisms in photosynthetic and in oxidative phosphorylation suggests a common origin ( convers ion hypothesis). It is proposed that an early form of electron flow with oxidative phosphorylation ("prerespiration"), to terminal electron acceptors available in a reducing biosphere, was supplemented by a photocatalyst capable of a redox reaction. In this way, cyclic photophosphorylation arose. Further stages in evolution were reverse electron flow powered by ATP, to make NADH as a reductant for CO2 , and subsequently noncyclic electron flow. These processes concomitantly provided the oxidants indispensable for full development of oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. for normal respiration: sulphate, O2 and with participation of the nitrificants, nitrite and nitrate. Thus, prerespiration preceded photosynthesis, and this preceded respiration. It is also suggested that nonredox photoprocesses of the Halobacterium type are not part of the mainstream of bioenergetic evolution. They do not lead to photoprocesses with electron flow. (author)

  18. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  19. Absent abdominal muscles, nephro-urologic abnormalities, and ...

    Kamal F. Akl

    2014-12-23

    Dec 23, 2014 ... multiplex congenital, low set ears, short neck, micrognathia, bilateral total ptosis, and bilateral ... Imaging; voiding cystourethrogram revealed bilateral grade .... 9q22.3 microduplication spanning short stature syndrome with.

  20. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  1. The external respiration and gas exchange in space missions

    Baranov, V. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Kotov, A. N.

    Literature data and results of our own studies into an effect of micro- and macro-gravity on an external respiration function of man are presented. It is found that in cosmonauts following the 7-366 day space missions there is an enhanced tendency associated with an increased flight duration toward a decrease in the lung volume and breathing mechanics parameters: forced vital capacity of the lungs (FVC) by 5-25 percent, peak inspiratory and expiratory (air) flows (PIF, PEF) by 5-40 percent. A decrease in FVC appears to be explained by a new balance of elastic forces of the lungs, chest and abdomen occuring in microgravity as well as by an increased blood filling and pulmonary hydration. A decline of PIF and PEF is probalbly resulted from antigravitational deconditioning of the respiratory muscles with which a postflight decreased physical performance can in part be associated. The ventilation/perfusion ratios during orthostasis and +G Z and +G X accelerations are estimated. The biophysical nature of developing the absorption atelectases on a combined exposure to accelerations and 100% oxygen breathing is confirmed. A hypothesis that hypervolemia and pulmonary congestion can increase the tendency toward the development of atelectases in space in particular during pure oxygen breathing is suggested. Respiratory physiology problem area which is of interest for space medicine is defined. It is well known that due to present-day technologic progress and accomplishments in applied physiology including applied respiration physiology there currently exist sophisticated technical facilities in operation maintaining the life and professional working capacity of a man in various natural environments: on Earth, under water and in space. By the way, the biomedical involvement in developing and constructing such facilities has enabled an accumulation of a great body of information from experimental studies and full-scale trails to examine the effects of the changed environments

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  3. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  4. Rejuvenating cellular respiration for optimizing respiratory function: targeting mitochondria.

    Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2016-01-15

    Altered bioenergetics with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and degradation of epithelial function are key aspects of pathogenesis in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This motif is not unique to obstructive airway disease, reported in related airway diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and parenchymal diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelium or skeletal muscles contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and systemic manifestations of lung disease. In experimental models of COPD or asthma, the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ, has substantially improved mitochondrial health and restored respiratory function. Modulation of noncoding RNA or protein regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or degradation has been found to be effective in models of fibrosis, emphysema, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Transfer of healthy mitochondria to epithelial cells has been associated with remarkable therapeutic efficacy in models of acute lung injury and asthma. Together, these form a 3R model--repair, reprogramming, and replacement--for mitochondria-targeted therapies in lung disease. This review highlights the key role of mitochondrial function in lung health and disease, with a focus on asthma and COPD, and provides an overview of mitochondria-targeted strategies for rejuvenating cellular respiration and optimizing respiratory function in lung diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve-paced respiration in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Domanski, Mark C; Preciado, Diego A

    2012-01-01

    Phrenic nerve pacing can be used to treat congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We report how the lack of normal vocal cord tone during phrenic paced respiration can result in passive vocal cord collapse and produce obstructive symptoms. We describe a case of passive vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve paced respiration in a patient with CCHS. As far as we know, this is the first report of this etiology of airway obstruction. The patient, a 7-year-old with CCHS and normal waking vocal cord movement, continued to require nightly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) despite successful utilization of phrenic nerve pacers. On direct laryngoscopy, the patient's larynx was observed while the diaphragmatic pacers were sequentially engaged. No abnormal vocal cord stimulation was witnessed during engaging of either phrenic nerve stimulator. However, the lack of normal inspiratory vocal cord abduction during phrenic nerve-paced respiration resulted in vocal cord collapse and partial obstruction due to passive adduction of the vocal cords through the Bernoulli effect. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation resulted in more vocal cord collapse than unilateral stimulation. The lack of vocal cord abduction on inspiration presents a limit to phrenic nerve pacers.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    ... in the development of a particular branch of cranial nerve III, which emerges from the brain and controls ... nerve cells, preventing the normal development of these cranial nerves and the extraocular muscles they control. Abnormal function ...

  7. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of diversity on soil respiration. We hypothesized that plant diversity could affect soil respiration in two ways. On the one hand, more diverse plant communities have been shown to promote plant productivity, which could increase soil respiration. On the other hand, the nutrient concentration in the biomass produced has been shown to decrease with diversity, which could counteract the production-induced increase in soil respiration. Our results clearly show that soil respiration increased with species richness. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was not due to differences in species composition. In general, soil respiration in mixtures was higher than would be expected from the monocultures. Path analysis revealed that species richness predominantly regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity. No evidence supporting the hypothesized negative effect of lower N concentration on soil respiration was found. We conclude that shifts in productivity are the main mechanism by which changes in plant diversity may affect soil respiration.

  8. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle...... diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in mutator mice confer respiration defects and B-cell lymphoma development.

    Takayuki Mito

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutator mice are proposed to express premature aging phenotypes including kyphosis and hair loss (alopecia due to their carrying a nuclear-encoded mtDNA polymerase with a defective proofreading function, which causes accelerated accumulation of random mutations in mtDNA, resulting in expression of respiration defects. On the contrary, transmitochondrial mito-miceΔ carrying mtDNA with a large-scale deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA also express respiration defects, but not express premature aging phenotypes. Here, we resolved this discrepancy by generating mtDNA mutator mice sharing the same C57BL/6J (B6J nuclear background with that of mito-miceΔ. Expression patterns of premature aging phenotypes are very close, when we compared between homozygous mtDNA mutator mice carrying a B6J nuclear background and selected mito-miceΔ only carrying predominant amounts of ΔmtDNA, in their expression of significant respiration defects, kyphosis, and a short lifespan, but not the alopecia. Therefore, the apparent discrepancy in the presence and absence of premature aging phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, respectively, is partly the result of differences in the nuclear background of mtDNA mutator mice and of the broad range of ΔmtDNA proportions of mito-miceΔ used in previous studies. We also provided direct evidence that mtDNA abnormalities in homozygous mtDNA mutator mice are responsible for respiration defects by demonstrating the co-transfer of mtDNA and respiration defects from mtDNA mutator mice into mtDNA-less (ρ(0 mouse cells. Moreover, heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice had a normal lifespan, but frequently developed B-cell lymphoma, suggesting that the mtDNA abnormalities in heterozygous mutator mice are not sufficient to induce a short lifespan and aging phenotypes, but are able to contribute to the B-cell lymphoma development during their prolonged lifespan.

  10. Muscle cramps

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  11. Muscle atrophy

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  12. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  13. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  14. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  15. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a beech forest

    Brændholt, Andreas; Ibrom, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration (Reco) represents a major component of the global carbon cycle. It consists of many sub-components, such as aboveground plant respiration and belowground root and microbial respiration, each of which may respond differently to abiotic factors, and thus to global...... of Reco in a temperate beech forest at diel, seasonal and annual time scales. Reco was measured by eddy covariance while respiration rates from soil, tree stems and isolated coarse tree roots were measured bi-hourly by an automated closed-chamber system. Soil respiration (Rsoil) was measured in intact...... plots, and heterotrophic Rsoil was measured in trenched plots. Tree stem (Rstem) and coarse root (Rroot) respiration were measured by custom made closed-chambers. We found that the contribution of Rstem to total Reco varied across the year, by only accounting for 6% of Reco during winter and 16% during...

  16. Disorders of paravertebral lumbar muscles: from pathology to cross-sectional imaging

    Bierry, Guillaume; Kremer, Stephane; Abu Eid, Maher; Bogorin, Adriana; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [University Hospital, Hautepierre Hospital, Department of Radiology 2, Strasbourg (France); Kellner, Frauke [Inselspital Bern, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Paravertebral lumbar muscles are important for spine stabilization and mobility. They may be abnormal in several disorders that may be associated with pain or functional impairment. Special attention should be paid to the paravertebral muscles during imaging, so that a possible muscular disease is not overlooked, especially in patients with low back pain. This article reviews such imaging abnormalities. (orig.)

  17. Disorders of paravertebral lumbar muscles: from pathology to cross-sectional imaging

    Bierry, Guillaume; Kremer, Stephane; Abu Eid, Maher; Bogorin, Adriana; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kellner, Frauke

    2008-01-01

    Paravertebral lumbar muscles are important for spine stabilization and mobility. They may be abnormal in several disorders that may be associated with pain or functional impairment. Special attention should be paid to the paravertebral muscles during imaging, so that a possible muscular disease is not overlooked, especially in patients with low back pain. This article reviews such imaging abnormalities. (orig.)

  18. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  19. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... decay, predation and death-regeneration are discussed. From recent microbial research it has become evident that cells do not die by themselves. Bacteria are however subject to predation by protozoa. Bacteria store reserve polymers that in absence of external substrate are used for growth...

  20. Development of an Advanced Respirator Fit Test Headform (Postprint)

    2012-11-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for pro - tection studies against viable airborne particles. A Static (i.e., non-moving, non-speaking...requiredto wear respirators to reduce their exposure to air- borne hazards.(1) The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) Respiratory...13 workplace protection factors.(9,10). Inward leakage (IL) of con - taminants into a respirator facepiece has been described as a combination of

  1. Soil Respiration under Different Land Uses in Eastern China

    Fan, Li-Chao; Yang, Ming-Zhen; Han, Wen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change has a crucial influence on soil respiration, which further affects soil nutrient availability and carbon stock. We monitored soil respiration rates under different land-use types (tea gardens with three production levels, adjacent woodland, and a vegetable field) in Eastern China at weekly intervals over a year using the dynamic closed chamber method. The relationship between soil respiration and environmental factors was also evaluated. The soil respiration rate exhibited a remarkable single peak that was highest in July/August and lowest in January. The annual cumulative respiration flux increased by 25.6% and 20.9% in the tea garden with high production (HP) and the vegetable field (VF), respectively, relative to woodland (WL). However, no significant differences were observed between tea gardens with medium production (MP), low production (LP), WL, and VF. Soil respiration rates were significantly and positively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorous content. Each site displayed a significant exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature measured at 5 cm depth, which explained 84–98% of the variation in soil respiration. The model with a combination of soil temperature and moisture was better at predicting the temporal variation of soil respiration rate than the single temperature model for all sites. Q10 was 2.40, 2.00, and 1.86–1.98 for VF, WL, and tea gardens, respectively, indicating that converting WL to VF increased and converting to tea gardens decreased the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. The equation of the multiple linear regression showed that identical factors, including soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC), pH, and water soluble aluminum (WSAl), drove the changes in soil respiration and Q10 after conversion of land use. Temporal variations of soil respiration were mainly controlled by soil temperature, whereas spatial variations were

  2. Central nervous system abnormalities in vaginismus.

    Frasson, Emma; Graziottin, Alessandra; Priori, Alberto; Dall'ora, Elisa; Didonè, Giuseppe; Garbin, Emilio Luigi; Vicentini, Silvana; Bertolasi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To investigate possible altered CNS excitability in vaginismus. In 10 patients with primary idiopathic lifelong vaginismus, 10 with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome accompanied by vaginismus and healthy controls we recorded EMG activity from the levator ani (LA) and external anal sphincter (EAS) muscles and tested bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR). Pudendal-nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were tested after a single stimulus. Pudendal-nerve SEP recovery functions were assessed using a paired conditioning-test paradigm at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 5, 20 and 40ms. EMG in patients showed muscular hyperactivity at rest and reduced inhibition during straining. The BCR polysynaptic R2 had larger amplitude (pvaginismus. The neurophysiological abnormalities in patients with vaginismus indicate concomitant CNS changes in this disorder.

  3. Skeletal muscle proteomic signature and metabolic impairment in pulmonary hypertension.

    Malenfant, Simon; Potus, François; Fournier, Frédéric; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Pflieger, Aude; Bourassa, Sylvie; Tremblay, Ève; Nehmé, Benjamin; Droit, Arnaud; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2015-05-01

    Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences that impaired mitochondrial and metabolic functions found in the lungs and the right ventricle are also present in skeletal muscles of patients. • Proteomic and metabolic analysis show abnormal oxidative metabolism in PAH skeletal muscle. • EM of PAH patients reveals abnormal mitochondrial structure and distribution. • Abnormal mitochondrial health and function contribute to exercise impairments of PAH. • PAH may be considered a vascular affliction of heart and lungs with major impact on peripheral muscles.

  4. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Unknown

    The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the .... 10 days, sieved 50 g soil samples were placed in a 100 ml beaker and a 250 ..... Comparatively, the method can take multi-samples by ...

  5. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  6. How study of respiratory physiology aided our understanding of abnormal brain function in panic disorder.

    Sinha, S; Papp, L A; Gorman, J M

    2000-12-01

    There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration (hyperventilation) is a common event in panic disorder patients during panic attack episodes. Further, a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in panic patients. This led some to posit that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in panic disorder and that this abnormality is central to illness etiology. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated suggesting that respiratory physiology is normal in panic patients and that their tendency to hyperventilate and to react with panic to respiratory stimulants like CO2 represents the triggering of a hypersensitive fear network. The fear network anatomy is taken from preclinical studies that have identified the brain pathways that subserve the acquisition and maintenance of conditioned fear. Included are the amygdala and its brain stem projections, the hippocampus, and the medial prefrontal cortex. Although attempts to image this system in patients during panic attacks have been difficult, the theory that the fear network is operative and hyperactive in panic patients explains why both medication and psychosocial therapies are clearly effective. Studies of respiration in panic disorder are an excellent example of the way in which peripheral markers have guided researchers in developing a more complete picture of the neural events that occur in psychopathological states.

  7. [The development of a respiration and temperature monitor].

    Du, X; Wu, B; Liu, Y; He, Q; Xiao, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper introduces the design of a monitoring system to measure the respiration and temperature of a body with an 8Xc196 single-chip microcomputer. This system can measure and display the respiration wave, respiration frequency and the body temperature in real-time with a liquid crystal display (LCD) and give an alarm when the parameters are beyond the normal scope. In addition, this device can provide a 24 hours trend graph of the respiration frequency and the body temperature parameters measured. Data can also be exchanged through serial communication interfaces (RS232) between the PC and the monitor.

  8. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...... consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems...

  9. Respirator studies for the ERDA Division of Safety, Standards, and Compliance. Progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Douglas, D.D.; Hack, A.L.; Davis, T.O.; Shafer, C.; Moore, T.O.; Richards, C.P.; Revoir, W.H.

    1976-08-01

    Major accomplishments during FY 1975 were the initiation of a respirator research program to investigate the physiological effects of wearing a respirator under stress, assisting ERDA contractors by providing information and training concerning respirator programs, quality assurance of respirators, and respirator applications. A newsletter of respirator developments for ERDA contractor personnel was published, and a Respirator Symposium was conducted

  10. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  11. Penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filters

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Pearson, S.D.; Rohrbacher, K.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, the health risks associated with asbestos have restricted its use and created a growing asbestos abatement industry with a need for respirator filters that are effective for worker protection. The main purpose of this project is to determine the influence of fiber size, electrostatic charge, and flow rate on the penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filter cartridges. The study includes four types of filters each tested at two flow rates: the AO-R57A, a dual cartridge HEPA filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-S, a dust and mist filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-A power filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min; and the 3M-8710, a low-efficiency disposable face mask filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min. The three types of asbestos fibers used (amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile) ranged in length from 0.04-0.5 μm and in aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) from 3 to 60. The fibers were used in both charged and neutralized forms. The results from amosite fibers are reported here

  12. Can we distinguish autotrophic respiration from heterotrophic respiration in a field site using high temporal resolution CO2 flux measurements?

    Biro, Beatrice; Berger, Sina; Praetzel, Leandra; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The processes behind C-cycling in peatlands are important to understand for assessing the vulnerability of peatlands as carbon sinks under changing climate conditions. Especially boreal peatlands are likely to underlie strong alterations in the future. It is expected that C-pools that are directly influenced by vegetation and water table fluctuations can be easily destabilized. The CO2 efflux through respiration underlies autotrophic and heterotrophic processes that show different feedbacks on changing environmental conditions. In order to understand the respiration fluxes better for more accurate modelling and prognoses, the determination of the relative importance of different respiration sources is necessary. Earlier studies used e.g. exfoliation experiments, incubation experiments or modelling approaches to estimate the different respiration sources for the total ecosystem respiration (Reco). To further the understanding in this topic, I want to distinguish autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using high temporal resolution measurements. The study site was selected along a hydrological gradient in a peatland in southern Ontario (Canada) and measurements were conducted from May to September 2015 once per month. Environmental controls (water table, soil temperature and soil moisture) that effect the respiration sources were recorded. In my study I used a Li-COR 6400XT and a Los Gatos greenhouse gas analyzer (GGA). Reco was determined by chamber flux measurements with the GGA, while simultaneously CO2 respiration measurements on different vegetation compartments like roots, leaves and mosses were conducted using the Li-COR 6400XT. The difference between Reco and autotrophic respiration equals heterotrophic respiration. After the measurements, the vegetation plots were harvested and separated for all compartments (leaves, roots, mosses, soil organic matter), dried and weighed. The weighted respiration rates from all vegetation compartments sum up to

  13. Contractility and supersensitivity to adrenaline in dystrophic muscle.

    Takamori, M

    1975-01-01

    In the adductor pollicis muscle of patients with limb-girdle and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies and possible carriers of Duchenne type muscular dystrophy, abnormal active state properties were found at the time when there was no alteration of needle electromyography and evoked muscle action potentials. Adrenaline induced a marked reduction of incomplete tetanus via beta receptors without change in neuromuscular transmission. PMID:1151415

  14. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  15. Magnetic resonance findings in skeletal muscle tears

    De Smet, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of skeletal muscle tears can clearly delineate the severity of muscle injury. Although MR imaging is seldom necessary in patients with acute musle trauma, it can be helpful in deciding on clinical management. The two major MR findings in acute muscle tears are deformity of the muscle and the presence of abnormal signal reflecting hemorrhage and edema. In acute tears, methemoglobin within the extravascular blood causes high-signal areas on both T1- and T2-weighted images. With partial tears, the blood may dissect in a distinctive linear pattern along the muscle bundles and fibers. As healing begins, the muscle signal diminishes, first on the T1-weighted images and then on the T2-weighted images. When there is residual abnormal signal on images obtained more than several months after the injury, it is presumed to represent hemorrhage from recurrent tears. In patients with a questionable history of a remote injury, the clinical presentation may be that of persistent pain or a soft tissue mass. In these cases MR imaging may identify the cause of the pain and can exclude a neoplasm by proving that the mass is a hypertrophied or retracted musle. Thus, MR imaging has a limited, but occasionally important role in selected patients with skeletal muscle tears. (orig.)

  16. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  17. Abnormal mitochondria in Rett syndrome: one case report.

    Mak, S C; Chi, C S; Chen, C H; Shian, W J

    1993-08-01

    A 6-year-9-month-old girl with the characteristic features of Rett syndrome is reported. Clinically, she had microcephaly, psychomotor arrest, deterioration of communication, autistic behaviour, loss of language development, gait apraxia and stereotyped hand washing movement. Amino acid and organic acid analysis were normal. An abnormal rise in serum lactate was noted 120 minutes after oral glucose loading. Muscle biopsy was performed and there was no specific finding noted under light microscope. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed mild accumulation of mitochondria at subsarcolemmal area with abnormal tubular cristae. The cause of Rett syndrome remains obscure. Several articles concerning abnormal mitochondrial morphology or respiratory enzymes have been reported. The exact pathogenesis requires further investigation.

  18. Mediators on human airway smooth muscle.

    Armour, C; Johnson, P; Anticevich, S; Ammit, A; McKay, K; Hughes, M; Black, J

    1997-01-01

    1. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma may be due to several abnormalities, but must include alterations in the airway smooth muscle responsiveness and/or volume. 2. Increased responsiveness of airway smooth muscle in vitro can be induced by certain inflammatory cell products and by induction of sensitization (atopy). 3. Increased airway smooth muscle growth can also be induced by inflammatory cell products and atopic serum. 4. Mast cell numbers are increased in the airways of asthmatics and, in our studies, in airway smooth muscle that is sensitized and hyperresponsive. 5. We propose that there is a relationship between mast cells and airway smooth muscle cells which, once an allergic process has been initiated, results in the development of critical features in the lungs in asthma.

  19. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    Gerhard Sengle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that

  20. Computed tomography of the iliopsoas muscle

    Nino-Murcia, M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an ideal method for the imaging of the psoas muscle. The authors present 13 cases of patients with psoas abnormalities diagnosed by CT. The CT features of the different pathologic entities and comparison of CT with other imaging modalities are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary and chest wall mechanics in the control of respiration in the newborn.

    Davis, G M; Bureau, M A

    1987-09-01

    Although the respiratory system is not fully developed at birth, the human newborn infant has flexible strategies to sustain breathing and defend blood gas homeostasis in both health and disease conditions. Initially the thresholds for chemoreceptor response to PO2 and PCO2 closely mimic those of the fetus, but the threshold resets to sustain ventilation adequate for blood gas homeostasis appropriate to the extrauterine milieu. The muscles of respiration have been "trained" in utero and effectively assume the function of the respiratory pump, despite their marginal reserve against fatigue. The pliable chest wall is functionally stabilized by the tonic activity of the intercostal muscles, thereby allowing effective ventilation. Finally, expiration is prolonged by the postinspiratory activity of the diaphragm and laryngeal braking as a means of maintaining an elevated lung volume and augmenting FRC. The ventilatory response of the newborn to respiratory disease is limited. The magnitude of the VE response is smaller than that of the adult, and is characterized by an increase in the respiratory rate and a limited increase in the VT. The poor effort reserve of the muscles, especially the diaphragm, predisposes the newborn to muscle fatigue and ventilatory failure. To avoid fatigue, recruitment of accessory muscles occurs, along with laryngeal braking of expiration, thereby decreasing the work of the diaphragm, recruiting new alveoli by an auto-PEEP effect, increasing the FRC volume, and improving gas exchange by an increase in the pulmonary surface area. These mechanisms help to avoid muscle exhaustion and facilitate adequate gas exchange in the presence of lung disease. We do not know precisely the postconceptual age at which the newborn is sufficiently developed to adopt these various defensive strategies of breathing, but the presence of tachypnea and grunting in 28-week-old premature infants suggests that long before term the human infant is capable of remarkable

  2. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation with methadone and benzodiazepines.

  3. Lymphocyte respiration in children with Trisomy 21

    Aburawi Elhadi H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study measured lymphocyte mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration in children with trisomy 21. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood of trisomy 21 and control children and these cells were immediately used to measure cellular respiration rate. [O2] was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates (1/τ of Pd (II-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin. In sealed vials containing lymphocytes and glucose as a respiratory substrate, [O2] declined linearly with time, confirming the zero-order kinetics of O2 conversion to H2O by cytochrome oxidase. The rate of respiration (k, in μM O2 min-1, thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming that oxidation occurred in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Results For control children (age = 8.8 ± 5.6 years, n = 26, the mean (± SD value of kc (in μM O2 per min per 107 cells was 1.36 ± 0.79 (coefficient of variation, Cv = 58%; median = 1.17; range = 0.60 to 3.12; -2SD = 0.61. For children with trisomy 21 (age = 7.2 ± 4.6 years, n = 26, the values of kc were 0.82 ± 0.62 (Cv = 76%; median = 0.60; range = 0.20 to 2.80, pp6.1 mU/L. Fourteen of 26 (54% children with trisomy 21 had kc values of 0.20 to 0.60 (i.e., kc positively correlated with body-mass index (BMI, R >0.302, serum creatinine (R >0.507, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, R >0.535 and albumin (R >0.446. Conclusions Children with trisomy 21 in this study have reduced lymphocyte bioenergetics. The clinical importance of this finding requires further studies.

  4. Simulation of Human Respiration with Breathing Thermal Manikin

    Bjørn, Erik

    The human respiration contains carbon dioxide, bioeffluents, and perhaps virus or bacteria. People may also indulge in activities that produce contaminants, as for example tobacco smoking. For these reasons, the human respiration remains one of the main contributors to contamination of the indoor...

  5. Interpreting diel hysteresis between soil respiration and temperature

    C. Phillips; N. Nickerson; D. Risk; B.J. Bond

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use of automated soil respiration chambers in recent years has demonstrated complex diel relationships between soil respiration and temperature that are not apparent from less frequent measurements. Soil surface flux is often lagged from soil temperature by several hours, which results in semielliptical hysteresis loops when surface flux is plotted as a...

  6. Differential soil respiration responses to changing hydrologic regimes

    Vincent J. Pacific; Brian L. McGlynn; Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Howard E. Epstein; Daniel L. Welsch

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration is tightly coupled to the hydrologic cycle (i.e., snowmelt and precipitation timing and magnitude). We examined riparian and hillslope soil respiration across a wet (2005) and a dry (2006) growing season in a subalpine catchment. When comparing the riparian zones, cumulative CO2 efflux was 33% higher, and peak efflux occurred 17 days earlier during the...

  7. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  8. Soil respiration response to experimental disturbances over 3 years

    Amy Concilio; Siyan Ma; Soung-Ryoul Ryu; Malcolm North; Jiquan Chen

    2006-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major pathway for carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about its response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study examined soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning treatments in an old-growth, mixed-conifer forest on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Experimental treatments...

  9. Respirators: Air Purifying, Self-Study, Course 40723

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Respirators: Air Purifying Self-Study (COURSE 40723) is designed for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) workers, support services subcontractors, and other LANL subcontractors who work under the LANL Respiratory Protection Program (RPP). This course also meets the air-purifying respirators (APRs) retraining requirement.

  10. Soil Respiration and Student Inquiry: A Perfect Match

    Hoyt, Catherine Marie; Wallenstein, Matthew David

    2011-01-01

    This activity explores the cycling of carbon between the atmosphere (primarily as CO[subscript 2]) and biomass in plants, animals, and microscopic organisms. Students design soil respiration experiments using a protocol that resembles current practice in soil ecology. Three methods for measuring soil respiration are presented. Student-derived…

  11. Evaluation of muscle MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Baba, Yuri; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    Various objective measurements can be used to diagnose amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). T2-weighted brain MRI images revealed high signal areas at the posterior limb of the internal capsules in ALS patients. Recently, muscle MRI proved useful to evaluate abnormalities of the muscle in myositis patients. Therefore, in the present study, we examined muscle MRI of leg muscles in ALS patients, and correlated MRI with functional measurements, such as muscle strength, and compound muscle action potential amplitude of the tibialis anterior (TA) after stimulation of the peroneal nerve. The subjects consisted of 10 ALS patients (7 males and 3 females), ranging in age from 49 to 87. Neurologic symptoms at the onset of ALS consisted of bulbar dysfunction in one patient, upper extremity involvement in three patients, and lower extremity involvement in six patients. Muscle MRI of the legs was performed in 9 (ALS patients. A peripheral nerve conduction study was performed on the peroneal nerve, with the recording electrode over the TA. The T2-weighted muscle MRI images revealed high signal aeras in the muscle in six ALS patients, whose muscle weakness existed predominantly in the lower extremities. Extracellular fluid accumulation has been proposed to be responsible for the signal increase of denervated muscles on T2-weighted muscle MRI images. We assume that muscle MRI is useful to demonstrate the distribution of muscle involvement in ALS patients and to assess the disease's stage. (author)

  12. An artificial vector model for generating abnormal electrocardiographic rhythms

    Clifford, Gari D; Nemati, Shamim; Sameni, Reza

    2010-01-01

    We present generalizations of our previously published artificial models for generating multi-channel ECG to provide simulations of abnormal cardiac rhythms. Using a three-dimensional vectorcardiogram (VCG) formulation, we generate the normal cardiac dipole for a patient using a sum of Gaussian kernels, fitted to real VCG recordings. Abnormal beats are specified either as perturbations to the normal dipole or as new dipole trajectories. Switching between normal and abnormal beat types is achieved using a first-order Markov chain. Probability transitions can be learned from real data or modeled by coupling to heart rate and sympathovagal balance. Natural morphology changes from beat-to-beat are incorporated by varying the angular frequency of the dipole as a function of the inter-beat (RR) interval. The RR interval time series is generated using our previously described model whereby time- and frequency-domain heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability characteristics can be specified. QT-HR hysteresis is simulated by coupling the Gaussian kernels associated with the T-wave in the model with a nonlinear factor related to the local HR (determined from the last n RR intervals). Morphology changes due to respiration are simulated by introducing a rotation matrix couple to the respiratory frequency. We demonstrate an example of the use of this model by simulating HR-dependent T-wave alternans (TWA) with and without phase-switching due to ectopy. Application of our model also reveals previously unreported effects of common TWA estimation methods

  13. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Alegret, X.; Sanchis, E.; Rivas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  14. Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Clark, Heather M.; Steiner, Jessica N.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method: The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy…

  15. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  16. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 1.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a soil respiration data database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration, the...

  17. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 2.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides an updated soil respiration database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration,...

  18. Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity

    Boushel, Robert; Gnaiger, E.; Larsen, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the circulatory and muscle oxidative capacities of the arm after prolonged low-intensity skiing in the arctic (Boushel et al., 2014). In the present study, leg VO2 was measured by the Fick method during leg cycling while muscle mitochondrial capacity was examined on a biopsy ...... at a higher mitochondrial p50. These findings support the concept that muscle mitochondrial respiration is submaximal at VO2max , and that mitochondrial volume can be downregulated by chronic energy demand....

  19. [Baroreflexes originated in vertebral artery zones upon peripheral vein tonus, systemic arterial blood pressure, and external respiration].

    Agadzhanian, N A; Kupriianov, S V

    2008-06-01

    The investigation was intended to study the role ofbaroreceptors ofhemodynamically isolated zone of vertebral arteries in regulation of peripheral veins tonus, arterial pressure and external respiration. Pressure decrease in this vascular reflexogenic zone led to reflex responses of increase in femoral vein tonus, elevation of blood pressure level and stimulation of external respiration. The opposite reflex responses of cardio-respiratory functional system to initial pressure activation of vertebral arteries baroreceptors are observed. Basing on generalization of our own findings and similar physiological and morphological researches of other authors, it is established that afferentation from the vertebral artery zone is a reflexogenic factor of somatic muscles' veins tonus regulation. These reflexes of capacity vessels tonic activity changes are part of cardio-respiratory responses of maintaining the tissue gaseous exchange.

  20. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  1. MRI evaluation of multifidus muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Chan Yu-Leung; King, A.D.; Griffith, J.F.; Metreweli, C.; Cheng, J.C.Y.; Guo Xia

    1999-01-01

    Background. The role of the multifidus muscles in the initiation and progression of curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is not fully understood and controversy exists as to the side of the abnormality. Objective. To evaluate on MRI the multifidus muscles at the apex of the major curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to ascertain if the multifidus muscles on the convex or concave side are abnormal and the relationship to curve severity. Materials and methods. Forty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, separated into two groups, were studied using a 1.5-T MR scanner with the synergy spine coil, employing a modified STIR (short tau inversion recovery) axial sequence obtained at the apex of the major scoliotic curve. Results. No hyperintense signal change was demonstrated in the convex side multifidus muscles in any patient. In group I, 16 of 18 patients with severe or rapidly progressive curve showed increase in signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side of the apex of the curve. In group II, of the 15 patients with mild curve (Cobb angle 10-30 ), 4 had increased signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side; of the 13 with more severe curve (Cobb angle greater than 30 ), 10 had increase in multifidus signal intensity on the concave side. Conclusions. The concave-side multifidus muscle at the apex of a scoliotic curve was morphologically abnormal. A significant association between abnormal signal change and curve severity was also established. (orig.)

  2. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  3. [Effects of management regime on soil respiration from agroecosystems].

    Chen, Shu-tao; Zhu, Da-wei; Niu, Chuan-po; Zou, Jian-wen; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wen-juan

    2009-10-15

    In order to examine the effects of management regime, such as nitrogen application and plowing method, on soil respiration from farmland, the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure soil CO2 fluxes in situ. The field measurement was carried out for 5 growing seasons, which were the 2002-2003 wheat, 2003 maize and soybean, 2003-2004 wheat, 2004 maize and 2004-2005 wheat seasons. Our results showed that soil respiration increased in fertilizer-applied treatments compared with no fertilizer treatment after 3 times of fertilizer application on 9 November 2002, 14 February and 26 March 2003. And the most obvious increase appeared following the third fertilizer application. No significant difference in soil respiration was found among several fertilizer application treatments. The effect of plowing depth on soil respiration was contingent on preceding cropping practice. Over the 2003-2004 wheat-growing seasons (its preceding cropping practice was rice paddy), mean soil respiration rates were not significant different (p > 0.05) between no plowing treatment and shallow plowing treatment. The shallow plowing treatment CT2 led to higher soil CO2 losses compared with no plowing treatment of NT2 in the 2004 maize-growing season, however, the significant higher (p soil respiration rates occurred with no plowing treatment of NT3 in the following 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Intensive plowing (25 cm depth), compared with no plowing practice (NT4), increased soil respiration significantly during the 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Regression analysis showed that the exponential function could be employed to fit the relationship between soil respiration and temperature. The exponential relationship yielded the Q10 values which were varied from 1.26 to 3.60, with a mean value of 2.08. To evaluate the effect of temperature on soil respiration, the CO2 emission fluxes were normalized for each treatment and each crop growing season. Plotting the

  4. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  5. Respiration Symptoms Monitoring in Body Area Networks

    Lu Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a framework that monitors particular symptoms such as respiratory conditions (abnormal breathing pattern experienced by hyperthyreosis, sleep apnea, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS patients. The proposed framework detects and monitors respiratory condition using S-Band sensing technique that leverages the wireless devices such as antenna, card, omni-directional antenna operating in 2 GHz to 4 GHz frequency range, and wireless channel information extraction tool. The rhythmic patterns extracted using S-Band sensing present the periodic and non-periodic waveforms that correspond to normal and abnormal respiratory conditions, respectively. The fine-grained amplitude information obtained using aforementioned devices is used to examine the breathing pattern over a period of time and accurately identifies the particular condition.

  6. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Skovbro, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (40 mU/min/m2) and muscle biopsies were performed on 23 women with PCOS (9 lean (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2)) and 17 age- and weight-matched controls (6 lean and 11 obese). Western blotting and high-resolution respirometry was used to determine mitochondrial function. Results......Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods...... Insulin sensitivity decreased with PCOS and increasing body weight. Mitochondrial respiration with substrates for complex I and complex I+II were similar in all groups, and PCOS was not associated with a decrease in mitochondrial content as measured by mtDNA/genomicDNA. We found no correlation between...

  7. Usefulness of ultrasonographic examination of diagnosis of muscle hernia

    Choi, Jin Soo; Lee, Sung Moon

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in diagnosis of muscle hernia. Ultrasonographic findings of seven patients with muscle hernia were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects consisted of 6 males and 1 female, age ranged from 17 to 66 years (mean=45 years). Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a high-frequency (7-15 MHz) linear probe during rest and stress states of the affected muscle, and both tranverse and longitudinal views were obtained. Six muscle herniations were located in the lower extremity in six cases while only one muscle herniation, in the upper extremity. Four cases showed a focal defect of the fascia with a localized bulging out of the muscle substance through the defect. Herniated muscle in stress state was larger and harder than in rest state. In 3 cases, defect of the fascia was not noted on ultrasonography. However, the affected muscle showed an abnormal contraction with a focal bulging out appearance during stress state. Ultrasonographically, the herniated muscle substance was less echogenic than the normal muscle without any evidence of muscle tear or associated mass in all cases. Ultrasonography is a simple and useful dynamic study of muscle hernia in diagnosis and differentiation of muscle hernia.

  8. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  9. Root Zone Respiration on Hydroponically Grown Wheat Plant Systems

    Soler-Crespo, R. A.; Monje, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Root respiration is a biological phenomenon that controls plant growth and physiological development during a plant's lifespan. This process is dependent on the availability of oxygen in the system where the plant is located. In hydroponic systems, where plants are submerged in a solution containing vital nutrients but no type of soil, the availability of oxygen arises from the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution. This oxygen concentration is dependent on the , gas-liquid interface formed on the upper surface of the liquid, as given by Henry's Law, depending on pressure and temperature conditions. Respiration rates of the plants rise as biomass and root zone increase with age. The respiration rate of Apogee wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was measured as a function of light intensity (catalytic for photosynthesis) and CO2 concentration to determine their effect on respiration rates. To determine their effects on respiration rate and plant growth microbial communities were introduced into the system, by Innoculum. Surfactants were introduced, simulating gray-water usage in space, as another factor to determine their effect on chemical oxygen demand of microbials and on respiration rates of the plants. It is expected to see small effects from changes in CO2 concentration or light levels, and to see root respiration decrease in an exponential manner with plant age and microbial activity.

  10. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2.s(-1 and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2.s(-1 than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2.s(-1 over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP. Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content and biotic (ANPP and BNPP factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  11. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Wang, Zhen; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2).s(-1)) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  12. UCP2 muscle gene transfer modifies mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Marti, A; Larrarte, E; Novo, F J; Garcia, M; Martinez, J A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) muscle gene transfer on mitochondrial activity. Five week-old male Wistar rats received an intramuscular injection of plasmid pXU1 containing UCP2 cDNA in the right tibialis anterior muscles. Left tibialis anterior muscles were injected with vehicle as control. Ten days after DNA injection, tibialis anterior muscles were dissected and muscle mitochondria isolated and analyzed. There were two mitochondrial populations in the muscle after UCP2 gene transfer, one of low fluorescence and complexity and the other, showing high fluorescence and complexity. UCP2 gene transfer resulted in a 3.6 fold increase in muscle UCP2 protein levels compared to control muscles assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, a significant reduction in mitochondria membrane potential assessed by spectrofluorometry and flow cytometry was observed. The mitochondria membrane potential reduction might account for a decrease in fluorescence of the low fluorescence mitochondrial subpopulation. It has been demonstrated that UCP2 muscle gene transfer in vivo is associated with a lower mitochondria membrane potential. Our results suggest the potential involvement of UCP2 in uncoupling respiration. International Journal of Obesity (2001) 25, 68-74

  13. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  14. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  15. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, Joanna C.; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Burton, Andrew J.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Emmett, Bridget; Frey, Serita D.; Heskel, Mary A.; Jiang, Lifen; Machmuller, Megan B.; Mohan, Jacqueline; Panetta, Anne Marie; Reich, Peter B.; Reinsch, Sabine; Wang, Xin; Allison, Steven D.; Bamminger, Chris; Bridgham, Scott; Collins, Scott L.; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Eddy, William C.; Enquist, Brian J.; Estiarte, Marc; Harte, John; Henderson, Amanda; Johnson, Bart R.; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Luo, Yiqi; Marhan, Sven; Melillo, Jerry M.; Penuelas, Josep; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Poll, Christian; Rastetter, Edward B.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Lorien L.; Schmidt, Inger K.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Suseela, Vidya; Tietema, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation of soil respiration to experimental warming in several major biome types, contrary to the results from multiple single-site studies. Moreover, across all nondesert biomes, respiration rates with and without experimental warming follow a Gaussian response, increasing with soil temperature up to a threshold of ∼25 °C, above which respiration rates decrease with further increases in temperature. This consistent decrease in temperature sensitivity at higher temperatures demonstrates that rising global temperatures may result in regionally variable responses in soil respiration, with colder climates being considerably more responsive to increased ambient temperatures compared with warmer regions. Our analysis adds a unique cross-biome perspective on the temperature response of soil respiration, information critical to improving our mechanistic understanding of how soil carbon dynamics change with climatic warming.

  16. Changes in mitochondrial respiration in the human placenta over gestation.

    Holland, Olivia J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Alvsaker, Anna; Moran, Stephanie; Hedges, Christopher; Chamley, Lawrence W; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-09-01

    Placental mitochondria are subjected to micro-environmental changes throughout gestation, in particular large variations in oxygen. How placental mitochondrial respiration adapts to changing oxygen concentrations remains unexplored. Additionally, placental tissue is often studied in culture; however, the effect of culture on placental mitochondria is unclear. Placental tissue was obtained from first trimester and term (laboured and non-laboured) pregnancies, and selectively permeabilized to access mitochondria. Respirometry was used to compare respiration states and substrate use in mitochondria. Additionally, explants of placental tissue were cultured for four, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h and respiration measured. Mitochondrial respiration decreased at 11 weeks compared to earlier gestations (p = 0.05-0.001), and mitochondrial content increased at 12-13 weeks compared to 7-10 weeks (p = 0.042). In term placentae, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) through mitochondrial complex IV (p Respiration was increased (p ≤ 0.006-0.001) in laboured compared to non-laboured placenta. After four hours of culture, respiration was depressed compared to fresh tissue from the same placenta and continued to decline with time in culture. Markers of apoptosis were increased, while markers of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased after four hours of culture. Respiration and mitochondrial content alter over gestation/with labour. Decreased respiration at 11 weeks and increased mitochondrial content at 12-13 weeks may relate to onset of maternal blood flow, and increased respiration as a result of labour may be an adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion. At term, mitochondria were more susceptible to changes in respiratory function relative to first trimester when cultured in vitro, perhaps reflecting changes in metabolic demands as gestation progresses. Metabolic plasticity of placental mitochondria has relevance to placenta

  17. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  18. Oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of gases respired by humans

    Epstein, S.; Zeiri, L.

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen-isotope fractionation associated with respiration in human individuals at rest is linearly related to the fraction of the O 2 utilized in the respiration process. The slope of this relationship is affected by a history of smoking, by vigorous exercise, and by the N 2 /O 2 ratio of the inhaled gas. For patients who suffer anemia-related diseases, the slope of this relationship is directly proportional to their level of hemoglobin. These results introduce a new approach for studying the mechanisms of O 2 consumption in human respiration and how they are affected by related diseases

  19. Controls on Ecosystem and Root Respiration in an Alaskan Peatland

    McConnell, N. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal ecosystems cover 14% of the vegetated surface on earth and account for 25-30% of the world’s soil carbon (C), mainly due to large carbon stocks in deep peat and frozen soil layers. While peatlands have served as historical sinks of carbon, global climate change may trigger re-release of C to the atmosphere and may turn these ecosystems into net C sources. Rates of C release from a peatland are determined by regional climate and local biotic and abiotic factors such as vegetation cover, thaw depth, and peat thickness. Soil CO2 fluxes are driven by both autotrophic (plant) respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration. Thus, changes in plant and microbial activity in the soil will impact CO2 emissions from peatlands. In this study, we explored environmental and vegetation controls on ecosystem respiration and root respiration in a variety of wetland sites. The study was conducted at the Alaskan Peatland Experiment (APEX; www.uoguelph.ca/APEX) sites in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest located 35 km southwest of Fairbanks Alaska. We measured ecosystem respiration, root respiration, and monitored a suite of environmental variables along a vegetation and soil moisture gradient including a black spruce stand with permafrost, a shrubby site with permafrost, a tussock grass site, and a herbaceous open rich fen. Within the rich fen, we have been conducting water table manipulations including a control, lowered, and raised water table treatment. In each of our sites, we measured total ecosystem respiration using static chambers and root respiration by harvesting roots from the uppermost 20 cm and placing them in a root cuvette to obtain a root flux. Ecosystem respiration (ER) on a μmol/m2/sec basis varied across sites. Water table was a significant predictor of ER at the lowered manipulation site and temperature was a strong predictor at the control site in the rich fen. Water table and temperature were both significant predictors of ER at the raised

  20. Herd protection effect of N95 respirators in healthcare workers.

    Chen, Xin; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina

    2017-12-01

    Objective To determine if there was herd protection conferred to unprotected healthcare workers (HCWs) by N95 respirators worn by colleagues. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted in Beijing, China between 1 December 2008 and 15 January 2009. A minimum compliance level (MCL) of N95 respirators for prevention of clinical respiratory illness (CRI) was set based on various compliance cut-offs. The CRI rates were compared between compliant (≥MCL) and non-compliant (protection from use of N95 respirators by colleagues within a hospital ward.

  1. Estimating daytime ecosystem respiration from eddy-flux data

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Herbst, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    To understand what governs the patterns of net ecosystem exchange of CO2, an understanding of factors influencing the component fluxes, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production is needed. In the present paper, we introduce an alternative method for estimating daytime ecosystem respiration...... based on whole ecosystem fluxes from a linear regression of photosynthetic photon flux density data vs. daytime net ecosystem exchange data at forest ecosystem level. This method is based on the principles of the Kok-method applied at leaf level for estimating daytime respiration. We demonstrate...

  2. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

    Skaggs, B.J.; Fairchild, C.I.; DeField, J.D.; Hack, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A project of the Health, Safety and Environment Division is described. The project provides the NRC with information of respiratory protective devices and programs for their licensee personnel. The following activities were performed during FY 1983: selection of alternate test aerosols for quality assurance testing of high-efficiency particulate air respirator filters; evaluation of MAG-1 spectacles for use with positive and negative-pressure respirators; development of a Manual of Respiratory Protection in Emergencies Involving Airborne Radioactive Materials, and technical assistance to NRC licensees regarding respirator applications. 2 references, 1 figure

  3. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance. PMID:25569087

  4. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  5. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment.

    Galea, Karen S; Mair, Craig; Alexander, Carla; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie

    2016-03-01

    Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m(-3), with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m(-3)). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was 0.03mg m(-3), with the highest measurement also for the back-up sprayer (0.24mg m(-3)). During tunnel boring machine (TBM) activities, the GM respirable dust concentration was 0.54mg m(-3). The GM respirable elemental carbon concentration for all the TBM operators was 18 µg m(-3); with the highest concentration measured on a segment lifter. The BC concentrations were higher in the SCL environment in comparison to the TBM environment (daily GM 18-54 µg m(-3) versus 3-6 µg m(-3)). This small-scale monitoring campaign provides additional personal data on exposures experienced by underground tunnel construction workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  6. Women at Altitude: Voluntary Muscle Exercise Performance with and Without a-Adrenergic Receptor Blockage

    1999-02-01

    proportion of active muscle volume occupied by slow - twitch fibers (a consequence of women having a smaller, fast - twitch fiber cross-sectional area (11,27...oxidative metabolism and in the ratio of slow -to- fast twitch fiber area must be considered with caution, however, since the proportion of slow fatiguing...ventilatory acclimatization to 4300m. Respir.Physiol. 70: 195-204,1987. 27. Nygaard, E. Skeletal muscle fibre characteristics in young women. Acta

  7. Update on new muscle glycogenosis

    Laforêt, Pascal; Malfatti, Edoardo; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of muscle glycogenoses has progressed in recent years by the identification of new disorders, and by reaching a better understanding of pathophysiology of the disorders and the physiology of glycogen metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we describe the clinical...... and pathological features of the three most recently described muscle glycogenoses caused by recessive mutations in GYG1, RBCK1 and PGM1. The three involved enzymes play different roles in glycogen metabolism. Glycogenin-1 (GYG1) is involved in the initial steps of glycogen synthesis, whereas phosphoglucomutase...... with abnormal storage material in the heart, but most cases present with a polyglucosan body myopathy without cardiac involvement. SUMMARY: The recent identification of new glycogenosis not only allows to improve the knowledge of glycogen metabolism, but also builds bridges with protein glycosylation and immune...

  8. Respiration in heterotrophic unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

    Fenchel, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Surface:volume quotient, mitochondrial volume fraction, and their distribution within cells were investigated and oxygen gradients within and outside cells were modelled. Cell surface increases allometrically with cell size. Mitochondrial volume fraction is invariant with cell size and constitutes about 10% and mitochondria are predominantly found close to the outer membrane. The results predict that for small and medium sized protozoa maximum respiration rates should be proportional to cell volume (scaling exponent ≈1) and access to intracellular O2 is not limiting except at very low ambient O2-tensions. Available data do not contradict this and some evidence supports this interpretation. Cell size is ultimately limited because an increasing fraction of the mitochondria becomes exposed to near anoxic conditions with increasing cell size. The fact that mitochondria cluster close to the cell surface and the allometric change in cell shape with increasing cell size alleviates the limitation of aerobic life at low ambient O2-tension and for large cell size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth of limb muscle is dependent on skeletal-derived Indian hedgehog

    Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Hausburg, Melissa; Olwin, Bradley B.

    2011-01-01

    During embryogenesis, muscle and bone develop in close temporal and spatial proximity. We show that Indian Hedgehog, a bone-derived signaling molecule, participates in growth of skeletal muscle. In Ihh−/− embryos, skeletal muscle development appears abnormal at embryonic day 14.5 and at later ages through embryonic day 20.5, dramatic losses of hindlimb muscle occur. To further examine the role of Ihh in myogenesis, we manipulated Ihh expression in the developing chick hindlimb. Reduction of I...

  10. A method of detection of respiration rate on Android using UWB Impulse Radar

    Young-Jin Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring respiration rate is important because it can help to detect and prevent abnormal respiratory rates that can lead to cardiac arrest and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nowadays, most medical measurement and monitoring devices are either invasive or wired but people are hesitant to attach physiological sensors to their body. In this study, we investigated whether real-time medical measurement of breathing using Novelda’s Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio (IR-UWB–which does not need to be attached to the human body and is also non-invasive–is possible on Android. Experimental results obtained were found to be comparable to those of a commercial healthcare device.

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase is not a mitochondrial enzyme in human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle

    Rasmussen, Hans N; van Hall, Gerrit; Rasmussen, Ulla F

    2002-01-01

    The presence of lactate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle mitochondria was investigated to clarify whether lactate is a possible substrate for mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria were prepared from 100 mg samples of human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle. All fractions from the preparation...... procedure were assayed for marker enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mitochondrial fraction contained no LDH activity (detection limit approximately 0.05 % of the tissue activity) and the distribution of LDH activity among the fractions paralleled that of pyruvate kinase, i.e. LDH was fractionated...... as a cytoplasmic enzyme. Respiratory experiments with the mitochondrial fraction also indicated the absence of LDH. Lactate did not cause respiration, nor did it affect the respiration of pyruvate + malate. The major part of the native cytochrome c was retained in the isolated mitochondria, which, furthermore...

  12. Contribution of root to soil respiration and carbon balance in ...

    PRAKASH

    improves our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle ... considerably lower net ecosystem productivity in Community 2 than in Community 1 .... soil respiration chambers for each time were dried at 31ºC ..... Using existing management.

  13. Characterization of respirable mine dust and diesel particulate matter

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary outcomes to develop and optimize methods to characterize DPM and respirable dust samples for the following: Crystalline compounds Common mineral analyses Particle size distribution Elemental Carbon (EC...

  14. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Yuan, Wenping [College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Luo, Yiqi [Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA; Li, Xianglan [College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Liu, Shuguang; Yu, Guirui [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Zhou, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Bahn, Michael [Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Black, Andy [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; Desai, Ankur R. [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Department, Center for Climatic Research, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Cescatti, Alessandro [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy; Marcolla, Barbara [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Jacobs, Cor [Alterra, Earth System Science-Climate Change, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; Chen, Jiquan [Department of Earth, Ecological, and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA; Aurela, Mika [Climate and Global Change Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Bernhofer, Christian [Chair of Meteorology, Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Gielen, Bert [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium; Bohrer, Gil [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; Cook, David R. [Climate Research Section, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA; Dragoni, Danilo [Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA; Dunn, Allison L. [Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Worcester State College, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA; Gianelle, Damiano [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Grünwald, Thomas [Chair of Meteorology, Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Ibrom, Andreas [Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Division, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark; Leclerc, Monique Y. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, USA; Lindroth, Anders [Geobiosphere Science Centre, Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Liu, Heping [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Marchesini, Luca Belelli [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy; Montagnani, Leonardo; Pita, Gabriel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal; Rodeghiero, Mirco [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Rodrigues, Abel [Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais, Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos, Oeiras, Portugal; Starr, Gregory [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA; Stoy, Paul C. [Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA

    2011-10-13

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ~3°S to ~70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual

  15. Disclosure and Fit Capability of the Filtering Facepiece Respirator.

    Lofgren, Don J

    2018-05-01

    The filtering facepiece air-purifying respirator is annually purchased in the tens of millions and widely used for worker protection from harmful airborne particulates. The workplace consumers of this safety product, i.e., employers, workers, and safety and health professionals, have assurances of its effectiveness through the respirator certification and disclosure requirements of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. However, the certification of a critical performance requirement has been missing for the approved filtering facepiece respirator since 1995: fit capability. Without this certification, consumers continue to be at risk of purchasing a respirator model that may fit a small percentage of the intended users. This commentary updates and expands an earlier one by this author, addresses the consequences of poorly fitting certified models on the market and lack of disclosure, and calls for further action by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to meet the needs and expectations of the consumer.

  16. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, Joanna C; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific...... attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies......, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation...

  17. respiration and transpiration characteristics of selected fresh fruits

    AISA

    were higher in optimal atmospheres. The Q10 values ... High respiration rates increase tissue aging and decrease the ability of the product to repel ... Two types of containers were used for the ..... availability of oxygen around the product also.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Cells with Stem Cell Properties in Normal and Malignant Muscle Cultures

    F.G. Sage (Fanny)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe skeletal muscle is the body’s largest tissue, accounting for about 40% of the total body weight (Biressi et al. 2007). More importantly, it plays critical roles in movement, respiration, stabilization of the skeleton, glucose homeostasis, and thermoregulation. The basic structural

  19. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (ppostural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part from optimization of this multi-system interaction. Copyright © 2015

  20. Carbon dioxide titration method for soil respiration measurements

    Martín Rubio, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Tampere University of Applied Sciences, which was interested in studying and developing a titration measurement method for soil respiration and biodegradability. Some experiments were carried out measuring soil respiration for testing the method and others adding some biodegradable material like polylactic acid compressed material and 100% biodegradable plastic bags to test its biodegradability and the possibility to measure it via titration. The thesi...

  1. Fuzzy Control of Tidal volume, Respiration number and Pressure value

    Hasan Guler; Fikret Ata

    2010-01-01

    In this study, control of tidal volume, respiration number and pressure value which are arrived to patient at mechanical ventilator device which is used in intensive care units were performed with fuzzy logic controller. The aim of this system is to reduce workload of aneshesiologist. By calculating tidal volume, respiration number and pressure value, the error Pe(k) between reference pressure value (Pref) and pressure of gas given ill person (Phasta) and error change rate ;#948;Pe(k) were co...

  2. Use of respirators for protection of workers against airborne radioactive materials

    Revoir, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The various types of respirators and the requirements for an effective respirator program are outlined. The use of specific types of respirators to protect workers against inhalation of airborne radioactive materials is discussed. Problems encountered in using respirators in the nuclear industry which have resulted in worker injury and death are described

  3. Stimulation of respiration in rat thymocytes induced by ionizing radiation

    Gudz, T.I.; Pandelova, I.G.; Novgorodov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of X irradiation on the respiration of rat thymocytes was studied. An increase in the rate of O 2 uptake was observed 1 h after cells were irradiated with doses of 6-10 Gy. The radiation-induced increase in respiration could be blocked by oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting control by increased cytoplasmic ATP turnover. The stimulation of respiration was not associated with changes in the activity of mitochondrial electron transfer enzymes or permeability of the inner membrane. Several inhibitors of processes which used ATP were screened for their effects on the basal respiration rate and on the radiation response. In irradiated thymocytes, an enhancement of inhibition of respiration by ouabain, La 3+ and cycloheximide was observed. These results indicate that the radiation-induced stimulation of respiration is due to changes in ion homeostasis and protein synthesis. The effect of X irradiation was shown to be independent of the redox status of nonprotein thiols and was not associated with detectable changes in some products of lipid peroxidation. The radiation-induced decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase suggests free radical involvement in deleterious effects of radiation. 43 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Quantitative evaluation of the protective effect of respirators

    Murata, Mikio

    1983-01-01

    The present status and related problems of the quantitative evaluation method for respirator efficiency are generally reviewed. As the introduction, the special features of various types of respirators are summarized, and the basic concept of leakage and the protection factor are explained. As for the quantitative measurement of the protective efficiency, the features of various existing man-test methods such as NaCl aerosol man-test, DOP (dioctyl phthalate) man-test, and SF 6 gas man-test are reviewed and discussed. As the important problems associated with those man-tests, the following aspects are discussed. The measurement of the aerosol concentration within masks; the calculation method for the protection factor; the effect of beards. The examples of measuring the protection factor are also explained for the following respirator systems: half mask respirator with a high efficiency filter; full face mask respirator with a high efficiency filter; demand mode and pressure-demand mode respirators; and mound suit with suspenders. Finally, the outline of the manual of respiratory protection published by NRC in 1976 is briefly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Targeting mitochondrial respiration as a therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

    Tian, Shenglan; Chen, Heng; Tan, Wei

    2018-05-23

    Targeting mitochondrial respiration has been documented as an effective therapeutic strategy in cancer. However, the impact of mitochondrial respiration inhibition on cervical cancer cells are not well elucidated. Using a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, we show that an existing drug atovaquone is active against the cervical cancer cells with high profiling of mitochondrial biogenesis. Atovaquone inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis with varying efficacy among cervical cancer cell lines regardless of HPV infection, cellular origin and their sensitivity to paclitaxel. We further demonstrated that atovaquone acts on cervical cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In particular, atovaquone specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III but not I, II or IV activity, leading to respiration inhibition and energy crisis. Importantly, we found that the different sensitivity of cervical cancer cell lines to atovaquone were due to their differential level of mitochondrial biogenesis and dependency to mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we demonstrated that the in vitro observations were translatable to in vivo cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest that the mitochondrial biogenesis varies among patients with cervical cancer. Our work also suggests that atovaquone is a useful addition to cervical cancer treatment, particularly to those with high dependency on mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

    Viktor Avbelj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explore the influence of the sensor’s position on the quality of the extracted results using multi-channel ECG measurements and considering all the pairs of two neighboring electrodes as potential respiration-rate sensors. The analysis of the clinical measurements, which also include reference thermistor-based respiration signals, shows that the proposed approach is a viable option for monitoring the respiration frequency and for a rough classification of breathing types. The obtained results were evaluated on a wireless prototype of a respiration body sensor. We indicate the best positions for the respiration body sensor and prove that a single sensor for body surface potential difference on proximal skin electrodes can be used for combined measurements of respiratory and cardiac activities.

  7. Improvement of ballistocardiogram processing by inclusion of respiration information

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Vaseghi, Ali; Kaminska, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel methodology for processing of a ballistocardiogram (BCG) is proposed in which the respiration signal is utilized to improve the averaging of the BCG signal and ultimately the annotation and interpretation of the signal. Previous research works filtered out the respiration signal while the novelty of the current research is that, rather than removing the respiration effect from the signal, we utilize the respiration information to improve the averaging and thus analysis and interpretation of the BCG signal in diagnosis of cardiac malfunctions. This methodology is based on our investigation that BCG cycles corresponding to the inspiration and expiration phases of the respiration cycle are different in morphology. BCG cycles corresponding to the expiration phase of respiration have been proved to be more closely related to each other when compared to cycles corresponding to inspiration, and therefore expiration cycles are better candidates to be selected for the calculation of the averaged BCG signal. The new BCG average calculated based on this methodology is then considered as the representative and a template of the BCG signal for further processing. This template can be considered as the output of a clinical BCG instrument with higher reliability and accuracy compared to the previous processing methods

  8. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... His height. mass. intelligence and genitalia were normal. The aSSOCiatIOn between deafness and disturbance of cardiac conduction and between pigmented skin lesions and cardiac abnormalities, has been well described. Should. ~I patient present with multiple lentigines and/or familial sensineural ...

  9. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  11. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  12. Understanding Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Gina Rutherford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is a debilitating disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by severe disabling fatigue in the absence of alternative diagnosis. Historically, there has been a tendency to draw psychological explanations for the origin of fatigue; however, this model is at odds with findings that fatigue and accompanying symptoms may be explained by central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms, including effects of the immune, oxidative, mitochondrial, and neuronal pathways. For example, patient descriptions of their fatigue regularly cite difficulty in maintaining muscle activity due to perceived lack of energy. This narrative review examined the literature for evidence of biochemical dysfunction in CFS/ME at the skeletal muscle level. Methods. Literature was examined following searches of PUB MED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, using key words such as CFS/ME, immune, autoimmune, mitochondria, muscle, and acidosis. Results. Studies show evidence for skeletal muscle biochemical abnormality in CFS/ME patients, particularly in relation to bioenergetic dysfunction. Discussion. Bioenergetic muscle dysfunction is evident in CFS/ME, with a tendency towards an overutilisation of the lactate dehydrogenase pathway following low-level exercise, in addition to slowed acid clearance after exercise. Potentially, these abnormalities may lead to the perception of severe fatigue in CFS/ME.

  13. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  14. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).

  15. Extraocular muscle function testing

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  16. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  17. Components of Soil Respiration and its Monthly Dynamics in Rubber Plantation Ecosystems

    Zhixiang Wu; Limin Guan; Bangqian Chen; Chuan Yang; Guoyu Lan; Guishui Xie; Zhaode Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to quantify four components and study effect factors of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems. Providing the basic data support for the establishment of the trade of rubber plantation ecosystem carbon source/sink. Methods: We used Li-6400 (IRGA, Li-COR) to quantitate four components of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems at different ages. Soil respiration can be separated as four components: heterotrophic respiration (Rh), Respiration of roots (...

  18. Transcriptional regulation of respiration in yeast metabolizing differently repressive carbon substrates

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Sauer, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Depending on the carbon source, Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays various degrees of respiration. These range from complete respiration as in the case of ethanol, to almost complete fermentation, and thus very low degrees of respiration on glucose. While many key regulators are known for these extreme cases, we focus here on regulators that are relevant at intermediate levels of respiration. Results We address this question by linking the functional degree of respiration t...

  19. Clinical evaluation of respiration-induced attenuation uncertainties in pulmonary 3D PET/CT.

    Kruis, Matthijs F; van de Kamer, Jeroen B; Vogel, Wouter V; Belderbos, José Sa; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners, PET attenuation correction is performed by means of a CT-based attenuation map. Respiratory motion can however induce offsets between the PET and CT data. Studies have demonstrated that these offsets can cause errors in quantitative PET measures. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of respiration-induced CT differences on the attenuation correction of pulmonary 18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) 3D PET/CT in a patient population and to investigate contributing factors. For 32 lung cancer patients, 3D-CT, 4D-PET and 4D-CT data were acquired. The 4D FDG PET data were attenuation corrected (AC) using a free-breathing 3D-CT (3D-AC), the end-inspiration CT (EI-AC), the end-expiration CT (EE-AC) or phase-by-phase (P-AC). After reconstruction and AC, the 4D-PET data were averaged. In the 4Davg data, we measured maximum tumour standardised uptake value (SUV)max in the tumour, SUVmean in a lung volume of interest (VOI) and average SUV (SUVmean) in a muscle VOI. On the 4D-CT, we measured the lung volume differences and CT number changes between inhale and exhale in the lung VOI. Compared to P-AC, we found -2.3% (range -9.7% to 1.2%) lower tumour SUVmax in EI-AC and 2.0% (range -0.9% to 9.5%) higher SUVmax in EE-AC. No differences in the muscle SUV were found. The use of 3D-AC led to respiration-induced SUVmax differences up to 20% compared to the use of P-AC. SUVmean differences in the lung VOI between EI-AC and EE-AC correlated to average CT differences in this region (ρ = 0.83). SUVmax differences in the tumour correlated to the volume changes of the lungs (ρ = -0.55) and the motion amplitude of the tumour (ρ = 0.53), both as measured on the 4D-CT. Respiration-induced CT variations in clinical data can in extreme cases lead to SUV effects larger than 10% on PET attenuation correction. These differences were case specific and correlated to differences in CT number

  20. [Temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration influenced by increased UV-B radiation from elongation to flowering periods].

    Chen, Shu-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hua; Li, Han-Mao; Ji, Yu-Hong; Yang, Yan-Ping

    2009-05-15

    Field experiment was carried out in the spring of 2008 in order to investigate the effects of increased UV-B radiation on the temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration from elongation to flowering periods. Static chamber-gas chromatography method was used to measure ecosystem respiration and soil respiration under 20% UV-B radiation increase and control. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture were also measured. Results indicated that supplemental UV-B radiation inhibited the ecosystem respiration and soil respiration from wheat elongation to flowering periods, and the inhibition effect was more obvious for soil respiration than for ecosystem respiration. Ecosystem respiration rates, on daily average, were 9%, 9%, 3%, 16% and 30% higher for control than for UV-B treatment forthe five measurement days, while soil respiration rates were 99%, 93%, 106%, 38% and 10% higher for control than for UV-B treatment. The Q10s (temperature sensitivity coefficients) for plant respiration under control and UV-B treatments were 1.79 and 1.59, respectively, while the Q10s for soil respiration were 1.38 and 1.76, respectively. The Q10s for ecosystem respiration were 1.65 and 1.63 under CK and UV-B treatments, respectively. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused a lower Q10 for plant respiration and a higher Q10 for soil respiration, although no significant effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on the Q10 for ecosystem respiration was found.

  1. Oral Gingival Cell Cigarette Smoke Exposure Induces Muscle Cell Metabolic Disruption

    Andrea C. Baeder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke exposure compromises health through damaging multiple physiological systems, including disrupting metabolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of oral gingiva in mediating the deleterious metabolic effects of cigarette smoke exposure on skeletal muscle metabolic function. Using an in vitro conditioned medium cell model, skeletal muscle cells were incubated with medium from gingival cells treated with normal medium or medium containing suspended cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Following incubation of muscle cells with gingival cell conditioned medium, muscle cell mitochondrial respiration and insulin signaling and action were determined as an indication of overall muscle metabolic health. Skeletal muscle cells incubated with conditioned medium of CSE-treated gingival cells had a profound reduction in mitochondrial respiration and respiratory control. Furthermore, skeletal muscle cells had a greatly reduced response in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis. Altogether, these results provide a novel perspective on the mechanism whereby cigarette smoke affects systemic metabolic function. In conclusion, we found that oral gingival cells treated with CSE create an altered milieu that is sufficient to both disrupted skeletal muscle cell mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity.

  2. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration.

    Wehr, R; Munger, J W; McManus, J B; Nelson, D D; Zahniser, M S; Davidson, E A; Wofsy, S C; Saleska, S R

    2016-06-30

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night-the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  3. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Creating the Chemistry in Cellular Respiration Concept Inventory (CCRCI)

    Forshee, Jay Lance, II

    Students at our institution report cellular respiration to be the most difficult concept they encounter in undergraduate biology, but why students find this difficult is unknown. Students may find cellular respiration difficult because there is a large amount of steps, or because there are persistent, long-lasting misconceptions and misunderstandings surrounding their knowledge of chemistry, which affect their performance on cellular respiration assessments. Most studies of cellular respiration focus on student macro understanding of the process related to breathing, and matter and energy. To date, no studies identify which chemistry concepts are most relevant to students' development of an understanding of the process of cellular respiration or have developed an assessment to measure student understanding of them. Following the Delphi method, the researchers conducted expert interviews with faculty members from four-year, masters-, and PhD-granting institutions who teach undergraduate general biology, and are experts in their respective fields of biology. From these interviews, researchers identified twelve chemistry concepts important to understanding cellular respiration and using surveys, these twelve concepts were refined into five (electron transfer, energy transfer, thermodynamics (law/conservation), chemical reactions, and gradients). The researchers then interviewed undergraduate introductory biology students at a large Midwestern university to identify their knowledge and misconceptions of the chemistry concepts that the faculty had identified previously as important. The CCRCI was developed using the five important chemistry concepts underlying cellular respiration. The final version of the CCRCI was administered to n=160 introductory biology students during the spring 2017 semester. Reliability of the CCRCI was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha (=.7) and split-half reliability (=.769), and validity of the instrument was assessed through content validity

  5. Is ankle contracture after stroke due to abnormal intermuscular force transmission?

    Diong, Joanna; Herbert, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Contracture after stroke could be due to abnormal mechanical interactions between muscles. This study examined if ankle plantarflexor muscle contracture after stroke is due to abnormal force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Muscle fascicle lengths were measured from ultrasound images of soleus muscles in five subjects with stroke and ankle contracture and six able-bodied subjects. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation during passive knee extension at fixed ankle angle were assumed to indicate intermuscular force transmission. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation were adjusted for changes in ankle motion. Subjects with stroke had significant ankle contracture. After adjustment for ankle motion, 9 of 11 subjects demonstrated small changes in soleus fascicle length with knee extension, suggestive of intermuscular force transmission. However, the small changes in fascicle length may have been artifacts caused by movement of the ultrasound transducers. There were no systematic differences in change in fascicle length (median between-group difference adjusting for ankle motion = -0.01, 95% CI -0.26-0.08 mm/degree of knee extension) or pennation (-0.05, 95% CI -0.15-0.07 degree/ degree of knee extension). This suggests ankle contractures after stroke were not due to abnormal (systematically increased or decreased) intermuscular force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus.

  6. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  7. The effects of methylmercury on the mitochondrial energetics of rat skeletal muscle

    Kuwabara, Takeo; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Nagashima, Masaru; Igarashi, Hironaka; Yonemochi, Yousuke; Atsumi, Tetsushi; Miyatake, Tadashi

    1989-01-01

    In this report it is shown that methylmercury chloride (MMC) affected the mitochondrial energetics of rat skeletal muscles in case of chronic intoxication. High energy phosphate compounds were measured by 31 P-NMR spectroscopy in the living rat hindleg skeletal muscle. Decreased value of phosphocreatine (PCr)/inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratio was observed in the resting muscle of the MMC intoxicated group, and suspend recovery of the ATP, PCr and intracellular pH after muscle contraction was found in the MMC intoxicated muscle. There was no difference in the ATP levels of the resting muscle between the control and MMC group. These results suggested that the synthesis of ATP was disturbed by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration below TCA cycle. (author)

  8. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  9. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  10. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  11. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  12. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  14. Overexpression of IGF-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E.; Walter, Glenn A.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of viral mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for two weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantar flexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate and muscle damage and recovery was monitored over a period of 2 to 21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by MRI, a nonspecific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1 injected, compared to contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1 injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fraction area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-I injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3%vs 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days), and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1 injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role of IGF-1 in protecting unloaded

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  16. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. A PGC-1α- and muscle fibre type-related decrease in markers of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of humans with inherited insulin resistance

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Skov, Vibe; Petersson, Stine Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes is related to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is impaired in muscle of patients with inherited insulin resistance and defective...

  18. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  19. Bundvands respiration i Kattegat og Bælthavet

    Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    Der findes generelt meget få direkte målinger af den pelagiske respiration, og det har ikke været muligt at finde repræsentative målinger af den pelagiske respiration for de åbne danske farvande. Her præsenteres et sæsonstudie af bundvandets respiration fra 5 stationer i et transekt gående fra det....... Temperaturfølsomheden af respirationsraten udtrykt som en Q10 var 3,01 ± 1.07 for alle forsøg og uafhængigt af om prøverne blev kølet eller opvarmet under inkubationerne. Den labile pulje af organisk stof blev bestemt og de observerede respirations rater svarede til specifikke kulstof omsætningsrater på mellem 0...... målbar reduktion i det partikulære materiale under inkubationerne, tyder overraskende på,at opløst organisk materiale (DOM) er den vigtigste kulstofkilde for bundvandet respiration....

  20. Glycolysis-respiration relationships in a neuroblastoma cell line.

    Swerdlow, Russell H; E, Lezi; Aires, Daniel; Lu, Jianghua

    2013-04-01

    Although some reciprocal glycolysis-respiration relationships are well recognized, the relationship between reduced glycolysis flux and mitochondrial respiration has not been critically characterized. We concomitantly measured the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under free and restricted glycolysis flux conditions. Under conditions of fixed energy demand ECAR and OCR values showed a reciprocal relationship. In addition to observing an expected Crabtree effect in which increasing glucose availability raised the ECAR and reduced the OCR, a novel reciprocal relationship was documented in which reducing the ECAR via glucose deprivation or glycolysis inhibition increased the OCR. Substituting galactose for glucose, which reduces net glycolysis ATP yield without blocking glycolysis flux, similarly reduced the ECAR and increased the OCR. We further determined how reduced ECAR conditions affect proteins that associate with energy sensing and energy response pathways. ERK phosphorylation, SIRT1, and HIF1a decreased while AKT, p38, and AMPK phosphorylation increased. These data document a novel intracellular glycolysis-respiration effect in which restricting glycolysis flux increases mitochondrial respiration. Since this effect can be used to manipulate cell bioenergetic infrastructures, this particular glycolysis-respiration effect can practically inform the development of new mitochondrial medicine approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of mitochondrial function to hypothyroidism in normal and regenerated rat skeletal muscle.

    Zoll, J; Ventura-Clapier, R; Serrurier, B; Bigard, A X

    2001-01-01

    Although thyroid hormones induce a well known decrease in muscle oxidative capacity, nothing is known concerning their effects on mitochondrial function and regulation in situ. Similarly, the influence of regeneration process is not completely understood. We investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on mitochondrial function in fast gastrocnemius (GS) and slow soleus (SOL) muscles either intact or having undergone a cycle of degeneration/regeneration (Rg SOL) following a local injection of myotoxin. Thyroid hormone deficiency was induced by thyroidectomy and propylthiouracyl via drinking water. Respiration was measured in muscle fibres permeabilised by saponin in order to assess the oxidative capacity of the muscles and the regulation of mitochondria in situ. Oxidative capacities were 8.9 in SOL, 8.5 in Rg SOL and 5.9 micromol O2/min/g dry weight in GS and decreased by 52, 42 and 39% respectively (P hypothyroid rats. Moreover, the Km of mitochondrial respiration for the phosphate acceptor ADP exhibited a two-fold decrease in Rg SOL and intact SOL by hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism markedly altered the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP but not to creatine in SOL muscles, suggesting that mitochondrial regulation could be partially controlled by thyroid hormones. On the other hand, mitochondrial function completely recovered following regeneration/degeneration, suggesting that thyroid hormones are not involved in the regeneration process per se.

  2. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    2010-12-01

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  3. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    L. L. Babakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  4. Varicocele Negatively Affects Sperm Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Albani, Denise; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of varicocele on oxidative stress, sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm morphology, and semen parameters. A total of 20 patients with varicocele and 20 normozoospermic subjects without varicocele (control group) were recruited from a medical center for reproductive biology. The levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites and seminal lipid peroxides were assessed for both control and varicocele subjects. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was measured by sperm chromatin dispersion test. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. In this study, varicocele patients were compared with men without varicoceles. Oxidative stress was observed in the serum and seminal fluid of varicocele patients. These patients showed an increase of 59% (P <.05) in serum reactive oxygen metabolites and a 3-fold increase in the level of sperm lipid peroxides. A parallel and significant increase (a 2-fold increase; P <.05) in the degree of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was also observed. Varicocele patients showed a 27% decrease (P <.05) in mitochondrial respiratory activity in comparison to the control group. A 32% increase (P <.05) in sperm midpiece defects and a 41% decrease (P <.05) in sperm concentration and motility were also observed. Men with varicocele have increased markers of oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial respiratory activity. These results correlated with abnormalities in semen parameters. For morphology, these correlated with midpiece defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Amazing structure of respirasome: unveiling the secrets of cell respiration.

    Guo, Runyu; Gu, Jinke; Wu, Meng; Yang, Maojun

    2016-12-01

    Respirasome, a huge molecular machine that carries out cellular respiration, has gained growing attention since its discovery, because respiration is the most indispensable biological process in almost all living creatures. The concept of respirasome has renewed our understanding of the respiratory chain organization, and most recently, the structure of respirasome solved by Yang's group from Tsinghua University (Gu et al. Nature 237(7622):639-643, 2016) firstly presented the detailed interactions within this huge molecular machine, and provided important information for drug design and screening. However, the study of cellular respiration went through a long history. Here, we briefly showed the detoured history of respiratory chain investigation, and then described the amazing structure of respirasome.

  6. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VII. Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1949-07-21

    The relationship of respiration to photosynthesis in barley seedling leaves and the algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, has been investigated using radioactive carbon dioxide and the techniques of paper chromatography and radioautography. The plants are allowed to photosynthesize normally for thirty seconds in c{sup 14}O{sub 2} after which they are allowed to respire in air or helium in the light or dark. Respiration of photosynthetic intermediates as evidenced by the appearance of labeled glutomic, isocitric, fumaric and succinic acids is slower in the light than in the dark. Labeled glycolic acid is observed in barley and algae. It disappears rapidly in the dark and is maintained and increased in quantity in the light in C0{sub 2}-free air.

  7. Effect of organic synthetic food colours on mitochondrial respiration.

    Reyes, F G; Valim, M F; Vercesi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Eleven organic synthetic dyes, currently or formerly used as food colours in Brazil, were tested to determine their effect on mitochondrial respiration in mitochondria isolated from rat liver and kidney. The compounds tested were: Erythrosine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Blue, Fast Red E, Orange GGN and Scarlet GN. All food colours tested inhibited mitochondrial respiration (State III respiration, uncoupled) supported either by alpha-ketoglutarate or succinate. This inhibition varied largely, e.g. from 100% to 16% for Erythrosine and Tartrazine respectively, at a concentration of 0.1 mg food colour per mitochondrial protein. Both rat liver and kidney mitochondria showed similar patterns of inhibition among the food colours tested. This effect was dose related and the concentration to give 50% inhibition was determined for some of the dyes. The xanthene dye Erythrosine, which showed the strongest effect, was selected for further investigation on mitochondria in vivo.

  8. Simultaneous bilateral contracture of the infraspinatus muscle.

    Franch, J; Bertran, J; Remolins, G; Fontecha, P; Díaz-Bertrana, M C; Durall, I

    2009-01-01

    A case of bilateral fibrotic contracture of the infraspinatus muscles in a five-year-old Belgian Shepherd dog is described. The dog was presented with progressive forelimb lameness with postural and gait abnormalities three months after an episode of overexertion. When walking, the lower part of both forelimbs swung in a lateral arc causing a circumduction movement and in the standing position, the dog showed elbow adduction with external rotation of the distal part of both front limbs. Orthopaedic examination revealed bilateral atrophy of both infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles and restriction in the range of motion of both shoulders, especially when attempting abduction and flexion. No specific findings were observed in the shoulder or elbow radiographs but hyperechogenic areas were evident in the ultrasonographic examination of both infraspinatus muscles. A diagnosis of fibrotic contracture of both infraspinatus muscles was established and bilateral tenectomy of the insertion tendons of the infraspinatus muscles was performed. Complete recovery of the animal was achieved after the surgery, which was confirmed in a long-term follow-up (10 months). In conclusion, physical examination and ultrasonography allowed a proper diagnosis of the condition, and tenectomy of the infraspinatus muscles resulted in a complete recovery of the patient even with bilateral involvement.

  9. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  11. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA

  12. Measurement of lung tumor motion using respiration-correlated CT

    Mageras, Gig S.; Pevsner, Alex; Yorke, Ellen D.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Ford, Eric C.; Hertanto, Agung; Larson, Steven M.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Erdi, Yusuf E.; Nehmeh, Sadek A.; Humm, John L.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate the characteristics of lung tumor motion measured with respiration-correlated computed tomography (RCCT) and examine the method's applicability to radiotherapy planning and treatment. Methods and materials: Six patients treated for non-small-cell lung carcinoma received a helical single-slice computed tomography (CT) scan with a slow couch movement (1 mm/s), while simultaneously respiration is recorded with an external position-sensitive monitor. Another 6 patients receive a 4-slice CT scan in a cine mode, in which sequential images are acquired for a complete respiratory cycle at each couch position while respiration is recorded. The images are retrospectively resorted into different respiration phases as measured with the external monitor (4-slice data) or patient surface displacement observed in the images (single-slice data). The gross tumor volume (GTV) in lung is delineated at one phase and serves as a visual guide for delineation at other phases. Interfractional GTV variation is estimated by scaling diaphragm position variations measured in gated radiographs at treatment with the ratio of GTV:diaphragm displacement observed in the RCCT data. Results: Seven out of 12 patients show GTV displacement with respiration of more than 1 cm, primarily in the superior-inferior (SI) direction; 2 patients show anterior-posterior displacement of more than 1 cm. In all cases, extremes in GTV position in the SI direction are consistent with externally measured extremes in respiration. Three patients show evidence of hysteresis in GTV motion, in which the tumor trajectory is displaced 0.2 to 0.5 cm anteriorly during expiration relative to inspiration. Significant (>1 cm) expansion of the GTV in the SI direction with respiration is observed in 1 patient. Estimated intrafractional GTV motion for gated treatment at end expiration is 0.6 cm or less in all cases; however; interfraction variation estimates (systematic plus random) are more than 1 cm in 3

  13. Personal exposure versus monitoring station data for respirable particles

    Sega, K; Fugas, M

    1982-01-01

    Personal exposure to respirable particles of 12 subjects working at the same location, but living in various parts of Zagreb, was monitored for 7 consecutive days and compared with simultaneously obtained data from the outdoor network station nearest to subject's home. Although personal exposure is related to the outdoor pollution, other sources play a considerable role. Indoor exposure takes, on the average, more than 80% of the total time. The ratio between average personal exposure and respirable particle levels in the outdoor air decreases with the increased outdoor concentration (r = -0.93), indicating that this relationship might serve as a basis for a rough estimate of possible personal exposure.

  14. Light-enhanced oxygen respiration in benthic phototrophic communities

    Epping, EHG; Jørgensen, BB

    1996-01-01

    Two microelectrode studies demonstrate the effect of Light intensity and photosynthesis on areal oxygen respiration in a hypersaline mat at Guerrero Negro, Mexico, and in an intertidal sediment at Texel, The Netherlands. The hypersaline mat was studied in the laboratory at light intensities of 0...... the day at prevailing light intensities. A 1-dimensional diffusion-reaction model was used to estimate gross photosynthesis and oxygen respiration per volume of sediment, as well as the euphotic depth and the sediment-water interface concentration of oxygen. Areal gross photosynthesis ranged from 9...

  15. Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles

    Leyla Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a rare disorder characterized by hereditary non-progressive restrictive strabismus and blepharoptosis. Although most of the cases are bilateral and isolated, some patients may have systemic findings. CFEOM is divided into three groups as CFEOM 1, 2, and 3 according to the phenotype. Primary responsible genes are KIF21A for CFEOM type 1 and 3 and PHOX2A/ARIX gene for CFEOM type 2. Studies suggest that abnormal innervation of the extraocular muscles is the cause of muscle fibrosis. Early treatment is important because of the risk of amblyopia. Surgery is the primary treatment option for strabismus and blepharoptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 312-5

  16. Imaging of muscle disorders in children

    Johnson, Karl; Foster, J.K.; Davis, Penny J.C.; McDonagh, Janet E.; Ryder, Clive A.J.; Southwood, Taunton R.

    2006-01-01

    Muscle inflammation is a relatively common pathological process in childhood. The diagnosis of the underlying cause relies on an appreciation of the pattern of clinical features, as well as the results of biochemical, histological and radiological investigations. Often the clinical and biochemical features are non-specific and insensitive. Consequently, the radiological abnormalities are very important in establishing a diagnosis and an understanding of the imaging features of muscle inflammatory disorders in childhood is needed. Some of the imaging protocols needed to investigate a variety of muscle and soft-tissue inflammatory conditions in childhood are reviewed in this article. Those features that are helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis are indicated and a logical approach to the investigation of affected children is provided. The value of MR imaging is highlighted. (orig.)

  17. Muscle autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis: beyond diagnosis?

    Meriggioli, Matthew N; Sanders, Donald B

    2012-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. A number of molecules, including ion channels and other proteins at the neuromuscular junction, may be targeted by autoantibodies leading to abnormal neuromuscular transmission. In approximately 85% of patients, autoantibodies, directed against the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor can be detected in the serum and confirm the diagnosis, but in general, do not precisely predict the degree of weakness or response to therapy. Antibodies to the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase are detected in approximately 50% of generalized myasthenia gravis patients who are seronegative for anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and levels of anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies do appear to correlate with disease severity and treatment response. Antibodies to other muscle antigens may be found in the subsets of myasthenia gravis patients, potentially providing clinically useful diagnostic information, but their utility as relevant biomarkers (measures of disease state or response to treatment) is currently unclear. PMID:22882218

  18. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  19. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  20. Increased mitochondrial substrate sensitivity in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Larsen, S; Stride, N; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mitochondrial respiration has been linked to insulin resistance. We studied mitochondrial respiratory capacity and substrate sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes (patients), and obese and lean control participants. METHODS: Mitochondrial respiration was measured.......4). Substrate sensitivity for octanoyl-carnitine did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Increased mitochondrial substrate sensitivity is seen in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients and is confined to non-lipid substrates. Respiratory capacity per mitochondrion is not decreased...... and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) were also determined. Insulin sensitivity was determined with the isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. RESULTS: Insulin sensitivity was different (p

  1. MRI for the demonstration of subclinical muscle involvement in muscular dystrophy

    Sookhoo, S.; MacKinnon, I.; Bushby, K.; Chinnery, P.F.; Birchall, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical examination for the detection of muscle abnormality in patients with muscular dystrophy. Methods: Muscle power in 20 patients with a variety of forms of muscular dystrophy was examined clinically using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading scale, and patients were subsequently imaged with MRI. MRI and clinical examination for the detection of muscle normality and abnormality were compared using a McNemar chi-squared test to examine differences between the two methods. Results: MRI demonstrated radiological evidence of muscle abnormality more often than clinical examination; 50% of movements assessed as normal on clinical examination were associated with muscle abnormalities on MRI, including a significant proportion where there was severe radiological abnormality, indicating that focally advanced disease may be undetectable clinically. Conclusion: The combination of clinical examination and MRI could improve the accuracy of phenotypic characterization of patients with muscular dystrophy, and this in turn could allow a more focussed molecular analysis through muscle biopsy or genetic investigation. This may also be very helpful in the assessment of the degree of muscle compromise not only in the early phases of the disease but especially during follow-up and can be used in therapeutic trials

  2. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  3. Operator training for the abnormal

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  4. Abnormal distribution of the interstitial cells of cajal in an adult patient with pseudo-obstruction and megaduodenum

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Rumessen, Jüri J; de Wit, Laurens

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are fundamental regulators of GI motility. Here, we report the manometrical abnormalities and abnormalities of ICC distribution and ultrastructure encountered in a 30-yr-old patient with megaduodenum and pseudo-obstruction. Full thickness biopsies taken during...... laparoscopic placement of a jejunostomy showed vacuolated myocytes and fibrosis predominantly in the outer third of the circular muscle layer of the duodenum, suggestive for visceral myopathy. The distribution of ICC was also strikingly abnormal: by light microscopy, ICC surrounding the myenteric plexus were...... lacking in the megaduodenum, whereas ICC were normally present in the duodenal circular muscle and in the jejunum. By electron microscopy, very few ICC were identified around the duodenal myenteric plexus. These findings suggest that abnormalities in ICC may contribute to the disturbed motility in some...

  5. Abnormal Structure–Function Relationship in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2012-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. Although recent studies have found abnormal brain function and white matter organization in SD, the extent of gray matter alterations, their structure–function relationships, and correlations with symptoms remain unknown. We compared gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) in 40 SD patients and 40 controls using voxel-based morphometry and cortical distance estimates. These measures were examined for relationships with blood oxygen level–dependent signal change during symptomatic syllable production in 15 of the same patients. SD patients had increased GMV, CT, and brain activation in key structures of the speech control system, including the laryngeal sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior/middle temporal and supramarginal gyri, and in a structure commonly abnormal in other primary dystonias, the cerebellum. Among these regions, GMV, CT and activation of the IFG and cerebellum showed positive relationships with SD severity, while CT of the IFG correlated with SD duration. The left anterior insula was the only region with decreased CT, which also correlated with SD symptom severity. These findings provide evidence for coupling between structural and functional abnormalities at different levels within the speech production system in SD. PMID:21666131

  6. Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1983-09-01

    Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.

  7. Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. PMID:23111869

  8. Age-Associated Impairments in Mitochondrial ADP Sensitivity Contribute to Redox Stress in Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle

    Graham P. Holloway

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2O2 emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2O2 and the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined. Moreover, although prolonged resistance training in older individuals increased muscle mass, strength, and maximal mitochondrial respiration, exercise training did not alter H2O2 emission rates in the presence of ADP, the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, or the redox state of the muscle. These data establish that a reduction in mitochondrial ADP sensitivity increases mitochondrial H2O2 emission and contributes to age-associated redox stress. : Holloway et al. show that an inability of ADP to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission contributes to redox stress in skeletal muscle tissue of older individuals and that this process is not recovered following prolonged resistance-type exercise training, despite the general benefits of resistance training for muscle health. Keywords: mitochondria, aging, muscle, ROS, H2O2, ADP, respiration, bioenergetics, exercise, resistance training

  9. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  10. Global pathway analysis using DNA microarrays in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Skov, Vibe

    2007-01-01

    (study 1), to investigate whether pioglitazone therapy could reverse abnormalities in the transcriptional profile of muscle associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of obese PCOS patients (study 2), and to develop a microarray platform for global gene expression profiling (study 3). In study...... comparable to other commercial and custom made microarrays and is a cost-effective alternative especially in larger epidemiological studies....

  11. Evaluation of skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure using phosphorus nuclear magnetic

    Wilson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with congestive heart failure are frequently limited by muscular fatigue due skeletal muscle underperfusion and deconditioning. Muscle underperfusion and deconditioning both produce distinctive changes in metabolic parameters which are readily measured by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Therefore, phosphorus NMR should provide a useful noninvasive method of assessing muscle performance in heart failure. This chapter describes a protocol which allows detection of forearm muscle metabolic abnormalities in patients with heart failure, abnormalities that seem to be caused by muscle deconditioning. In the future, it is anticipated that this approach may prove to be an extremely useful method for objectively assessing muscle fatigue in patients with heart failure and for monitoring the effects on therapeutic interventions designed to treat this fatigue

  12. Respirable dust meter locates super polluters in traffic

    Schmidt-Ott's, A.; Kurniawan, A.; Schrauwers, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Netherlands is having trouble with the EU standards for respirable dust (PM 10). The Dutch Council of State recently blocked a number of residential development projects because local conditions failed to meet the PM 10 standard. Research by the Nano Structured Materials group at TU Delft shows

  13. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  14. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  15. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Song, B.; Niu, S.; Luo, R.; Chen, J.; Yu, G.; Olejnik, Janusz; Wohlfahrt, G.; Kiely, G.; Noormels, A.; Montagnani, L.; Cescatti, A.; Magliulo, V.; Law, B. E.; Lund, M.; Varlagin, A.; Raschi, A.; Peichl, M.; Nilsson, M.; Merbold, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 419-428 ISSN 1752-9921 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : activation energy * ecosystem respiration * index of water availability * gross primary productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2014

  16. 75 FR 29699 - Total Inward Leakage Requirements for Respirators

    2010-05-27

    ... or other half-mask respirator inward leakage measurement, and offer any additional comments on the..., facsimile (412) 386-4089, e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Department of... order to conduct tests and prepare responses. On April 20, 2010, NIOSH responded by reopening the docket...

  17. Soil respiration in Mexico: Advances and future directions

    Alejandro Cueva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (RS is a CO2 efflux from the soil to the atmosphere defined as the sum of autotrophic (respiration by roots and mycorrhizae, and heterotrophic (respiration of microorganisms that decompose fractions of organic matter and of soil fauna respiration. Globally, RS is considered to be the second largest flux of C to the atmosphere. From published literature it is clear that its main controls are soil temperature, soil moisture, photosynthesis, organic matter inputs and soil biota composition. Despite its relevance in C cycle science, there have been only twenty eight studies in Mexico in the last decade where direct measurement of gas exchange was conducted in the field. These studies were held mostly in agricultural and forest ecosystems, in Central and Southern Mexico where mild subtropical conditions prevail. However, arid, semi-arid, tropical and wetland ecosystems may have an important role in Mexico’s CO2 emissions because of their extent and extensive land use changes. From the twenty eight studies, only two provided continuous measurements of RS with high temporal resolution, highlighting the need for long-term studies to evaluate the complex biophysical controls of this flux and associated processes over different ecological succession stages. We conclude that Mexico represents an important opportunity to understand its complex dynamics, in national and global context, as ecosystems in the country cover a wide range of climatic conditions. This is particularly important because deforestation and degradation of Mexican ecosystems is rapidly increasing along with expected changes in climate.

  18. Understanding Cellular Respiration in Terms of Matter & Energy within Ecosystems

    White, Joshua S.; Maskiewicz, April C.

    2014-01-01

    Using a design-based research approach, we developed a data-rich problem (DRP) set to improve student understanding of cellular respiration at the ecosystem level. The problem tasks engage students in data analysis to develop biological explanations. Several of the tasks and their implementation are described. Quantitative results suggest that…

  19. Estimating autotrophic respiration in streams using daily metabolism data

    Knowing the fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is immediately respired by autotrophs and their closely associated heterotrophs (ARf) is necessary to understand the trophic base and carbon spiraling in streams. We show a means to estimate ARf from daily metabolism da...

  20. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  1. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    Carey, J.C.; Tang, J.; Templer, P.H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crowther, T.W.; Burton, A.J.; Dukes, J.S.; Emmett, B.; Frey, S.D.; Heskel, M.A.; Jiang, L.; Machmuller, M.B.; Mohan, J.; Panetta, A.M.; Reich, P.B.; Reinsch, S.; Wang, X.; Allison, S.D.; Bamminger, C.; Bridgham, S.; Collins, S.L.; de Dato, G.; Eddy, W.C.; Enquist, B.J.; Estiarte, M.; Harte, J.; Henderson, A.; Johnson, B.R.; Larsen, K.S.; Luo, Y.; Marhan, S.; Melillo, J.M.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Rastetter, E.; Reinmann, A.B.; Reynolds, L.L.; Schmidt, I.K.; Shaver, G.R.; Strong, A.L.; Suseela, V.; Tietema, A.

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific

  2. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  3. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  4. Connecting Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    Brown, Mary H.; Schwartz, Renee S.

    2009-01-01

    The biological processes of photosynthesis and plant cellular respiration include multiple biochemical steps, occur simultaneously within plant cells, and share common molecular components. Yet, learners often compartmentalize functions and specialization of cell organelles relevant to these two processes, without considering the interconnections…

  5. Pulmonary inflammation and crystalline silica in respirable coal ...

    Unknown

    This study demonstrates dose-response relationships between respirable crystalline silica in coal mine dust and pulmonary inflammation, antioxidant production, and radiographic small opacities. [Kuempel E D, Attfield M D, Vallyathan V, Lapp N L, Hale J M, Smith R J and Castranova V 2003 Pulmonary inflammation and ...

  6. Quantitative change of EEG and respiration signals during mindfulness meditation

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigates measures of mindfulness meditation (MM) as a mental practice, in which a resting but alert state of mind is maintained. A population of older people with high stress level participated in this study, while electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiration signals were recorded during a MM intervention. The physiological signals during meditation and control conditions were analyzed with signal processing. Methods EEG and respiration data were collected and analyzed on 34 novice meditators after a 6-week meditation intervention. Collected data were analyzed with spectral analysis, phase analysis and classification to evaluate an objective marker for meditation. Results Different frequency bands showed differences in meditation and control conditions. Furthermore, we established a classifier using EEG and respiration signals with a higher accuracy (85%) at discriminating between meditation and control conditions than a classifier using the EEG signal only (78%). Conclusion Support vector machine (SVM) classifier with EEG and respiration feature vector is a viable objective marker for meditation ability. This classifier should be able to quantify different levels of meditation depth and meditation experience in future studies. PMID:24939519

  7. ECG-derived respiration methods: adapted ICA and PCA.

    Tiinanen, Suvi; Noponen, Kai; Tulppo, Mikko; Kiviniemi, Antti; Seppänen, Tapio

    2015-05-01

    Respiration is an important signal in early diagnostics, prediction, and treatment of several diseases. Moreover, a growing trend toward ambulatory measurements outside laboratory environments encourages developing indirect measurement methods such as ECG derived respiration (EDR). Recently, decomposition techniques like principal component analysis (PCA), and its nonlinear version, kernel PCA (KPCA), have been used to derive a surrogate respiration signal from single-channel ECG. In this paper, we propose an adapted independent component analysis (AICA) algorithm to obtain EDR signal, and extend the normal linear PCA technique based on the best principal component (PC) selection (APCA, adapted PCA) to improve its performance further. We also demonstrate that the usage of smoothing spline resampling and bandpass-filtering improve the performance of all EDR methods. Compared with other recent EDR methods using correlation coefficient and magnitude squared coherence, the proposed AICA and APCA yield a statistically significant improvement with correlations 0.84, 0.82, 0.76 and coherences 0.90, 0.91, 0.85 between reference respiration and AICA, APCA and KPCA, respectively. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecophysiology and environmental distribution of organohalide-respiring bacteria

    Lu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) are able to breathe natural and anthropogenically produced organohalides persistent in a broad range of oxygen-depleted environments. Therefore, these microorganisms are of high interest for organohalide-contaminated site bioremediation and natural halogen

  9. 30 CFR 71.100 - Respirable dust standard.

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which each miner in the active... shall be measured with an approved sampling device and expressed in terms of an equivalent concentration determined in accordance with § 71.206 (Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations). ...

  10. Diatoms respire nitrate to survive dark and anoxic conditions

    Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk; Nitsch, Jana L.

    2011-01-01

    +, indicating dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammo- nium (DNRA). DNRA is an anaerobic respiration process that is known mainly from prokaryotic organisms, and here shown as dis- similatory nitrate reduction pathway used by a eukaryotic photo- troph. Similar to large sulfur bacteria and benthic foraminifera...

  11. Hydrological controls on heterotrophic soil respiration across an agricultural landscape

    Water availability is an important determinant of variation in soil respiration, but a consistent relationship between soil water and the relative flux rate of carbon dioxide across different soil types remains elusive. Using large undisturbed soil columns (N = 12), we evaluated soil water controls...

  12. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  13. Meetings: Issues and recent advances in soil respiration

    K.A. Hibbard; B.E. Law

    2004-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is intriniscally tied to climate, hydrology, nutrient cycles, and the production of biomass through photosynthesis. Over two-thirds of terrestrial carbon is stored below ground in soils, and a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 is processed by soils every year. Thus, soil respiration is a key process that underlies...

  14. Mitochondrial respiration scavenges extramitochondrial superoxide anion via a nonenzymatic mechanism.

    Guidot, D M; Repine, J E; Kitlowski, A D; Flores, S C; Nelson, S K; Wright, R M; McCord, J M

    1995-01-01

    We determined that mitochondrial respiration reduced cytosolic oxidant stress in vivo and scavenged extramitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) in vitro. First, Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in both the cytosolic antioxidant cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and electron transport (Rho0 state) grew poorly (P 0.05) in all yeast. Seco...

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Shohei Sakuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  17. Impact of some selected insecticides application on soil microbial respiration.

    Latif, M A; Razzaque, M A; Rahman, M M

    2008-08-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of selected insecticides used for controlling brinjal shoot and fruit borer on soil microorganisms and to find out the insecticides or nontoxic to soil microorganism the impact of nine selected insecticides on soil microbial respiration was studied in the laboratory. After injection of different insecticides solutions, the soil was incubated in the laboratory at room temperature for 32 days. The amount of CO2 evolved due to soil microbial respiration was determined at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of incubation. Flubendiamide, nimbicidine, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and thiodicarb had stimulatory effect on microbial respiration during the initial period of incubation. Chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan had inhibitory effect on microbial respiration and cypermethrin had no remarkable effect during the early stage of incubation. The negative effect of chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan was temporary, which was disappeared after 4 days of insecticides application. No effect of the selected insecticides on soil microorganisms was observed after 24 or 32 days of incubation.

  18. MRI evaluation of multifidus muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Chan Yu-Leung; King, A.D.; Griffith, J.F.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (Hong Kong); Cheng, J.C.Y.; Guo Xia [Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (Hong Kong)

    1999-05-01

    Background. The role of the multifidus muscles in the initiation and progression of curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is not fully understood and controversy exists as to the side of the abnormality. Objective. To evaluate on MRI the multifidus muscles at the apex of the major curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to ascertain if the multifidus muscles on the convex or concave side are abnormal and the relationship to curve severity. Materials and methods. Forty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, separated into two groups, were studied using a 1.5-T MR scanner with the synergy spine coil, employing a modified STIR (short tau inversion recovery) axial sequence obtained at the apex of the major scoliotic curve. Results. No hyperintense signal change was demonstrated in the convex side multifidus muscles in any patient. In group I, 16 of 18 patients with severe or rapidly progressive curve showed increase in signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side of the apex of the curve. In group II, of the 15 patients with mild curve (Cobb angle 10-30 ), 4 had increased signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side; of the 13 with more severe curve (Cobb angle greater than 30 ), 10 had increase in multifidus signal intensity on the concave side. Conclusions. The concave-side multifidus muscle at the apex of a scoliotic curve was morphologically abnormal. A significant association between abnormal signal change and curve severity was also established. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 25 refs.

  19. Abnormality diagnosis device for nuclear reactor

    Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Shinmi; Sakaba, Hideo

    1989-02-21

    According to the present invention, abnormality such as abnormal increase of temperature in a nuclear reactor is detected to send a signal to control rod drives, etc. thereby stopping the operation of the nuclear reactor. Receiving/transmission device transmits a signal for conducting normal operation of an abnormality information section, as well as receives an echo signal from the abnormality information section to transmit an abnormal signal to a reactor protection system. The abnormality information section is disposed to fuel assemblies, receives a signal from the receiving/transmission device for conducting the normal operation to transmit a normal echo signal, as well as changes the echo signal when detecting the nuclear reactor abnormality. By the foregoing method, since the abnormality information section is disposed to the fuel assemblies, various effects can be attained such as: (1) there is no response delay from the occurrence of abnormality to emergency counter measure after detection, (2) high burnup degree for fuels can thus be possible to improve the economical property, (3) the abnormality information section can be taken out from the reactor container together with fuel assemablies by an existent take-out mechanism and (4) since wireless transmission and reception are established between the receiving/transmission device and the abnormality information section, cables are not required in the container. (K.M.).

  20. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  1. Evaluation of respiration-correlated digital tomosynthesis in lung.

    Santoro, Joseph; Kriminski, Sergey; Lovelock, D Michael; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Mostafavi, Hassan; Amols, Howard I; Mageras, Gig S

    2010-03-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a linear accelerator-mounted imaging system provides a means of reconstructing tomographic images from radiographic projections over a limited gantry arc, thus requiring only a few seconds to acquire. Its application in the thorax, however, often results in blurred images from respiration-induced motion. This work evaluates the feasibility of respiration-correlated (RC) DTS for soft-tissue visualization and patient positioning. Image data acquired with a gantry-mounted kilovoltage imaging system while recording respiration were retrospectively analyzed from patients receiving radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Projection images spanning an approximately 30 degrees gantry arc were sorted into four respiration phase bins prior to DTS reconstruction, which uses a backprojection, followed by a procedure to suppress structures above and below the reconstruction plane of interest. The DTS images were reconstructed in planes at different depths through the patient and normal to a user-selected angle close to the center of the arc. The localization accuracy of RC-DTS was assessed via a comparison with CBCT. Evaluation of RC-DTS in eight tumors shows visible reduction in image blur caused by the respiratory motion. It also allows the visualization of tumor motion extent. The best image quality is achieved at the end-exhalation phase of the respiratory motion. Comparison of RC-DTS with respiration-correlated cone-beam CT in determining tumor position, motion extent and displacement between treatment sessions shows agreement in most cases within 2-3 mm, comparable in magnitude to the intraobserver repeatability of the measurement. These results suggest the method's applicability for soft-tissue image guidance in lung, but must be confirmed with further studies in larger numbers of patients.

  2. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ∼3°S to ∼70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas.

  3. Naturally Protected Muscle Phenotypes: Development of Novel Treatment Strategies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Dowling, Paul; Doran, Philip; Lohan, James; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2004-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene underlie x-linked muscular dystrophy. However, the absence of the dystrophin isoform Dp427 does not necessarily result in a severe dystrophic phenotype in all muscle groups. Distal mdx muscles, namely extraocular and toe fibres, appear to represent a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy. Thus, a comparative analysis of affected versus naturally protected muscle cells should lead to a greater knowledge of the molecular pathogenes...

  4. Dynamic Analysis of the Abnormal Isometric Strength Movement Pattern between Shoulder and Elbow Joint in Patients with Hemiplegia

    Yali Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemiplegia usually have weak muscle selectivity and usually perform strength at a secondary joint (secondary strength during performing a strength at one joint (primary strength. The abnormal strength pattern between shoulder and elbow joint has been analyzed by the maximum value while the performing process with strength changing from 0 to maximum then to 0 was a dynamic process. The objective of this study was to develop a method to dynamically analyze the strength changing process. Ten patients were asked to perform four group asks (maximum and 50% maximum voluntary strength in shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, elbow flexion, and elbow extension. Strength and activities from seven muscles were measured. The changes of secondary strength had significant correlation with those of primary strength in all tasks (R>0.76, p0.4, p<0.01. Deltoid muscles, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis had significant influences on the abnormal strength pattern (all p<0.01. The dynamic method was proved to be efficient to analyze the different influences of muscles on the abnormal strength pattern. The muscles, deltoid muscles, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis, much influenced the stereotyped movement pattern between shoulder and elbow joint.

  5. Respirator studies for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Douglas, D.D.; Revoir, W.; Lowry, P.L.

    1976-08-01

    Respirator studies carried out in FY 1975 for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were concentrated in two major areas: (1) the development of respirator test equipment and methods to improve the means of evaluating the performance of respirators, (2) the testing of respirators to obtain quantitative data to permit recommendations to be made to upgrade respirator performance criteria. Major accomplishments included obtaining man-test results on several different respirators using an anthropometrically selected test panel, determination of respirator exhalation valve leakages under static and dynamic conditions, and determination of the effects of respirator strap tension on facepiece leakage

  6. One stage surgical treatment for scoliosis associated with intraspinal abnormalities

    Kai WANG

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of one stage surgical treatment for scoliosis and coexisting intraspinal abnormalities. Methods The data of 6 patients who underwent one stage surgical treatment for scoliosis and coexisting intraspinal abnormalities from October 2016 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment for intraspinal abnormalities, posterior correction, osteotomy and internal fixation were performed simultaneously. The clinical and radiologic presentations, operative details, complications and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results The success rate was 100%. The operating time was (470.83 ± 136.20 min and intraoperative bleeding amount was 1350 (625, 2150 ml. Total fusion segments were 11.00 ± 2.76. Both Cobb angle of scoliosis [postoperation (19.60 ± 5.94° vs. preoperation (59.40 ± 14.31°, P = 0.007] and kyphosis [postoperation (25.80 ± 10.87° vs. preoperation (62.40 ± 21.04°, P = 0.005] were improved after operation. Tethered cords were released and epidermoid cyst, ganglioglioma and lipoma were excised. Syringomyelia was left untreated. No neurological functional defect or worsening was found. Muscle strength of all patients was improved. Muscular tone of 4 patients and difficulty in urination of 5 patients were also improved. The mean hospital stay was (8.83 ± 3.31 d. No severe complications, such as infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage, failed internal fixation, fractured pedicle screws or rods occurred after operation. None of the patients died, or experienced deterioration of neurological function, delayed infection, pseudoarthrosis, or loss correction during the (7.50 ± 1.22 months follow - up. Conclusions The one stage surgical treatment for scoliosis and intraspinal abnormalities seems to be a safe and effective approach. Neurological functional defect can be improved after operation. Osteotomy can improve correction result. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.09.011

  7. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  8. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  9. 77 FR 59667 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Respirable...

    2012-09-28

    ... operator to protect miners from exposure to excessive dust levels. The respirable coal mine dust sampling... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling,'' to the Office of...

  10. Phenophases alter the soil respiration-temperature relationship in an oak-dominated forest

    Jared L. DeForest; Askoo Noormets; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Gwen Teeney; Jiquan Chen

    2006-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) represents a major component of forest ecosystem respiration and is influenced seasonally by environmental factors such as temperature, soil moisture, root respiration, and litter fall. Changes in these environmental factors correspond with shifts in plant phenology. In this study, we examined the relationship between canopy phenophases @re-growth...

  11. Changes in photosynthesis and soil moisture drive the seasonal soil respiration-temperature hysteresis relationship

    Quan Zhang; Richard P. Phillips; Stefano Manzoni; Russell L. Scott; A. Christopher Oishi; Adrien Finzi; Edoardo Daly; Rodrigo Vargas; Kimberly A. Novick

    2018-01-01

    In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This...

  12. Healthy Muscles Matter

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  13. Soil respiration fluxes in a temperate mixed forest: seasonality and temperature sensitivities differ among microbial and root-rhizosphere respiration.

    Ruehr, Nadine K; Buchmann, Nina

    2010-02-01

    Although soil respiration, a major CO(2) flux in terrestrial ecosystems, is known to be highly variable with time, the response of its component fluxes to temperature and phenology is less clear. Therefore, we partitioned soil respiration (SR) into microbial (MR) and root-rhizosphere respiration (RR) using small root exclusion treatments in a mixed mountain forest in Switzerland. In addition, fine root respiration (FRR) was determined with measurements of excised roots. RR and FRR were strongly related to each other (R(2) = 0.92, n = 7), with RR contributing about 46% and FRR about 32% to total SR. RR rates increased more strongly with temperature (Q(10) = 3.2) than MR rates (Q(10) = 2.3). Since the contribution of RR to SR was found to be higher during growing (50%) than during dormant periods (40%), we separated the 2-year data set into phenophases. During the growing period of 2007, the temperature sensitivity of RR (Q(10) = 2.5, R(2) = 0.62) was similar to that of MR (Q(10) = 2.2, R(2) = 0.57). However, during the dormant period of 2006/2007, RR was not related to soil temperature (R(2) = 0.44, n.s.), in contrast to MR (Q(10) = 7.2; R(2) = 0.92). To better understand the influence of plant activity on root respiration, we related RR and FRR rates to photosynthetic active radiation (both R(2) = 0.67, n = 7, P = 0.025), suggesting increased root respiration rates during times with high photosynthesis. During foliage green-up in spring 2008, i.e., from bud break to full leaf expansion, RR increased by a factor of 5, while soil temperature increased only by about 5 degrees C, leading to an extraordinary high Q(10) of 10.6; meanwhile, the contribution of RR to SR increased from 29 to 47%. This clearly shows that root respiration and its apparent temperature sensitivity highly depend on plant phenology and thus on canopy assimilation and carbon allocation belowground.

  14. Muscle synergy analysis in children with cerebral palsy

    Tang, Lu; Li, Fei; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu; Wu, De; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To explore the mechanism of lower extremity dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children through muscle synergy analysis. Approach. Twelve CP children were involved in this study, ten adults (AD) and eight typically developed (TD) children were recruited as a control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected bilaterally from eight lower limb muscles of the subjects during forward walking at a comfortable speed. A nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies. In view of muscle synergy differences in number, structure and symmetry, a model named synergy comprehensive assessment (SCA) was proposed to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies. Main results. There existed larger variations between the muscle synergies of the CP group and the AD group in contrast with the TD group. Fewer mature synergies were recruited in the CP group, and many abnormal synergies specific to the CP group appeared. Specifically, CP children were found to recruit muscle synergies with a larger difference in structure and symmetry between two legs of one subject and different subjects. The proposed SCA scale demonstrated its great potential to quantitatively assess the lower-limb motor dysfunction of CP children. SCA scores of the CP group (57.00 ± 16.78) were found to be significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of the control group (AD group: 95.74 ± 2.04; TD group: 84.19 ± 11.76). Significance. The innovative quantitative results of this study can help us to better understand muscle synergy abnormality in CP children, which is related to their motor dysfunction and even the physiological change in their nervous system.

  15. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  16. Global spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration modeled using a global database

    Hashimoto, S.; Carvalhais, N.; Ito, A.; Migliavacca, M.; Nishina, K.; Reichstein, M.

    2015-07-01

    The flux of carbon dioxide from the soil to the atmosphere (soil respiration) is one of the major fluxes in the global carbon cycle. At present, the accumulated field observation data cover a wide range of geographical locations and climate conditions. However, there are still large uncertainties in the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of global soil respiration. Using a global soil respiration data set, we developed a climate-driven model of soil respiration by modifying and updating Raich's model, and the global spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration was examined using this model. The model was applied at a spatial resolution of 0.5°and a monthly time step. Soil respiration was divided into the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of respiration using an empirical model. The estimated mean annual global soil respiration was 91 Pg C yr-1 (between 1965 and 2012; Monte Carlo 95 % confidence interval: 87-95 Pg C yr-1) and increased at the rate of 0.09 Pg C yr-2. The contribution of soil respiration from boreal regions to the total increase in global soil respiration was on the same order of magnitude as that of tropical and temperate regions, despite a lower absolute magnitude of soil respiration in boreal regions. The estimated annual global heterotrophic respiration and global autotrophic respiration were 51 and 40 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The global soil respiration responded to the increase in air temperature at the rate of 3.3 Pg C yr-1 °C-1, and Q10 = 1.4. Our study scaled up observed soil respiration values from field measurements to estimate global soil respiration and provide a data-oriented estimate of global soil respiration. The estimates are based on a semi-empirical model parameterized with over one thousand data points. Our analysis indicates that the climate controls on soil respiration may translate into an increasing trend in global soil respiration and our analysis emphasizes the relevance of the soil carbon flux from soil to

  17. Alterations in upper limb muscle synergy structure in chronic stroke survivors

    Rymer, William Z.; Perreault, Eric J.; Yoo, Seng Bum; Beer, Randall F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in neurologically intact subjects have shown that motor coordination can be described by task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as a fixed pattern of activation across a set of muscles. Arm function in severely impaired stroke survivors is characterized by stereotypical postural and movement patterns involving the shoulder and elbow. Accordingly, we hypothesized that muscle synergy composition is altered in severely impaired stroke survivors. Using an isometric force matching protocol, we examined the spatial activation patterns of elbow and shoulder muscles in the affected arm of 10 stroke survivors (Fugl-Meyer synergies were identified using non-negative matrix factorization. In both groups, muscle activation patterns could be reconstructed by combinations of a few muscle synergies (typically 4). We did not find abnormal coupling of shoulder and elbow muscles within individual muscle synergies. In stroke survivors, as in controls, two of the synergies were comprised of isolated activation of the elbow flexors and extensors. However, muscle synergies involving proximal muscles exhibited consistent alterations following stroke. Unlike controls, the anterior deltoid was coactivated with medial and posterior deltoids within the shoulder abductor/extensor synergy and the shoulder adductor/flexor synergy in stroke was dominated by activation of pectoralis major, with limited anterior deltoid activation. Recruitment of the altered shoulder muscle synergies was strongly associated with abnormal task performance. Overall, our results suggest that an impaired control of the individual deltoid heads may contribute to poststroke deficits in arm function. PMID:23155178

  18. In-Vivo Measurement of Muscle Tension: Dynamic Properties of the MC Sensor during Isometric Muscle Contraction

    Srđan Đorđević

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a “Muscle Contraction” (MC sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976 and 90° (r = 0.966 across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion.

  19. Does Short-term Litter Input Manipulation Affect Soil Respiration and the Carbon-isotopic Signature of Soil Respired CO2

    Cheng, X.; Wu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Global change greatly alters the quality and quantity of plant litter inputs to soils, and further impacts soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and soil respiration. However, the process-based understanding of how soil respiration may change with future shift in litter input is not fully understood. The Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) experiment was conducted in coniferous forest (Platycladus orientalis (Linn.) Franco) ecosystem of central China to investigate the impact of above- and belowground litter input on soil respiration and the carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2. Short-term (1-2 years) litter input manipulation significantly affected soil respiration, based on annual flux values, soil respiration was 31.9%, 20.5% and 37.2% lower in no litter (NL), no root (NR) and no input (NRNL), respectively, compared to control (CK). Whereas double litter (DL) treatment increased soil respiration by 9.1% compared to CK. The recalcitrance index of carbon (RIC) and the relative abundance of fungi increased under litter removal or root exclusion treatment (NL, NR and NRNL) compared to CK. Basal soil respiration was positively related to liable C and microbial biomass and negatively related to RIC and fungi to bacteria (F: B) ratio. The carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2 enriched under litter removal and no input treatment, and slightly depleted under litter addition treatment compared to CK. Our results suggest that short-term litter input manipulation can affect the soil respiration by altering substrate availability and microbial community structure, and also impact the carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2 possibly duo to change in the component of soil respiration and soil microclimate.

  20. Soil Respiration of Three Mangrove Forests on Sanibel Island, Florida

    Cartwright, F.; Bovard, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon cycling studies conducted in mangrove forests have typically focused on aboveground processes. Our understanding of carbon storage in these systems is therefore limited by the lack information on belowground processes such as fine root production and soil respiration. To our knowledge there exist no studies investigating temporal patterns in and environmental controls on soil respiration in multiple types of mangrove ecosystems concurrently. This study is part of a larger study on carbon storage in three mangrove forests on Sanibel Island, Florida. Here we report on eight months of soil respiration data within these forests that will ultimately be incorporated into an annual carbon budget for each habitat type. Soil respiration was monitored in the following three mangrove habitat types: a fringe mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora mangle, a basin mangrove forest dominated by Avicennia germinans, and a higher elevation forest comprised of a mix of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa, and non-woody salt marsh species. Beginning in June of 2010, we measured soil emissions of carbon dioxide at 5 random locations within three-100 m2 plots within each habitat type. Sampling was performed at monthly intervals and conducted over the course of three days. For each day, one plot from each habitat type was measured. In addition to soil respiration, soil temperature, salinity and gravimetric moisture content were also measured. Our data indicate the Black mangrove forest, dominated by Avicennia germinans, experiences the highest rates of soil respiration with a mean rate of 4.61 ± 0.60 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The mixed mangrove and salt marsh habitat has the lowest soil carbon emission rates with a mean of 2.78 ± 0.40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil carbon effluxes appear to peak in the early part of the wet season around May to June and are lower and relatively constant the remainder of the year. Our data also suggest there are important but brief periods where

  1. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  2. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  3. Report on abnormal climate in 2011

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports of impact on abnormal climate in 2011. It has Introduction with purpose and background of publish and summary of this report. The cause and current state on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011, Measurement and impact against abnormal climate in 2011 to agriculture, land and maritime, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, environment and health, assessment and advice on the policy. It lists the appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011 and media report data.

  4. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  5. Surgical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging findings in piriformis muscle syndrome

    Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Boric, Igor; Smoljanovic, Tomislav; Pecina, Marko; Duvancic, Davor

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of the piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS). In ten patients, seven female and three male, with a long history of clinical symptoms of the PMS, an MRI was performed as the last preoperative diagnostic tool. All patients were imaged using 2T MR system (Elscint, Haifa, Israel). Axial and coronal spin-echo, fast spin-echo (FSE), and fat-suppressed FSE-weighted images were made through the pelvic region with 3-mm section thickness and a 0.5-mm gap to show the whole piriformis muscle and the course of sciatic nerve on its way out of the pelvis. A routine examination also included axial fast spin-echo T2, three-dimensional gradient echo. In seven cases, an MRI abnormality for the PMS was found. In two women, the MRI demonstrated a bigastric appearance of the piriformis muscle with a tendinous portion between the muscle heads and the course of the common peroneal nerve through the muscle between the tendinous portions of the muscle. In one female patient, the common peroneal nerve passed through the hypertrophied piriformis muscle. In four patients, the MRI showed a hypertrophied aspect of the piriformis muscle and an anteriorly displaced sciatic nerve. All MRI findings were confirmed surgically. In three patients, no apparent abnormalities could be observed, but after a surgical treatment, i.e., a tenotomy of the piriformis muscle and neurolysis of the sciatic nerve, all symptoms disappeared. In piriformis muscle syndrome, MRI may demonstrate signal abnormalities of the sciatic nerve as well as its relationship with the normal and abnormal piriformis muscle. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  7. Aquatic respiration rate measurements at low oxygen concentrations.

    Moritz Holtappels

    Full Text Available Despite its huge ecological importance, microbial oxygen respiration in pelagic waters is little studied, primarily due to methodological difficulties. Respiration measurements are challenging because of the required high resolution of oxygen concentration measurements. Recent improvements in oxygen sensing techniques bear great potential to overcome these limitations. Here we compare 3 different methods to measure oxygen consumption rates at low oxygen concentrations, utilizing amperometric Clark type sensors (STOX, optical sensors (optodes, and mass spectrometry in combination with (18-18O2 labeling. Oxygen concentrations and consumption rates agreed well between the different methods when applied in the same experimental setting. Oxygen consumption rates between 30 and 400 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were measured with high precision and relative standard errors of less than 3%. Rate detection limits in the range of 1 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were suitable for rate determinations in open ocean water and were lowest at the lowest applied O2 concentration.

  8. SOME METHODIC ASPECTS OF VOCAL RESPIRATION WITHIN ACADEMIC SINGING TEACHING

    AGA LUDMILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author’s reflections on the methodical problems of vocal respiration treated by Ludmila Aga as one of the essential elements of vocal technique. Based on her own rich experience as opera soloist and vocal teacher, the author reviews some theoretical principles which treat this problem. Besides, L. Aga proposes some helpful exercises for developing vocal respiration abilities. The article combines data from physiology, history and the theory of performing arts, methods of singing. Having an applied character, this work might be helpful for the singing teachers from the colleges and higher instituti­ons of music proile, as well as for the students of the Academic Singing Department.

  9. [Effects of antimicrobial drugs on soil microbial respiration].

    Liu, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Tao, Ran; Su, Hao-Chang; Li, Xu

    2009-05-15

    The effects on soil microbial respiration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, macrolides and so on were studied using the direct absorption method. The results show sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, tylosin and trimethoprim inhibit soil respiration 34.33%, 34.43%, 2.71%, 3.08%, 7.13%, 38.08% respectively. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim have the highest inhibition rates among all the antibiotics. In early incubation period (0-2 d), the concentrations above 10 mg x kg(-1) of sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim remarkably decrease soil CO2 emission. The effects of these antibiotics vary with their concentrations too. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim show good dose-response relationships. According to the standard of pesticide safety evaluation protocol, the six antibiotics pose a little risk to soil microbial environment.

  10. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of long-term microgravitation exposure on cell respiration of the rat musculus soleus fibers.

    Veselova, O M; Ogneva, I V; Larina, I M

    2011-07-01

    Cell respiration of the m. soleus fibers was studied in Wistar rats treated with succinic acid and exposed to microgravitation for 35 days. The results indicated that respiration rates during utilization of endogenous and exogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate decreased in animals subjected to microgravitation without succinate treatment. The respiration rate during utilization of exogenous substrate did not increase in comparison with that on endogenous substrates. Succinic acid prevented the decrease in respiration rate on endogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate. On the other hand, the respiration rate on exogenous substrates was reduced in vivarium control rats receiving succinate in comparison with intact control group. That could indicate changed efficiency of complex I of the respiratory chain due to reciprocal regulation of the tricarbonic acid cycle.

  12. Supporting Aspartate Biosynthesis Is an Essential Function of Respiration in Proliferating Cells.

    Sullivan, Lucas B; Gui, Dan Y; Hosios, Aaron M; Bush, Lauren N; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-07-30

    Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation; however, the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here, we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  14. Skin abnormality and hairloss: the reproductive endocrinological viewpoint

    Ali Baziad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive androgen production may cause changes in female skin, such as hirsutism and acne. The administration of antiadrogenic hormone such as cyproteron acetate, may eliminate the hyperandrogenic effect on the skin. Hairloss may also caused either by hyper-androgenemia or by low estrogen level. The administration of either antiandrogen or estrogen may reduce hairloss. Virilization, which includes excessive growth of hair and clitoris enlargement, deepened voice, muscle hypertrophy and mammary hypoplasia are also associated with hyperandrogenemia. Antiandrogen treatment could eliminate these impacts of virilization. In contrast, cellulite was supected to be due to androgen deficiency, and the use of topical testosterone could eliminate it. It is concluded that skin and/or hairloss are associated with hormonal changes in women. The treatment with antiandrogenic hormones may reduce or cure these abnormalities. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 258-63Keywords: Hirsutism, virilization, acne, cellulite, hairloss, androgen, estrogen

  15. Respiration shutoff in Escherichia coli after far-uv irradiation

    Swenson, P.A.; Norton, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    Damage to DNA of Escherichia coli by uv, ionizing radiation and chemicals causes a number of responses that require the recA + and lexA + gene products. The responses include error prone repair (as indicated by mutagenesis), filamentation and induction of prophage lambda. Another important rec/lex response, shutoff of respiration, which occurs 60 min after exposure to uv, is studied. Objective is to understand the genetic and biochemical bases of the shutoff process and its control

  16. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Leigh, J.D.

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees

  17. Matching sampler penetration curves to definitions of respirable fraction

    Mercer, T.T.

    1977-01-01

    A formal definition of 'respirable fraction' (the probability that a particle of a given size will deposit in the alveolar regions of the lung if inhaled) is useful only if there is a method of sorting out airborne contamination approximately in accordance with the definition. The matching of the definitions adopted by different organizations to the penetration curves of various types of sample is discussed. (author)

  18. Short Communication: HIV Patient Systemic Mitochondrial Respiration Improves with Exercise.

    Kocher, Morgan; McDermott, Mindy; Lindsey, Rachel; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Gerschenson, Mariana; Chow, Dominic C; Kohorn, Lindsay B; Hetzler, Ronald K; Kimura, Iris F

    2017-10-01

    In HIV-infected individuals, impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to cardiometabolic disease as well as to fatigue and frailty. Aerobic exercise improves total body energy reserves; however, its impact at the cellular level is unknown. We assessed alterations in cellular bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a 12-week aerobic exercise study in sedentary HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy who successfully completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program. In this prospective study, participants underwent supervised 20-40 min of light aerobic exercise (walking or jogging) performed three times per week for 12 weeks, gradually increasing to maintain an intensity of 50%-80% of heart rate reserve. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2MAX ) was assessed by a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer before and after completion of the study. PBMC from compliant subjects (attended at least 70% of exercise sessions) were assessed for mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 Bio-Analyzer. Seven of 24 enrolled subjects were compliant with the exercise regimen. In these individuals, a significant increase (p = .04) in VO 2MAX over 12 weeks was found with a median increase of 14%. During the same interval, a 2.45-fold increase in PBMC mitochondrial respiratory capacity (p = .04), a 5.65-fold increase in spare respiratory capacity (p = .01), and a 3.15-fold (p = .04) increase in nonmitochondrial respiration was observed. Aerobic exercise improves respiration at the cellular level. The diagnostic and prognostic value of such improved cellular respiration in the setting of chronic HIV warrants further investigation.

  19. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    C. Phillips; L.A. Kluber; J.P. Martin; B.A. Caldwell; B.J. Bond

    2012-01-01

    Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or “mats”, formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was...

  20. VALORISATION TENDENCIES (POSTAVANGARDE IN RESPIRATION OF FLOWERS BY IULIAN GOGU

    BARBAS VALERIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available „Respiration of flowers”, signed by Iulian Gogu, is a representative creation of the ‘90s, an example of the modernization of chamber music in the Republic of Moldova, in terms of the compositional and interpretative aspects, which reflects the process of assimilation and valorisation of West European sound practices: avant-garde experiments, new aesthetics of musical material and contemporary musical language – acquiring new tendencies and compositional techniques, musical graphics, and various instrumental timbre experimentations.

  1. Independent Evaluation of The Lepestok Filtering Facepiece Respirator

    Hoover, Mark D; Vargo, George J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the protection factor of the Lepestok-200 filtering facepiece respirator by conducting a standard quantitative fit test on a panel of 25 representative adults (14 males and 11 females) using the TSI Incorporated PortaCount PlusTM quantitative fit-testing system. Each subject was tested four times. In the total of 100 tests, 95% of the overall fit factors were greater than 3, more than 80% of the overall fit factors were greater than 14, approximately 50% were greater than 86, and 20% were greater than 200. The pass-fail performance of the respirator was similar for each of the six exercises in the test series: (1) normal breathing, (2) deep breathing, (3) moving the head side to side, (4) moving the head up and down, (5) reading a passage of text out loud, and (6) normal breathing, indicating that the respirator performs equally well for each type of exercise. A significant and sustained improvement in fit factor was observed after the initial test, indicating that the subjects benefited from the knowledge gained in the first of the four quantitative fit tests. In the 75 tests conducted after the initial test for each individual, 95% of the overall fit factors were greater than 6, more than 80% of the overall fit factors were greater than 23, and 50% were greater than 116, and 20% were greater than 200. Thus, the initial learning experienced doubled the fit factor for subsequent tests. In addition, there is an indication that the Lepestok-200 may perform better on wearers with wider faces than on individuals with narrower faces. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the Lepestok-200 respirator and reinforce the general conclusion that quantitative fit-testing can make an important contribution to ensuring that proper protection factors are achieved for workers

  2. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Leigh, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees.

  3. Partitioning autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration at Howland Forest

    Carbone, Mariah; Hollinger, Dave; Davidson, Eric; Savage, Kathleen; Hughes, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration is the combined flux of CO2 to the atmosphere from above- and below-ground, plant (autotrophic) and microbial (heterotrophic) sources. Flux measurements alone (e.g., from eddy covariance towers or soil chambers) cannot distinguish the contributions from these sources, which may change seasonally and respond differently to temperature and moisture. The development of improved process-based models that can predict how plants and microbes respond to changing environmental conditions (on seasonal, interannual, or decadal timescales) requires data from field observations and experiments to distinguish among these respiration sources. We tested the viability of partitioning of soil and ecosystem respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components with different approaches at the Howland Forest in central Maine, USA. These include an experimental manipulation using the classic root trenching approach and targeted ∆14CO2 measurements. For the isotopic measurements, we used a two-end member mass balance approach to determine the fraction of soil respiration from autotrophic and heterotrophic sources. When summed over the course of the growing season, the trenched chamber flux (heterotrophic) accounted for 53 ± 2% of the total control chamber flux. Over the four different 14C sampling periods, the heterotrophic component ranged from 35-55% and the autotrophic component ranges 45-65% of the total flux. Next steps will include assessing the value of the flux partitioning for constraining a simple ecosystem model using a model-data fusion approach to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NPP and simulation of future soil C stocks and fluxes.

  4. Visible light alters yeast metabolic rhythms by inhibiting respiration

    Robertson, James Brian; Davis, Chris R.; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-01-01

    In some organisms, respiration fluctuates cyclically, and these rhythms can be a sensitive gauge of metabolism. Constant or pulsatile exposure of yeast to visible wavelengths of light significantly alters and/or initiates these respiratory oscillations, revealing a further dimension of the challenges to yeast living in natural environments. Our results also have implications for the use of light as research tools—e.g., for excitation of fluorescence microscopically—even in organisms such as y...

  5. The importance of in vitro diagnostics in respiration allergy

    Wever, A.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Out of the 4 types of allergic reactions, in respiration allergy the anaphylactic reaction caused by IgE antibodies is the most important. Determination of IgE with radioimmunoassay: the radio-allergo-sorbent test (Rast) and the Phadiatop (pharmacie-differential atopy test) was investigated in 248 patients with pulmonal complaints. Phadiatop can be used as a screening test and for a better application of the specific Rast-diagnostic. 1 table

  6. Plant growth and respiration re-visited: maintenance respiration defined – it is an emergent property of, not a separate process within, the system – and why the respiration : photosynthesis ratio is conservative

    Thornley, John H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth and respiration still has unresolved issues, examined here using a model. The aims of this work are to compare the model's predictions with McCree's observation-based respiration equation which led to the ‘growth respiration/maintenance respiration paradigm’ (GMRP) – this is required to give the model credibility; to clarify the nature of maintenance respiration (MR) using a model which does not represent MR explicitly; and to examine algebraic and numerical predictions for the respiration:photosynthesis ratio. Methods A two-state variable growth model is constructed, with structure and substrate, applicable on plant to ecosystem scales. Four processes are represented: photosynthesis, growth with growth respiration (GR), senescence giving a flux towards litter, and a recycling of some of this flux. There are four significant parameters: growth efficiency, rate constants for substrate utilization and structure senescence, and fraction of structure returned to the substrate pool. Key Results The model can simulate McCree's data on respiration, providing an alternative interpretation to the GMRP. The model's parameters are related to parameters used in this paradigm. MR is defined and calculated in terms of the model's parameters in two ways: first during exponential growth at zero growth rate; and secondly at equilibrium. The approaches concur. The equilibrium respiration:photosynthesis ratio has the value of 0·4, depending only on growth efficiency and recycling fraction. Conclusions McCree's equation is an approximation that the model can describe; it is mistaken to interpret his second coefficient as a maintenance requirement. An MR rate is defined and extracted algebraically from the model. MR as a specific process is not required and may be replaced with an approach from which an MR rate emerges. The model suggests that the respiration:photosynthesis ratio is conservative because it depends on two parameters only whose

  7. Betaine is a positive regulator of mitochondrial respiration

    Lee, Icksoo, E-mail: icksoolee@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaine’s anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study we investigated whether betaine directly targets mitochondria. We show that betaine treatment leads to an upregulation of mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity in H2.35 cells, the proposed rate limiting enzyme of ETC in vivo. Following treatment, the mitochondrial membrane potential was increased and cellular energy levels were elevated. We propose that the anti-proliferative effects of betaine on cancer cells might be due to enhanced mitochondrial function contributing to a reversal of the Warburg effect.

  8. Miniaturized test system for soil respiration induced by volatile pollutants

    Kaufmann, Karin; Chapman, Stephen J.; Campbell, Colin D.; Harms, Hauke; Hoehener, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized method based on 96-well microtitre plates was developed and used to study respiration in pristine and contaminated soils following addition of volatile substrates. Small soil samples were exposed to fuel components, which were volatilized from spatially separate reservoirs of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as an organic carrier. Respiration was determined as CO 2 production by means of a pH-indicator and bicarbonate-containing agar, or as 14 CO 2 evolution from 14 C-labelled substrates. Substrate concentrations inducing maximum microbial activity or inhibition were determined and CO 2 production profiles examined by multivariate analysis. When high concentrations of fuel components were applied, distinction of hydrocarbon exposed soils from unexposed soil was achieved within 6 h of incubation. With low concentrations, adequate distinction was achieved after 24 h, probably as a result of community adaptation. Nutrient limitation was identified with the 14 C method for toluene, and the optimal N and P amendment determined. Further potential applications of this rapid and inexpensive method are outlined. - A new method to study soil respiration is used when volatile organic contaminants are added

  9. Coordinate regulation of cytochrome and alternative pathway respiration in tobacco.

    Vanlerberghe, G C; McIntosh, L

    1992-12-01

    In suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow), inhibition of the cytochrome pathway of respiration with antimycin A induced a large increase in the capacity of the alternative pathway over a period of approximately 12 h, as confirmed in both whole cells and isolated mitochondria. The increase in alternative pathway capacity required de novo RNA and protein synthesis and correlated closely with the increase of a 35-kD alternative oxidase protein. When the cytochrome pathway of intact cells was inhibited by antimycin A, respiration proceeded exclusively through the alternative pathway, reached rates significantly higher than before antimycin A addition, and was not stimulated by p-trifluoromethoxycarbonylcyanide (FCCP). When inhibition of the cytochrome pathway was relieved, alternative pathway capacity and the level of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein declined. Respiration rate also declined and could once again be stimulated by FCCP. These observations show that the capacities of the mitochondrial electron transport pathways can be regulated in a coordinate fashion.

  10. Carbon isotopes in biological carbonates: Respiration and photosynthesis

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Burdett, Jim; Whelan, Joseph F.; Paull, Charles K.

    1997-02-01

    Respired carbon dioxide is an important constituent in the carbonates of most air breathing animals but is much less important in the carbonates of most aquatic animals. This difference is illustrated using carbon isotope data from freshwater and terrestrial snails, ahermatypic corals, and chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic pelecypods. Literature data from fish otoliths and bird and mammal shell and bone carbonates are also considered. Environmental CO 2/O 2 ratios appear to be the major controlling variable. Atmospheric CO 2/O 2 ratios are about thirty times lower than in most natural waters, hence air breathing animals absorb less environmental CO 2 in the course of obtaining 0 2. Tissue CO 2 therefore, does not isotopically equilibrate with environmental CO 2 as thoroughly in air breathers as in aquatic animals, and this is reflected in skeletal carbonates. Animals having efficient oxygen transport systems, such as vertebrates, also accumulate more respired CO 2 in their tissues. Photosynthetic corals calcify mainly during the daytime when photosynthetic CO 2 uptake is several times faster than respiratory CO 2 release. Photosynthesis, therefore, affects skeletal δ13C more strongly than does respiration. Corals also illustrate how "metabolic" effects on skeletal isotopic composition can be estimated, despite the presence of much larger "kinetic" isotope effects.

  11. [The knowledge of animal respiration as a combustion phenomenon].

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The different stages leading to knowledge of the phenomenon of animal breathing are going from some writings in Corpus Hippocraticum to Aristoteles' and Galen's works, who considered the heart as the source of the animal heat. Later, Miguel Servet suggested that the inspired air can achieve other functions besides cooling the blood. After that, different explications of the animal heat were raised. About 1770, due to progress of knowledge in the chemistry field, first Mayow and later Black began to consider the animal respiration as a combustion. The important treatise Méthode de nomenclature chimique, published by Guyton de Morveau et al. in 1787 and soon after the Traité élémentaire de chimie de Lavoisier (1789) provided a solid support to Lavoisier's thought. This way on arrived to consider analogous the respiration and combustion phenomena. Studies on the animal respiration phenomenon continued in xix century and in the following century it was possible to apply thermodynamic principles to biology: "generalized thermodynamics". Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. A New Compendium of Soil Respiration Data for Africa

    Terence Epule Epule

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present to the scientific community a new dataset derived from existing literature on soil respiration in Africa. The data has thus been obtained by searching for records in peer review papers and grey literature. The main search engines used are: Scientific Citation Index (SCI database, ISI Science web and Google scholar. This data description paper has greatly advanced the number of data points on soil respiration in Africa from 4 in 2010 to 62 in 2014. The new data points are culled from 47 peer review publications and grey literature reports. The data lends its self to a lot of possible analytical methods such as correlation analysis, multiple linear regressions, artificial neural network analysis and process base modeling. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that this paper has greatly advanced the availability of soil respiration data in Africa by presenting all the available records that before now were only reported in different studies.

  13. Pulmo uterinus: a history of ideas on fetal respiration.

    Obladen, Michael

    2017-05-24

    Theories about fetal respiration began in antiquity. Aristotle characterized pneuma as warm air, but also as the enabler of vital functions and instrument of the soul. In Galen's system of physiology, the vital spirit was carried by the umbilical arteries, the nutrients by the umbilical vein from the placenta to the fetus. In 1569 Aranzio postulated that the maternal and fetal vasculatures are distinct. From 1670 to 1690, a century before the discovery of oxygen, researchers understood that during respiration some form of exchange with the air must occur, naming the substance biolychnium, phlogiston, sal-nitro, or nitro-aerial particles. An analogy of placental and pulmonary gas exchange was described in 1674 by Mayow. In 1779, Lavoisier understood the discovery of oxygen, discarded the phlogiston theory, and based respiration physiology on gas exchange. With the invention of the spectroscope, it became possible to measure hemoglobin oxygenation, and in 1876 Zweifel proved fetal oxygen uptake. Major progress in understanding fetal gas exchange was achieved in the 20th century by the physiologists Barcroft in Cambridge and Dawes in Oxford.

  14. Cisplatin cytotoxicity is dependent on mitochondrial respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Santhipriya Inapurapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To understand the role of mitochondrial respiration in cisplatin sensitivity, we have employed wild-type and mitochondrial DNA depleted Rho0 yeast cells. Materials and Methods: Wild type and Rho0 yeast cultured in fermentable and non-fermentable sugar containing media, were studied for their sensitivity against cisplatin by monitoring growth curves, oxygen consumption, pH changes in cytosol/mitochondrial compartments, reactive oxygen species production and respiratory control ratio. Results: Wild-type yeast grown on glycerol exhibited heightened sensitivity to cisplatin than yeast grown on glucose. Cisplatin (100 μM, although significantly reduced the growth of wild- type cells, only slightly altered the growth rate of Rho0 cells. Cisplatin treatment decreased both pHcyt and pHmit to a similar extent without affecting the pH difference. Cisplatin dose-dependently increased the oxidative stress in wild-type, but not in respiration-deficient Rho0 strain. Cisplatin decreased the respiratory control ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that cisplatin toxicity is influenced by the respiratory capacity of the cells and the intracellular oxidative burden. Although cisplatin per se slightly decreased the respiration of yeast cells grown in glucose, it did not disturb the mitochondrial chemiosmotic gradient.

  15. Opposing effects of nitric oxide and prostaglandin inhibition on muscle mitochondrial VO2 during exercise

    Boushel, Robert C; Fuentes, Teresa; Hellsten, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) together play a role in regulation blood flow during exercise. NO also regulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption through competitive binding to cytochrome c oxidase. Indomethacin both uncouples and inhibits the electron transport chain in a concentration......-dependent manner, and thus inhibition of NO and PG may regulate both muscle oxygen delivery and utilization. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of NO and PG blockade (L-NMMA and indomethacin respectively) on mitochondrial respiration in human muscle following knee...... extension (KE) exercise. Mitochondrial respiration was measured ex-vivo by high resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers following 6 min KE in control (CON, n=8), arterial infusion of LNMMA (n=4) and Indo (n=4) followed by combined inhibition of NO and PG (L-NMMA + Indo, n=8). ADP...

  16. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  17. Live imaging of muscle histolysis in Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Kuleesha, Yadav; Puah, Wee Choo; Wasser, Martin

    2016-05-04

    The contribution of programmed cell death (PCD) to muscle wasting disorders remains a matter of debate. Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis offers the opportunity to study muscle cell death in the context of development. Using live cell imaging of the abdomen, two groups of larval muscles can be observed, doomed muscles that undergo histolysis and persistent muscles that are remodelled and survive into adulthood. To identify and characterize genes that control the decision between survival and cell death of muscles, we developed a method comprising in vivo imaging, targeted gene perturbation and time-lapse image analysis. Our approach enabled us to study the cytological and temporal aspects of abnormal cell death phenotypes. In a previous genetic screen for genes controlling muscle size and cell death in metamorphosis, we identified gene perturbations that induced cell death of persistent or inhibit histolysis of doomed larval muscles. RNA interference (RNAi) of the genes encoding the helicase Rm62 and the lysosomal Cathepsin-L homolog Cysteine proteinase 1 (Cp1) caused premature cell death of persistent muscle in early and mid-pupation, respectively. Silencing of the transcriptional co-repressor Atrophin inhibited histolysis of doomed muscles. Overexpression of dominant-negative Target of Rapamycin (TOR) delayed the histolysis of a subset of doomed and induced ablation of all persistent muscles. RNAi of AMPKα, which encodes a subunit of the AMPK protein complex that senses AMP and promotes ATP formation, led to loss of attachment and a spherical morphology. None of the perturbations affected the survival of newly formed adult muscles, suggesting that the method is useful to find genes that are crucial for the survival of metabolically challenged muscles, like those undergoing atrophy. The ablation of persistent muscles did not affect eclosion of adult flies. Live imaging is a versatile approach to uncover gene functions that are required for the survival of

  18. An explorative, cross-sectional study into abnormal muscular coupling during reach in chronic stroke patients

    Stienen Arno HA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many stroke patients arm function is limited, which can be related to an abnormal coupling between shoulder and elbow joints. The extent to which this can be translated to activities of daily life (ADL, in terms of muscle activation during ADL-like movements, is rather unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the occurrence of abnormal coupling on functional, ADL-like reaching movements of chronic stroke patients by comparison with healthy persons. Methods Upward multi-joint reaching movements (20 repetitions at a self-selected speed to resemble ADL were compared in two conditions: once facilitated by arm weight compensation and once resisted to provoke a potential abnormal coupling. Changes in movement performance (joint angles and muscle activation (amplitude of activity and co-activation between conditions were compared between healthy persons and stroke patients using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results The present study showed slight changes in joint excursion and muscle activation of stroke patients due to shoulder elevation resistance during functional reach. Remarkably, in healthy persons similar changes were observed. Even the results of a sub-group of the more impaired stroke patients did not point to an abnormal coupling between shoulder elevation and elbow flexion during functional reach. Conclusions The present findings suggest that in mildly and moderately affected chronic stroke patients ADL-like arm movements are not substantially affected by abnormal synergistic coupling. In this case, it is implied that other major contributors to limitations in functional use of the arm should be identified and targeted individually in rehabilitation, to improve use of the arm in activities of daily living.

  19. Non-invasive assessment determine the swallowing and respiration dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    Wang, Chin-Man; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is common among patients with Parkinson's disease. Swallowing and its coordination with respiration is extremely important to achieve safety swallowing. Different tools have been used to assess this coordination, however the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate this coordination in patients with Parkinson's disease using a non-invasive method. Signals of submental muscle activity, thyroid cartilage excursion, and nasal airflow during swallowing were recorded simultaneously. Five different water boluses were swallowed three times, and the data were recorded and analyzed. Thirty-seven controls and 42 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease were included. The rates of non-expiratory/expiratory pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns were higher in the patients than in the controls (P Parkinson's disease, and safety compensation mechanisms were used more than efficiency during swallowing. The results of this study may serve as a baseline for further research into new treatment regimens and to improve the management of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  1. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  2. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  3. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  4. Contrast sensitivity abnormalities in deaf individuals

    Masoud Khorrami-Nejad

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Hearing impaired boys are at a greater risk for contrast sensitivity abnormalities than boys with normal hearing. The larger frequency of contrast sensitivity abnormalities in high spatial frequencies than in other frequencies may demonstrate greater defects in the central visual system compared with the periphery in individuals with hearing loss.

  5. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...

  6. [Dynamic changes in soil respiration components and their regulating factors in the Moso bamboo plantation in subtropical China].

    Yang, Wen-jia; Li, Yong-fu; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Liu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic changes (from April 2013 to March 2014) in soil respiration components were investigated by Li-8100 in the Moso bamboo plantation in Lin' an City, Zhejiang Province. Results showed that the average annual values for the soil total respiration rate, heterotrophic respiration rate, and autotrophic respiration rate in the Moso bamboo plantation were 2.93, 1.92 and 1.01 imol CO2 . m-2 . s-1, respectively. The soil respiration rate and its components exhibited strongly a seasonal dynamic pattern. The maximum appeared in July 2013, and the minimum appeared in January 2014. The annual cumulative CO2 emissions through soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration, and autotrophic respiration were 37.25, 24.61 and 12.64 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1, respectively. The soil respiration and its components showed a close relation with soil temperature of 5 cm depth, and the corresponding Q10, values at 5 cm depth were 2.05, 1.95 and 2.34, respectively. Both the soil respiration and heterotrophic respiration were correlated to soil water soluble organic C (WSOC) content, but no significant relationship between autotrophic respiration and WSOC was observed. There were no significant relationships between soil respiration components and soil moisture content or microbial biomass C. The seasonal changes in soil respiration components in the Moso bamboo plantation were predominantly controlled by the soil temperature, and the soil WSOC content was an important environmental factor controlling total soil respiration and soil heterotrophic respiration.

  7. Organic fuels for respiration in tropical river systems

    Ward, N.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.; Krusche, A. V.; Medeiros, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed-derived organic matter is thought to provide anywhere from 30-90% of the organic matter in rivers (e.g. Hernes et al 2008; Spencer et al 2010). The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Combined, they represent as much as 80% of the biomass in a typical forest and as much as 60% of the biomass in a typical field (natural or crop)(Bose et al 2009; Bridgeman et al., 2007; Hu and Zu 2006; Martens et al 2004). They are often assumed to be refractory and hard to degrade, but this assumption is at odds with virtually all observations: soils and marine sediments are not accumulating vast amounts of these compounds (Hedges and Oades, 1997), and degradation experiments suggest that cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are reactive and likely to be important fuels for respiration (Benner, 1991; Haddad et al, 1992; Dittmar et al, 2001; Otto and Simpson, 2006). During several trips to the lower Amazon River, incubation experiments were performed in which the biological degradation of lignin phenols was observed in order to assess the contribution of microbial respiration of terrestrially-derived macromolecules to gross respiration and CO2 gas evasion rates. Both particulate and dissolved lignin concentrations decreased by ~40% after being incubated in the dark for 5-7 days, indicating a turnover time of the entire lignin pool of 12-18 days. These results shift the paradigm that lignocellulose derived OM is highly recalcitrant, and indicate that microbial respiration of lignocellulose may play a larger role in total respiration rates/CO2 outgassing than previously thought. A simple mass balance calculation was done to test whether microbial degradation alone could explain the lignin data observed in the field. First, a theoretical particulate lignin concentration for Macapa was calculated based on the observed data at Obidos. The measured rate of particulate lignin degradation was multiplied by the transit time of water from

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  9. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Protection factors for supplied-air respirators. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Hack, A.; Bradley, O.D.; Trujillo, A.

    1977-12-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1977 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Protection Factors (efficiency) provided by 25 NIOSH approved supplied-air respirators were determined while the devices were worn by a panel of anthropometrically selected test subjects. The major recommendation was that demand-type respirators should neither be used nor approved

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    Drakonaki, Eleni E. [University of Crete, Radiology Department, Heraklion (Greece); Allen, Gina M. [Green Templeton College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Allen, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  12. Contribution of bacterial respiration to plankton respiration from 50°N to 44°S in the Atlantic Ocean

    García-Martín, E. E.; Aranguren-Gassis, M.; Hartmann, M.; Zubkov, M. V.; Serret, P.

    2017-11-01

    Marine bacteria play an important role in the global cycling of carbon and therefore in climate regulation. However, the paucity of direct measurements means that our understanding of the magnitude and variability of bacterial respiration in the ocean is poor. Estimations of respiration in the 0.2-0.8 μm size-fraction (considered as bacterial respiration), total plankton community respiration, and the contribution of bacterial respiration to total plankton community respiration were made along two latitudinal transects in the Atlantic Ocean (ca. 50°N-44°S) during 2010 and 2011. Two different methodologies were used: determination of changes in dissolved O2 concentration after standard 24 h dark bottle incubations, and measurements of in vivo reduction of 2-(ρ-iodophenyl)-3-(ρ-nitrophenyl)-5phenyl tetrazolium salt (INT). There was an overall significant correlation (r = 0.44, p community respiration estimated by both methods. Depth-integrated community respiration varied as much as threefold between regions. Maximum rates occurred in waters of the western European shelf and Patagonian shelf, and minimum rates in the North and South oligotrophic gyres. Depth-integrated bacterial respiration followed the same pattern as community respiration. There was a significantly higher cell-specific bacterial respiration in the northern subtropical gyre than in the southern subtropical gyre which suggests that bacterial carbon turnover is faster in the northern gyre. The relationships between plankton respiration and physicochemical and biological variables were different in different years. In general, INTT was correlated to both chlorophyll-a and bacterial abundance, while INT0.2-0.8 was only correlated with bacterial abundance. However, in 2010 INTT and INT0.2-0.8 were also correlated with temperature and primary production while in 2011 they were correlated with nitrate + nitrite concentration. The bacterial contribution to depth integrated community respiration was

  13. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  14. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  15. Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities.

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth; Eisen, Ellen; Cullen, Mark R; Hammond, Katharine

    2018-05-31

    Objectives As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation. Methods Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were compared to assess the impact of adjustment on exposure estimation. Results Respirator use was noted for 37% of 12 402 full-shift personal TPM samples. Measured TPM concentration ranged from less than detectable to 8220 mg/m3, with arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation being 10.6, 0.87 and 130 mg/m 3 , respectively. Respirators were used more often in smelting facilities (52% of TPM measurements) than in fabricating (17%) or refinery facilities (28%) (Pfacilities were subject to respirator-use adjustment, whereas it was 20% and 70% in fabricating and refinery facilities, respectively. Applying protection factors to TPM measurements significantly reduced estimated job mean TPM exposures and changed exposure categories in these facilities, with larger impact in smelting than fabricating facilities. Conclusions Respirator use varied by time, facility and job. Adjusting respirator use resulted in differential impact in smelting and fabricating facilities, which will need to be incorporated into ongoing epidemiologic studies accordingly.

  16. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate and leaf traits

    Atkin, Owen K.

    2015-04-01

    Leaf respiration plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem functioning and the Earth's climate. Because of this, it is imperative that that Earth-system, climate and ecosystem-level models be able to accurately predict variations in rates of leaf respiration. In the field of photosynthesis research, the F/vC/B model has enabled modellers to accurately predict variations in photosynthesis through time and space. By contrast, we lack an equivalent biochemical model to predict variations in leaf respiration. Consequently, we need to rely on phenomenological approaches to model variations in respiration across the Earth's surface. Such approaches require that we develop a thorough understanding of how rates of respiration vary among species and whether global environmental gradients play a role in determining variations in leaf respiration. Dealing with these issues requires that data sets be assembled on rates of leaf respiration in biomes across the Earth's surface. In this talk, I will use a newly-assembled global database on leaf respiration and associated traits (including photosynthesis) to highlight variation in leaf respiration (and the balance between respiration and photosynthesis) across global gradients in growth temperature and aridity.

  17. Effects of simulated warming on soil respiration to XiaoPo lake

    Zhao, Shuangkai; Chen, Kelong; Wu, Chengyong; Mao, Yahui

    2018-02-01

    The main flux of carbon cycling in terrestrial and atmospheric ecosystems is soil respiration, and soil respiration is one of the main ways of soil carbon output. This is of great significance to explore the dynamic changes of soil respiration rate and its effect on temperature rise, and the correlation between environmental factors and soil respiration. In this study, we used the open soil carbon flux measurement system (LI-8100, LI-COR, NE) in the experimental area of the XiaoPo Lake wetland in the Qinghai Lake Basin, and the Kobresia (Rs) were measured, and the soil respiration was simulated by simulated temperature (OTC) and natural state. The results showed that the temperature of 5 cm soil was 1.37 °C higher than that of the control during the experiment, and the effect of warming was obvious. The respiration rate of soil under warming and natural conditions showed obvious diurnal variation and monthly variation. The effect of warming on soil respiration rate was promoted and the effect of precipitation on soil respiration rate was inhibited. Further studies have shown that the relationship between soil respiration and 5 cm soil temperature under the control and warming treatments can be described by the exponential equation, and the correlation analysis between the two plots shows a very significant exponential relationship (p main influencing factor of soil respiration in this region.

  18. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  19. Scintigraphic evaluation of muscle damage following extreme exercise: concise communication

    Matin, P.; Lang, G.; Carretta, R.; Simon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Total body Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was performed on 11 ''ultramarathon'' runners to assess the ability of nuclear medicine techniques to evaluate skeletal-muscle injury due to exercise. We found increased muscle radionuclide concentration in 90% of the runners. The pattern of muscle uptake correlated with the regions of maximum pain. The detection of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis appeared to be best when scintigraphy was performed within 48 hr after the race, and to be almost undetectable after about a week. It was possible to differentiate muscle injury from joint and osseous abnormalities such as bone infarct or stress fracture. Although 77% of the runners had elevated serum creatine kinase MB activity, cardiac scintigraphy showed no evidence of myocardial injury

  20. Deltoid contracture: a case with multiple muscle contractures.

    Chen, Hsin-Chang; Huang, Tung-Fu; Chou, Po-Hsin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2008-11-01

    Deltoid contracture is relatively uncommon. The literature consists primarily of case reports and few articles on large case series. The pathogenesis has been well studied. Muscle contractures can occur in the deltoid, biceps, triceps, gluteus and quadriceps muscles; however, cases of multiple muscle contractures are rare. We reported a patient with multiple contractures of the bilateral deltoid, bilateral gluteus, and bilateral quadriceps muscles, who had received repeated intramuscular injections during childhood and adulthood. The radiographic, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), features of the bone and joint abnormalities are presented. Some literatures reported that damage to the structures of the body due to intramuscular injection is related to the site of injection, age of the patient, and the volume, pH, chemical composition, and diffusional capacity of the injectate. Our patient had muscular contracture induced by needle injection regardless of her age, medication and injection site.

  1. Muscle fiber velocity and electromyographic signs of fatigue in fibromyalgia.

    Klaver-Król, Ewa G; Rasker, Johannes J; Henriquez, Nizare R; Verheijen, Wilma G; Zwarts, Machiel J

    2012-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of widespread muscular pain. We investigated possible differences in surface electromyography (sEMG) in clinically unaffected muscle between patients with FM and controls. sEMG was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 13 women with FM and 14 matched healthy controls during prolonged dynamic exercises, unloaded, and loaded up to 20% of maximum voluntary contraction. The sEMG parameters were: muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV); skewness of motor unit potential (peak) velocities; peak frequency (PF) (number of peaks per second); and average rectified voltage (ARV). There was significantly higher CV in the FM group. Although the FM group performed the tests equally well, their electromyographic fatigue was significantly less expressed compared with controls (in CV, PF, and ARV). In the patients with FM, we clearly showed functional abnormalities of the muscle membrane, which led to high conduction velocity and resistance to fatigue in electromyography. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    Højlund, Kurt; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major hallmark of type 2 diabetes and an early detectable abnormality in the development of this disease. The cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance include impaired insulin-mediated muscle glycogen synthesis and increased intramyocellular lipid content......, whereas impaired insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase represents a consistent, molecular defect found in both type 2 diabetic and high-risk individuals. Despite several studies of the insulin signaling pathway believed to mediate dephosphorylation and hence activation of glycogen synthase......, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this defect remain unknown. Recently, the use of phospho-specific antibodies in human diabetic muscle has revealed hyperphosphorylation of glycogen synthase at sites not regulated by the classical insulin signaling pathway. In addition, novel approaches such as gene...

  3. The alternative oxidase mediated respiration contributes to growth, resistance to hyperosmotic media and accumulation of secondary metabolites in three species

    Sitaramam, V.; Pachapurkar, Shilpa; Gokhale, Trupti

    2008-01-01

    Plant respiration, similar to respiration in animal mitochondria, exhibits both osmosensitive and insensitive components with the clear distinction that the insensitive respiration in plants is quantitatively better described as ‘less’ sensitive rather than ‘insensitive’. Salicylic hydroxamic acid (SHAM)-sensitive respiration was compared with the respiration sensitive to other inhibitors in rice, yeast and Dunaliella salina. The influence of SHAM was largely in the osmotically less sensitive...

  4. Muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling impairment in patients treated with statins

    Sirvent, P., E-mail: pascal.sirvent@univ-bpclermont.fr [U1046, INSERM, Université Montpellier 1 and Université Montpellier 2, 34295 Montpellier (France); CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, EA 3533, Laboratoire des Adaptations Métaboliques à l' Exercice en conditions Physiologiques et Pathologiques (AME2P), BP 80026, F-63171 Aubière cedex (France); Fabre, O.; Bordenave, S. [U1046, INSERM, Université Montpellier 1 and Université Montpellier 2, 34295 Montpellier (France); CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France); Hillaire-Buys, D. [CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France); Raynaud De Mauverger, E.; Lacampagne, A.; Mercier, J. [U1046, INSERM, Université Montpellier 1 and Université Montpellier 2, 34295 Montpellier (France); CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France)

    2012-03-01

    The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. To date, the patho-physiological mechanisms of statin myotoxicity are still not clearly understood. In previous studies, we showed that acute application in vitro of simvastatin caused impairment of mitochondrial function and dysfunction of calcium homeostasis in human and rat healthy muscle samples. We thus evaluated in the present study, mitochondrial function and calcium signaling in muscles of patients treated with statins, who present or not muscle symptoms, by oxygraphy and recording of calcium sparks, respectively. Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration that involved mainly the complex I of the respiratory chain and altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks. The muscle problems observed in statin-treated patients appear thus to be related to impairment of mitochondrial function and muscle calcium homeostasis, confirming the results we previously reported in vitro. -- Highlights: ► The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. ► Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration. ► Statins-treated patients showed altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks.

  5. Muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling impairment in patients treated with statins

    Sirvent, P.; Fabre, O.; Bordenave, S.; Hillaire-Buys, D.; Raynaud De Mauverger, E.; Lacampagne, A.; Mercier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. To date, the patho-physiological mechanisms of statin myotoxicity are still not clearly understood. In previous studies, we showed that acute application in vitro of simvastatin caused impairment of mitochondrial function and dysfunction of calcium homeostasis in human and rat healthy muscle samples. We thus evaluated in the present study, mitochondrial function and calcium signaling in muscles of patients treated with statins, who present or not muscle symptoms, by oxygraphy and recording of calcium sparks, respectively. Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration that involved mainly the complex I of the respiratory chain and altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks. The muscle problems observed in statin-treated patients appear thus to be related to impairment of mitochondrial function and muscle calcium homeostasis, confirming the results we previously reported in vitro. -- Highlights: ► The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. ► Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration. ► Statins-treated patients showed altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks.

  6. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  7. Functional Echomyography of the human denervated muscle: first results

    Riccardo Zanato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we followed with ultrasound three patients with permanent denervation to evaluate changes in morphology, thickness, contraction and vascularisation of muscles undergoing the home-based electrical stimulation program of the Rise2-Italy project. During a period of 1 year for the first subject, 6 months for the second subject and 3 months for the third subject we studied with ultrasound the denervated muscle comparing it (if possible to the contralateral normal muscle. We evaluated: 1. Changes in morphology and sonographic structure of the pathologic muscle; 2. Muscular thickness in response to the electrical stimulation therapy; 3. Short-term modifications in muscle perfusion and arterial flow patterns after stimulation; 4. Contraction-relaxation kinetic induced by volitional activity or electrical stimulation. Morphology and ultrasonographic structure of the denervated muscles changed during the period of stimulation from a pattern typical of complete muscular atrophy to a pattern which might be considered “normal” when detected in an old patient. Thickness improved significantly more in the middle third than in the proximal and distal third of the denervated muscle, reaching in the last measurements of the first subject approximately the same thickness as the contralateral normal muscle. In all the measurements done within this study, arterial flow of the denervated muscle showed at rest a low-resistance pattern with Doppler Ultra Sound (US, and a pulsed pattern after electrical stimulation. The stimulation- induced pattern is similar to the trifasic high-resistance pattern of the normal muscle. Contraction- relaxation kinetic, measured by recording the muscular movements during electrical stimulation, showed an abnormal behaviour of the denervated muscle during the relaxation phase, which resulted to be significantly longer than in normal muscle (880 msec in the denervated muscle vs 240 msec in the contralateral normal one

  8. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  9. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds

    Chin-Hsing Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician’s subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications.

  10. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo [University of Messina, Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna [University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology, Messina (Italy)

    2006-02-15

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  12. de Toni-Fanconi-Debré syndrome with Leigh syndrome revealing severe muscle cytochrome c oxidase deficiency

    Ogier, H.; Lombes, A.; Scholte, H. R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Fardeau, M.; Alcardi, J.; Vignes, B.; Niaudet, P.; Saudubray, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a patient with severe muscle cytochrome c oxidase deficiency who had de Toni-Fanconi-Debré syndrome and acute neurologic deterioration resembling Leigh syndrome, without clear evidence of muscle abnormality. Metabolic investigations revealed elevated cerebrospinal fluid lactate values

  13. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Alfen, Nens van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  14. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  15. Hysterosalpingography: analysis of 473 abnormal examinations

    Petta, C.A.; Costa-Paiva, L.H.S. da; Pinto-Neto, A.M.; Martins, R.; Souza, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors reviewed the reports of 4/3 abnormal hysterosalpingographies from 1,200 medical records of patients at the sterility and infertility out-patient clinic of the School of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), from July, 1974 to December, 1981. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and main alterations diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. The most frequent findings were tuboperitoneal factors in 91% of the examinations, uterine cavity abnormalities in 17.4% and cervical factor in 6.3% of the cases. The examinations showed a great incident of tuboperitoneal abnormalities as cause of sterility from lower social classes. (author) [pt

  16. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  18. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurem...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  19. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by the anticancer agent 2-methoxyestradiol

    Hagen, Thilo; D'Amico, Gabriela; Quintero, Marisol; Palacios-Callender, Miriam; Hollis, Veronica; Lam, Francis; Moncada, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a naturally occurring metabolite of estradiol, is known to have antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic activity. Mechanistically, 2ME2 has been shown to downregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and to induce apoptosis in tumour cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study we report that 2ME2 inhibits mitochondrial respiration in both intact cells and submitochondrial particles, and that this effect is due to inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The prevention by 2ME2 of hypoxia-induced stabilisation of HIF1α in HEK293 cells was found not to be due to an effect on HIF1α synthesis but rather to an effect on protein degradation. This is in agreement with our recent observation using other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration which bring about rapid degradation of HIF1α in hypoxia due to increased availability of oxygen and reactivation of prolyl hydroxylases. The concentrations of 2ME2 that inhibited complex I also induced the generation of ROS. 2ME2 did not, however, cause generation of ROS in 143B rho - cells, which lack a functional mitochondrial ETC. We conclude that inhibition of mitochondrial respiration explains, at least in part, the effect of 2ME2 on hypoxia-dependent HIF1α stabilisation and cellular ROS production. Since these actions of 2ME2 occur at higher concentrations than those known to inhibit cell proliferation, it remains to be established whether they contribute to its therapeutic effect

  20. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in