WorldWideScience

Sample records for respective control periods

  1. RESPECT

    Teyeb, Oumer; Boussif, Malek; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2005-01-01

    the performance from an end-2-end (E2E), user-perceived Quality Of Service (QoS) point of view. In this paper, the design and implementation of RESPECT, an easily configurable network emulator is described. RESPECT was originally geared towards Universal Mobile Communications System (UMTS) networks, but thanks...... to its modular and scalable design, it is being extended for generic heterogeneous networks. Using RESPECT, QoS studies can be carried out to study the behavior of different services in different network conditions, identify generalized service dependent performance metrics for already existing services...

  2. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  3. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control

    Kluge, Christian; Adam, Jost; Barié, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    We propose multi-periodic nanostructures yielded by superposition of multiple binary gratings for wide control over photon emission in thin-film devices. We present wavelength- and angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements of multi-periodically nanostructured organic light-emitting layers...

  4. Controller Synthesis for Periodically Forced Chaotic Systems

    Basso, Michele; Genesio, Roberto; Giovanardi, Lorenzo

    Delayed feedback controllers are an appealing tool for stabilization of periodic orbits in chaotic systems. Despite their conceptual simplicity, specific and reliable design procedures are difficult to obtain, partly also because of their inherent infinite-dimensional structure. This chapter considers the use of finite dimensional linear time invariant controllers for stabilization of periodic solutions in a general class of sinusoidally forced nonlinear systems. For such controllers — which can be interpreted as rational approximations of the delayed ones — we provide a computationally attractive synthesis technique based on Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), by mixing results concerning absolute stability of nonlinear systems and robustness of uncertain linear systems. The resulting controllers prove to be effective for chaos suppression in electronic circuits and systems, as shown by two different application examples.

  5. Planetary boundary layer height over the Indian subcontinent: Variability and controls with respect to monsoon

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabhakaran, Thara; Patil, Chetana; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-10-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height characteristics over the Indian sub-continent at diurnal to seasonal scales and its controlling factors in relation to monsoon are investigated. The reanalysis (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA) PBL heights (PBLH) used for the study are validated against those derived from radiosonde observations and radio occultation air temperature and humidity profiles. The radiosonde observations include routine India Meteorological Department observations at two locations (coastal and an inland) for one full year and campaign based early afternoon radiosonde observations at six inland locations over the study region for selected days from May-September 2011. The temperature and humidity profiles from radio occultations spread over the sub-continent at irregular timings during the year 2011. The correlations and root mean square errors are in the range 0.74-0.83 and 407 m-643 m, respectively. Large pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon variations in PBL maximum height (1000 m-4000 m), time of occurrence of maximum height (11:00 LST-17:00 LST) and growth rate (100 to 400 m h- 1) are noted over the land, depending on geographical location and more significantly on the moisture availability which influences the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The PBLH variations associated with active-break intra-seasonal monsoon oscillations are up to 1000 m over central Indian locations. Inter relationship between the PBLH and the controlling factors, i.e. Evaporative Fraction, net radiation, friction velocity, surface Richardson number, and scalar diffusivity fraction, show significant variation between dry and wet PBL regimes, which also varies with geographical location. Evaporative fraction has dominant influence on the PBLH over the region. Enhanced entrainment during monsoon contributes to reduction in PBLH, whereas the opposite effect is noted during dry period. Linear regression, cross wavelet and

  6. 26 CFR 1.6038-1 - Information returns required of domestic corporations with respect to annual accounting periods...

    2010-04-01

    ... the annual accounting period; (6) A list showing the name and address of, and the number of shares of... paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section shall be expressed in United States currency with a statement of the exchange rates used. (h) Time and place for filing return. Returns on Form 2952 required under paragraph (a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting period; (9) A list showing the name, address, and identifying number of, and the number of shares... United States dollars with a statement of the exchange rates used. The following rules shall apply for... functional currency as required on the form. Earnings and profits amounts furnished under paragraphs (f)(10...

  8. Backfat thickness during gestation and lactation period in respect to reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous sows

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of backfat thickness measured during gestation and after lactation of primiparous and multiparous sows on the value of reproductive traits. Backfat thickness was determined at mating, at 105 day of gestation and after weaning and were correlated with selected reproductive indicators including placenta weight. The study was carried out 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous sows of Polish Landrace breed. The nutrition and housing conditions were the same for all pigs. Backfat and loin depth (P2, P4 , P4 M were measured using PIGLOG 105 device. The evaluation of reproductive performance included the weight of placenta at parturition, the number of born piglets, litter weight, piglet body weight at birth, at 21 and at weaning (28 days. Multiparous sows were characterized by greater fatness than primiparous sows in all periods of use. In all examined sows the backfat depth during gestation increased and decreased after lactation. Those changes were more pronounced in multiparous sows than in primiparous sows (P ≤ 0.01. Multiparous sows born and reared more piglets to 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. There have not been dead piglets in primiparous litters. Litters weight from multiparous sows were higher than from primiparous sows only at birth (P ≤ 0.01 and similar in rest periods of rearing. Individual body weight of piglets from primiparous was higher than that from multiparous sows at 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. Fatness changes during lactation, particularly in multiparous sows, were positively correlated with litter weight at birth and negatively correlated with piglet’s weight at 21 and 28 days of life and their daily gains (P ≤ 0.05. Correlations between placenta weight and backfat thickness during lactation were positive in both groups of sows (P ≤ 0.01.

  9. Lived on school situations, self-respect and development of the moral judgment in the latency period

    Emile-Henri Riard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an approach of clinical social psychology, the point of view adopted in this article is triple: 1- to consider the "common" school situations as potentially generators of difficulties; 2-join upstream to the adolescence to improve the understanding of this last one; 3 - to consider the lived of the pupils. The research led in France (children, 6 to 11 years old, by questionnaire (48 situations raising from the schooling: class, school playground, route place of residence / school, and place ofresidence were proposed; test of self-respect (Coopersmith; moral development (Kohlberg. Variables: age, sex, mode of housing environment, school position, classification, department....The results (variance’ analysis demonstrate a functioning "altogether" of the level of lived on difficulty. As significant variables, in ascending order lessening: the sex (the boys feel more the difficulties than the girls; the age (the level of lived difficulty decreases with the age but concerns especially the school playground; the mode of housing environment (collective. The class is the most carrier space of differences of lived on difficulties independently of variables. The level of autonomy and the self-respect are proportionned in broad outline conversely at the level of difficulty lived. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the effects interactive and of accumulation of the situations

  10. Specification of safety requirements for waste packages with respect to practicable quality control measures

    Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Waste packages for disposal in a repository in the Federal Republic of Germany have to meet safety requirements derived from site specific safety analyses. The examination of the waste packages with regard to compliance with these requirements is the main objective of quality control measures. With respect to quality control the requirements have to be specified in a way that practicable control measures can be applied. This is dealt with for the quality control of the activity inventory and the quality control of the waste form. The paper discusses the determination of the activity of hard-to-measure radionuclides and the specification of safety related requirements for the waste form and the packaging using typical examples

  11. Isomeric periodic mesoporous organosilicas with controllable properties

    Vercaemst, C.; Ide, I.; Friedrich, H.; de Jong, K.P.; Verpoort, F.; van der Voort, P.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis procedure for isomeric periodic mesoporous organosilicas with E-configured ethenylene bridges was investigated using the homemade pure E-isomer of 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethene. The pH, aging temperature and the presence of cosolvents played a key role in obtaining well-ordered

  12. Radiotherapy in supraglottic carcinoma -with respect to locoregional control and survival-

    Nam, Taek Keun; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Chung, Woong Ki; Cho, Jae Shik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nah, Byung Sik

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the role of conventional radiotherapy with or without surgery for treating a supraglottic carcinoma in terms of the local control and survival. From Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1996, a total of 134 patients were treated for a supraglottic carcinoma by radiotherapy with or without surgery. Of them, 117 patients who had completed the radiotherapy formed the base of this study. The patients were redistributed according to the revised AJCC staging system (1997). The number of patients of stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB were 6 (5%), 16 (14%), 53 (45%), 32 (27%), 10 (9%), respectively. Eighty patients were treated by radical radiotherapy in the range of 61.2 ∼ 79.2 Gy (mean:69.2 Gy) to the primary tumor and 45.0 ∼ 93.6 Gy (mean:54.0 Gy) to regional lymphatics. All patients with stage I and IVB were treated by radiotherapy alone. Thirty-seven patients underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy in the range of 45.0 ∼ 68.4 Gy (mean:56.1 Gy) to the primary tumor bed and 45.0 ∼ 59.4 Gy (mean:47.2 Gy) to the regional lymphatics. Of them, 33 patients received a total laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), three had a supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), and one had a primary excision alone. The 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of all patients was 43%. The 5YSR of the patients with stage I + II, III + IV were 49.9%, 41.2%, respectively (ρ = 0.27). However, the disease-specific survival rate of the patients with stage I (n=6) was 100%. The 5YSRs of patients who underwent surgery plus radiotherapy (S + RT) vs radiotherapy alone (RT) in stage II, III, IVA were 100% vs 43% (ρ = 0.17), 62% vs 52% (ρ =0.32), 58% vs 6% (ρ < 0.001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate (5YLCR) of all the patients was 57%. The 5YLCR of the patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB was 100%, 74%, 60%, 44%, 30%, respectively (ρ = 0.008). The 5YLCR of the patients with S + RT vs RT in stage II, III, IVA

  13. Reactivity control in HTR power plants with respect to passive safety system. Summary

    Barnert, H; Kugeler, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1996-12-01

    The R and D and Demonstration of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is described in overview. The HTR-MODULE power plant, as the most advanced concept, is taken for the description of the reactivity control in general. The idea of the ``modularization of the core`` of the HTR has been developed as the answer on the experiences of the core melt accident at Three Miles Island. The HTR module has two shutdown systems: The ``6 rods``-system for hot shutdown at the ``18 small absorber pebbles units`` - system for cold shutdown. With respect to the definition of ``Passive Systems`` of IAEA-TECDOC-626 the total reactivity control system of the HTR-MODULE is a passive system of category D, because it is an emergency reactor shutdown system based on gravity driven rods, and devices, activated by fail-safe trip logic. But reactivity control of the HTR does not only consist of these engineered safety system but does have a self-acting stabilization by the negative temperature coefficient of the reactivity, being rather effective in reactivity control. Examples from computer calculations are presented, and, in addition, experimental results from the ``Stuck Rod Experiment`` at the AVR reactor in Juelich. On the basis of this the proposal is made that ``self-acting stabilization as a quality of the function`` should be discussed as a new category in addition to the active and passive engineered safety systems, structures and components of IAEA-TECDOC-626. The requirements for a future ``catastrophe-free`` nuclear technology are presented. In the appendix the 7th amendment of the atomic energy act of the Federal Republic of Germany, effective 28 July 94, is given. (author).

  14. Organ-specific autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: Screening with respect to glycemic control

    Mohamed Ghada A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a tissue-specific autoimmune disease and often associated with other autoimmune diseases; so our study aimed to define the occurrence of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb in autoimmune thyroid disease (AIT, tissue transglutaminase antibody (TTGAb in celiac disease, And to evaluate the relationship between the presence of these antibodies and glycemic control. Our retrospective study included 60 Kuwaiti patients with T1D who attended and follow in Diabetes outpatient clinics of Kuwait primary health care centers during the period of 2014-2015. For them, recorded data for age, sex, duration of diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI, HbA1c was reviewed. Patients were screened for the presence of Specific antibodies to islet antigens (ICAb, glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADAb, insulin autoantibodies (IAA, TPOAb, TGAb, TTGAb and also thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured by ELISA. Of the total 60 patients (20 men, 40women, mean age was17.95 ± (5.44 y; the mean duration of diabetes was 6.63 ± (4.27 y; mean HbA1c was 10.41± (1.96 %. Only 58 (96.7% wer e positive for GADAb, 32 (53.3% were positive for ICAb, and 48 (80% were positive for IAA, 14 (23.3% patients were positive for TPOAb, 11 (18.3% were positive for TGAb, 10 (16.7 % were positive for both TPOAb and TGAb; furthermore 8 (13.3% patients were positive for TTGAb. Neither organ-specific autoimmune disease (AIT and celiac disease nor pancreatic β cells autoantibodies had a significant association with the glycemic control. In our study, we confirmed the high prevalence of a second organ-specific autoimmune disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Also Subclinical forms of these disorders have no influence on diabetes control. Further research will be necessary to test these relationships in a prospective follow-up study

  15. An express method for optimally tuning an analog controller with respect to integral quality criteria

    Golinko, I. M.; Kovrigo, Yu. M.; Kubrak, A. I.

    2014-03-01

    An express method for optimally tuning analog PI and PID controllers is considered. An integral quality criterion with minimizing the control output is proposed for optimizing control systems. The suggested criterion differs from existing ones in that the control output applied to the technological process is taken into account in a correct manner, due to which it becomes possible to maximally reduce the expenditure of material and/or energy resources in performing control of industrial equipment sets. With control organized in such manner, smaller wear and longer service life of control devices are achieved. A unimodal nature of the proposed criterion for optimally tuning a controller is numerically demonstrated using the methods of optimization theory. A functional interrelation between the optimal controller parameters and dynamic properties of a controlled plant is numerically determined for a single-loop control system. The results obtained from simulation of transients in a control system carried out using the proposed and existing functional dependences are compared with each other. The proposed calculation formulas differ from the existing ones by a simple structure and highly accurate search for the optimal controller tuning parameters. The obtained calculation formulas are recommended for being used by specialists in automation for design and optimization of control systems.

  16. Combating dephasing decoherence by periodically performing tracking control and projective measurement

    Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small

  17. HCPWR type fuel elements design with respect to its control rods

    Abbate, M.J.; Sbaffoni, M.M.; Patino, N.E.; Torasso, O.

    1992-01-01

    The high conversion reactors (HCPWR) can improve the nuclear fuel utilization. One of its present problems is the optimization of the control rods' worth and its relationship with the void coefficient. This investigation means, starting from one reference's design, to analyze several possibilities on the number and distribution of the control rods. As main result, one design including 24 control rods in an optimized distribution, is recommended. (author)

  18. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  19. Survey of control-room design practices with respect to human factors engineering

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary speciality concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. This emphasis has been applied to most military and space systems in the past 30 y. A review of five nuclear power-plant control rooms, reported in the November-December 1977 issue of Nuclear Safety, revealed that human factors principles of design have generally not been incorporated in present-generation control rooms. This article summarizes the findings of a survey of 20 control-board designers from a mix of nuclear steam-supply system and architect-engineering firms. The interviews with these designers probed design methods currently used in developing control rooms. From these data it was concluded that there is currently no consistent, formal, uniform concern for the human factors aspects of control-room design on the part of the design organizations, the utilities, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Although all the parties involved are concerned with human factors issues, this responsibility is not focused, and human factors yardsticks, or design standards, specific to power plants have not been evolved and applied in the development and verification of control-room designs from the standpoint of the man-machine interface

  20. South African legislation with respect to the control of pollution of the sea

    Rabie, MA

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is a compilation of South African legislation relating to the control of pollution of the sea within the jurisdiction of the Republic of South Africa. Legislation is considered as it deals with a) the source of pollution, b) the effect...

  1. Study of the intelligent control robustness with respect to radiations induced faults

    Cheynet, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The so-called intelligent control techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, are considered as being potentially robust. Their digital implementation gives compact and powerful solutions to some problems difficult to be tackled by classical techniques. Such approaches might be used for applications working in harsh environment (nuclear and space). The aim of this thesis is to study the robustness of artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic against Single Event Upset faults, in order to evaluate their viability and their efficiency for onboard spacecraft processes. A set of experiments have been performed on a neural network and a fuzzy controller, both implementing real space applications: texture analysis from satellite images and wheel control of a martian rover. An original method, allowing to increase the recognition rate of any artificial neural network has been developed and used on the studied network. Digital architectures implementing the two studied techniques in this thesis, have been boarded on two scientific satellites. One is in flight since one year, the other will be launched in the end of 1999. Obtained results, both from software simulations, hardware fault injections or particle accelerator tests, show that intelligent control techniques have a significant robustness against Single Event Upset faults. Data issued from the flight experiment confirm these properties, showing that some onboard spacecraft processes can be reliably executed by digital artificial neural networks. (author)

  2. Critical Period of Weed Control in Aerobic Rice

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, A.

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7–49 days after seeding in off-season and 7–53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23–40 days in off-season and 21–43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21–43 days for better yield and higher economic return. PMID:22778701

  3. Quantum Control and Entanglement using Periodic Driving Fields

    Creffield, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for producing directed motion in a lattice system by applying a periodic driving potential. By controlling the dynamics by means of the effect known as coherent destruction of tunneling, we demonstrate a novel ratchetlike effect that enables particles to be coherently manipulated and steered without requiring local control. Entanglement between particles can also be controllably generated, which points to the attractive possibility of using this technique for quantum information processing

  4. Safety concepts and their implications with respect to systems, instrumentation (automatic) control and hardware

    Paziaud, A.; Walther, M.

    1982-01-01

    This overview of instrumentation and control in the French Nuclear Power Plants sets out the importance of safety requirements. As a matter of fact, the amount of equipment increases proportionally to the increase in safety requirements, resulting in higher costs in spite of the decrease in the prices of each component owing to the advance in electronics. However the improved reliability should improve the plant capacity factor and, as a consequence, improve both the power output and the safety which is often endangered by minor failures starting severe accidents. (orig.)

  5. Real time control of the sawtooth period using EC launchers

    Paley, J I; Felici, F; Coda, S; Goodman, T P; Piras, F

    2009-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas operating at high performance are limited by several MHD instabilities. The sawtooth instability limits the core plasma pressure and can drive the neoclassical tearing mode unstable, but also prevents accumulation of impurities in the core. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive systems can be used to modify the local current profile and therefore tailor the sawtooth period. This paper reports on demonstrations of continuous real time feedback control of the sawtooth period by varying the EC injection angle.

  6. Capacity of the inflow river channels of the Krpelany and Hricov reservoirs with respect to flood control

    Capekova, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the capacity of the inflow river channels of the Krpelany and Hricov reservoirs with respect to flood control (Vah River, Orava River, Kysuce River and Rajcianka River, Slovakia)

  7. Robust sawtooth period control based on adaptive online optimization

    Bolder, J.J.; Witvoet, G.; De Baar, M.R.; Steinbuch, M.; Van de Wouw, N.; Haring, M.A.M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic design of a robust adaptive control strategy for the sawtooth period using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is presented. Recent developments in extremum seeking control (ESC) are employed to derive an optimized controller structure and offer practical tuning guidelines for its parameters. In this technique a cost function in terms of the desired sawtooth period is optimized online by changing the ECCD deposition location based on online estimations of the gradient of the cost function. The controller design does not require a detailed model of the sawtooth instability. Therefore, the proposed ESC is widely applicable to any sawtoothing plasma or plasma simulation and is inherently robust against uncertainties or plasma variations. Moreover, it can handle a broad class of disturbances. This is demonstrated by time-domain simulations, which show successful tracking of time-varying sawtooth period references throughout the whole operating space, even in the presence of variations in plasma parameters, disturbances and slow launcher mirror dynamics. Due to its simplicity and robustness the proposed ESC is a valuable sawtooth control candidate for any experimental tokamak plasma, and may even be applicable to other fusion-related control problems. (paper)

  8. Dicyclopentadiene Hydrogenation in Trickle Bed Reactor under Forced Periodic Control

    Skála, D.; Hanika, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2008), s. 215-218 ISSN 1336-7242 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FT-TA/039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : periodic control * trickle -bed reactor * dicyclopentadiene Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  9. 40 CFR 97.272 - Out of control periods.

    2010-07-01

    ... Out of control periods. (a) Whenever any monitoring system fails to meet the quality-assurance and.... (b) Audit decertification. Whenever both an audit of a monitoring system and a review of the initial... certification or recertification application submission and at the time of the audit, the Administrator will...

  10. 40 CFR 97.372 - Out of control periods.

    2010-07-01

    ... Out of control periods. (a) Whenever any monitoring system fails to meet the quality-assurance and... appendix E to, part 75 of this chapter. (b) Audit decertification. Whenever both an audit of a monitoring... the time of the audit, the Administrator will issue a notice of disapproval of the certification...

  11. 40 CFR 97.172 - Out of control periods.

    2010-07-01

    ... Out of control periods. (a) Whenever any monitoring system fails to meet the quality-assurance and... appendix E to, part 75 of this chapter. (b) Audit decertification. Whenever both an audit of a monitoring... the time of the audit, the Administrator will issue a notice of disapproval of the certification...

  12. Time Periodic Control of a Multi-Blade Helicopter.

    1988-05-01

    part of an element of p X rotor inflow ratio; Langrangian multiplier; Poincare exponent H rotor inflow ratio with respect to the hub *P plane A...and a $ complex conjugate pair in the right- half plane resulting from ( the longitudinal velocity and pitch coupling. Without a horizontal tail, the ... Poincare Exponents . . .. 182 VI. Controller Gains ...... ................ 184 viii I ’Q List of Symbols Listed below are the principal symbols used in this

  13. Control study of pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP and BIPAP ventilation modes respectively in treatment of neonatal NRDS

    Yao Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in effect of pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP and BIPAP ventilation modes respectively in treatment of neonatal NRDS. Methods: A total of 50 cases of children with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS born and receiving treatment in our hospital from August 2012 to January 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each with 25 cases. Control group received pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP ventilation mode treatment, observation group received pulmonary surfactant combined with BIPAP ventilation mode treatment, and then differences in blood gas indicators and mechanical ventilation parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, endothelin and nitric oxide levels, blood coagulation and anticoagulation indicators and protein expression levels of CD24, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17A of two groups after treatment were compared. Results: PaO2, PH value and oxygenation index of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and PaCO2, positive end-expiratory pressure, peak inspiratory pressure and inspired oxygen concentration were lower than those of control group; pulmonary artery pressure and EF-1 level of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and NO level was higher than that of control group; PC, TPS and AT-Ⅲ levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and D-D and vWF levels were lower than those of control group; protein expression of CD24 and IL-6 of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and protein expression of TNF-α and IL-17A were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Pulmonary surfactant combined with BIPAP ventilation mode treatment of children with NRDS can effectively optimize ventilation function and realize homeostasis, and it has active clinical significance.

  14. Stability of Closed Loop Controlled Repetitive Periodic System applied to control of CD-Player

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a criterion for stability of specific control scheme for handling linear dynamic control systems with repetitive periodic sensor faults is derived. The given system and control scheme are described and defined. By combining these with the lifting technique a necessary and sufficient...

  15. Flow control at low Reynolds numbers using periodic airfoil morphing

    Jones, Gareth; Santer, Matthew; Papadakis, George; Bouremel, Yann; Debiasi, Marco; Imperial-NUS Joint PhD Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The performance of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers is known to suffer from flow separation even at low angles of attack as a result of their boundary layers remaining laminar. The lack of mixing---a characteristic of turbulent boundary layers---leaves laminar boundary layers with insufficient energy to overcome the adverse pressure gradient that occurs in the pressure recovery region. This study looks at periodic surface morphing as an active flow control technique for airfoils in such a flight regime. It was discovered that at sufficiently high frequencies an oscillating surface is capable of not only reducing the size of the separated region---and consequently significantly reducing drag whilst simultaneously increasing lift---but it is also capable of delaying stall and as a result increasing CLmax. Furthermore, by bonding Macro Fiber Composite actuators (MFCs) to the underside of an airfoil skin and driving them with a sinusoidal frequency, it is shown that this control technique can be practically implemented in a lightweight, energy efficient way. Imperial-NUS Joint Ph.D. Programme.

  16. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  17. Spatial Domain Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Rotary Systems Subject to Spatially Periodic Disturbances

    Yen-Hsiu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generic spatial domain control scheme for a class of nonlinear rotary systems of variable speeds and subject to spatially periodic disturbances. The nonlinear model of the rotary system in time domain is transformed into one in spatial domain employing a coordinate transformation with respect to angular displacement. Under the circumstances that measurement of the system states is not available, a nonlinear state observer is established for providing the estimated states. A two-degree-of-freedom spatial domain control configuration is then proposed to stabilize the system and improve the tracking performance. The first control module applies adaptive backstepping with projected parametric update and concentrates on robust stabilization of the closed-loop system. The second control module introduces an internal model of the periodic disturbances cascaded with a loop-shaping filter, which not only further reduces the tracking error but also improves parametric adaptation. The overall spatial domain output feedback adaptive control system is robust to model uncertainties and state estimated error and capable of rejecting spatially periodic disturbances under varying system speeds. Stability proof of the overall system is given. A design example with simulation demonstrates the applicability of the proposed design.

  18. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability.

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-09-11

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  19. Evaluation of 'period-generated' control laws for the time-optimal control of reactor power

    Bernard, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Time-Optimal control of neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. These laws are designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws'. Relative to time-optimal response, they function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The results of a systematic evaluation of these laws are presented. The behavior of each term in the control laws is shown and the capability of these laws to control properly the reactor power is demonstrated. Factors affecting the implementation of these laws, such as the prompt neutron lifetime and the differential reactivity worth of the actuators, are discussed. Finally, the results of an experimental study in which these laws were used to adjust the power of the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor are shown. The information presented should be of interest to those designing high performance control systems for test, spacecraft, or, in certain instances, commercial reactors

  20. Towards friction control using laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Schmidt, M.; Zaeh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two

  1. Issues of internal control during the reform period

    O.I. Gresova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and methodological problems of organization and financial control activities, the main problems and reasons causing the need for a unified system of internal financial control in the State Administration of Railway Transport of Ukraine at the stage of the reform.

  2. Performance Improvement for Quasi Periodical Disturbances in PH Control

    STEBEL, K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Proper operation of control systems is essential for achieving good economic results and reducing control effort. The paper is focused on presenting a new application of a well-known concept. The main scope of the paper is a practical presentation of obtaining a minimum process performance index by means of known statistical tools. This is achievable by appropriate selection of the correction value for set-point and the width of the time window of a statistical algorithm. The proposed novel algorithm was successfully implemented in the pilot neutralization process. On one hand, the proposed algorithm is a corrector of the statistical properties of the control error, and, on the other one, of a set point of the control system.

  3. Controllability of multi-agent systems with periodically switching topologies and switching leaders

    Tian, Lingling; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Long

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers controllability of multi-agent systems with periodically switching topologies and switching leaders. The concept of m-periodic controllability is proposed, and a criterion for m-periodic controllability is established. The effect of the duration of subsystems on controllability is analysed by utilising a property of analytic functions. In addition, the influence of switching periods on controllability is investigated, and an algorithm is proposed to search for the fewest periods to ensure controllability. A necessary condition for m-periodic controllability is obtained from the perspective of eigenvectors of the subsystems' Laplacian matrices. For a system with switching leaders, it is proved that switching-leader controllability is equivalent to multiple-leader controllability. Furthermore, both the switching order and the tenure of agents being leaders have no effect on the controllability. Some examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of two-dimensional periodical structures in a magnetized plasma are studied using kinetic simulations. Ridges (i.e. spikes in electron and ion density) are formed and became more pronounced with an increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma volume in the cylindrical chamber. These ridges are shifted relative to each other, which results in the formation of a two-dimensional double-layer structure. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to 19 potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered into the channels is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  5. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    Michele Gusberti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight (FB, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest, with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1 on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2 on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3 on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper

  6. 40 CFR 60.4172 - Out of control periods.

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring system fails to meet the quality-assurance and quality-control requirements or data validation... in subpart D of part 75 of this chapter. (b) Audit decertification. Whenever both an audit of a... the time of the audit, the permitting authority will issue a notice of disapproval of the...

  7. 40 CFR 96.272 - Out of control periods.

    2010-07-01

    ... the quality-assurance and quality-control requirements or data validation requirements of part 75 of... appendix D to part 75 of this chapter. (b) Audit decertification. Whenever both an audit of a monitoring... the time of the audit, the permitting authority or, for a CAIR SO2 opt-in unit or a unit for which a...

  8. Demand specifying variables and current ventilation rate requirements with respect to the future use of voc sensing for dcv control

    Kolarik, Jakub

    be also taken into account in the ventilation control. Recent development in gas sensing technology resulted in a new generation of relatively cheap and practically applicable sensors that can offer measurements of some of the pollutants mentioned above – mainly Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC......Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is a well established principle to provide a certain indoor environmental quality, defined both in the terms of air quality and thermal comfort. This is accomplished by adjusting the supplied airflow rate according to a certain demand indicator, which......). This seems to bring a new dimension into the control of DCV systems. This paper is a contribution to the workshop on utilization of VOC sensing technology used for DCV control. The aim of the paper is to provide a short review of different types of demand variables used to control DCV systems and summarize...

  9. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-11-01

    The plasma of Hall thruster type in external magnetic field is studied in 2D3V kinetic simulations using PIC MCC method. The periodical structure with maxima of electron and ion densities is formed and becomes more pronounced with increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma. These ridges of electron and ion densities are aligned with the magnetic field vector and shifted relative each other. This leads to formation of two-dimensional double-layers structure in cylindrical plasma chamber. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to nineteen potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered on the wall is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  10. Dynamic optimal control of groundwater remediation with management periods: Linearized and quasi-Newton approaches

    Culver, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Several modifications of the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) optimization algorithm are developed, and the computational efficiency of each algorithm with respect to groundwater remediation is evaluated. In each case, the optimization model is combined with a finite element groundwater flow and transport simulation model to determine the optimal time-varying pump-and-treat policy. The first modification of the LQR algorithm incorporated management periods, which are groups of simulation time steps during which the pumping policy remains constant. Management periods reduced the total computational demand, as measured by the CPU time, by as much as 85% compared to the time needed for the LQR solution without management periods. Complexity analysis revealed that computational savings of equal or greater magnitude can be expected in general for groundwater remediation applications and for many other applications of dynamic control. The LQR algorithm with management periods was further modified by assuming steady-state hydraulics within a management period (SSLQR), which simplifies the derivatives of the transition equation. A quasi-Newton differential dynamic programming (QNDDP) was formulated by approximating the complicated second derivatives of the transition equation using a Broyden rank-one approximation. QNDDP converged to the optimal policy for the test problem significantly faster than the LQR algorithm, requiring approximately half the computational time. With the test problem expanded to include the capacity of the treatment facility as a state variable, QNDDP with management periods can determine the optimal treatment facility capacity. With many management periods, the addition of the capital costs of the treatment facility changed the optimal policy so that the required treatment facility capacity was reduced

  11. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    of realistic results and is used as a means of validating the model against available experimental data. The tuned model is then used to find the critical chute length for segregation based on the hypothesis that segregation can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. The critical frequency, fcrit, is inversely proportional to the characteristic time of segregation, ts. Mixing is observed instead of segregation when the chute length L Rate-based separation processes hold promise as both more environmentally benign as well as less energy intensive when compared to conventional particle separations technologies such as vibrating screens or flotation methods. This approach is based on differences in the kinetic properties of the components of a mixture, such as the velocity of migration or diffusivity. In this portion of the work, two examples of novel rate-based separation devices are demonstrated. The first example involves the study of the dynamics of gravity-driven particles through an array of obstacles. Both discrete element (DEM) simulations and experiments are used to augment the understanding of this device. Dissipative collisions (both between the particles themselves and with the obstacles) give rise to a diffusive motion of particles perpendicular to the flow direction and the differences in diffusion lengths are exploited to separate the particles. The second example employs DEM to analyze a ratchet mechanism where a current of particles can be produced in a direction perpendicular to the energy input. In this setup, a vibrating saw-toothed base is employed to induce different mobility for different types of particles. The effect of operating conditions and design parameters on the separation efficiency are discussed. Keywords: granular flow, particle, mixing, segregation, discrete element method, particle dynamics, tumbler, chute, periodic flow inversion, collisional flow, rate-based separation, ratchet

  12. 26 CFR 1.960-1 - Foreign tax credit with respect to taxes paid on earnings and profits of controlled foreign...

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign tax credit with respect to taxes paid... Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.960-1 Foreign tax credit with respect to taxes paid on earnings and... foreign tax credit limitation under section 904(a) of the domestic corporation for the taxable year in...

  13. Expression and methylation data from SLE patient and healthy control blood samples subdivided with respect to ARID3a levels

    Julie M. Ward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies revealed that variation in expression of the DNA-binding protein ARID3a in B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE correlated with levels of disease activity (“Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus correlates with expression of the transcription factor AT-rich-interactive domain 3A” (J.M. Ward, K. Rose, C. Montgomery, I. Adrianto, J.A. James, J.T. Merrill et al., 2014 [1]. The data presented here compare DNA methylation patterns from SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from samples with high numbers of ARID3a expressing B cells (ARID3aH versus SLE samples with normal numbers of ARID3a+ B cells (ARID3aN. The methylation data is available at the gene expression omnibus (GEO repository, “Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository” (R. Edgar, M. Domrachev, A.E. Lash, 2002 [2]. Isolated B cells from SLE ARID3aH and ARID3aN B samples were also evaluated via qRT-PCR for Type I interferon (IFN signature and pathway gene expression levels by qRT-PCR. Similarly, healthy control B cells and B cells stimulated to express ARID3a with the TLR agonist, CpG, were also compared via qRT-PCR. Primers designed to detect 6 IFNa subtype mRNAs were tested in 4 IFNa, Epstein-Barr Virus-transformed B cell lines (“Reduced interferon-alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and lectin-stimulated lymphocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I” (S.H. Wickramasinghe, R. Hasan, J. Smythe, 1997 [3]. The data in this article support the publication, “Human effector B lymphocytes express ARID3a and secrete interferon alpha” (J.M. Ward, M.L. Ratliff, M.G. Dozmorov, G. Wiley, J.M. Guthridge, P.M. Gaffney, J.A. James, C.F. Webb, 2016 [4].

  14. Optimal sampling period of the digital control system for the nuclear power plant steam generator water level control

    Hur, Woo Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A great effort has been made to improve the nuclear plant control system by use of digital technologies and a long term schedule for the control system upgrade has been prepared with an aim to implementation in the next generation nuclear plants. In case of digital control system, it is important to decide the sampling period for analysis and design of the system, because the performance and the stability of a digital control system depend on the value of the sampling period of the digital control system. There is, however, currently no systematic method used universally for determining the sampling period of the digital control system. Generally, a traditional way to select the sampling frequency is to use 20 to 30 times the bandwidth of the analog control system which has the same system configuration and parameters as the digital one. In this paper, a new method to select the sampling period is suggested which takes into account of the performance as well as the stability of the digital control system. By use of the Irving's model steam generator, the optimal sampling period of an assumptive digital control system for steam generator level control is estimated and is actually verified in the digital control simulation system for Kori-2 nuclear power plant steam generator level control. Consequently, we conclude the optimal sampling period of the digital control system for Kori-2 nuclear power plant steam generator level control is 1 second for all power ranges. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 8 refs. (Author)

  15. Reward acts as a signal to control delay-period activity in delayed-response tasks.

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2010-03-31

    Prefrontal delay-period activity represents a neural mechanism for the active maintenance of information and needs to be controlled by some signal to appropriately operate working memory. To examine whether reward-delivery acts as this signal, the effects of delay-period activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery were examined by analyzing single-neuron activity recorded in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Among neurons that showed delay-period activity, 34% showed inhibition of this activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery. The delay-period activity of these neurons was affected by the expectation of reward-delivery. The strength of the reward signal in controlling the delay-period activity is related to the strength of the effect of reward information on the delay-period activity. These results indicate that reward-delivery acts as a signal to control delay-period activity.

  16. Control dynamics of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2016-05-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold bosons following an interaction quench upon a periodically driven optical lattice is investigated. It is shown that an interaction quench triggers the inter-well tunneling dynamics, while for the intra-well dynamics breathing and cradle-like processes can be generated. In particular, the occurrence of a resonance between the cradle and tunneling modes is revealed. On the other hand, the employed periodic driving enforces the bosons in the mirror wells to oscillate out-of-phase and to exhibit a dipole mode, while in the central well the cloud experiences a breathing mode. The dynamical behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency revealing a resonant behaviour of the intra-well dynamics. To drive the system in a highly non-equilibrium state an interaction quench upon the driving is performed giving rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result of the quench the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  17. Extraordinary Effects in Quasi-Periodic Gold Nanocavities: Enhanced Transmission and Polarization Control of Cavity Modes.

    Dhama, Rakesh; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Petti, Lucia; Rashed, Alireza R; Rippa, Massimo; Lento, Raffaella; Termine, Roberto; Caglayan, Humeyra; De Luca, Antonio

    2018-01-23

    Plasmonic quasi-periodic structures are well-known to exhibit several surprising phenomena with respect to their periodic counterparts, due to their long-range order and higher rotational symmetry. Thanks to their specific geometrical arrangement, plasmonic quasi-crystals offer unique possibilities in tailoring the coupling and propagation of surface plasmons through their lattice, a scenario in which a plethora of fascinating phenomena can take place. In this paper we investigate the extraordinary transmission phenomenon occurring in specifically patterned Thue-Morse nanocavities, demonstrating noticeable enhanced transmission, directly revealed by near-field optical experiments, performed by means of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). SNOM further provides an intuitive picture of confined plasmon modes inside the nanocavities and confirms that localization of plasmon modes is based on size and depth of nanocavities, while cross talk between close cavities via propagating plasmons holds the polarization response of patterned quasi-crystals. Our performed numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Thus, the control on cavity size and incident polarization can be used to alter the intensity and spatial properties of confined cavity modes in such structures, which can be exploited in order to design a plasmonic device with customized optical properties and desired functionalities, to be used for several applications in quantum plasmonics.

  18. External Periodic Force Control of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Vibroimpact System

    Jingyue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-degree-of-freedom mechanical model of vibro-impact system is established. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are revealed with the time history diagram, phase trajectory map, and Poincaré map. According to the bifurcation and chaos of the actual vibro-impact system, the paper puts forward external periodic force control strategy. The method of controlling chaos by external periodic force feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. The stability of the control system is also analyzed especially by theory. By selecting appropriate feedback coefficients, the unstable periodic orbits of the original chaotic orbit can be stabilized to the stable periodic orbits. The effectiveness of this control method is verified by numerical simulation.

  19. Modal Vibration Control in Periodic Time-Varying Structures with Focus on Rotor Blade Systems

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    of active modal controllers. The main aim is to reduce vibrations in periodic time-varying structures. Special emphasis is given to vibration control of coupled bladed rotor systems. A state feedback modal control law is developed based on modal analysis in periodic time-varying structures. The first step...... in the procedure is a transformation of the model into a time-invariant modal form by applying the modal matrices, which are also periodic time-variant. Due to coupled rotor and blade motions complex vibration modes occur in the modal transformed state space model. This implies that the modal transformed model...

  20. Control in personnel exposure at HIRUP facility during the period 2006-2010

    Ojha, Shashikala; Suman, Santosh Kumar; Murali, S.

    2012-01-01

    HIRUP facility is designed to handle MCi of 60 Co, fabrication of sealed source, is carried out in hot cell. The design safety features allow the handling of sealed sources and other gamma emitters under suitable containment systems. The NP Unit of the facility provides personnel monitoring programmes viz., TLD/DRD monitoring for the radiation workers. 60 Co and other gamma emitters pose mainly external hazard during the handling of sealed source in hot cell. TLD is processed to assess the external exposure of personnel. Air activity and gross bg contamination at the work place is periodically monitored and reported. The TLD users of HIRUP are periodically referred for internal monitoring - whole body counting and bio-assay to estimate internal exposure. There is no reported internal exposure so far. Personnel from IAD and BRIT facility are provided with personnel monitoring coverage by HP Unit; the TLD is issued with respective institution no. as - 0283, 4288. Each person gets identified by individual TLD number, renewed TLD issue on quarterly service period. Based on job requirement such as handling of high activity, additional Wrist TLDs are provided. The used TLD of IAD and BRIT are sent for processing. The dose report obtained, enlists personnel exposure details. HP Unit does the report making to the concerned agencies enlisting the operational status, total occupational exposure of the facility (person mSv), average exposure (mSv) and few other details. Details of exposure for 2006 - 2010 (non-zero exposure cases), indicate that for IAD collective exposure got reduced by 78.5 %, average exposure got reduced by 62.6 %; for BRIT collective exposure got reduced by 58.2 %, average exposure got reduced by 46.8 %, at HIRUP facility. There is a decreasing trend in personnel exposure over the period 2006-2010, is due to HP safety protocol, on job HP surveillance and related safety measures. The personnel exposure is controlled as per ALARA, decreasing trend in the

  1. Controlling Subclinical Mastitis by Antibiotic Application during Dry Period of Dairy Cow

    Imas Sri Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mastitis is essential, as one of the efforts to control disease in dairy cow. Dry period has implications to understand the mastitis and its control strategies. The udder is very susceptible to be infected both at the beginning and towards the end of dry period. This is linked to physiological changes in udder. Treatment with antibiotics during the dry period can reduce new infection about 82% and has several advantages. The success rate of subclinical mastitis treatment is much higher (80-90% compared to the treatment during lactation (30-40%; the doses of antibiotic can be higher and safer, due to its retention time in udder becomes longer; the risk of antibiotic contamination in milk can be avoided because the udder is not milked. Antibiotic application during dry period is the best way to treat subclinical and chronic mastitis. Treatment during dry period is a specific mastitis control for intramammary infection to avoid economic losses.

  2. Piezoelectric Tailoring with Enhanced Electromechanical Coupling for Concurrent Vibration Control of Mistuned Periodic Structures

    Wang, Kon-Well

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to advance the state of the art of vibration control of mistuned periodic structures utilizing the electromechanical coupling and damping characteristics of piezoelectric networking...

  3. Controlling chaos in low and high dimensional systems with periodic parametric perturbations

    Mirus, K.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of applying a periodic perturbation to an accessible parameter of various chaotic systems is examined. Numerical results indicate that perturbation frequencies near the natural frequencies of the unstable periodic orbits of the chaotic systems can result in limit cycles for relatively small perturbations. Such perturbations can also control or significantly reduce the dimension of high-dimensional systems. Initial application to the control of fluctuations in a prototypical magnetic fusion plasma device will be reviewed

  4. Controlled growth of periodically aligned copper-silicide nanocrystal arrays on silicon directed by laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)

    Nürnberger, Philipp; Reinhardt, Hendrik M.; Rhinow, Daniel; Riedel, René; Werner, Simon; Hampp, Norbert A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a versatile tool for the controlled growth and alignment of copper-silicide nanocrystals. The method takes advantage of a unique self-organization phenomenon denoted as laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). Copper films (3 ± 0.2 nm) are sputter-deposited onto single crystal silicon (100) substrates with a thin oxide layer (4 ± 0.2 nm), and subsequently exposed to linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses (τ ≈ 6 ns) at a central wavelength of 532 nm. The irradiation triggers dewetting of the Cu film and simultaneous formation of periodic Cu nanowires (LIPSS), which partially penetrate the oxide layer to the Si substrate. These LIPSS act as nucleation centers for the growth of Cu-Si crystals during thermal processing at 500 °C under forming gas 95/5 atmosphere. Exemplified by our model system Cu/SiO2/Si, LIPSS are demonstrated to facilitate the diffusion reaction between Cu and underlying Si. Moreover, adjustment of the laser polarization allows us to precisely control the nanocrystal alignment with respect to the LIPSS orientation. Potential applications and conceivable alternatives of this process are discussed.

  5. Diffraction-Induced Bidimensional Talbot Self-Imaging with Full Independent Period Control

    Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Romero Cortés, Luis; Deville, Antonin; Seghilani, Mohamed; Azaña, José

    2017-03-01

    We predict, formulate, and observe experimentally a generalized version of the Talbot effect that allows one to create diffraction-induced self-images of a periodic two-dimensional (2D) waveform with arbitrary control of the image spatial periods. Through the proposed scheme, the periods of the output self-image are multiples of the input ones by any desired integer or fractional factor, and they can be controlled independently across each of the two wave dimensions. The concept involves conditioning the phase profile of the input periodic wave before free-space diffraction. The wave energy is fundamentally preserved through the self-imaging process, enabling, for instance, the possibility of the passive amplification of the periodic patterns in the wave by a purely diffractive effect, without the use of any active gain.

  6. Demonstration of sawtooth period control with EC waves in KSTAR plasma

    Jeong J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sawtooth period control in tokamak is important issue in recent years because the sawtooth crash can trigger TM/NTM instabilities and drive plasmas unstable. The control of sawtooth period by the modification of local current profile near the q=1 surface using ECCD has been demonstrated in a number of tokamaks [1, 2] including KSTAR. As a result, developing techniques to control the sawtooth period as a way of controlling the onset of NTM has been an important area of research in recent years [3]. In 2012 KSTAR plasma campaign, the sawtooth period control is carried out by the different deposition position of EC waves across the q=1 surface. The sawtooth period is shortened by on-axis co-ECCD (destabilization, and the stabilization of the sawtooth is also observed by off-axis co-ECCD at outside q=1 surface. In 2013 KSTAR plasma campaign, the sawtooth locking experiment with periodic forcing of 170 GHz EC wave is carried out to control the sawtooth period. The optimal target position which lengthens the sawtooth period is investigated by performing a scan of EC beam deposition position nearby q=1 surface at the toroidal magnetic field of 2.9 T and plasma current of 0.7 MA. The sawtooth locking by the modulated EC beam is successfully demonstrated as in [3-5] with the scan of modulation-frequency and duty-ratio at the low beta (βN~0.5 plasma. In this paper, the sawteeth behavior by the location of EC beam and the preliminary result of the sawtooth locking experiments in KSTAR will be presented.

  7. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  8. Enhancing the Frequency Adaptability of Periodic Current Controllers with a Fixed Sampling Rate for Grid-Connected Power Converters

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Grid-connected power converters should employ advanced current controllers, e.g., Proportional Resonant (PR) and Repetitive Controllers (RC), in order to produce high-quality feed-in currents that are required to be synchronized with the grid. The synchronization is actually to detect...... of the resonant controllers and by approximating the fractional delay using a Lagrange interpolating polynomial for the RC, respectively, the frequency-variation-immunity of these periodic current controllers with a fixed sampling rate is improved. Experiments on a single-phase grid-connected system are presented...... the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. Hence, harmonics and deviations in the estimated frequency by the PLL could lead to current tracking performance degradation, especially...

  9. Control of stochastic resonance in bistable systems by using periodic signals

    Min, Lin; Li-Min, Fang; Yong-Jun, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    According to the characteristic structure of double wells in bistable systems, this paper analyses stochastic fluctuations in the single potential well and probability transitions between the two potential wells and proposes a method of controlling stochastic resonance by using a periodic signal. Results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the phenomenon of stochastic resonance happens when the time scales of the periodic signal and the noise-induced probability transitions between the two potential wells achieve stochastic synchronization. By adding a bistable system with a controllable periodic signal, fluctuations in the single potential well can be effectively controlled, thus affecting the probability transitions between the two potential wells. In this way, an effective control can be achieved which allows one to either enhance or realize stochastic resonance

  10. ANALYSIS OF RELIABILITY OF THE PERIODICALLY AND CONTINUOUSLY CONTROLLED QUEUING SYSTEM WITH TIME REDUNDANCY

    Mikadze, I.; Namchevadze, T.; Gobiani, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is proposed a generalized mathematical model of the queuing system with time redundancy without preliminary checking of the queuing system at transition from the free state into the engaged one. The model accounts for various failures of the queuing system detected by continuous instrument control, periodic control, control during recovery and the failures revealed immediately after accumulation of a certain number of failures. The generating function of queue length in both stationary and nonstationary modes was determined. (author)

  11. Approximate controllability of a semilinear elliptic problem with Robin condition in a periodically perforated domain

    Nikita Agarwal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the approximate controllability and homegenization results of a semi-linear elliptic problem with Robin boundary condition in a periodically perforated domain. We prove the existence of minimal norm control using Lions constructive approach, which is based on Fenchel-Rockafeller duality theory, and by means of Zuazua's fixed point arguments. Then, as the homogenization parameter goes to zero, we link the limit of the optimal controls (the limit of fixed point of the controllability problems with the optimal control of the corresponding homogenized problem.

  12. Feasibility study of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade - Part I: Neutronics-based study in respect to control rod system requirements and design

    Ćutić Avdo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a summary of extensive studies in determining the highest achievable power level of the current University of Utah TRIGA core configuration in respect to control rod requirements. Although the currently licensed University of Utah TRIGA power of 100 kW provides an excellent setting for a wide range of experiments, we investigate the possibility of increasing the power with the existing fuel elements and core structure. Thus, we have developed numerical models in combination with experimental procedures so as to assess the potential maximum University of Utah TRIGA power with the currently available control rod system and have created feasibility studies for assessing new core configurations that could provide higher core power levels. For the maximum determined power of a new University of Utah TRIGA core arrangement, a new control rod system was proposed.

  13. Periodic orbits of solar sail equipped with reflectance control device in Earth-Moon system

    Yuan, Jianping; Gao, Chen; Zhang, Junhua

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, families of Lyapunov and halo orbits are presented with a solar sail equipped with a reflectance control device in the Earth-Moon system. System dynamical model is established considering solar sail acceleration, and four solar sail steering laws and two initial Sun-sail configurations are introduced. The initial natural periodic orbits with suitable periods are firstly identified. Subsequently, families of solar sail Lyapunov and halo orbits around the L1 and L2 points are designed with fixed solar sail characteristic acceleration and varying reflectivity rate and pitching angle by the combination of the modified differential correction method and continuation approach. The linear stabilities of solar sail periodic orbits are investigated, and a nonlinear sliding model controller is designed for station keeping. In addition, orbit transfer between the same family of solar sail orbits is investigated preliminarily to showcase reflectance control device solar sail maneuver capability.

  14. Frequency Adaptive Control Technique for Periodic Runout and Wobble Cancellation in Optical Disk Drives

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic disturbance occurs in various applications on the control of the rotational mechanical systems. For optical disk drives, the spirally shaped tracks are usually not perfectly circular and the assembly of the disk and spindle motor is unavoidably eccentric. The resulting periodic disturbance is, therefore, synchronous with the disk rotation, and becomes particularly noticeable for the track following and focusing servo system. This paper applies a novel adaptive controller, namely Frequency Adaptive Control Technique (FACT, for rejecting the periodic runout and wobble effects in the optical disk drive with dual actuators. The control objective is to attenuate adaptively the specific frequency contents of periodic disturbances without amplifying its rest harmonics. FACT is implemented in a plug-in manner and provides a suitable framework for periodic disturbance rejection in the cases where the fundamental frequencies of the disturbance are alterable. It is shown that the convergence property of parameters in the proposed adaptive algorithm is exponentially stable. It is applicable to both the spindle modes of constant linear velocity (CLV and constant angular velocity (CAV for various operation speeds. The experiments showed that the proposed FACT has successful improvement on the tracking and focusing performance of the CD-ROM, and is extended to various compact disk drives.

  15. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits

  16. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-10-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits.

  17. Closed Loop Sawtooth Period Control Using Variable Eccd Injection Angles on Tore Supra

    Lennholm, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Turco, F.; Bouquey, F.; Darbos, C.; Dumont, R.; Giruzzi, G.; Jung, M.; Lambert, R.; Magne, R.; Molina, D.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Segui, J.L.; Song, S.; Traisnel, E.

    2009-01-01

    Closed loop control of the period of fast ion stabilized sawtooth has been demonstrated for the first time on Tore Supra by varying the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) injection angles in real time. Fast ions generated by up to 4 MW of central ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) increased the sawtooth period from the ohmic value of 25 ms to 60 to 100 ms. This sawtooth period was reduced to 30 ms by the addition of only 300 kW of ECCD. In ICRH heated shots where the normalized minor radius of the ECCD absorption location was swept from 0.4 to 0.05 in 4 s, the sawtooth period showed an abrupt change from 70 to 30 ms when the ECCD deposition normalized minor radius reached ∼ 0.2. This short period was then maintained until the absorption location moved well inside the sawtooth inversion radius at which point it abruptly returned to 70 ins. A closed loop controller was implemented that allowed the sawtooth period to be switched in real time between short and long sawteeth with a response time of the order of 1 s. (authors)

  18. Periodic synchronization control of discontinuous delayed networks by using extended Filippov-framework.

    Cai, Zuowei; Huang, Lihong; Guo, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Lingling; Wan, Xuting

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the periodic synchronization problem for a general class of delayed neural networks (DNNs) with discontinuous neuron activation. One of the purposes is to analyze the problem of periodic orbits. To do so, we introduce new tools including inequality techniques and Kakutani's fixed point theorem of set-valued maps to derive the existence of periodic solution. Another purpose is to design a switching state-feedback control for realizing global exponential synchronization of the drive-response network system with periodic coefficients. Unlike the previous works on periodic synchronization of neural network, both the neuron activations and controllers in this paper are allowed to be discontinuous. Moreover, owing to the occurrence of delays in neuron signal, the neural network model is described by the functional differential equation. So we introduce extended Filippov-framework to deal with the basic issues of solutions for discontinuous DNNs. Finally, two examples and simulation experiments are given to illustrate the proposed method and main results which have an important instructional significance in the design of periodic synchronized DNNs circuits involving discontinuous or switching factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PROBLEM OF OPTIMAL CONTROL OF EPIDEMIC IN VIEW OF LATENT PERIOD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimal control of epidemic through vaccination and isolation, taking into account latent period is considered. The target function is minimized - functionality summarizing costs on epidemic prevention and treatment and also considering expenses on infected people left at the end of control T who may be a new source of epidemic. On the left endpoint of the integration segment initial data is given - quantity of infected and confirmed people at the moment t, the right endpoint is free. The dynamic constraints are written by way of a system of simple differential equations describing the speed of changes of number of subjected to infection and number of already infected. Besides the inhomogeneous communi- ty is considered, consisting of four age groups (babies, preschool children, school children and adults. The speed of vaccina- tion (number of vaccinated per a time unit and isolation speed are used as the control functions. There are some restrictions on control above and below. The latent period is described by the constant h and is part of the equation describing the con- tamination speed of people as a retarding in argument t, i.e. a person being in a latent period infects others not being aware of his disease. For problem solving Pontryagin maximum principle is used where it can be seen that the control is piecewise constant. The result of numerical implementation of discrete problem of optimal control is given. The conclusions are made that the latent period significantly influence the incidence rate and as consequence the costs on epidemic suppression. The programme based on the programming language Delphi gives an opportunity to estimate the scale of epidemic at different initial data and restrictions on control as well as to find an optimal control minimizing costs on epimedic suppression.

  20. Periodic quality control of a linear accelerator using electronic portal imaging

    Planes Meseguer, D.; Dorado Rodriguez, M. P.; Esposito, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our solution for the realization of the monthly periodic quality control (CP) geometry - mechanical and multi leaf collimator (MLC), using the electronic system for portal imaging (EPI). We have developed specific programs created with free software. The monitoring results are automatically stored on our web server, along with other information generated in our service.

  1. H-infinity Control of Linear Systems with Almost Periodic Inputs

    Larsen, Mikael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the class of linear, infinitedimensional systems with bounded input and output operators. Wederive and QTR H-infinity type result, formulated for thecase where the input signals are almost periodic in a generalizedsense. Control probelms, for which this result is relevant...

  2. A distributed predictive control approach for periodic flow-based networks: application to drinking water systems

    Grosso, Juan M.; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a distributed model predictive control approach designed to work in a cooperative manner for controlling flow-based networks showing periodic behaviours. Under this distributed approach, local controllers cooperate in order to enhance the performance of the whole flow network avoiding the use of a coordination layer. Alternatively, controllers use both the monolithic model of the network and the given global cost function to optimise the control inputs of the local controllers but taking into account the effect of their decisions over the remainder subsystems conforming the entire network. In this sense, a global (all-to-all) communication strategy is considered. Although the Pareto optimality cannot be reached due to the existence of non-sparse coupling constraints, the asymptotic convergence to a Nash equilibrium is guaranteed. The resultant strategy is tested and its effectiveness is shown when applied to a large-scale complex flow-based network: the Barcelona drinking water supply system.

  3. Respect changes your life!

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    CERN has recently joined the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie" (Respect can change our lives). As its name suggests, the association promotes respect, in all its forms. This decision will enable CERN to share some of its values, those it has in common with the association, with the community at large.   The new bilingual logo of the "Le respect ça change la vie" association. "CERN has been a member of the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie" since March," says Friedemann Eder, Head of the Relations with the Host States Service. Mutual respect, respecting the differences and the work of others, respect on the road, in the family, at school, etc. The association, which was founded in 2003 and now has a large number of members, promotes this universal value and encourages discussion on it. "CERN's history shows the importance and success o...

  4. Pinning synchronization of two general complex networks with periodically intermittent control

    Meng Fanyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the method of periodically pinning intermittent control is introduced to solve the problem of outer synchronization between two complex networks. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, differential inequality method and adaptive technique, some simple synchronous criteria have been derived analytically. At last, both the theoretical and numerical analysis illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology. This method not only reduces the conservatism of control gain but also saves the cost of production.These advantages make this method having a large application scope in the real production process.

  5. RAMAS: The RITL Automated Management System. Master Control and Periodicals Control Subsystems. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.

    Ya-chun, Lian

    An automated minicomputer-based library management system is being developed at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology Library (RITL). RAMAS (the RITL Automated Management System) currently deals with periodical check-in, claiming, index-handling, and binding control. A RAMAS bibliographic record can be accessed from eight different points…

  6. Respect in Education

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the educational significance of the moral demand for respect. In "Ethics and Education," Richard Peters presents a conception of educational respect that was recently taken up by Krassimir Stojanov. This article responds to both Peters' and Stojanov's contributions and proposes another understanding of educational respect:…

  7. The Periodic Measurement of the Airborne Radioactivity In Controlled Area of KOMAC

    Park, Jeong-Min; Park, Sung-Kyun; Min, Yi-Sub; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) to start the performance operation in the second half of 2013, is currently operated in each beamline 20-MeV and 100-MeV. The accelerator operation period is simply divided by three operation cycles which are the maintenance checks period for accelerator device, the performance test period before driving accelerator and the operation period. During this operation period, beam is irradiated to target. At this time, the proton beams collide with the target material and a high dose of radiations such as gamma ray and neutron occurred. Radiation controlled area at the accelerator facility is divided into accelerator tunnel and beam utilization zone. As a result of measuring the airborne radioactivity in the controlled area in accordance with the operating cycle of the proton accelerator KOMAC, It was confirmed that the value of the airborne radioactivity does not significantly differ according to each accelerator operating cycles. And alpha and beta values measured inside the area that workers primarily work is very low indoor radon level than the value of the recommendations in multiple facilities.

  8. Stabilizing periodic orbits of chaotic systems using fuzzy adaptive sliding mode control

    Layeghi, Hamed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Azadi Avenue, Postal Code 11365-9567 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: layeghi@mech.sharif.edu; Arjmand, Mehdi Tabe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Azadi Avenue, Postal Code 11365-9567 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: arjmand@mech.sharif.edu; Salarieh, Hassan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Azadi Avenue, Postal Code 11365-9567 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Azadi Avenue, Postal Code 11365-9567 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu

    2008-08-15

    In this paper by using a combination of fuzzy identification and the sliding mode control a fuzzy adaptive sliding mode scheme is designed to stabilize the unstable periodic orbits of chaotic systems. The chaotic system is assumed to have an affine form x{sup (n)} = f(X) + g(X)u where f and g are unknown functions. Using only the input-output data obtained from the underlying dynamical system, two fuzzy systems are constructed for identification of f and g. Two distinct methods are utilized for fuzzy modeling, the least squares and the gradient descent techniques. Based on the estimated fuzzy models, an adaptive controller, which works through the sliding mode control, is designed to make the system track the desired unstable periodic orbits. The stability analysis of the overall closed loop system is presented in the paper and the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive scheme is numerically investigated. As a case of study, modified Duffing system is selected for applying the proposed method to stabilize its 2{pi} and 4{pi} periodic orbits. Simulation results show the high performance of the method for stabilizing the unstable periodic orbits of unknown chaotic systems.

  9. Dynamics modeling and periodic control of horizontal-axis wind turbines

    Stol, Karl Alexander

    2001-07-01

    The development of large multi-megawatt wind turbines has increased the need for active feedback control to meet multiple performance objectives. Power regulation is still of prime concern but there is an increasing interest in mitigating loads for these very large, dynamically soft and highly integrated power systems. This work explores the opportunities for utilizing state space modeling, modal analysis, and multi-objective controllers in advanced horizontal-axis wind turbines. A linear state-space representation of a generic, multiple degree-of-freedom wind turbine is developed to test various control methods and paradigms. The structural model, SymDyn, provides for limited flexibility in the tower, drive train and blades assuming a rigid component architecture with joint springs and dampers. Equations of motion are derived symbolically, verified by numerical simulation, and implemented in the Matlab with Simulink computational environment. AeroDyn, an industry-standard aerodynamics package for wind turbines, provides the aerodynamic load data through interfaced subroutines. Linearization of the structural model produces state equations with periodic coefficients due to the interaction of rotating and non-rotating components. Floquet theory is used to extract the necessary modal properties and several parametric studies identify the damping levels and dominant dynamic coupling influences. Two separate issues of control design are investigated: full-state feedback and state estimation. Periodic gains are developed using time-varying LQR techniques and many different time-invariant control designs are constructed, including a classical PID controller. Disturbance accommodating control (DAC) allows the estimation of wind speed for minimization of the disturbance effects on the system. Controllers are tested in simulation for multiple objectives using measurement of rotor position and rotor speed only and actuation of independent blade pitch. It is found that

  10. Exponential synchronization of complex delayed dynamical networks via pinning periodically intermittent control

    Cai Shuiming, E-mail: caishuiming2008@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of System Biology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Hao Junjun [Institute of System Biology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); He, Qinbin [Department of Mathematics, Taizhou University, Linhai 317000 (China); Institute of System Biology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu Zengrong, E-mail: zrongliu@126.co [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China) and Institute of System Biology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2011-05-09

    The problem of synchronization for a class of complex delayed dynamical networks via pinning periodically intermittent control is considered in this Letter. Some novel and useful exponential synchronization criteria are obtained by utilizing the methods which are different from the techniques employed in the existing works, and the derived results are less conservative. Especially, the traditional assumptions on control width and time delays are released in our results. Moreover, a pinning scheme deciding what nodes should be chosen as pinned candidates and how many nodes are needed to be pinned for a fixed coupling strength is provided. A Barabasi-Albert network example is finally given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. - Highlights: Pinning control problem of complex networks via intermittent control is investigated. The traditional assumptions on control width and time delays are removed. A scheme deciding what nodes should be chosen as pinned candidates is proposed. A scheme deciding how many nodes are needed to be pinned is provided.

  11. A Randomised Controlled Experimental Study on the Influence of Patient Age on Medical Decisions in Respect to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in the Elderly

    Michael Linden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elderly patients are often treated differently than younger patients, even when suffering from the same disorder. Objective. The study examines the influence of “patient age” on the perception of symptoms and conclusions of physicians in respect to diagnosis and treatment. Methods. In a randomised controlled experimental study on medical decision-making, 121 general practitioners were given two case vignettes which contained all the criteria for major depression according to ICD-10, but differed in respect to the age of the patient (39 or 81. Reaction time, diagnostic conclusions and therapeutic recommendations were assessed by computer. Results. Depression and anxiety were significantly seen as more probable in the young cases and dementia and physical illness in the old. In young age, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and referral to a specialist or inpatient treatment were significantly more recommended than in old age, for whom supportive counselling was significantly more recommended. The time needed for a decision was significantly longer in the older patients. Conclusion. Ageing stereotypes can also form medical illness concepts and have a significant influence on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.

  12. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems

    Mishra, Nagender; Singh, Harinder P.; Hasse, Maria; Biswal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics

  13. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems

    Mishra, Nagender; Singh, Harinder P. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Hasse, Maria [Institut für Höchstleistungsrechnen, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Biswal, B. [Cluster Innovation Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110021 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics.

  14. Controllable synthesis of periodic flower-like ZnO nanostructures on Si subwavelength grating structures

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    We report on the periodic well-defined flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs) self-assembled through a simple hydrothermal method using silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures. The Si SWGs serve as building blocks for constructing a two-dimensional (2D) periodic architecture to integrate the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NSs. Various controlled morphologies of ZnO NSs with high crystallinity are obtained by changing the growth conditions. For 1D ZnO NSs integrated on periodic hexagonal Si SWG structures, the reflection characteristics are investigated in comparison with the conventional ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays. For a three-dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO NS on Si SWGs, a relatively low total reflectance of < 8% at wavelengths of 300-1050 nm is achieved compared to the ZnO NRs on Si substrate.

  15. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control

    Martin, J.

    1966-10-01

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author) [fr

  16. Prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) designed trials yield the same results as double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with respect to ABPM measurements.

    Smith, David H; Neutel, Joel M; Lacourcière, Yves; Kempthorne-Rawson, Joan

    2003-07-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) results from double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) and prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) hypertension trials are statistically comparable. Two DBPC and three PROBE parallel-group studies were selected from an angiotensin II receptor blocker clinical programme. These were fixed-dose studies involving similar mild to moderate hypertensive patient populations. All used SpaceLabs 90207 ABPM devices, and each comprised a 4-week placebo period and a 4-8-week treatment period. Data from patients receiving telmisartan 80 mg were used to compare the results of DBPC (126 patients) and PROBE (734 patients) trials. The analysis had approximately 87% power to show equivalence between the two design types in terms of ruling out differences of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. Office blood pressure was also compared. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory SBP was -12.2 mmHg in DBPC trials and -12.3 mmHg in PROBE trials, a rounded difference of 0.2 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.8, 2.1]. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory DBP was -7.7 mmHg in DBPC trials versus -7.9 mmHg in PROBE trials, a difference of 0.2 mmHg (95% CI: -1.1, 1.5). Ambulatory pulse pressure results were identical. Thus, changes in mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure from the DBPC and PROBE trials in this meta-analysis are statistically equivalent in terms of ruling out a difference of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. This supports the validity of the PROBE design in assessing antihypertensive efficacy based on blinded ABPM measurements.

  17. Occupational irradiation by external radiation sources. Analysis of the control system data covering the period 1972 - 198a

    Karadzhov, A.; Velikov, V.

    1982-01-01

    Occupational irradiation data, made available by the system of individual dosimetric control, are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the annual dose distribution is in accordance with the logarithm of normal distribution. The obtained values of the average dose in industry, medicine, science and educatuin during the period 1972 through 1980 are respectively 3.7 mSv, 1.0 mSv and 0.45 mSv. In some lines the average annual dose considerably exceeds the average annual dose for the respective branch, e.g. for workers in gamma defectoscopy it amounts to 9.1 mSv, while for medical personnel of deep and curi therapy - 2.1 mSv. (author)

  18. Periodic boundary conditions and the error-controlled fast multipole method

    Kabadshow, Ivo

    2012-08-22

    The simulation of pairwise interactions in huge particle ensembles is a vital issue in scientific research. Especially the calculation of long-range interactions poses limitations to the system size, since these interactions scale quadratically with the number of particles. Fast summation techniques like the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) can help to reduce the complexity to O(N). This work extends the possible range of applications of the FMM to periodic systems in one, two and three dimensions with one unique approach. Together with a tight error control, this contribution enables the simulation of periodic particle systems for different applications without the need to know and tune the FMM specific parameters. The implemented error control scheme automatically optimizes the parameters to obtain an approximation for the minimal runtime for a given energy error bound.

  19. Period-doubling bifurcation and chaos control in a discrete-time mosquito model

    Qamar Din

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of some qualitative properties of a discrete-time mosquito Model. It is shown that there exists period-doubling bifurcation for wide range of bifurcation parameter for the unique positive steady-state of given system. In order to control the bifurcation we introduced a feedback strategy. For further confirmation of complexity and chaotic behavior largest Lyapunov exponents are plotted.

  20. Decentralized Feedback Controllers for Exponential Stabilization of Hybrid Periodic Orbits: Application to Robotic Walking*

    Hamed, Kaveh Akbari; Gregg, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic algorithm to design time-invariant decentralized feedback controllers to exponentially stabilize periodic orbits for a class of hybrid dynamical systems arising from bipedal walking. The algorithm assumes a class of parameterized and nonlinear decentralized feedback controllers which coordinate lower-dimensional hybrid subsystems based on a common phasing variable. The exponential stabilization problem is translated into an iterative sequence of optimization problems involving bilinear and linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily solved with available software packages. A set of sufficient conditions for the convergence of the iterative algorithm to a stabilizing decentralized feedback control solution is presented. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by designing a set of local nonlinear controllers that cooperatively produce stable walking for a 3D autonomous biped with 9 degrees of freedom, 3 degrees of underactuation, and a decentralization scheme motivated by amputee locomotion with a transpelvic prosthetic leg. PMID:27990059

  1. Synchronization criteria for generalized reaction-diffusion neural networks via periodically intermittent control.

    Gan, Qintao; Lv, Tianshi; Fu, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the synchronization problem for a class of generalized neural networks with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms is investigated concerning Neumann boundary conditions in terms of p-norm. The proposed generalized neural networks model includes reaction-diffusion local field neural networks and reaction-diffusion static neural networks as its special cases. By establishing a new inequality, some simple and useful conditions are obtained analytically to guarantee the global exponential synchronization of the addressed neural networks under the periodically intermittent control. According to the theoretical results, the influences of diffusion coefficients, diffusion space, and control rate on synchronization are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods are shown by simulation examples, and by choosing different diffusion coefficients, diffusion spaces, and control rates, different controlled synchronization states can be obtained.

  2. Control of nonlinear systems using periodic parametric perturbations with application to a reversed field pinch

    Mirus, K.A.

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Roessler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high-dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses

  3. Control of nonlinear systems using periodic parametric perturbations with application to a reversed field pinch

    Mirus, Kevin A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Roessler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high-dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.

  4. Control of nonlinear systems using periodic parametric perturbations with application to a reversed field pinch

    Mirus, Kevin Andrew

    In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Rossler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high- dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.

  5. Periodic or chaotic bursting dynamics via delayed pitchfork bifurcation in a slow-varying controlled system

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Zhengdi; Han, Xiujing

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we aim to demonstrate the novel routes to periodic and chaotic bursting, i.e., the different bursting dynamics via delayed pitchfork bifurcations around stable attractors, in the classical controlled Lü system. First, by computing the corresponding characteristic polynomial, we determine where some critical values about bifurcation behaviors appear in the Lü system. Moreover, the transition mechanism among different stable attractors has been introduced including homoclinic-type connections or chaotic attractors. Secondly, taking advantage of the above analytical results, we carry out a study of the mechanism for bursting dynamics in the Lü system with slowly periodic variation of certain control parameter. A distinct delayed supercritical pitchfork bifurcation behavior can be discussed when the control item passes through bifurcation points periodically. This delayed dynamical behavior may terminate at different parameter areas, which leads to different spiking modes around different stable attractors (equilibriums, limit cycles, or chaotic attractors). In particular, the chaotic attractor may appear by Shilnikov connections or chaos boundary crisis, which leads to the occurrence of impressive chaotic bursting oscillations. Our findings enrich the study of bursting dynamics and deepen the understanding of some similar sorts of delayed bursting phenomena. Finally, some numerical simulations are included to illustrate the validity of our study.

  6. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    Falate, Rosane; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  7. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    Falate, Rosane [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: fabris@utfpr.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  8. France. The Centre de la Manche disposal facility: Entering into the institutional control period

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de la Manche disposal facility, created by decree in 1969, is the first French near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. It lies at the northwest end of the Cotentin peninsula, next to the COGEMA-La Hague fuel reprocessing plant. The Centre de la Manche facility occupies an area of about 150,000 m 2 . Its operation was terminated in late June 1994 with about 500,000 m 3 of packages disposed of. Operating feedback from the Centre de la Manche was used to design the second French disposal facility, located in the Aube, which has been receiving LILW since 1992. Since the end of the operating period, ANDRA has been preparing the statutory files to prepare the Centre de la Manche for its entry into the institutional control period. A new government decree will set the framework in which the Centre will evolve in this period. The regulatory process includes the filing of an application with the ministries concerned, containing a file with the requisite statutory documents, including an impact study of the facility on its environment as well as a hazard study. The file will then be submitted to a public inquiry, an essential informative period of the project designed to make a compilation of criticisms and suggestions from the public. In support of the application, a safety report has been sent to the Nuclear Installation Safety Directorate (DSIN) for a decision on the admissibility of the application. Recently, the Group of experts appointed by the DSIN which examined it has come out in favor of the creation of a new basic nuclear installation (i.e., a new government agency) for the institutional control period. A draft decree will then be submitted to the approval of the Interministerial Commission for Basic Nuclear Installations. This process, initiated in 1994, is nearing completion

  9. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  10. Periodic modulations controlling Kuznetsov–Ma soliton formation in nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    Tiofack, C.G.L., E-mail: glatchio@yahoo.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523 – PhLAM – Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille (France); Coulibaly, S.; Taki, M. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523 – PhLAM – Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille (France); De Bièvre, S.; Dujardin, G. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8524 – Laboratoire Paul Painlevé, F-59000 Lille (France); Équipe-Projet Mephysto, INRIA Lille-Nord Europe (France)

    2017-06-28

    We analyze the exact Kuznetsov–Ma soliton solution of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of periodic modulations satisfying an integrability condition. We show that, in contrast to the case without modulation, the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton develops multiple compression points whose number, shape and position are controlled both by the intensity of the modulation and by its frequency. In addition, when this modulation frequency is a rational multiple of the natural frequency of the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton, a scenario similar to a nonlinear resonance is obtained: in this case the spatial oscillations of the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton's intensity are periodic. When the ratio of the two frequencies is irrational, the soliton's intensity is a quasiperiodic function. A striking and important result of our analysis is the possibility to suppress any component of the output spectrum of the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton by a judicious choice of the amplitude and frequency of the modulation. - Highlights: • Exact Kuznetsov–Ma soliton solution in presence of periodic coefficients is obtained. • The multiple compression points of the solution are studied. • The quasi-periodicity of the solution is discussed. • The possibility to suppress any component of the spectrum is analyzed.

  11. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  12. Toleration out of respect?

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  13. Ombud's Corner: Respect @ CERN

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010 CERN has been a member of the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie". Four years later and in conjunction with CERN’s celebration of its 60 years of ‘science for peace’, it is time to launch a new respectful workplace awareness campaign under the auspices of the Ombud.   Mutual respect is a basic pillar of peace. At CERN, we pride ourselves on our history, which started when a handful of Europe’s visionary scientists saw the opportunity that an international laboratory for fundamental research would present in bringing nations together. That idea has worked very well and, today, our success can be measured not only in terms of unprecedented scientific achievements but also in terms of training and education, and exemplary collaboration across borders, cultures and an extensive range of differences. In order for history to continue along these positive lines, and coming back to the awareness campai...

  14. Respect as an Incentive

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    Assuming that people care not only about what others do but also on what others think, we study respect as a non-monetary source of motivation in a context where the length of the employment relationship is endogenous.  In our three-stage gift-exchange experiment, the employer can express respect...... by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further effort, the duration of relationships, and the profits of employers. Furthermore, we study whether employers...

  15. Respect or resignation?

    Liveng, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Students in the social- and health care worker education must learn to show "understanding" and "respect" for the seniors they help. How difficult it is to go from theory to practise becomes painfully obvious the forst time a student empties a bed pan.......Students in the social- and health care worker education must learn to show "understanding" and "respect" for the seniors they help. How difficult it is to go from theory to practise becomes painfully obvious the forst time a student empties a bed pan....

  16. Quasi-periodic dynamics in system with multilevel pulse modulated control

    Gol'tsov, Yu A.; Kizhuk, A. S.; Rubanov, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the transitions from the regular periodic mode to quasiperiodicity that can be observed in a multilevel pulse-width modulated control system for a high-power heating unit. The behavior of such system can be described by a set of two coupled non-autonomous differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides. The authors reduce the investigation of this system to the studying of a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth map. The authors demonstrate how a closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic dynamics can arise from a stable periodic motion through a border-collision bifurcation. The paper also considers a variety of interesting nonlinear phenomena, including phase-locking modes, the coexistence of several stable closed invariant curves, embedded one into the other and with their basins of attraction separated by intervening repelling closed curves.

  17. Toleration out of respect?

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...

  18. The Iterative Solution to Discrete-Time H∞ Control Problems for Periodic Systems

    Ivan G. Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of solving discrete-time H ∞ control problems for periodic systems. The approach for solving such a type of equations is well known in the literature. However, the focus of our research is set on the numerical computation of the stabilizing solution. In particular, two effective methods for practical realization of the known iterative processes are described. Furthermore, a new iterative approach is investigated and applied. On the basis of numerical experiments, we compare the presented methods. A major conclusion is that the new iterative approach is faster than rest of the methods and it uses less RAM memory than other methods.

  19. Exponential stabilization and synchronization for fuzzy model of memristive neural networks by periodically intermittent control.

    Yang, Shiju; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen

    2016-03-01

    The problem of exponential stabilization and synchronization for fuzzy model of memristive neural networks (MNNs) is investigated by using periodically intermittent control in this paper. Based on the knowledge of memristor and recurrent neural network, the model of MNNs is formulated. Some novel and useful stabilization criteria and synchronization conditions are then derived by using the Lyapunov functional and differential inequality techniques. It is worth noting that the methods used in this paper are also applied to fuzzy model for complex networks and general neural networks. Numerical simulations are also provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Periodic spring–mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions

    III, Luther R Palmer; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-01-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg. (paper)

  1. Periodic spring-mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions.

    Palmer, Luther R; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-09-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg.

  2. Respect as an Incentive

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    whether employers’ decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations. We find that employers do make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee. Symbolic rewards are associated with higher profits and increased probability of continuing......In this paper we examine respect as a non-monetary source of motivation. Our experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they are valued by the employees, and how they affect employee effort, the duration of relationships, and profits of employers. We also study...

  3. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  4. Study on reactor power transient characteristics (reactor training experiments). Control rod reactivity calibration by positive period method and other experiment

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Sunagawa, Takeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is reported about some experiments that have been carried out in the reactor training that targets sophomore of the department of applied nuclear engineering, FUT. Reactor of Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute (UTR-KINKI) was used for reactor training. When each critical state was achieved at different reactor output respectively in reactor operating, it was confirmed that the control rod position at that time does not change. Further, control rod reactivity calibration experiments using positive Period method were carried out for shim safety rod and regulating rod, respectively. The results were obtained as reasonable values in comparison with the nominal value of the UTR-KINKI. The measurement of reactor power change after reactor scram was performed, and the presence of the delayed neutron precursor was confirmed by calculating the half-life. The spatial dose rate measurement experiment of neutrons and γ-rays in the reactor room in a reactor power 1W operating conditions were also performed. (author)

  5. Adaptive Control of the Packet Transmission Period with Solar Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Kideok Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  6. Adaptive control of the packet transmission period with solar energy harvesting prediction in wireless sensor networks.

    Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-04-24

    A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  7. Cavity mode control in side-coupled periodic waveguides: theory and experiment

    Ha, Sangwoo; Sukhorukov, A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the modes of coupled cavities created in periodic waveguides can depend critically on the longitudinal shift between the cavities. In the absence of such shift, the modes feature symmetric or antisymmetric profiles, and their frequency splitting generally increases...... as the cavities are brought closer. We show that the longitudinal shift enables flexible control over the fundamental modes, whose frequency detuning can be reduced down to zero. Our coupled-mode theory analysis reveals an intrinsic link between the mode tuning and the transformation of slow-light dispersion...... at the photonic band-edge.We illustrate our approach through numerical modeling of cavities created in arrays of dielectric rods, and confirm our predictions with experimental observations....

  8. Possible Periodic Orbit Control Maneuvers for an eLISA Mission

    Bender, Peter L.; Welter, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible application of periodic orbit control maneuvers for so-called evolved-LISA (eLISA) missions, i.e., missions for which the constellation arm lengths and mean distance from the Earth are substantially reduced. We find that for missions with arm lengths of 106 km and Earth-trailing distance ranging from approx. 12deg to 20deg over the science lifetime, the occasional use of the spacecraft micro-Newton thrusters for constellation configuration maintenance should be able to essentially eliminate constellation distortion caused by Earth-induced tidal forces at a cost to science time of only a few percent. With interior angle variation kept to approx. +/-0:1deg, the required changes in the angles between the laser beam pointing directions for the two arms from any spacecraft could be kept quite small. This would considerably simplify the apparatus necessary for changing the transmitted beam directions.

  9. Control in personnel exposure of RCD/FCD facility RLG during the period 2005 - 2008

    Murali, S.; Thanamani, S.; Sapkal, J.A.; Bairwa, Satya Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radio Chemistry Wing, RLG, houses Radio Chemistry Division and Fuel Chemistry Division and certain common utility services. The personnel in the facility carry out radiochemical operations involving isotopes of Pu and other actinides. The HP Unit, Radio Chemistry Wing provides essential safety coverage to the personnel of the facility. The lab personnel of RCD/FCD facility at RLG carry out active operations, such operations held in suitable containment systems, under the HP supervision by RHC Unit advising safe work practices. The lab personnel are provided with monitoring programmes viz. TLD, Bio-assay and Lung counting periodically. Presently the dose limit for occupational exposure is 20 mSv per annum with 100 mSv for 5 consecutive calendar years. The present paper on TLD dose report enlists the details of the personnel exposure year wise and highlights the control in personnel exposure due to the safe procedures followed. The decreasing trend in the average personnel exposure over the period 2005 - 2008 validates the practice of adherence to safety procedures, though the amount of activity handled in the facility has increased by a few folds

  10. Centre de la Manche institutional control period: after the first safety review - 59236

    Dutzer, Michel; Vervialle, Jean Pierre; Andre, Alain; Marchiol, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Centre de la Manche disposal facility is the first French surface disposal facility dedicated to low and intermediate level short lived radioactive waste. It started up in 1969. After a continuous improvement, in the design of disposal vaults, in operational modes, in the whole process of waste management, in the safety approach, the last packages were received in 1994. 527, 000 m 3 of waste packages have been disposed during the 25 years of operation. The facility was licensed for the institutional control period in 2003. The disposal vaults are covered with a multilayer capping system that includes a bituminous membrane to provide protection against rainwater infiltration. Water that might infiltrate through the membrane is collected by the bottom slab of the vaults to a pipe network implemented in an underground gallery. Measurements show an overall infiltration rate of about 3 l/m 2 /year that complies with the objective of Andra of a few liters per square meter and per year. Investigations are performed in order to assess the behavior of the membrane in the long term. For this purpose periodically samples of the bituminous membrane are taken and measurements are performed. As at the beginning of the operational period waste packages were not conditioned in accordance with the specifications that are presently prescribed to waste generators, some settlements can be observed on the ancient part or the facilities. At the end of 2009 some excavation works were performed in an area where a settlement of few tens of centimeters was observed. The integrity of the membrane could be observed and the adequacy of the selection of this option for the water-tightness of the capping system was so confirmed. Environmental monitoring includes radiological and chemical measurements for discharge, underground water and surface water. In the particular framework of Centre de la Manche, a contamination of groundwater by tritiated wastes occurred in 1976. Theses wastes were

  11. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Iikura, Motoyasu; Yi, Siyan; Ichimura, Yasunori; Hori, Ai; Izumi, Shinyu; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kudo, Koichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The proportions of total control (ACT = 25), well controlled (ACT = 20-24), and poorly controlled (ACT smoking status and alcohol drinking were not associated with asthma control. On the other hand, younger age (smoking, periodical exercise (> 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week), and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week) were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  12. Carbon sequestration in Southeast Asian tropical peatlands over the Holocene period: large-scale hydrological controls

    Dommain, R.; Couwenberg, J.; Cobb, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F.; Su'ut, N.; Abu Salim, K.; Harvey, C. F.; Glaser, P. H.; Joosten, H.

    2012-12-01

    support the hypothesis that the water table elevation and not temperature is the primary control of the carbon balance of tropical peatlands. The period of fastest peatland expansion and highest CAR was the wettest period in the Holocene with the lowest hydraulic gradient imposed by the highstand in sea-level. The period with the lowest and nearly quiescent CAR was associated with higher drought stress and a steeper hydraulic gradient, implying lower water tables. The remarkably high carbon sequestration rates of Southeast Asian peatlands can be explained by the high production of woody biomass throughout the year under waterlogged conditions. Woody organic matter is principally resistant to decomposition in an anaerobic setting causing rapid rates of carbon accumulation as long as the water table remains high. Increased drought severity, possibly in association with changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation under a warmer future climate could potentially switch Southeast Asian carbon sequestering peatlands to carbon sources.

  13. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period.

    Claire N J Meunier

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors.

  14. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  15. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  16. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Luka Peternel

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  17. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  18. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    Teige Jon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure.

  19. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  20. A study on the optimal replacement periods of digital control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    Mok, Jin Il; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Even a trip of a single nuclear power plant (NPP) causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this paper we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models of optimal replacement periods to the digital control computer's components of Wolsung NPP Unit 1 and calculated the optimal replacement periods analytically. We compared the periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit 1. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained and those used in the field show a little difference. (Author)

  1. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Motoyasu Iikura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. METHODS: The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT, and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The proportions of total control (ACT = 25, well controlled (ACT = 20-24, and poorly controlled (ACT 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week, and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  2. Redox-controlled release dynamics of thallium in periodically flooded arable soil.

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Savić, Dubravka; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first work to mechanistically study the impact of the redox potential (E H ) and principal factors, such as pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2- ), on the release dynamics of thallium (Tl) in periodically flooded soil. We simulated flooding using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system that allows for systematical control of pre-defined redox windows. The E H value was increased mechanistically at intervals of approximately 100 mV from reducing (-211 mV) to oxidizing (475 mV) conditions. Soluble Tl levels (0.02-0.28 μg L -1 ) increased significantly with increases in E H (r = 0.80, p Thallium mobilization was found to be related to several simultaneous processes involving the gradual oxidation of Tl-bearing sulfides, reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides and desorption from mineral sorbents. Manganese oxides did not appear to have a considerable effect on Tl retention under oxidizing conditions. Before conducting the microcosm experiment, Tl geochemical fractionation was assessed using the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The BCR revealed a majority of Tl in the residual fraction (77.7%), followed by reducible (13.3%) and oxidizable fractions (5.9%). By generating high levels of Tl toxicity at low doses, Tl released under oxidizing conditions may pose an environmental threat. In the future, similar studies should be conducted on various soils along with a determination of the Tl species and monitoring of the Tl content in plants to achieve more detailed insight into soluble Tl behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme and Laryngeal Mask Airway Proseal with respect to oropharyngeal leak pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Beleña, José M; Núñez, Mónica; Anta, Diego; Carnero, Maria; Gracia, José L; Ayala, José L; Alvarez, Raquel; Yuste, Javier

    2013-03-01

    A comparison of the efficacy and safety of the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Supreme (LMAS) versus the LMA Proseal (LMAP) in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To compare the LMAS with LMAP in terms of ventilatory efficacy, airway leak pressure (airway protection), ease-of-use and complications. Prospective, single-blind, randomised, controlled study. The Hospital del Sureste and Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, between May 2009 and March 2011. The Hospital del Sureste is a secondary hospital and Hospital Ramon y Cajal is a tertiary hospital. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied following informed consent. Inclusion criteria were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III and age 18 or more. Exclusion criteria were BMI more than 40 kg m, symptomatic hiatus hernia or severe gastro-oesophageal reflux. Anaesthesiologists experienced in the use of LMAP and LMAS participated in the trial. One hundred twenty-two patients were randomly allocated to LMAS or LMAP. Our primary outcome measure was the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). Secondary outcomes were the time and number of attempts for insertion, ease of insertion of the drain tube, adequacy of ventilation and the incidence of complication. Patients were interviewed postoperatively to evaluate the presence of sore throat, dysphagia or dysphonia. Two patients were excluded when surgery changed from laparoscopic to open. A total of 120 patients were finally included in the analysis. The mean OLP in the LMAP group was significantly higher than that in the LMAS group (30.7 ± 6.2 versus 26.8 ± 4.1 cmH2O;P drain tube, complications and postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were similar in both groups. The LMAP has a higher OLP and achieves a higher maximum tidal volume compared to the LMAS, in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The success of the first attempt insertion was higher for the LMAS.

  4. Using periodic modulation to control coexisting attractors induced by delayed feedback

    Martinez-Zerega, B.E.; Pisarchik, A.N.; Tsimring, L.S.

    2003-01-01

    A delay in feedback can stabilize simultaneously several unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic attractor. We show that by modulating the feedback variable it is possible to lock one of these states and eliminate other coexisting periodic attractors. The method is demonstrated with both a logistic map and a CO 2 laser model

  5. Studies for the requirements of automatic and remotely controlled shutoff valves on hazardous liquids and natural gas pipelines with respect to public and environmental safety

    Oland, C. Barry [XCEL Engineering, Inc. (United States); Rose, Simon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Div.; Grant, Herb L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fabrication, Hoisting and Rigging Div.; Lower, Mark D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fabrication, Hoisting and Rigging Div.; Spann, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Facility Management Div.; Kirkpatrick, John R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Div.; Sulfredge, C. David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Div.

    2012-12-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of block valve closure swiftness in mitigating the consequences of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline releases on public and environmental safety. It also evaluates the technical, operational, and economic feasibility and potential cost benefits of installing automatic shutoff valves (ASVs) and remote control valves (RCVs) in newly constructed and fully replaced transmission lines. Risk analyses of hypothetical pipeline release scenarios are used as the basis for assessing: (1) fire damage to buildings and property in Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, and Class 4 high consequence areas (HCAs) caused by natural gas pipeline releases and subsequent ignition of the released natural gas; (2) fire damage to buildings and property in HCAs designated as high population areas and other populated areas caused by hazardous liquid pipeline releases and subsequent ignition of the released propane; and (3) socioeconomic and environmental damage in HCAs caused by hazardous liquid pipeline releases of crude oil. These risk analyses use engineering principles and fire science practices to characterize thermal radiation effects on buildings and humans and to quantify the total damage cost of socioeconomic and environmental impacts. The risk analysis approach used for natural gas pipelines is consistent with risk assessment standards developed by industry and incorporated into Federal pipeline safety regulations. Feasibility evaluations for the hypothetical pipeline release scenarios considered in this study show that installation of ASVs and RCVs in newly constructed and fully replaced natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines is technically, operationally, and economically feasible with a positive cost benefit. However, these results may not apply to all newly constructed and fully replaced pipelines because site-specific parameters that influence risk analyses and feasibility evaluations often vary significantly from one pipeline segment to

  6. Occupational external irradiation according to the control system data for the period 1984-1988

    Karadzhov, A.; Velikov, V.

    1991-01-01

    The dose load to subjects working with radiation sources in Bulgaria was analysed on the basis of data obtained from the Centralized System for Individual Dosimetric Control. Personnel film- and thermoluminenscent dosimetry had been used for monitoring of about 8000 persons including 66% medical personnel (54% of them practicians, 12% - researchers), 28% industrial personnel, 6% - working in the science/education sphere. The external irradiation is prevailing. The average annual equivalent doses (AAED) by branches were: medicine 0.6 - 0.9 mSv/a, industry 1.3 - 3.1 mSCv/a, science/education 1.0 - 1.2 mSv/a. The most badly loaded contingent (≤ 5 mSv/a) were the gamma-defectoscopists, which represent one third of the group of industrial workers. The irradiation levels in X-ray and radioisotope diagnosis are low. Similar are also the conclusions derived from the comparison of the weighted average annual equivalent doses (WAAED): medicine 0.85 mSv/a; industry 2.3 mSv/a; science/education 1.1 mSv/a. Higher than the average one for respective areas is the irradiation in gamma-defectoscopy, radiotherapy and services for electromedical equipment. The WAAED for the contingent in this study was 1.3 mSv/a, and 95% of AAED received were lower than 5 mSv/a. The low probability of irradiation with doses higher than 50 mSv/a in medicine and industry was established. 2 tabs., 2 figs., 6 refs

  7. Research Instrumentation for Investigating Vibration Delocalization and Control of Nearly Periodic Structures via Piezoelectric Networks

    Wang, Kon-Well

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this DURIP project is to acquire major facilities that are critical in the development of a comprehensive experimental testbed for advancing the technology of low vibration periodic structures (e.g...

  8. Period doubling cascades of prey-predator model with nonlinear harvesting and control of over exploitation through taxation

    Gupta, R. P.; Banerjee, Malay; Chandra, Peeyush

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates a prey predator type model for conservation of ecological resources through taxation with nonlinear harvesting. The model uses the harvesting function as proposed by Agnew (1979) [1] which accounts for the handling time of the catch and also the competition between standard vessels being utilized for harvesting of resources. In this paper we consider a three dimensional dynamic effort prey-predator model with Holling type-II functional response. The conditions for uniform persistence of the model have been derived. The existence and stability of bifurcating periodic solution through Hopf bifurcation have been examined for a particular set of parameter value. Using numerical examples it is shown that the system admits periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. It is observed that the system exhibits periodic doubling route to chaos with respect to tax. Many forms of complexities such as chaotic bands (including periodic windows, period-doubling bifurcations, period-halving bifurcations and attractor crisis) and chaotic attractors have been observed. Sensitivity analysis is carried out and it is observed that the solutions are highly dependent to the initial conditions. Pontryagin's Maximum Principle has been used to obtain optimal tax policy to maximize the monetary social benefit as well as conservation of the ecosystem.

  9. Control of the long period grating spectrum through low frequency flexural acoustic waves

    Oliveira, Roberson A; Possetti, Gustavo R C; Kamikawachi, Ricardo C; Fabris, José L; Muller, Marcia; Pohl, Alexandre A P; Marques, Carlos A F; Nogueira, Rogério N; Neves, Paulo T Jr; Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Bavastri, C

    2011-01-01

    We have shown experimental results of the excitation of long period fiber gratings by means of flexural acoustic waves with a wavelength larger than the grating period, validated by numerical simulations. The effect of the acoustic wave on the grating is modeled with the method of assumed modes, which delivers the strain field inside the grating, then used as the input to the transfer matrix method, needed for calculating the grating spectrum. The experimental and numerical results are found to be in good agreement, even though only the strain-optic effects are taken into account

  10. Global stability, periodic solutions, and optimal control in a nonlinear differential delay model

    Anatoli F. Ivanov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear differential equation with delay serving as a mathematical model of several applied problems is considered. Sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability and for the existence of periodic solutions are given. Two particular applications are treated in detail. The first one is a blood cell production model by Mackey, for which new periodicity criteria are derived. The second application is a modified economic model with delay due to Ramsey. An optimization problem for a maximal consumption is stated and solved for the latter.

  11. Simulation on control of beam halo-chaos by power function in the hackle periodic-focusing channel

    2008-01-01

    The K-V beam through a hackle periodic-focusing magnetic field is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and a power function controller is proposed based on mechanism of halo formation and strategy of controlling halo-chaos. Multiparticle simulation was performed to control the halo by using the power function control method. The results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively. We also find that the radial particle density evolvement is of uniformity at the beam's centre as long as appropriate paramours are chosen.

  12. Determination of critical period for weed control in the second crop ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... maximize crop yield by eliminating weed competition and/ or minimizing ... fertilizer. When corn plants reached 80 cm in height, 170 kg N ha-1 was applied ... describing the effect of increasing duration of weed interference on corn yield ... corresponding value of length of weed-free period (d°C) and b and.

  13. pH control structure design for a periodically operated membrane separation process

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2012-01-01

    A bioreactor integrated with an electrically driven membrane separation process (Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis – REED) is under investigation as potential technology for intensifying lactic acid bioproduction. In this contribution the pH regulation issue in the periodically operated REED module...

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1973

    Sadowski, G.S.

    1976-08-01

    Research progress is described under the following topics: (1) pulse counting and analysis; (2) support for the thermonuclear division ORMAK project; (3) miscellaneous electronics development; (4) detectors of ionizing particles and radiation; (5) radiation monitoring; (6) support for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; (7) automatic control and data acquisition; (8) process instrumentation and control; (9) reactor instrumentation and controls; (10) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (11) maintenance and service; and (12) ecological science studies

  15. 78 FR 64210 - Extension of Review Periods Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and...

    2013-10-28

    ... Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and Microorganisms; Premanufacture... 325 and 324110), e.g., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. The North American Industrial... Agency under section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), received by EPA on or before October 1...

  16. Multi-Period Optimization for Voltage Control System in Transmission Grids

    Qin, Nan; Chen, Si; Liu, Chengxi

    2015-01-01

    Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) systems maintain the voltage in an acceptable range and minimize the power loss of the grid by coordinately regulating the controllable components. Switchable shunts and tap-able transformers are expected to be operated as few times as possible. This paper proposes...

  17. Optimal replacement and inspection periods of safety and control boards in Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    Mok, Jin Il

    1993-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, the safety and control systems are important for operating and maintaining safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Since the start of first commercial operation of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 1, the trips caused by instrument and control systems account for 28% of total trips of NPPs in Korea. Even a single trip of a nuclear power plant causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this work we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the digital control computer's (DCC) and the programmable digital comparator's (PDC) electronic circuit boards of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models which calculate optimal replacement periods for electronic circuit boards of digital control computer (DCC) and for those of the programmable digital comparator (PDC) in Wolsung NPP unit 1. And we analytically obtained the optimal replacement periods of electronic circuit boards by using these models. We compared these periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of DCC and those used in the field shown small difference : the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of PDC are shorter than those used in the field in general. The engineered safeguards of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 contains redundant systems of 2-out-of-3 logic which are not operating under normal conditions but they are called

  18. Control technique of spontaneous combustion in fully mechan ized stope during period of end caving under complex mining influence

    Yuan, Benqing

    2018-01-01

    In view of the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion of coal seam occurring during the period of end caving under complex mining conditions, taking the 1116 (3) stope of Guqiao mine as the object of study, the causes of spontaneous combustion during the period of end caving are analyzed, according to the specific geological conditions of the stope to develop corresponding fire prevention measures, including the reduction of air supply and air leakage in goaf, reduce the amount of coal left, reasonable drainage, nitrogen injection for spontaneous combustion prevention, grouting for spontaneous combustion prevention and permanent closure, fundamentally eliminates the potential for spontaneous combustion during the period of 1116(3) stope end caving. The engineering practice shows that this kind of measure has reference value for the prevention and control of spontaneous combustion during the period of stope end caving.

  19. Myopic control of stochastic inventories with intermittent updates: continuous versus periodic replenishment

    M Shnaiderman

    2012-01-01

    A manufacturer who is responsible for supplying a retailer with a single product is considered. The retailer sells the product in response to stochastic demand and provides the manufacturer with periodic updates about his inventories. Replenishing the retailer's inventory under two myopic base-stock policies is addressed. These policies, referred to as vendor managed inventory, represent a relatively new approach to allocating responsibility in the replenishment process. Specifically, the man...

  20. Control and Health Monitoring of Variable Speed Wind Power Generation Systems; Period of Performance: 10 July 1997 - 10 July 2000

    Song, Y. D.; Bikdash, M.; Schulz, M. J.

    2001-09-01

    This document reports accomplishments on variable speed control, furling analysis, and health monitoring of wind turbines. There are three parts, prepared by Song, Bikdash, and Schulz, respectively. The first part discusses variable-speed control of wind turbines, exploring a memory-based method for wind speed prediction and wind turbine control. The second part addresses the yaw dynamics of wind turbines, including modeling, analysis, and control. The third part of the report discusses new analytical techniques that were developed and tested to detect initial damage to prevent failures of wind turbine rotor blades.

  1. Enhancing the Frequency Adaptability of Periodic Current Controllers for Grid-Connected Power Converters

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    It is mandatory for grid-connected power converters to synchronize the feed-in currents with the grid. Moreover, the power converters should produce feed-in currents with low total harmonic distortions according to the demands, by employing advanced current controllers, e.g., Proportional Resonant...... deviations. Experiments on a single-phase grid-connected inverter system are presented, which have verified the proposals and also the effectiveness of the frequency adaptive current controllers....... (PR) and Repetitive Controllers (RC). The synchronization is actually to detect the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. As a consequence, harmonics and deviations...

  2. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  3. Activity and selectivity control through periodic composition forcing over Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Silveston, P L; Hudgins, R R; Adesina, A A; Ross, G S; Feimer, J L

    1986-01-01

    Data collected under steady-state and periodic composition forcing of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over three commonly used catalysts demonstrate that both activity and selectivity can be changed by the latter operating mode. Synthesis of hydrocarbons up to C/sub 7/are favored at the expense of the higher carbon numbers for the Co catalyst, while for the Ru catalyst, only the C/sub 3/ and lower species are favored. Only methane production is stimulated with the Fe catalyst. Fe and Ru catalysts shift production from alkenes to alkanes. Transient data is interpreted in the paper.

  4. On controllability of an integrated bioreactor and periodically operated membrane separation process

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    the influence of membrane fouling. Previously, the REED and fermentation processes have been modeled and investigated separately (Prado- Rubio et al., 2011a; Boonmee, 2003). Additionally, a simple quasi-sequential strategy for integrated process design and control structure development has been proposed (Prado...... to understand the controlled operation of the integrated process, it is convenient to use a model based approach supported by experimental evidence. Recently, an integrated bioreactor and electrically driven membrane separation process (Reverse Electro- Enhanced Dialysis - REED) has been proposed as a method...... at a certain lactate concentration level. Hence, productivity can be enhanced by the in situ lactate removal from the cultivation broth during pH controlled fermentation. This can be done by means of ion exchange membranes and electrical potential gradients. The novelty of the integrated process lies...

  5. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the

  6. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report for the period July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1990

    Klobe, L.E.

    1990-12-01

    The format of this Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report is a major departure from previous reports. This report has been published in two volumes instead of one, and the description of individual activities have been shortened considerably to make it easier document to scan and to read. Volume 1 of this report presents brief descriptions of a few highly significant programmatic and technological efforts representative of Instrumentation and Controls Division activities over the past two years. This volume contains information concerning the publications, presentations, and other professional activities and achievements of I ampersand C Division staff members

  7. Control Beliefs and Cognition Over a 10-year Period: Findings from the ACTIVE Trial

    Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L.; Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.; Rebok, George W.

    2017-01-01

    We examined two facets of control beliefs and cognition over ten-years within the ACTIVE cognitive training program. Intellectual Self-efficacy decreased (β = −0.32 units/year; SE = 0.03) and Concern about Intellectual Aging increased (β = 0.26 units/year; SE = 0.02) over time, with older age being the only predictor of increases in Concern about Intellectual Aging. Although baseline cognitive performance was related to control beliefs over time, the reverse was not supported. Findings were n...

  8. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report for the period July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1990

    Klobe, L.E. (ed.)

    1990-12-01

    The format of this Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report is a major departure from previous reports. This report has been published in two volumes instead of one, and the description of individual activities have been shortened considerably to make it easier document to scan and to read. Volume 1 of this report presents brief descriptions of a few highly significant programmatic and technological efforts representative of Instrumentation and Controls Division activities over the past two years. This volume contains information concerning the publications, presentations, and other professional activities and achievements of I C Division staff members.

  9. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control; Etude et realisation d'un ensemble de calcul puissance periode pour le controle d'un reacteur nucleaire

    Martin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-10-01

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author) [French] L'appareil etudie est un ensemble de calcul digital permettant d'elaborer et d'afficher numeriquement la periode et la puissance, d'un reacteur nucleaire lors de son fonctionnement depuis le demarrage jusqu'a la puissance nominale. Il traite en temps reel, de facon continue, les impulsions en provenance d'une chambre de fission. Grace a l'utilisation systematique d'une technique de calcul, la determination d'un logarithme a base 2 par approximation lineaire, un nombre reduit d'elements est utilise. La precision obtenue sur la periode est de l'ordre de 14 pour cent, le temps de reponse de l'ordre de la valeur de la periode calculee. Un ordre de grandeur de la puissance (30 pour cent) est donne a chaque cycle de calcul ainsi que des seuils de puissance necessaires au controle. (auteur)

  10. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  11. Development of a vehicle load control strategy for Malawi for the period 2016 to 2020

    Roux, MP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategy and development of a five-year implementation plan for significantly improving the Directorate’s current capacity to effectively manage and enforce axle load control. Specific objectives were to: a) Assist the DRTSS to undertake an extensive...

  12. A comparison between model and rule based control of a periodic activated sludge process

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Thornberg, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two strategies for control of nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge plant are compared. One is based on simple model predictions determining the cycle length at the beginning of each cycle. The other is based on simple rules relating present ammonia and nitrate concentrations. Both ...

  13. Speed Synchronization Control of Integrated Motor–Transmission Powertrain over CAN through Active Period-Scheduling Approach

    Wanke Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the speed synchronization control of integrated motor–transmission (IMT powertrain systems in pure electric vehicles (EVs over a controller area network (CAN subject to both network-induced delays and network congestion. A CAN has advantages over point-to-point communication; however, it imposes network-induced delays and network congestion into the control system, which can deteriorate the shifting quality and make system integration difficult. This paper presents a co-design scheme combining active period scheduling and discrete-time slip mode control (SMC to deal with both network-induced delays and network congestion of the CAN, which improves the speed synchronization control for high shifting quality and prevents network congestion for the system’s integration. The results of simulations and hardware-in-loop experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, which can ensure satisfactory speed synchronization performance while significantly reducing the network’s utilization.

  14. [Tuberculosis control in the Central Health Region of Catalonia during the period 1986-2000].

    Miret Cuadras, P; Pina Gutiérrez, J M; López Sanmartín, J L; Sala Farré, M R

    2003-10-01

    To assess tuberculosis control in the Central Health Region, Catalonia, Spain, from the implementation of the area's Tuberculosis Control Program in 1986 until the year 2000. To study the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis and the outcome of the following control measures in sputum smear-positive patients: final outcome of treatment and monitoring, and the percentage of patients for whom a contact investigation (CI) was carried out. Tuberculosis control is considered effective if the sum of noncompliant patients, plus the cases in which treatment failed, plus the patients transferred out remains below 10% of the cohort of patients studied, and if a CI has been conducted in at least 80% of this cohort. The number of cases reported was 6326, of which 7% were retreatments. A total of 5865 new cases was detected. Of these, 5652 (96%) were patients born in Spain. The number of cases reported annually peaked in 1990 (474) and then declined continuously until 2000, when it was 54% lower (220). Foreign-born patients numbered 213 (4%), and 95% of them came from countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. In the cohort of patients studied between 1997 and 2000, the sum of noncompliant patients, plus cases in which treatment failed, plus the patients transferred out came to 11%. Since 1994, a CI has been carried out for over 80% of patients, and this figure reached 92% in 2000. We consider that a substantial degree of tuberculosis control has been achieved given the decline in tuberculosis morbidity among people born in Spain, the fact that the percentage of noncompliant patients, treatment failures and transfers was only slightly over 10%, and that a CI has been conducted for over 80% of patients since 1994 (92% in 2000).

  15. Control beliefs and cognition over a 10-year period: Findings from the ACTIVE trial.

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Gross, Alden L; Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L; Rebok, George W

    2017-02-01

    We examined two facets of control beliefs and cognition over 10 years within the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study. Intellectual Self-Efficacy decreased (β = -0.32 units/year; SE = 0.03) and Concern About Intellectual Aging increased (β = 0.26 units/year; SE = 0.02) over time, with older age being the only predictor of increases in Concern About Intellectual Aging. Although baseline cognitive performance was related to control beliefs over time, the reverse was not supported. Findings were not altered by participation in the ACTIVE training programs, suggesting the need for including intervention components that lead to long-term maintenance or improvements in such beliefs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Stabilization of prescribed values and periodic orbits with regular and pulse target oriented control

    Braverman, E.; Chan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a method of chaos control for one-dimensional maps, where the intervention is proportional to the difference between a fixed value and a current state, we demonstrate that stabilization is possible in one of the two following cases: (1) for small values, the map is increasing and the slope of the line connecting the points on the line with the origin is decreasing; (2) the chaotic map is locally Lipschitz. Moreover, in the latter case we prove that any point of the map can be stabilized. In addition, we study pulse stabilization when the intervention occurs each m-th step and illustrate that stabilization is possible for the first type of maps. In the context of population dynamics, we notice that control with a positive target, even if stabilization is not achieved, leads to persistent solutions and prevents extinction in models which experience the Allee effect

  17. Stabilizing periodic orbits of chaotic systems using fuzzy control of Poincare map

    Bonakdar, Mohammad; Samadi, Mostafa; Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy control algorithm is used to stabilize the fixed points of a chaotic system. No knowledge of the dynamic equations of the system is needed in this approach and the whole system is considered as a black box. Two main approaches have been investigated: fuzzy clustering and table look up methods. As illustrative examples these methods have been applied to Bonhoeffer van der Pol oscillator and the Henon chaotic system and the convergence toward fixed points is observed

  18. LQ Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Periodic Review Perishable Inventories with Transportation Losses

    Leśniewski, Piotr; Bartoszewicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    In this work we apply the control-theoretic approach to design a new replenishment strategy for inventory systems with perishable stock. Such systems are supposed to effectively satisfy an unknown and permanently time-varying consumers’ demand. The main obstacle of achieving this goal is the need of obtaining supplies from a distant source. During the supply process goods are inevitably lost due to various causes. Furthermore, those goods which successfully arrive at the distribution center s...

  19. Stabilizing periodic orbits of chaotic systems using fuzzy control of Poincare map

    Bonakdar, Mohammad; Samadi, Mostafa [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 1458889694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 1458889694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 1458889694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    In this paper a fuzzy control algorithm is used to stabilize the fixed points of a chaotic system. No knowledge of the dynamic equations of the system is needed in this approach and the whole system is considered as a black box. Two main approaches have been investigated: fuzzy clustering and table look up methods. As illustrative examples these methods have been applied to Bonhoeffer van der Pol oscillator and the Henon chaotic system and the convergence toward fixed points is observed.

  20. LQ Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Periodic Review Perishable Inventories with Transportation Losses

    Piotr Leśniewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we apply the control-theoretic approach to design a new replenishment strategy for inventory systems with perishable stock. Such systems are supposed to effectively satisfy an unknown and permanently time-varying consumers’ demand. The main obstacle of achieving this goal is the need of obtaining supplies from a distant source. During the supply process goods are inevitably lost due to various causes. Furthermore, those goods which successfully arrive at the distribution center still deteriorate while stored in its warehouse. We explicitly take into account both of these factors in designing our control strategy. We propose a sliding mode strategy and choose its parameters to minimize a quadratic quality criterion. This approach allows us to ameliorate the bullwhip effect (the amplification of the demand variations when going up in the supply chain. The control strategy proposed in this work ensures bounded orders, guarantees full consumers’ demand satisfaction, and eliminates the risk of exceeding the warehouse capacity. These properties are stated in three theorems and proved in the paper.

  1. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. Specifications and test methods of direct current period meters

    Roquefort, Henri; Chapelot; Ramard; Tardif; Tournier; Vaux

    1973-11-01

    After a few words of introduction, mention of the main notations used and the definition of certain terms, the field of application of the document is outlined and a list of references given. The main specifications of electronic 'direct current period meter' subassemblies for the monitoring, control and safety of nuclear reactors are then defined and the corresponding test methods described. The apparatus measures on a logarithmic scale the neutron fluence rate of a reactor by means of an ionisation chamber and supplies 'period' data relative to the fluence rate variation in time. The specifications and test methods are given for the different components: logarithmic amplifier, time derivative unit, threshold releases, high tension supply for ionisation chamber, auxiliary circuits and finally the complete period meter. (author) [fr

  2. Analysis of reactor power behaviour using estimation of period for the gain adaptation in a state feedback controller

    Benitez R, J.S.; Perez C, J.H.; Rivero G, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel procedure for power regulation in a TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor is presented. The control scheme combines state variable feedback with a first order predictor, which is incorporated to speed up the power response of the reactor without exceeding the safety requirement imposed by the reactor period. The simulation results using the proposed control strategy attains different values of steady-state power from different values of initial power in short time, complying at all times with the safety restriction imposed on the reactor period. The predictor, derived from the theory of first order numerical integration, produces very good results during the ascent of power. These results include a fast response and independence of the wide variety of potential operating conditions something not easy and even impossible to obtain with other procedures. By using this control scheme, the reactor period is maintained within safety limits during the start up of the reactor, which is normally the operating condition where an occurrence of a period scram is common. However, the predictor can not be used when the power is reaching the desired power level because the instantaneous power increases far above the desired level. Thus, when the power increases above certain power level, the state feedback gain is set constant to a predefined value. This causes some oscillations that decrease in a few seconds. Afterwards, the power response smoothly approaches, with a small overshoot, the desired power. This constraint on the use of the predictor prevents the unbounded increase of the neutron power. The control law proposed requires all the system's state variables. Since only the neutron power is available, it is necessary the estimation of the non measurable states. The key issue of the existence of a solution to this problem has been previously considered. One of the conclusions is that the point kinetic equations are observable under certain restrictions on

  3. Memorandum of understanding between the Federal Minister for the Environment, nature conservation and nuclear safety of the Federal Republic of Germany and the atomic energy control board of Canada on cooperation and exchange of information respecting nuclear safety and radiation

    1991-01-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation and exchange of information respecting nuclear safety and radiation protection covers the period 23 May 1991 to 1 June 1996. The Parties may exchange information on any matter concerning the civil uses of nuclear energy within the other Party's jurisdiction and, in particular information on: nuclear installations, their siting, construction, operation and decommissioning; uranium mining and milling; nuclear fuel production; radioactive waste treatment, storage and disposal; transport of nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; radiation protection; legislation, regulations, standards. All information received and the results of activities carried out under this Memorandum of Understanding will be used exclusively for peaceful purposes [fr

  4. Pricing and Inventory Control Strategy for a Periodic-Review Energy Buy-Back System

    ZHANG Jihong; CHEN Hongqiao; DING Xiaosong; LI Xian

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of economics and enhancement of industrialization,the power demand keeps rising and frequently creates mismatch between demand and supply in electricity.This provides miscellaneous energy buy-back programs with great opportunities.Such programs,when activated,offer certain amount of financial compensations to participants for reducing their energy consumption during peak time.They aim at encouraging participants to shift their electricity usage from peak to non-peak time,and thereby release the demand pressure during peak time.This paper considers a periodic-review joint pricing and inventory decision model under an energy buy-back program over finite planning horizons,in which the compensation levels,setup cost and additive random demand function are incorporated.The objective is to maximize a manufacturer's expected total profit.By using Veinott's conditions,it is shown that the manufacturer's optimal decision is a state dependent (s,S,P) policy under a peak market condition,or partly an (s,S,A,P) policy under the normal market condition.

  5. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report for the period July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1988

    Klobe, L.E. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Instrumentation and Controls (IandC) Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performs basic and applied instrumentation and controls research, development and design engineering, specialized instrument design and fabrication, and maintenance services for instruments, electronics, and computers. The IandC Division is one of the largest RandD organizations of its type among government laboratories, and it exists as the result of an organizational strategy to integrate ORNL's instrumentation and controls-related disciplines into one dedicated functional organization to increase the Laboratory's expertise and capabilities in these rapidly expanding, innovative areas of technology. The Division participates in the programs and projects of ORNL by applying its expertise and capabilities in concert with other divisions to perform basic research and mission-oriented technology development. Many of the Division's RandD tasks that are a part of a larger ORNL program are of sufficient scope that the IandC effort constitutes a separate program element with direct funding and management responsibility within the Division. The activities of IandC include performance of an RandD task in IandC facilities, the participation of from one of many IandC engineers and scientists in a multidisciplinary team working in a specific research area or development project, design and fabrication of a special instrument or instrumentation system, or a few hours of maintenance service. In its support and maintenance work, the role of the IandC Division is to provide a level of expertise appropriate to complete a job successfully at minimum overall cost and time schedule---a role which involves IandC in almost all ORNL activities.

  6. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report for the period July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1988

    Klobe, L.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Instrumentation and Controls (IandC) Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performs basic and applied instrumentation and controls research, development and design engineering, specialized instrument design and fabrication, and maintenance services for instruments, electronics, and computers. The IandC Division is one of the largest RandD organizations of its type among government laboratories, and it exists as the result of an organizational strategy to integrate ORNL's instrumentation and controls-related disciplines into one dedicated functional organization to increase the Laboratory's expertise and capabilities in these rapidly expanding, innovative areas of technology. The Division participates in the programs and projects of ORNL by applying its expertise and capabilities in concert with other divisions to perform basic research and mission-oriented technology development. Many of the Division's RandD tasks that are a part of a larger ORNL program are of sufficient scope that the IandC effort constitutes a separate program element with direct funding and management responsibility within the Division. The activities of IandC include performance of an RandD task in IandC facilities, the participation of from one of many IandC engineers and scientists in a multidisciplinary team working in a specific research area or development project, design and fabrication of a special instrument or instrumentation system, or a few hours of maintenance service. In its support and maintenance work, the role of the IandC Division is to provide a level of expertise appropriate to complete a job successfully at minimum overall cost and time schedule---a role which involves IandC in almost all ORNL activities

  7. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  8. Second-order Optimality Conditions for Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Periodic Inputs

    Tachim Medjo, T.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for control problem associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with periodic inputs. We also derive a second-order sufficient condition for optimality. This work is closely related to Wang (SIAM J. Control Optim. 41(2):583-606, 2002) and He (Acta Math. Sci. Ser. B Engl. Ed. 26(4):729-734, 2006), in which the authors proved similar results for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) systems.

  9. Parameter Estimation, Sensitivity Analysis and Optimal Control of a Periodic Epidemic Model with Application to HRSV in Florida

    Silvério Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A state wide Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV surveillance system was implemented in Florida in 1999 to support clinical decision-making for prophylaxis of premature infants. The research presented in this paper addresses the problem of fitting real data collected by the Florida HRSV surveillance system by using a periodic SEIRS mathematical model. A sensitivity and cost-effectiveness analysis of the model is done and an optimal control problem is formulated and solved with treatment as the control variable.

  10. Periodic quality control of a linear accelerator using electronic portal imaging; Controles de calidad periodicos de un acelerador lineal utilizando el sistema electronico de imagenes portales

    Planes Meseguer, D.; Dorado Rodriguez, M. P.; Esposito, R. D.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present our solution for the realization of the monthly periodic quality control (CP) geometry - mechanical and multi leaf collimator (MLC), using the electronic system for portal imaging (EPI). We have developed specific programs created with free software. The monitoring results are automatically stored on our web server, along with other information generated in our service.

  11. Photoperiodic control of soybean 14C-assimilate partitioning during the seed filling period

    Morandi, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Photoperiod not only controls the timing of flowering, but also affects later stages of seed development. To study its effect on assimilate partitioning, soybean plants were kept in short days (SD) or night interrupted (NI) during seed filling. The source-sink ratio was fixed to one leaflet-one pod per node. The node was girdle-isolated and its leaflet was pulse labelled with 14 CO 2 . SD plants partitioned more 14 C into seeds, while NI plants showed higher proportions in the petiole, stem and carpel. Seed growth rate and final seed dry weight were increased by 40% in SD. The sugar/starch ratio was increased in cotyledons and decreased in leaves of SD plants. In contrast, NI plants showed more 14 C incorporation into proteins. No changes were detected in carbon exchange ratio, dark respiration and total node dry weight. Thus, photoperiodic induced changes in carbohydrate and protein partitioning occurred without changes in the overall assimilatory process

  12. Control of the heart rate of rat embryos during the organogenic period

    Ritchie HE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Helen E Ritchie,1 Carolina Ragnerstam,2 Elin Gustafsson,2 Johanna M Jonsson,2 William S Webster2 1Discipline of Biomedical Science, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, 2Department of Anatomy and Histology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of this study was to gain insight into whether the first trimester embryo could control its own heart rate (HR in response to hypoxia. The gestational day 13 rat embryo is a good model for the human embryo at 5–6 weeks gestation, as the heart is comparable in development and, like the human embryo, has no functional autonomic nerve supply at this stage. Utilizing a whole-embryo culture technique, we examined the effects of different pharmacological agents on HR under normoxic (95% oxygen and hypoxic (20% oxygen conditions. Oxygen concentrations ≤60% caused a concentration-dependent decrease in HR from normal levels of ~210 bpm. An adenosine agonist, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator and KATP channel opener all caused bradycardia in normoxic conditions; however, putative antagonists for these systems failed to prevent or ameliorate hypoxia-induced bradycardia. This suggests that the activation of one or more of these systems is not the primary cause of the observed hypoxia-induced bradycardia. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation also decreased HR in normoxic conditions, highlighting the importance of ATP levels. The β-blocker metoprolol caused a concentration-dependent reduction in HR supporting reports that β1-adrenergic receptors are present in the early rat embryonic heart. The cAMP inducer colforsin induced a positive chronotropic effect in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Overall, the embryonic HR at this stage of development is responsive to the level of oxygenation, probably as a consequence of its influence on ATP production. Keywords: embryonic heart rate, embryo, bradycardia, in vitro, ATP, hypoxia

  13. Self-Administered Computer Therapy for Apraxia of Speech: Two-Period Randomized Control Trial With Crossover.

    Varley, Rosemary; Cowell, Patricia E; Dyson, Lucy; Inglis, Lesley; Roper, Abigail; Whiteside, Sandra P

    2016-03-01

    There is currently little evidence on effective interventions for poststroke apraxia of speech. We report outcomes of a trial of self-administered computer therapy for apraxia of speech. Effects of speech intervention on naming and repetition of treated and untreated words were compared with those of a visuospatial sham program. The study used a parallel-group, 2-period, crossover design, with participants receiving 2 interventions. Fifty participants with chronic and stable apraxia of speech were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 order conditions: speech-first condition versus sham-first condition. Period 1 design was equivalent to a randomized controlled trial. We report results for this period and profile the effect of the period 2 crossover. Period 1 results revealed significant improvement in naming and repetition only in the speech-first group. The sham-first group displayed improvement in speech production after speech intervention in period 2. Significant improvement of treated words was found in both naming and repetition, with little generalization to structurally similar and dissimilar untreated words. Speech gains were largely maintained after withdrawal of intervention. There was a significant relationship between treatment dose and response. However, average self-administered dose was modest for both groups. Future software design would benefit from incorporation of social and gaming components to boost motivation. Single-word production can be improved in chronic apraxia of speech with behavioral intervention. Self-administered computerized therapy is a promising method for delivering high-intensity speech/language rehabilitation. URL: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1278-0601. Unique identifier: ISRCTN88245643. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cardiorespiratory control and cytokine profile in response to heat stress, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during early neonatal period.

    McDonald, Fiona B; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Wilson, Richard J A; Hasan, Shabih U

    2016-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the most common causes of postneonatal infant mortality in the developed world. An insufficient cardiorespiratory response to multiple environmental stressors (such as prone sleeping positioning, overwrapping, and infection), during a critical period of development in a vulnerable infant, may result in SIDS. However, the effect of multiple risk factors on cardiorespiratory responses has rarely been tested experimentally. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the independent and possible interactive effects of infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia on cardiorespiratory control in rats during the neonatal period. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration will negatively impact cardiorespiratory responses to increased ambient temperature and hypoxia in neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat pups were studied at postnatal day 6-8. Rats were examined at an ambient temperature of 33°C or 38°C. Within each group, rats were allocated to control, saline, or LPS (200 μg/kg) treatments. Cardiorespiratory and thermal responses were recorded and analyzed before, during, and after a hypoxic exposure (10% O2). Serum samples were taken at the end of each experiment to measure cytokine concentrations. LPS significantly increased cytokine concentrations (such as TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, and IL-10) compared to control. Our results do not support a three-way interaction between experimental factors on cardiorespiratory control. However, independently, heat stress decreased minute ventilation during normoxia and increased the hypoxic ventilatory response. Furthermore, LPS decreased hypoxia-induced tachycardia. Herein, we provide an extensive serum cytokine profile under various experimental conditions and new evidence that neonatal cardiorespiratory responses are adversely affected by dual interactions of environmental stress factors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  15. Efeito de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura da cebola Effect of different weed control periods on onion crop yield

    D.J. Soares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em Monte Alto-SP, visando estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre a produção de bulbos da cultura da cebola (Allium cepa, cultivar 'Mercedes', no sistema de transplantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Parte dos tratamentos experimentais foi disposta num esquema fatorial 4 x 6, em que constituíram variáveis quatro períodos em que se fez o controle (0-0, 0-7, 0-14 e 0-21 DAT e seis períodos em que se reiniciou o controle das plantas daninhas prolongando até a colheita: 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 DAT. Duas testemunhas foram adotadas: uma com controle e outra sem controle das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa e Galinsoga parviflora foram as plantas daninhas mais importantes na área. Não houve interação entre os diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas. O controle inicial destas plantas deve se prolongar até 14 DAT e ser reiniciado aos 28 DAT, a fim de prevenir reduções significativas na produtividade em relação à testemunha no limpo A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cebola reduziu a produtividade em 94,5%.An experiment was carried out in Monte Alto, SP to study the effects of different of weed control periods on the yield of onion (Allium cepa bulb, 'Mercedes' cultivar, under the transplanting system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with four initial weed removal periods (after transplanting until 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and six final weed removal periods (from 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 or 98 days after transplanting until harvest. Two controls were adapted with and without weed control throughout the onion cycle. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa and

  16. A multi-layer bioinspired design with evolution of shish-kebab structures induced by controlled periodical shear field

    J. Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of polymers, caused by flow fields in the melt, has been the subject of extensive studies for many years. In this study, we use periodical shear to induce polypropylene to form multi-layer structure, which is usually observed in plants. Two interesting points were found: firstly, the quest of mimicking natural structures was achieved by controlled periodical shear field; secondly, the evolution from nano to shish-kebab-like cylindrite structure was obtained in the multi-layer structure, which can be clarified by nuclei competition model. This study can be used to better understand the shear-induced crystallization of polymer. Here our intention is to place this new observation on the map, leaving a fuller presentation and discussion of the work to a future publication.

  17. The Rice Enhancer of Zeste [E(z] Genes SDG711 and SDG718 are respectively involved in Long Day and Short Day Signaling to Mediate the Accurate Photoperiod Control of Flowering time

    Xiaoyun eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in rice flowering studies have shown that the accurate control of flowering by photoperiod is regulated by key mechanisms that involve the regulation of flowering genes including Hd1, Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1. The chromatin mechanism involved in the regulation of rice flowering genes is presently not well known. Here we show that the rice E(z genes SDG711 and SDG718, which encode the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2 key subunit that is required for trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3, are respectively involved in long day (LD and short day (SD regulation of key flowering genes. The expression of SDG711 and SDG718 is induced by LD and SD, respectively. Over-expression and down-regulation of SDG711 respectively repressed and promoted flowering in LD, but had no effect in SD. By contrast, down-regulation of SDG718 had no effect in LD but delayed flowering in SD. SDG711 and SDG718 repressed OsLF (a repressor of Hd1 respectively in LD and SD, leading to a higher expression of Hd1 thus late flowering in LD and early flowering in SD. SDG711 was also found to be involved in the repression of Ehd1 in LD. SDG711 was shown to directly target to OsLF and Ehd1 loci to mediate H3K27me3 and gene repression. The function of the rice E(z genes in LD repression and SD promotion of flowering suggests that PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of gene expression is involved in the accurate photoperiod control of rice flowering.

  18. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

    L. van Rooyen

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life style evolve through a process of learning and interaction with others. It is a timeconsuming and costly process which starts at infancy and continues throughout someone's life. Instruction concerning interpersonal relations and the teaching of respect cannot be confined to individual lessons or working sessions at home or in school. Discussions and conversations concerning interpersonal relations need to form an integral and natural part of a child’s life within the home environment and throughout the pupil's school career. It is senseless if educators talk about the importance of teaching respect only to reveal disrespectful behaviour themselves, or to talk about the importance of self-esteem in the paying of respect whilst causing children to feel negative about themselves. To be able to express respect to other human beings, one needs to be respected. A child needs to experience how it feels when homage is paid. The following rule of life applies in this regard: one can never give if one has never received respect.

  19. Report on environmental control at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, Vinca, Period 01.01. - 31.12.1979. Annex 3

    1980-01-01

    This report includes description of the regular tasks performed on the territory of the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, namely, radioactivity control of water, precipitation, soil, plants, radioactivity control of aerosols and meteorology measurements. During 1979, total beta activity of aerosols in the air were measured at three measuring stations, two located in the Institute and one about three kilometers far from the Institute in the direction of the predominant wind towards Belgrade. Total of 761 samples were measured. From the obtained results it can be concluded that during the reporting period there was no environmental contamination caused by RA reactor operation. During 1979 the radioactivity of air was significantly lower compared to previous years [sr

  20. Aflatoxin biosynthesis control produced by Aspergillus flavus in layer hens feed during storage period of six months.

    Hassan, S M; Sultana, B; Iqbal, M

    2017-06-01

    Aflatoxins (AFTs) are a group of closely related toxins that are produced by different fungus species. Food and feed contamination with AFT is a worldwide health-related problem. As a result of fungal attack, the food and feed resulted in a principal socioeconomic loss and toxins produced in feed and food items harm the humans and animals in different ways. The anti-aflatoxigenic effect Psidium guajava, Ficus benghalensis, Gardenia radicans, Punica granatum and Ziziphus jujuba leaves were evaluated against aflatoxins (AFTs), produced by Aspergillus flavus in layer feed during storage. Among the investigated medicinal plant leaves, P. granatum showed highly promising anti-aflatoxigenic activity and completely inhibited the AFTs (B1 and B2) production over storage period without compromising the nutritive quality of feed (ash, protein, fat, fiber, Fe, Ca, P and K contents). Leaves of F. benghalensis and Z. jujuba were also effective however, higher concentration (15%) inhibited the AFTs production up to 99% and also maintained nutritive quality of feed. G. radicans was found least effective in controlling the AFTs production. Results revealed that all plant leaves were effective in controlling AFTs production in layer feed over the storage period of six months and these plants are potential candidate to replace the fungicides used to protect feed and other agricultural commodities from AFTs production during storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles with Controlled Morphologies and High Drug/Dye Loadings for Multicargo Delivery in Cancer Cells

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the worldwide interest generated by periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) bulk materials, the design of PMO nanomaterials with controlled morphology remains largely unexplored and their properties unknown. In this work, we describe the first study of PMO nanoparticles (NPs) based on meta-phenylene bridges, and we conducted a comparative structure–property relationship investigation with para-phenylene-bridged PMO NPs. Our findings indicate that the change of the isomer drastically affects the structure, morphology, size, porosity and thermal stability of PMO materials. We observed a much higher porosity and thermal stability of the para-based PMO which was likely due to a higher molecular periodicity. Additionally, the para isomer could generate multipodal NPs at very low stirring speed and upon this discovery we designed a phenylene–ethylene bridged PMO with a controlled Janus morphology. Unprecedentedly high payloads could be obtained from 40 to 110 wt % regardless of the organic bridge of PMOs. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time the co-delivery of two cargos by PMO NPs. Importantly, the cargo stability in PMOs did not require the capping of the pores, unlike pure silica, and the delivery could be autonomously triggered in cancer cells by acidic pH with nearly 70 % cell killing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  2. Application of Karasek's demand/control model a Canadian occupational setting including shift workers during a period of reorganization and downsizing.

    Schechter, J; Green, L W; Olsen, L; Kruse, K; Cargo, M

    1997-01-01

    To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing. Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey. A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company. Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%. Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work. Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p Karasek and Theorell was validated in this setting with respect to stress and some stress-associated attitudes and behaviors.

  3. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  4. Efficacy of enhanced HIV counseling for risk reduction during pregnancy and in the postpartum period: a randomized controlled trial.

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants.Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n=733 and control arms (n=747. Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum.There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.44 or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.23. The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59-0.88, but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67-1.75.An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461.

  5. [Transcultural prevention of alcohol-related disorders : effects of a culture- and migration-sensitive approach in elderly migrants with respect to attitudes and behavior: a cluster randomized controlled trial].

    Bermejo, Isaac; Frank, F; Komarahadi, F; Albicker, J; Ries, Z; Kriston, L; Härter, M

    2015-07-01

    For migrants who are older than 50, alcohol frequently becomes a problem. Simultaneously alcohol-related prevention measures only reach this group insufficiently. Therefore, a transcultural concept for preventing alcohol-related disorders in elderly (≥ 45 years) migrants has been developed. The transcultural concept, which consisted of a prevention event as well as a cultural and language-sensitive information booklet, was evaluated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial (n = 310 immigrants). As a control condition there was a prevention event with materials from Deutsche Hauptstelle für Suchtfragen (German Centre for Addiction Issues). Data were obtained before and after the event, as well as after 6 months. All materials were available both in German and in Russian, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. Directly after the event, as well as 6 months thereafter, the transcultural approach was rated significantly better than the general prevention event. 73.4 % of the participants read the cultural and migration-sensitive booklet, whereas only 21.2 % in the control condition (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, significantly more participants of the transcultural approach reported a reduced alcohol consumption (49.4 vs. 16.7 %; p = 0.004) after 6 months. The consideration of diversity with respect to cultural, migration-related, socio demographic und linguistic aspects improves the effectiveness of prevention measures.

  6. Control of periodic surface structures on silicon by combined temporal and polarization shaping of femtosecond laser pulses

    Fraggelakis, F.; Stratakis, E.; Loukakos, P. A.

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate the capability to exercise advanced control on the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on silicon by combining the effect of temporal shaping, via tuning the interpulse temporal delay between double femtosecond laser pulses, along with the independent manipulation of the polarization state of each of the individual pulses. For this, cross-polarized (CP) as well as counter-rotating (CR) double circularly polarized pulses have been utilized. The pulse duration was 40 fs and the central wavelength of 790 nm. The linearly polarized double pulses are generated by a modified Michelson interferometer allowing the temporal delay between the pulses to vary from Δτ = -80 ps to Δτ = +80 ps with an accuracy of 0.2 fs. We show the significance of fluence balance between the two pulse components and its interplay with the interpulse delay and with the order of arrival of the individually polarized pulse components of the double pulse sequence on the final surface morphology. For the case of CR pulses we found that when the pulses are temporally well separated the surface morphology attains no axial symmetry. But strikingly, when the two CP pulses temporally overlap, we demonstrate, for the first time in our knowledge, the detrimental effect that the phase delay has on the ripple orientation. Our results provide new insight showing that temporal pulse shaping in combination with polarization control gives a powerful tool for drastically controlling the surface nanostructure morphology.

  7. International science conference RESpect report

    Radim Rybár

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Report is dedicated to aspects of conceiving the number of scientific magazine Acta Montanistica Slovaca, which purpose wasto publish specific key reports from the sixth year of international science conference RESpect 2011. The main aspect in the decisionprocess was to cover the conference agenda, complexity of the global problematic understanding, the subject of examination actualityand the results achievement level. The choice at the same time points on the technological, evaluative, environmental, economicaland application aspects of the RES usage, with accent on the Middle Europe region conditions.

  8. Contributions to a methodology for periodical verification of the parameters of the control systems at Cernavoda Nuclear plant Unit 1

    Tapu, Cornel; Anescu, George

    1998-01-01

    A model identification methodology for periodical verification of the regulating system parameters at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 was developed. As support to this methodology, the computer program MODELIDENT was implemented in the Java programming language. This program is used for off-line evaluation of the real regulating systems characteristic parameters using an identification algorithm which takes as input data the system response collected for different input excitation signals, a structurally similar model of the analyzed regulating system, and some starting guess value of the unknown parameters. The real values of the parameters are determined during MODELIDENT program execution by applying an iterative algorithm and afterwards are retained as nominal reference values. The success of the identification algorithm is strongly dependent on how appropriately the structure of model's transfer function is chosen. By repeating periodically the identification method, using newly collected data from the process, the current value of the parameters are determined. Any deviations of the new values relative to the nominal reference values are interpreted as de-calibration of the control equipment and in this case corrective maintenance actions have to be taken. With the implementation of the presented methodology at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 we can make the statement that the preventive maintenance activity is gaining a predictive feature, which can lead to the elimination of major degradation possibilities in the performances of the RS equipment and consequently to increase the NPP availability. On the basis of the experience gained in the practical application of the presented methodology we expect that the identification method will also have beneficial effects in the optimal control of the process systems and also in the activity of Full Scope Simulator software maintenance (the reference values of the identified parameters being used for fine tuning of the simulation models

  9. On quality control procedures for solar radiation and meteorological measures, from subhourly to montly average time periods

    Espinar, B.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Wanderer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological data measured by ground stations are often a key element in the development and validation of methods exploiting satellite images. These data are considered as a reference against which satellite-derived estimates are compared. Long-term radiation and meteorological measurements are available from a large number of measuring stations. However, close examination of the data often reveals a lack of quality, often for extended periods of time. This lack of quality has been the reason, in many cases, of the rejection of large amount of available data. The quality data must be checked before their use in order to guarantee the inputs for the methods used in modelling, monitoring, forecast, etc. To control their quality, data should be submitted to several conditions or tests. After this checking, data that are not flagged by any of the test is released as a plausible data. In this work, it has been performed a bibliographical research of quality control tests for the common meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) and for the usual solar radiometrical variables (horizontal global and diffuse components of the solar radiation and the beam normal component). The different tests have been grouped according to the variable and the average time period (sub-hourly, hourly, daily and monthly averages). The quality test may be classified as follows: • Range checks: test that verify values are within a specific range. There are two types of range checks, those based on extrema and those based on rare observations. • Step check: test aimed at detecting unrealistic jumps or stagnation in the time series. • Consistency checks: test that verify the relationship between two or more time series. The gathered quality tests are applicable for all latitudes as they have not been optimized regionally nor seasonably with the aim of being generic. They have been applied to ground measurements in several geographic locations, what

  10. A periodic review integrated inventory model with controllable safety stock and setup cost under service level constraint and distribution-free demand

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Jamaluddin, A.; Jauhari, W. A.; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we consider a stochastic integrated manufacturer-retailer inventory model with service level constraint. The model analyzed in this article considers the situation in which the vendor and the buyer establish a long-term contract and strategic partnership to jointly determine the best strategy. The lead time and setup cost are assumed can be controlled by an additional crashing cost and an investment, respectively. It is assumed that shortages are allowed and partially backlogged on the buyer’s side, and that the protection interval (i.e., review period plus lead time) demand distribution is unknown but has given finite first and second moments. The objective is to apply the minmax distribution free approach to simultaneously optimize the review period, the lead time, the setup cost, the safety factor, and the number of deliveries in order to minimize the joint total expected annual cost. The service level constraint guarantees that the service level requirement can be satisfied at the worst case. By constructing Lagrange function, the analysis regarding the solution procedure is conducted, and a solution algorithm is then developed. Moreover, a numerical example and sensitivity analysis are given to illustrate the proposed model and to provide some observations and managerial implications.

  11. Periodic driving control of Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling in Bose-Einstein condensates: The heating mechanisms

    Gomez Llorente, J. M.; Plata, J.

    2016-06-01

    We focus on a technique recently implemented for controlling the magnitude of synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in ultracold atoms in the Raman-coupling scenario. This technique uses a periodic modulation of the Raman-coupling amplitude to tune the SOC. Specifically, it has been shown that the effect of a high-frequency sinusoidal modulation of the Raman-laser intensity can be incorporated into the undriven Hamiltonian via effective parameters, whose adiabatic variation can therefore be used to tune the SOC. Here, we characterize the heating mechanisms that can be relevant to this method. We identify the main mechanism responsible for the heating observed in the experiments as basically rooted in driving-induced transfer of population to excited states. Characteristics of that process determined by the harmonic trapping, the decay of the excited states, and the technique used for preparing the system are discussed. Additional heating, rooted in departures from adiabaticity in the variation of the effective parameters, is also described. Our analytical study provides some clues that may be useful in the design of strategies for curbing the effects of heating on the efficiency of the control methods.

  12. Heat stress related dairy cow mortality during heat waves and control periods in rural Southern Ontario from 2010-2012.

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Hand, Karen; Kelton, David F

    2015-11-27

    Heat stress is a physiological response to extreme environmental heat such as heat waves. Heat stress can result in mortality in dairy cows when extreme heat is both rapidly changing and has a long duration. As a result of climate change, heat waves, which are defined as 3 days of temperatures of 32 °C or above, are an increasingly frequent extreme weather phenomenon in Southern Ontario. Heat waves are increasing the risk for on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Heat stress indices (HSIs) are generally based on temperature and humidity and provide a relative measure of discomfort which can be used to predict increased risk of on-farm dairy cow mortality. In what follows, the heat stress distribution was described over space and presented with maps. Similarly, on-farm mortality was described and mapped. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that heat waves and related HSI increases during 2010-2012 were associated with increased on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Mortality records and farm locations for all farms registered in the CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement Program in Southern Ontario were retrieved for 3 heat waves and 6 three-day control periods from 2010 to 2012. A random sample of controls (2:1) was taken from the data set to create a risk-based hybrid design. On-farm heat stress was estimated using data from 37 weather stations and subsequently interpolated across Southern Ontario by geostatistical kriging. A Poisson regression model was applied to assess the on-farm mortality in relation to varying levels of the HSI. For every one unit increase in HSI the on-farm mortality rate across Southern Ontario increases by 1.03 times (CI95% (IRR) = (1.025,1.035); p = ≤ 0.001). With a typical 8.6 unit increase in HSI from a control period to a heat wave, mortality rates are predicted to increase by 1.27 times. Southern Ontario was affected by heat waves, as demonstrated by high levels of heat stress and increased on-farm mortality

  13. The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin

    2016-09-01

    In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

  14. 27 CFR 70.225 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court. 70.225 Section 70.225 Alcohol... (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.225 Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in...

  15. Control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states via periodic dynamical decoupling pulses.

    Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-03-08

    We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).

  16. Impact of periodic health examination on surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in Beijing: a case-control study

    Yang Ling-Ling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past 2 decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of "health examination center (HEC" across China. The effects of their services on public's health have not been systemically investigated. This study aimed to assess the impact of periodic health examination (PHE at HEC on surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in Beijing residents. Methods We identified 224 patients with a primary diagnosis of uterine fibroids who had surgical treatment at four Level-1 general hospitals in Beijing, from June 1, 2009 to October 20, 2009. Controls were women who did not have surgery for uterine fibroids, matched (1:1 ratio for age (within 2 years. A standard questionnaire was used to inquire about whether participants had PHE at HEC during the previous 2 years. Results PHE at HEC within 2 years were associated with surgical treatment for uterine fibroids. Odds ratios was 4.05 (95% CI, 2.61-6.29 P Conclusions Our study showed PHE currently provided at HEC in China were associated with significantly increased use of surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in women. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of PHE on clinical as well as on broad societal outcomes in Chinese in contemporary medical settings.

  17. Periodically-modulated inhibition of living pacemaker neurons--III. The heterogeneity of the postsynaptic spike trains, and how control parameters affect it.

    Segundo, J P; Vibert, J F; Stiber, M

    1998-11-01

    Codings involving spike trains at synapses with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials on pacemakers were examined in crayfish stretch receptor organs by modulating presynaptic instantaneous rates periodically (triangles or sines; frequencies, slopes and depths under, respectively, 5.0 Hz, 40.0/s/s and 25.0/s). Timings were described by interspike and cross-intervals ("phases"); patterns (dispersions, sequences) and forms (timing classes) were identified using pooled graphs (instant along the cycle when a spike occurs vs preceding interval) and return maps (plots of successive intervals). A remarkable heterogeneity of postsynaptic intervals and phases characterizes each modulation. All cycles separate into the same portions: each contains a particular form and switches abruptly to the next. Forms differ in irregularity and predictability: they are (see text) "p:q alternations", "intermittent", "phase walk-throughs", "messy erratic" and "messy stammering". Postsynaptic cycles are asymmetric (hysteresis). This contrasts with the presynaptic homogeneity, smoothness and symmetry. All control parameters are, individually and jointly, strongly influential. Presynaptic slopes, say, act through a postsynaptic sensitivity to their magnitude and sign; when increasing, hysteresis augments and forms change or disappear. Appropriate noise attenuates between-train contrasts, providing modulations are under 0.5 Hz. Postsynaptic natural intervals impose critical time bases, separating presynaptic intervals (around, above or below them) with dissimilar consequences. Coding rules are numerous and have restricted domains; generalizations are misleading. Modulation-driven forms are trendy pacemaker-driven forms. However, dissimilarities, slight when patterns are almost pacemaker, increase as inhibition departs from pacemaker and incorporate unpredictable features. Physiological significance-(1) Pacemaker-driven forms, simple and ubiquitous, appear to be elementary building blocks of

  18. Characterization of endocrine events during the periestrous period in sheep after estrous synchronization with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device.

    Van Cleeff, J; Karsch, F J; Padmanabhan, V

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Internal Drug Releasing (CIDR) device is an intravaginal pessary containing progesterone (P4) designed for synchronizing estrus in ruminants. To date, there has been little information available on the timing, duration, and quality of the follicular phase after CIDR removal and how those characteristics compare with natural periovulatory endocrine events. The present communication relates the results of methods we used to characterize the endocrine events that followed CIDR synchronization. Breeding-season ewes were given an injection (10 mg) of Lutalyse (PGF2 alpha), and then studied during three consecutive estrous cycles, beginning in the luteal phase after the estrus induced by PGF2 alpha. Cycle 1 estrus was synchronized with 1 CIDR (Type G) inserted for 8 d beginning 10 d after PGF2 alpha. Cycles 2 and 3 were synchronized with two CIDRs for 8 d beginning 10 d after previous CIDR removal. Cycle 1 estrous behavior and serum gonadotropins showed a follicular phase (the interval from CIDR withdrawal to gonadotropin surge [surge] peak) of 38.2 +/- 1.5 hr. Two CIDRs lengthened the interval to 46.2 +/- 1.5 hr (P synchronization concentrated surges within a 24-hr period in 92% of the ewes in Cycles 1 and 2. Cycles 3 ewes were euthanized at estimated luteal, early follicular, late follicular, LH surge, and secondary FSH rise timepoints. Endocrine data and ovaries showed that 88% of the ewes synchronized with two CIDRs were in the predicted stage of the estrous cycle. These data demonstrate that the CIDR device applied during the luteal phase effectively synchronizes estrus and results in a CIDR removal-to-surge interval of similar length to a natural follicular phase.

  19. Continuous magma recharge at Mt. Etna during the 2011-2013 period controls the style of volcanic activity and compositions of erupted lavas

    Viccaro, Marco; Calcagno, Rosario; Garozzo, Ileana; Giuffrida, Marisa; Nicotra, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    Volcanic rocks erupted during the January 2011 - April 2013 paroxysmal sequence at Mt. Etna volcano have been investigated through in situ microanalysis of mineral phases and whole rock geochemistry. These products have been also considered within the framework of the post-2001 record, evidencing that magmas feeding the 2011-2013 paroxysmal activity inherited deep signature comparable to that of the 2007-2009 volcanic rocks for what concerns their trace element concentration. Analysis performed on plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, which are sensitive to differentiation processes, show respectively fluctuations of the An, Mg# and Fo contents during the considered period. Also major and trace elements measured on the whole rock provide evidence of the evolutionary degree variations through time. Simulations by MELTS at fixed chemical-physical parameters allowed the definition of feeding system dynamics controlling the geochemical variability of magmas during the 2011-2013 period. Specifically, compositional changes have been interpreted as due to superimposition of fractional crystallization and mixing in variable proportions with more basic magma ascending from intermediate to shallower levels of the plumbing system. Composition of the recharging end-member is compatible with that of the most basic magmas emitted during the 2007 and the early paroxysmal eruptions of 2012. Analysis of the erupted volumes of magma combined with its petrologic evolution through time support the idea that large volumes of magma are continuously intruded and stored in the intermediate plumbing system after major recharging phases in the deepest levels of it. Transient recharge from the intermediate to the shallow levels is then responsible for the paroxysmal eruptions.

  20. Joint experimental--theoretical program in plasma physics of controlled fusion for the period January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Fried, B.D.; Dawson, J.M.; Weng, A.Y.; Chen, F.F.

    1975-01-01

    Summaries of research work during this report period are given for the following topics: (1) theoretical studies, (2) laser-plasma studies, (3) computer simulation of plasmas, and (4) experiments on plasma properties and plasma heating. (U.S.)

  1. Comparison of two maintenance electrolyte solutions in children in the postoperative appendectomy period: a randomized, controlled trial

    Maria Clara da Silva Valadão

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: In the post‐appendectomy period, the use of hypotonic solution (30 mEq/L, 0.18% did not increase the risk of hyponatremia when compared to isotonic saline. The use of isotonic solution (150 mEq/L, 0.9% did not favor hypernatremia in these patients. Children who received hypotonic solution showed higher cumulative fluid balance in the preoperative period.

  2. Concerns Expressed by Parents of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders for Different Time Periods of the Day: A Case–Control Study

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Usami, Masahide; Sasayama, Daimei; Okada, Takashi; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Kodaira, Masaki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sawa, Tetsuji; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The Questionnaire: Children with Difficulties (QCD) is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate child’s difficulties in functioning during specific periods of the day. This study aimed to evaluate difficulties in daily functioning of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) using the QCD. Results were compared with those for a community sample. Methods A case–control design was used. The cases comprised elementary school students (182 males, 51 females) and junior high school students (100 males, 39 females) with PDD, whereas a community sample of elementary school students (568 males, 579 females) and junior high school students (180 males, 183 females) was enrolled as controls. Their behavior was assessed using the QCD, the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI) for elementary and junior high school students, respectively. Effects of gender and diagnosis on the QCD scores were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between QCD and TABS, ADHD-RS, and ODBI scores were analyzed. Results The QCD scores for the children with PDD were significantly lower compared with those from the community sample (P < 0.001). Significantly strong correlations were observed in more areas of the ADHD-RS and ODBI scores compared with the TABS scores. Conclusions Children with PDD experienced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities; moreover, their QCD scores revealed stronger associations with their ADHD-RS and ODBI scores in comparison with their TABS scores. The difficulties of PDD, ADHD and OBDI symptoms combined in children makes it necessary to assess all diagnoses before any therapy for PDD is initiated in order to be able to evaluate its results properly. PMID:25898260

  3. The Political Control of Journalistic Information/ El control político de la información periodística

    Dr. Andreu Casero Ripollés; casero@com.uji.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, journalistic information represents an essential strategic resource for various reasons, including: its ability to define reality, the cognitive and symbolic capacity with which it can shape social meanings, its unquestionable ability to structure public visibility, and its potential to set the public agenda. In short, journalistic information has emerged as an element charged with symbolic power. For this reason, political actors have made it their priority to control journalistic information in their endeavour to structure the public sphere according to their own interests and objectives. However, this subordination has become increasingly difficult, due to the growing autonomy of the mass media system. This paper starts from the present arena, marked by the growing mediatisation of politics, to analyse the different ways in which the political system operates to control journalistic information in the current context, particularly in relation to television. Four major formulas are highlighted by which this control takes place: the adoption of media logic, the policy of alliances, news monitoring during election campaigns, and going public. A detailed description of each formula is accompanied by an analysis of various empirical illustrations. Finally, the study also offers an insight into the reactions of the mass media to these attempts by political agents to control them, in a context marked by the vigorous commercialisation of the communications sector. The research methodology is based on a combination of theoretical frameworks from political communication and the political economy of communication, thus taking an interactive approach that understands the relationship between the political and media systems as a constant process of exchange.La información periodística se configura en las sociedades actuales como un recurso estratégico fundamental por diversos motivos: su competencia para definir la realidad, su

  4. Where is the difference between an epidemic and a high endemic level with respect to nosocomial infection control measures? An analysis based on the example of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in hematology and oncology departments

    Ulrich, Nikos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Some infection control recommendations distinguish epidemic and endemic levels for infection control. However, it is often difficult to separate long lasting outbreaks from high endemic levels and it remains open, if this distinction is really useful.Aim: To compare infection control measures in endemic and epidemic outbreaks.Methods: The example of vancomycin-resistant outbreaks in haematology or oncology departments was used to analyse differences in infection control measures between outbreaks and high endemic levels. The outbreak database and PubMed, including long lasting outbreaks, were used for this analysis. Two time limits were used for separation: 6 and 12 months. In addition, monoclonal and polyclonal outbreaks were distinguished. Findings: A total of 36 outbreaks were included. 13 outbreaks lasted 6 months or less, 9 outbreaks more than 6 months but at maximum 12 months and 9 more than 12 months. For the remaining outbreaks, no information about their duration was available. Altogether, 11 outbreaks were monoclonal and 20 polyclonal. ri infection control measures, there were almost no differences between the different groups compared. Patient screening was given up in 37.5% of long lasting outbreaks (>12 months and hand hygiene not reported in the majority of polyclonal outbreaks (77.8%.Conclusion: Despite many institutions trying to add further infection control measures in case of an outbreak, evidence based infection control measures should be implemented in endemic and epidemic situations. The crucial aspect is probably the degree of implementation and its control in both situations.

  5. Periodic motions and chaos for a damped mobile piston system in a high pressure gas cylinder with P control

    Wang, Donghua; Huang, Jianzhe

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the complex motions for a moving piston in a closed gas cylinder will be analyzed using the discrete implicit maps method. The strong nonlinearity of such system will be observed due to the large quadratic and cubic stiffness. Period-1 motions which contain high order of harmonic components will be presented. The periodic motions will be discretized into multiple continuous mappings, and such mapping can be analyzed via Newton–Raphson iteration. The stability analysis will be given and the analytic conditions for the saddle-node and period-doubling bifurcation will be determined. From the semi-analytic solution route, the possible motions without considering the impact of the piston with the end wall of the cylinder will be obtained analytically. The scheme to reduce the vibration of the piston can be obtained through the parameter studies.

  6. Controlling the optical properties of gold nanoparticles periodic arrays by changing their topologic shapes and substrate properties

    Li Ting; Yu Li; Lu Zhixin; Song Gang; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of extinction of gold nanoparticles periodic arrays by varying the substrate properties and the shapes of nanoparticles with the full vectorial three dimensional finite difference time domain method. Substrates of different thicknesses and dielectric constants and ten topologically different gold nanostructures including diamond, cycle ring, rectangle ring, pentagon ring, five-pointed star, flower shape, L, Y, T and X shapes are considered. The results show that substrate properties have a significant impact on the extinction spectrum due to coupling of the modes excited in substrates and the one excited by localized surface plasmon. The extinction spectra are changed with the different shapes of nanoparticles periodic array. However, with similar structure particles periodic arrays, the extinction spectra appear similar in the visible regime. Therefore we can find an eligible shape and substrate which can be used in integrated devises.

  7. Procedural Issues regarding the Audit of the Management and Control of EU Funds, in Terms of Specific Key Requirements of the New Funding Period 2014 - 2020

    Stelian Selișteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In practice, planning the audit of management and control for each operational program and for the whole programming period, will perform during substantiation audit strategy, based on analysis and risk assessment, made at the entities involved in implementing the operational program. In what follows, we propose an assessment guidelines for the 2014- 2020 programming period, especially in terms of explanation addressed key requirements that must be used, explaining the evaluation criteria for each key requirement, providing guidance for drawing conclusions for each key requirement by each authority and finally making recommendations for establishing general conclusions regarding the management and control.

  8. Revisiting Respect for Persons in Genomic Research

    Debra J. H. Mathews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks and benefits of research using large databases of personal information are evolving in an era of ubiquitous, internet-based data exchange. In addition, information technology has facilitated a shift in the relationship between individuals and their personal data, enabling increased individual control over how (and how much personal data are used in research, and by whom. This shift in control has created new opportunities to engage members of the public as partners in the research enterprise on more equal and transparent terms. Here, we consider how some of the technological advances driving and paralleling developments in genomics can also be used to supplement the practice of informed consent with other strategies to ensure that the research process as a whole honors the notion of respect for persons upon which human research subjects protections are premised. Further, we suggest that technological advances can help the research enterprise achieve a more thoroughgoing respect for persons than was possible when current policies governing human subject research were developed. Questions remain about the best way to revise policy to accommodate these changes.

  9. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  10. Time variation of meteorological elements as controlled by the quasi-biennial periodicity in the solar phenomena

    Inoue, Michiharu; Sakurai, Kunitomo

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the quasi-biennial oscillation observed on some meteorological elements as the ozone content at middle latitudes, both north and south, the zonal wind velocity at the equator and the ground-level temperature at middle latitudes, is produced by the variation of the ultraviolet flux emitted from the sun, which is varying with the solar activity with the period of about 26 months. The ozone content is varying in phase with the ultraviolet flux and the solar activity, whereas the other two elements mentioned above are changing out of phase with these phenomena. There is a possibility that both these meteorological elements and the solar activity are varying quasi-biennially while being modulated by the 26 month periodicity in the efficiency of thermonuclear fusions at the central core of the sun. (author)

  11. 26 CFR 301.6503(b)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court. 301.6503(b)-1 Section 301.6503(b)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6503(b)-1 Suspension of running of...

  12. Periodic bacterial control with peracetic acid in a recirculating aquaculture system and its long-term beneficial effect on fish health

    Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2017-01-01

    improve fish health. In the present study, a periodic microbial control was performed in a RAS with 16 tanks stocked with mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) for 3months. Half of the fish culture tanks were treated with 1mgL−1 peracetic acid (PAA) twice per week, while the other half remained untreated...

  13. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1974. Non-LMFBR program

    Sadowski, G.S.

    1976-09-01

    Research projects are summarized under the following categories: (1) basic electronics development; (2) engineering support for research facilities; (3) pulse counting and analysis; (4) radiation detection and monitoring; (5) instrument development; (6) automatic control and data acquisition; (7) process systems and instrumentation development; (8) reactor instrumentation and controls; (9) fuel reprocessing and shipping; (10) standards laboratory; (11) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (12) maintenance and service; (13) ecological science studies; and (14) administration and training

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1974. Non-LMFBR program

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    Research projects are summarized under the following categories: (1) basic electronics development; (2) engineering support for research facilities; (3) pulse counting and analysis; (4) radiation detection and monitoring; (5) instrument development; (6) automatic control and data acquisition; (7) process systems and instrumentation development; (8) reactor instrumentation and controls; (9) fuel reprocessing and shipping; (10) standards laboratory; (11) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (12) maintenance and service; (13) ecological science studies; and (14) administration and training. (WHK)

  15. Critical period for weed control in potatoes in the Huambo Province (Angola Período crítico do controle de infestantes na cultura da batateira na Província do Huambo (Angola

    A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different weed management periods on potatoes were studied in three areas (Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga of the central highlands of Angola and in three cropping seasons, from June 2005 to May 2007. Six weed-management treatments were used to identify critical periods of competition and to allow the development of more precise management recommendations. Total potato yield ranged from about 22 t ha-1 in weed-free plots to about 3 t ha-1 with no weed control a yield loss of 86%. Major weed species Galinsoga parviflora, Cyperus esculentus, Bidens biternata, Amaranthus hybridus, Nicandra physaloides, Portulaca oleracea and Datura stramonium differed from area to area. The species G. parviflora dominated the weed flora in all three areas 73, 97 and 72 plants m² 50 days after crop emergence in Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga respectively, in dry season trials; while C. esculentus was also present in Chianga and Calenga, with an average density of ca 30 plants m-2 in dry season trials. Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to data representing increasing periods of weed-free growth and weed interference, respectively. Critical periods for weed control, with a 95% weed-free total yield, were estimated from 26 to 66 and from 20 to 61 days after emergence for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Weed competition before or after these critical periods had negligible effects on crop yield.Com o objectivo de obter recomendações mais precisas para a gestão das infestantes na cultura da batata 'Romano' avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes períodos de controle e de convivência em três locais do Planalto Central de Angola e em três épocas de crescimento da cultura. O delineamento experimental, por local, consistiu em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis intervalos de controle nos quais a cultura foi mantida livre de infestantes e após cada período estas foram deixadas crescer livremente; e

  16. Charge effects controlling the current hysteresis and negative differential resistance in periodical nanosize Si/CaF sub 2 structures

    Berashevich, Y A; Kholod, A N; Borisenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    A kinetic model of charge carrier transport in nanosize periodical Si/CaF sub 2 structures via localized states in dielectric is proposed. Computer simulation of the current-voltage characteristics of such structures has shown that the built-in field arises in a dielectric due to polarization of the trapped charge by localized centers. This results in current hysteresis and negative differential resistance region at the current-voltage characteristics when the bias polarity is changed. At temperature below 250 K, the portion of negative differential resistance vanishes

  17. Does vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation prolong the latency period before delivery following the preterm premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled study.

    Gungorduk, Kemal; Asicioglu, Osman; Gungorduk, Ozgu Celikkol; Yildirim, Gokhan; Besimoğlu, Berhan; Ark, Cemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation after the premature rupture of membranes is associated with an increase in the latency period before delivery. In the present prospective open randomized trial, 229 pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) at ≥ 24.0 and vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E (n = 126) or a placebo (n = 123). The primary outcome was the latency period until delivery. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. No significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics were observed between the groups. Latency period until delivery was significantly higher in the group that received vitamins compared with the control group (11.2 ± 6.3 days versus 6.2 ± 4.0 days; p vitamin group compared with the control group (31.9 ± 2.6 weeks versus 31.0 ± 2.6 weeks; p = 0.01). No significant differences in adverse maternal outcome (i.e., chorioamnionitis or endometritis) or neonatal outcome (i.e., neonatal sepsis, neonatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, or grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) were noted between groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the use of vitamins C and E in women with PPROM is associated with a longer latency period before delivery. Moreover, adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, which are often associated with prolonged latency periods, were similar between the groups. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. A periodic review integrated inventory model with controllable setup cost, imperfect items, and inspection errors under service level constraint

    Saga, R. S.; Jauhari, W. A.; Laksono, P. W.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated inventory model which consists of single vendor and buyer. The buyer managed its inventory periodically and orders products from the vendor to satisfy the end customer’s demand, where the annual demand and the ordering cost were in the fuzzy environment. The buyer used a service level constraint instead of the stock-out cost term, so that the stock-out level per cycle was bounded. Then, the vendor produced and delivered products to the buyer. The vendor had a choice to commit an investment to reduce the setup cost. However, the vendor’s production process was imperfect, thus the lot delivered contained some defective products. Moreover, the buyer’s inspection process was not error-free since the inspector could be mistaken in categorizing the product’s quality. The objective was to find the optimum value for the review period, the setup cost, and the number of deliveries in one production cycle which might minimize the joint total cost. Furthermore, the algorithm and numerical example were provided to illustrate the application of the model.

  19. Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report for the period July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1990. Volume 2

    Klobe, L.E. [ed.

    1990-12-01

    The format of this Instrumentation and Controls Division progress report is a major departure from previous reports. This report has been published in two volumes instead of one, and the description of individual activities have been shortened considerably to make it easier document to scan and to read. Volume 1 of this report presents brief descriptions of a few highly significant programmatic and technological efforts representative of Instrumentation and Controls Division activities over the past two years. This volume contains information concerning the publications, presentations, and other professional activities and achievements of I&C Division staff members.

  20. Functional results following fractures of the proximal humerus. A controlled clinical study comparing two periods of immobilization

    Kristiansen, B; Angermann, P; Larsen, T K

    1989-01-01

    In order to compare 1 and 3 weeks of immobilization following proximal humeral fractures a prospective controlled trial was performed in 85 patients. Clinical follow-up according to the Neer assessment system was done after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. One week of immobilization resulted in a better...

  1. 75 FR 57385 - Internal Control Over Financial Reporting in Exchange Act Periodic Reports of Non-Accelerated Filers

    2010-09-21

    ... attestation report of its registered public accounting firm on internal control over financial reporting in... definition of either an ``accelerated filer'' or a ``large accelerated filer'' under Exchange Act Rule 12b-2..., for both definitions, the issuer needs to have been subject to reporting requirements for at least...

  2. Problem Periods

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  3. On the efficacy of using the transfer-controlled procedure during periods of STP processor overloads in SS7 networks

    Rumsewicz, Michael

    1994-04-01

    In this paper, we examine call completion performance, rather than message throughput, in a Common Channel Signaling network in which the processing resources, and not transmission resources, of a Signaling Transfer Point (STP) are overloaded. Specifically, we perform a transient analysis, via simulation, of a network consisting of a single Central Processor-based STP connecting many local exchanges. We consider the efficacy of using the Transfer Controlled (TFC) procedure when the network call attempt rate exceeds the processing capability of the STP. We find the following: (1) the success of the control depends critically on the rate at which TFC's are sent; (2) use of the TFC procedure in theevent of processor overload can provide reasonable call completion rates.

  4. Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.

    Affendi Isa

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour.We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963. Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours.To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.

  5. Mediational Effects of Self-Efficacy Dimensions in the Relationship between Knowledge of Dengue and Dengue Preventive Behaviour with Respect to Control of Dengue Outbreaks: A Structural Equation Model of a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K.; Smith, Jane R.; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. Methods and Findings We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Conclusions To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy. PMID:24086777

  6. The effect of control of diabetes mellitus on plasma T4, T3, rT3 levels and half muscle relaxation period

    Ismail, A.A.; Hafiez, A.A.; Sayed, S.N.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Youssef, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    25 diabetics of the maturity onset type who showed no clinical evidence of either peripheral neruropathy or diabetic amyotrophy were selected for this study. All patients were subjected to the following investigations: estimation of half muscle relaxation period of the quadriceps muscle knee-jerk, measurement of plasma levels of thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and reverse triiodothronine (rT 3 ), determination of fasting and two hours postprandial blood sugar levels. The quadriceps muscle relaxation period in uncontrolled diabetics was significantly longer than in normals. Control of diabetes by glibenclamide or gliclazide did not cause a significant change in muscle relaxation period. There was also no significant difference between the effects of the two drugs. (author)

  7. Analysis of reactor power behaviour using estimation of period for the gain adaptation in a state feedback controller; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Benitez R, J.S. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Perez C, J.H. [CINVESTAV, IPN, A.P. 14740 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivero G, T. [ITT, 50140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper a novel procedure for power regulation in a TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor is presented. The control scheme combines state variable feedback with a first order predictor, which is incorporated to speed up the power response of the reactor without exceeding the safety requirement imposed by the reactor period. The simulation results using the proposed control strategy attains different values of steady-state power from different values of initial power in short time, complying at all times with the safety restriction imposed on the reactor period. The predictor, derived from the theory of first order numerical integration, produces very good results during the ascent of power. These results include a fast response and independence of the wide variety of potential operating conditions something not easy and even impossible to obtain with other procedures. By using this control scheme, the reactor period is maintained within safety limits during the start up of the reactor, which is normally the operating condition where an occurrence of a period scram is common. However, the predictor can not be used when the power is reaching the desired power level because the instantaneous power increases far above the desired level. Thus, when the power increases above certain power level, the state feedback gain is set constant to a predefined value. This causes some oscillations that decrease in a few seconds. Afterwards, the power response smoothly approaches, with a small overshoot, the desired power. This constraint on the use of the predictor prevents the unbounded increase of the neutron power. The control law proposed requires all the system's state variables. Since only the neutron power is available, it is necessary the estimation of the non measurable states. The key issue of the existence of a solution to this problem has been previously considered. One of the conclusions is that the point kinetic equations are observable under certain restrictions

  8. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

    Yang Jun Kang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Optimising multi-product multi-chance-constraint inventory control system with stochastic period lengths and total discount under fuzzy purchasing price and holding costs

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador

    2010-10-01

    While the usual assumptions in multi-periodic inventory control problems are that the orders are placed at the beginning of each period (periodic review) or depending on the inventory level they can happen at any time (continuous review), in this article, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periods between two replenishments of the products are independent and identically distributed random variables. Furthermore, assuming that the purchasing price are triangular fuzzy variables, the quantities of the orders are of integer-type and that there are space and service level constraints, total discount are considered to purchase products and a combination of back-order and lost-sales are taken into account for the shortages. We show that the model of this problem is a fuzzy mixed-integer nonlinear programming type and in order to solve it, a hybrid meta-heuristic intelligent algorithm is proposed. At the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to compare its performance with one of the existing algorithms in real world inventory control problems.

  10. Age-related changes and sex differences in postural control adaptability in children during periodic floor oscillation with eyes closed.

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Takeo; Mammadova, Aida; Yaguchi, Chie

    2011-01-01

    We investigated age-related changes and sex differences in adaptability of anticipatory postural control in children. Subjects comprised 449 children (4-12 years old) and 109 young adults (18-29 years old). Subjects stood with eyes closed on a force-platform fixed to a floor oscillator. We conducted five trials of 1-minute oscillation (0.5 Hz frequency, 2.5 cm amplitude) in the anteroposterior direction. Postural steadiness was quantified as the mean speed of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPy). In young adults, CoPy speed decreased rapidly until the third trial for both sexes. Adaptability was evaluated by changes in steadiness. The adaptability of children was categorized as "good," "moderate," and "poor," compared with a standard variation of the mean CoPy speed regression line between the first and fifth trials in young adults. Results were as follows: (1) anticipatory postural control adaptability starts to develop from age 6 in boys and 5 in girls, and greatly improves at age 7-8 in boys and 6 in girls; (2) the adaptability of children at age 11-12 (74% of boys and 63% of girls were categorized as "good") has not yet reached the same level as for young adults; (3) the adaptability at age 11-12 for girls is temporarily disturbed due to early puberty.

  11. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    Cunha, P.S.A.; Oliveira, F.; Raupp, Fernanda M.P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which a...

  12. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period

    Oe M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Oe,1 Seigo Sakai,1 Hideto Yoshida,1 Nao Okado,1 Haruna Kaneda,1 Yasunobu Masuda,1 Osamu Urushibata2 1R&D Division, Kewpie Corporation, Sengawa-cho, Chofu-shi, 2Department of Dermatology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Hyaluronan (HA has critical moisturizing property and high water retention capacity especially for human skin. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral intake of HA. Methods: The mean molecular weight (MW of HA is 2 k and 300 k. Sixty Japanese male and female subjects aged 22–59 years who presented with crow’s feet wrinkles were randomly assigned to the HA 2 k or HA 300 k at 120 mg/day or the placebo group. The subjects were administered HA at a rate of 120 mg/day or a placebo for 12 weeks. The skin wrinkles were evaluated by image analysis of skin wrinkle replicas, and their skin condition was evaluated using a questionnaire survey. Results: During the study period, the HA groups showed better level of the whole sulcus ­volume ratio, wrinkle area ratio, and wrinkle volume ratio than the placebo group. After 8 weeks of ingestion, the HA 300 k group showed significantly diminished wrinkles compared with the placebo group. Skin luster and suppleness significantly improved after 12 weeks in all groups compared with the baseline. Conclusion: The results suggest that oral HA (both HA 2 k and HA 300 k inhibits skin wrinkles and improves skin condition. Keywords: hyaluronic acid, dietary supplement, skin, wrinkle volume, molecular weight

  13. Experimental evaluation of the MIT-SNL period-generated minimum time control laws for the rapid adjustment of reactor power

    Bernard, J.A.; Kwok, K.S.; Menadier, P.T.; Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid adjustment of reactor neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. Designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws,' these relations are closed-form expressions of general applicability. In particular, if there is no limitation on the available rate of change of reactivity, these laws can be used to achieve virtually any desired power profile including time optimal ones. The innovative aspect of these laws is that the rate of change of reactivity rather than the reactivity itself is used as the control signal. For example, relative to a time-optimal response, these laws function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The response is time-optimal because the power adjustment is continuously made at the maximum allowed rate

  14. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005-2010 period.

    Pribluda, Victor S; Barojas, Adrian; Añez, Arletta; López, Cecilia G; Figueroa, Ruth; Herrera, Roxana; Nakao, Gladys; Nogueira, Fernando Ha; Pianetti, Gerson A; Povoa, Marinete M; Viana, Giselle Mr; Gomes, Margarete S Mendonça; Escobar, Jose P; Sierra, Olga L Muñoz; Norena, Susana P Rendon; Veloz, Raúl; Bravo, Marcy Silva; Aldás, Martha R; Hindssemple, Alison; Collins, Marilyn; Ceron, Nicolas; Krishnalall, Karanchand; Adhin, Malti; Bretas, Gustavo; Hernandez, Nelly; Mendoza, Marjorie; Smine, Abdelkrim; Chibwe, Kennedy; Lukulay, Patrick; Evans, Lawrence

    2012-06-15

    Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country's Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries was evaluated, mostly

  15. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    Pribluda Victor S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs, often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL, developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines

  16. What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control programme funding had on Australian adolescents' smoking? Findings over a 15-year period.

    White, Victoria M; Warne, Charles D; Spittal, Matthew J; Durkin, Sarah; Purcell, Kate; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-08-01

    To assess the impact of tobacco control policies relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising at point-of-sale and outdoors, in addition to cigarette price and per capita tobacco control spending, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression analyses examined association between policies and smoking prevalence. Australia, 1990-2005. A nationally representative sample of secondary students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a triennial survey (sample size per survey range: 20 560 to 27 480). Students' report of past-month smoking. In each jurisdiction, extent of implementation of the three policies for the year of the survey was determined. For each survey year, national per capita tobacco control spending was determined and jurisdiction-specific 12-month change in cigarette price obtained. Extent of implementation of the three policy areas varied between states and over the survey years. Multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographic factors, year and all tobacco control variables showed that 12-month cigarette price increases [odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.99], greater per capita tobacco control spending (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and stronger implementation of clean indoor air policies (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) were associated with reduced smoking prevalence. Adult-directed, population-based tobacco control policies such as clean indoor air laws and increased prices of cigarettes, implemented as part of a well-funded comprehensive tobacco control programme are associated with lower adolescent smoking. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Controlling periodic ripple microstructure formation on 4H-SiC crystal with three time-delayed femtosecond laser beams of different linear polarizations.

    He, Wanlin; Yang, Jianjun; Guo, Chunlei

    2017-03-06

    The control of laser-induced periodic ripple microstructures on 4H-SiC crystal surface is studied using temporally delayed collinear three femtosecond laser pulse trains linearly polarized in different directions. The ripple orientation appears to develop independent of the individual laser polarizations and exhibits non-monotonical change with variable time delays, whose variation tendency is also affected by the polarization intersection angles. Remarkably, the ripple period is observed to transfer from high- to low-spatial-frequency regions, accompanied by distinctly improved morphological uniformity and clearness. The results are satisfactorily interpreted based on a physical model of the surface wave excitation on a transient index metasurface, which is confirmed by further experiments. Our investigations indicate that transient noneqilibrium dynamics of the material surface provides an effective way to manipulate the laser-induced microstructures.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulations Suggest Current Chlortetracycline Drug-Residue Based Withdrawal Periods Would Not Control Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination from Feedlot to Slaughterhouse.

    Cazer, Casey L; Ducrot, Lucas; Volkova, Victoriya V; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in beef cattle can increase antimicrobial resistance prevalence in their enteric bacteria, including potential pathogens such as Escherichia coli . These bacteria can contaminate animal products at slaughterhouses and cause food-borne illness, which can be difficult to treat if it is due to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. One potential intervention to reduce the dissemination of resistant bacteria from feedlot to consumer is to impose a withdrawal period after antimicrobial use, similar to the current withdrawal period designed to prevent drug residues in edible animal meat. We investigated tetracycline resistance in generic E. coli in the bovine large intestine during and after antimicrobial treatment by building a mathematical model of oral chlortetracycline pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics and E. coli population dynamics. We tracked three E. coli subpopulations (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant) during and after treatment with each of three United States chlortetracycline indications (liver abscess reduction, disease control, disease treatment). We compared the proportion of resistant E. coli before antimicrobial use to that at several time points after treatment and found a greater proportion of resistant enteric E. coli after the current withdrawal periods than prior to treatment. In order for the proportion of resistant E. coli in the median beef steer to return to the pre-treatment level, withdrawal periods of 15 days after liver abscess reduction dosing (70 mg daily), 31 days after disease control dosing (350 mg daily), and 36 days after disease treatment dosing (22 mg/kg bodyweight for 5 days) are required in this model. These antimicrobial resistance withdrawal periods would be substantially longer than the current U.S. withdrawals of 0-2 days or Canadian withdrawals of 5-10 days. One published field study found similar time periods necessary to reduce the proportion of resistant E. coli following chlortetracycline disease

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations Suggest Current Chlortetracycline Drug-Residue Based Withdrawal Periods Would Not Control Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination from Feedlot to Slaughterhouse

    Casey L. Cazer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial use in beef cattle can increase antimicrobial resistance prevalence in their enteric bacteria, including potential pathogens such as Escherichia coli. These bacteria can contaminate animal products at slaughterhouses and cause food-borne illness, which can be difficult to treat if it is due to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. One potential intervention to reduce the dissemination of resistant bacteria from feedlot to consumer is to impose a withdrawal period after antimicrobial use, similar to the current withdrawal period designed to prevent drug residues in edible animal meat. We investigated tetracycline resistance in generic E. coli in the bovine large intestine during and after antimicrobial treatment by building a mathematical model of oral chlortetracycline pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics and E. coli population dynamics. We tracked three E. coli subpopulations (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant during and after treatment with each of three United States chlortetracycline indications (liver abscess reduction, disease control, disease treatment. We compared the proportion of resistant E. coli before antimicrobial use to that at several time points after treatment and found a greater proportion of resistant enteric E. coli after the current withdrawal periods than prior to treatment. In order for the proportion of resistant E. coli in the median beef steer to return to the pre-treatment level, withdrawal periods of 15 days after liver abscess reduction dosing (70 mg daily, 31 days after disease control dosing (350 mg daily, and 36 days after disease treatment dosing (22 mg/kg bodyweight for 5 days are required in this model. These antimicrobial resistance withdrawal periods would be substantially longer than the current U.S. withdrawals of 0–2 days or Canadian withdrawals of 5–10 days. One published field study found similar time periods necessary to reduce the proportion of resistant E. coli following

  20. Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood College Preparatory School.

    Zerf Mohammed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting and to enhance children's learning [1]. Since this theory, the current study was designed to examine the significance of mechanical effects of intra-abdominal on posture/balance control among the Algerian Childhood Primary Schools. Since our teachers emphasise the good classroom settings as a discipline pedagogical aspect of success learning. While High-quality educational programs for children in preschool and kindergarten have play at the centre of the curriculum [2]. Our interventions in this study aimed to examine Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood Preparatory Schools. for the purpose, a total of 61 schoolboys of Slimane provinces Naama, Municipality Mecheria, Algeria male gender their average age 5±1.52 years distributed into two homogeneous groups, according to them, school attendance (kindergarten School (29 boys - preschool (32 boys. Tested by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage-Abdominal circumference - Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance and standing balance. Based on the analysis statistics, we confirm: • Prolonged periods classroom settings increase Intra-Abdominal Fat which represents big risk posture/balance control. • Primary schools posture needs an interactive play method Learning classroom to improve body imbalance as health benefits physical activities. Based on the differences acquired by the research team, we emphasise that prolonged periods classroom settings Primary Schools increase the intra-abdominal which owing to the weakness of skeletal muscle fatigue and abnormal pathological alignment. While as a recommendation pedagogy practised, we suggested to our teachers, who work with these children to know that the balanced posture requires more energy in the class, Considering that our student seat more than 6 hours a day, 30 per week, and

  1. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  2. The analysis in real time, during the pre-commissioning period, of the overall plant control system of the CANDU NPP unit

    Tapu, C.; Irimia, M.

    1994-01-01

    The physical processes in the CANDU NPP are controlled by a computer system which, based on the associated package of programmes, performs both the monitoring function at the level of the operational area, and the digital regulation function of the technological systems within the NPP. For an optimal operation of the NPP, in dynamic as well as in stationary regime, the correlation of the direct digital control of the technological systems is very important for the NPP's overall digital control system. Taking into account the fact that during the pre-commissioning period of a CANDU unit it is necessary to test in dynamic regime the performance of the overall digital control function of the NPP, a system of verification and testing in real time was developed, by connecting a micro simulator of the physical process in the NPP to the actual computer system of the unit. The paper presents the methods and techniques used, as well as the results of the tests for various operational modes, which highlight the functioning of the digital control system of the CANDU NPP unit. (Author)

  3. Can we trust module-respect heuristics?

    Mo, Yuchang

    2013-01-01

    BDD (Binary Decision Diagrams) have proven to be a very efficient tool to assess Fault Trees. However, the size of BDD, and therefore the efficiency of the whole methodology, depends dramatically on the choice of variable ordering. The determination of the best variable ordering is intractable. Therefore, heuristics have been designed to select reasonably good variable orderings. One very important common feature for good static heuristics is to respect modules. In this paper, the notion of module-respect is studied in a systematic way. It is proved that under certain condition there always exists an optimal ordering that respects modules. This condition is that for each module there is always a smallest module BDD and each included module variable appears only once. On the other hand, it is shown that for the trees not satisfying the above sufficient condition the optimal orderings may not be able to be directly generated using module-respect heuristics, even when the shuffling strategy is used.

  4. Instrumentation and Controls Division Progress Report for the Period of July 1, 1994 to December 31, 1997: Publications, Presentations, Activities, and Awards

    McDonald, D.W.

    1998-04-01

    This report contains a record of publishing and other activities in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Division for the period of July 1, 1994, to December31, 1997. It is a companion volume to Working Together on New Horizons: Instrumentation and Controls Division Progress Report for the Period of July 1, 1994, to December 31, 1997 (OR.NLA4-6530). Working Together on New Horizons contains illustrated summaries of some of the projects under way in I&C Division. Both books can be obtained by contacting C. R. Brittain (brittain@ornl. gov), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6005. l&C Division Mission and Vision I&C Division develops and maintains techniques, instruments, and systems that lead to a better understanding of nature and harnessing of natural phenomena for the benefit of humankind. We have dedicated ourselves to accelerating the advancement of science and the transfer of those advancements into products and processes that benefit U.S. industry and enhance the security of our citizens.

  5. Preliminary study on the relation between the coping patterns and mental health of radiation control personnel and nondestructive inspectors engaged in the periodic inspections of nuclear power plants.

    Nagaoka, Chika; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    In order to safely manage nuclear power plants, their workforce should be mentally healthy. This study clarifies the coping strategies of radiation control personnel and nondestructive inspectors engaged in the periodic inspection of nuclear power plants, the effect of the coping strategies on their mental health, as well as any effect based on whether or not they had worked after the nuclear disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to 133 technicians attending a certification course, and among them, our subjects of analysis were 104 people with work experience in radiation control and/or nondestructive inspection. The results indicated that even among workers of the same company who were assigned to similar duties in the periodic inspections of nuclear power plants, the group that had worked at a nuclear plant after the disaster had a tendency to use coping strategies, such as giving up and avoidance-like thinking, which was dissimilar to the group that had not worked at a nuclear plant after the disaster. Further, the former group had higher levels of distress than those who tended to use other coping strategies. In addition, the results suggested that the plan-drafting strategy adopted by the group that had not worked after the disaster did not result in stress reduction. Based on these results, we propose a stress management program specifically for radiation workers.

  6. Implications of gluten exposure period, CD clinical forms, and HLA typing in the association between celiac disease and dental enamel defects in children. A case-control study.

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Ravelli, Alberto; Plebani, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella; Campus, Guglielmo

    2010-03-01

    The association between coeliac disease (CD) and dental enamel defects (DED) is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DED in children with CD and to specifically find the association of DED and gluten exposure period, CD clinical forms, HLA class II haplotype. This study was designed as a matched case-control study: 250 children were enrolled (125 coeliac children - 79 female and 46 male, 7.2 +/- 2.8 years and 125 healthy children). Data about age at CD diagnosis, CD clinical form, and HLA haplotype were recorded. Dental enamel defects were detected in 58 coeliac subjects (46.4%) against seven (5.6%) controls (P < 0.005). We found an association between DED and gluten exposure period, as among CD subjects the mean age at CD diagnosis was significantly (P = 0.0004) higher in the group with DED (3.41 +/- 1.27) than without DED (1.26 +/- 0.7). DED resulted more frequent (100%) in atypical and silent CD forms than in the typical one (30.93%). The presence of HLA DR 52-53 and DQ7antigens significantly increased the risk of DED (P = 0.0017) in coeliac children. Our results confirmed a possible correlation between HLA antigens and DED.

  7. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  8. Ombud's Corner: Respect in the workplace

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Launched in a previous issue of the Bulletin (see here), the 'Respect@CERN' campaign has triggered some rich and varied reactions, and contributions received from colleagues have covered a wide range of themes that extend from the basic “golden rule of treating others as you would have them treat you” to some very specific observations of respectful behaviour in the CERN context.   “To me, respect is the core of all relationships, all exchanges: we cannot work together and achieve results without it,” says one colleague, while another underlines the equally important dimension of projecting and preserving one’s own self-respect where “whether or not we sleep well at night depends on whether or not we feel that we have been true to ourselves that day”. Respect in the workplace is different from everyday respect in that it is based on an “earned privilege where each colleague has been selected for ...

  9. The effect of educational package on functional status and maternal self-confidence of primiparous women in postpartum period: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Bagherinia, Marzieh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a training package on functional status and self-confidence of primiparous women in the postpartum period. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 136 primiparous women who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran, for their second postpartum care (10-15 days after delivery). These women were randomly assigned to education (n= 68) and control (n = 68) groups. The education group was provided with a face-to-face training session, three phone sessions, and a booklet. The control group received the routine postpartum care on days 1-3, 10-15 and 42-60. Participants completed the functional status and maternal self-confidence questionnaires before the interventio n and eight weeks postpartum. Independent t, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, except for infant's gender (p > .05). At six weeks after the intervention and by adjusting for baseline scores and infant's sex, mean scores of functional status (adjusted mean difference: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.03, p education group than in the control group. This study showed that training women has a positive effect in increasing their self-confidence and improving their functional status.

  10. Educating student midwives around dignity and respect.

    Hall, Jenny S; Mitchell, Mary

    2017-06-01

    There is currently limited information available on how midwifery students learn to provide care that promotes dignity and respect. In recent years the importance of dignity in healthcare and treating people with respect has received considerable emphasis in both a national and international context. The aim of this discussion paper is to describe an educational workshop that enables learning to promote dignity and respect in maternity care. An interactive workshop, using different creative methods as triggers for learning will be described. Provision of learning opportunities for students around dignity and respect is important to ensure appropriate care is provided in practice. The use of creative methods to inspire has contributed to deep learning within participants. An evaluation of the workshop illustrated how learning impacted on participants practice. Data to support this is presented in this paper. The use of creative teaching approaches in a workshop setting appears to provide an effective learning opportunity around dignified and respectful care. These workshops have evoked a deep emotional response for some participants, and facilitators must be prepared for this outcome to ensure a safe space for learning. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  12. Creating a culture of mutual respect.

    Kaplan, Kathryn; Mestel, Pamela; Feldman, David L

    2010-04-01

    The Joint Commission mandates that hospitals seeking accreditation have a process to define and address disruptive behavior. Leaders at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, took the initiative to create a code of mutual respect that not only requires respectful behavior, but also encourages sensitivity and awareness to the causes of frustration that often lead to inappropriate behavior. Steps to implementing the code included selecting code advocates, setting up a system for mediating disputes, tracking and addressing operational system issues, providing training for personnel, developing a formal accountability process, and measuring the results. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2015-10-01

    Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced

  14. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  15. A complex behavioural change intervention to reduce the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in the pre-conception period in Malaysia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Skau, Jutta K H; Nordin, Awatef Binti Amer; Cheah, Julius C H; Ali, Roslinah; Zainal, Ramli; Aris, Tahir; Ali, Zainudin Mohd; Matzen, Priya; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Hanson, Mark A; Norris, Shane A

    2016-04-27

    Over the past two decades, the population of Malaysia has grown rapidly and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia has dramatically increased, along with the frequency of obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Early-life influences play an important role in the development of non-communicable diseases. Indeed, maternal lifestyle and conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus or obesity can affect the risk of diabetes in the next generation. Lifestyle changes can help to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a protocol for an unblinded, community-based, randomised controlled trial in two arms to evaluate the efficacy of a complex behavioural change intervention, combining motivational interviewing provided by a community health promoter and access to a habit formation mobile application, among young Malaysian women and their spouses prior to pregnancy. Eligible subjects will be Malaysian women in the age group 20 to 39 years, who are nulliparous, not diagnosed with diabetes and own a smartphone. With an alpha-value of 0.05, a statistical power of 90 %, 264 subjects will need to complete the study. Subjects with their spouses will be randomised to either the intervention or the control arm for an 8-month period. The primary endpoint is change in waist circumference from baseline to end of intervention period and secondary endpoints are changes in anthropometric parameters, biochemical parameters, change in health literacy level, dietary habits, physical activity and stress level. Primary endpoint and the continuous secondary endpoints will be analysed in a linear regression model, whereas secondary endpoints on an ordinal scale will be analysed by using the chi-squared test. A multivariate linear model for the primary endpoint will be undertaken to account for potential confounders. This study has been approved by the Medical Research and Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health Malaysia (protocol number: NMRR-14

  16. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  17. [Respect of patient's dignity in the hospital].

    Duguet, A-M

    2010-12-01

    Every code of ethics of health professionals in France considers the respect of dignity as a fundamental duty. The French 2002 Law on patient rights says that the person has the right to respect of dignity and of private life. After a presentation of the articles of ethics codes regarding dignity, this paper presents recommendations to deliver medical care in situations where dignity might be endangered such as for patients hospitalized in psychiatric services without consent, or for medical examination of prisoners or medical care to vulnerable patients unable to express their will, especially in palliative care or at the end of life. Respect of dignity after death is illustrated by the reflection conducted by the Espace Ethique de l'AP-HP (Paris area hospitals) and in the Chart of the mortuary yard. A survey of the patients' letters of complaint received by the emergency service of the Toulouse University Hospital showed that, in five years, there were 188 letters and 18 pointed out infringements to the dignity of the person. The health professional team is now aware of this obligation, and in the accreditation of the hospitals, the respect of dignity is one of the indicators of the quality of medical care.

  18. Nurturing the Respectful Community through Practical Life

    Bettmann, Joen

    2015-01-01

    Joen Bettmann's depiction of practical life exercises as character-building reveals how caring, careful, and independent work leads to higher self-esteem, more concern for others, better understanding for academic learning, and a self-nurturing, respectful classroom community. Particular aspects of movement and silence exercises bring out what…

  19. Profiles of illicit drug use during annual key holiday and control periods in Australia: wastewater analysis in an urban, a semi-rural and a vacation area.

    Lai, Foon Yin; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral; Ort, Christoph; Kirkbride, Paul; Prichard, Jeremy; Thai, Phong K; Carter, Steve; Mueller, Jochen F

    2013-03-01

    To examine changes in illicit drug consumption between peak holiday season (23 December-3 January) in Australia and a control period two months later in a coastal urban area, an inland semi-rural area and an island populated predominantly by vacationers during holidays. Analysis of representative daily composite wastewater samples collected from the inlet of the major wastewater treatment plant in each area. Three wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plants serviced approximately 350, 000 persons in the urban area, 120,000 in the semi-rural area and 1100-2400 on the island. Drug residues were analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Per capita drug consumption was estimated. Changes in drug use were quantified using Hedges' g. During the holidays, cannabis consumption in the semi-rural area declined (g = -2.8) as did methamphetamine (-0.8), whereas cocaine (+1.5) and ecstasy (+1.6) use increased. In the urban area, consumption of all drugs increased during holidays (cannabis +1.6, cocaine +1.2, ecstasy +0.8 and methamphetamine +0.3). In the vacation area, methamphetamine (+0.7), ecstasy (+0.7) and cocaine (+1.1) use increased, but cannabis (-0.5) use decreased during holiday periods. While the peak holiday season in Australia is perceived as a period of increased drug use, this is not uniform across all drugs and areas. Substantial declines in drug use in the semi-rural area contrasted with substantial increases in urban and vacation areas. Per capita drug consumption in the vacation area was equivalent to that in the urban area, implying that these locations merit particular attention for drug use monitoring and harm minimisation measures. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Ecological and energy non-consuming technology for extending the freshness period of fish at positive temperatures and method for freshness control

    Mirza, Maria; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Popescu, G. M.; Dobrin, D. N.; Cristescu, T. M.; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Ghe.

    2001-01-01

    As medium of preservation, unsalted water i.e. distillated water, deuterium depleted water, de-ionized water or mixtures of these were used. The following performance are reported: - Freshness period is of 18-24 hours at 30 deg. C, 5-18 days at 5-15 deg. C and 20-30 days at 0-5 deg. C. The method of freshness control was the measurement of unconventional tissue energies. The technology is advantageous because it is ecological, uses natural materials (unsalted water), can by applied in case of energetic crisis and contributes to the preservation of ozone layer. The technology implies very low costs and also extends by 2-6 times the shelf time the fish is kept at positive temperatures comparing with classical refrigeration method. (authors)

  1. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    P.S.A. Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which are then approximately linearized. To deal with the uncertain nature of the item demand levels, we apply a Monte Carlo simulation-based method to generate finite and discrete sets of scenarios. Moreover, the proposed approach does not require restricted assumptions to the behavior of the probabilistic phenomena, as does several existing methods in the literature. Numerical experiments with the proposed approach for randomly generated instances of the problem show results with errors around 1%.

  2. Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising......Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish...... the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA...

  3. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control.

    Steve E Bellan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared across different extrinsic incubation periods. Compared to a more realistic age dependent model, constant mortality models overestimated the sensitivity of disease transmission to interventions that reduce mosquito survival. Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.

  4. Effect of air pollution control on life expectancy in the United States: an analysis of 545 U.S. counties for the period from 2000 to 2007.

    Correia, Andrew W; Pope, C Arden; Dockery, Douglas W; Wang, Yun; Ezzati, Majid; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    In recent years (2000-2007), ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have continued to decline as a result of interventions, but the decline has been at a slower rate than previous years (1980-2000). Whether these more recent and slower declines of PM2.5 levels continue to improve life expectancy and whether they benefit all populations equally is unknown. We assembled a data set for 545 U.S. counties consisting of yearly county-specific average PM2.5, yearly county-specific life expectancy, and several potentially confounding variables measuring socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence, and demographic characteristics for the years 2000 and 2007. We used regression models to estimate the association between reductions in PM2.5 and changes in life expectancy for the period from 2000 to 2007. A decrease of 10 μg/m in the concentration of PM2.5 was associated with an increase in mean life expectancy of 0.35 years (SD = 0.16 years, P = 0.033). This association was stronger in more urban and densely populated counties. Reductions in PM2.5 were associated with improvements in life expectancy for the period from 2000 to 2007. Air pollution control in the last decade has continued to have a positive impact on public health.

  5. Clinical efficacy and safety of pamidronate therapy on bone mass density in early post-renal transplant period: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Zijie Wang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The overall effect of pamidronate on bone mass density (BMD in the early renal transplant period varies considerably among studies. The effects of pamidronate on graft function have not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and Embase independently by two authors. Randomized controlled trials of pamidronate evaluating bone loss in the first year of renal transplantation were included. Methods reported in the "Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.2" were used to evaluate changes of lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, and serum creatinine, calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Fixed or random effect models were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Six randomized trials evaluating 281 patients were identified. One hundred forty-four were treated with pamidronate and 137 were control patients. Administration of pamidronate was associated with significant reduction of bone loss in the lumbar spine, compared to the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD  = 24.62 [16.25, 32.99]. There was no difference between the pamidronate treated and control femoral neck BMD (SMD  = 3.53 [-1.84, 8.90]. A significant increase in the serum creatinine level of the intervention group was seen, compared to the control group. The serum calcium and iPTH of the pamidronate and control groups were not different after 1 year (serum creatinine: SMD  = -3.101 [-5.33, -0.89]; serum calcium: SMD  = 2.18 [-0.8, 5.16]; serum iPTH: SMD  = 0.06 [-0.19, 0.31]. Heterogeneity was low for serum calcium and iPTH and high for serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial clinical efficacy of pamidronate on BMD with no association with any alteration in graft function during the first year of renal transplantation. Significant heterogeneity precludes the conclusion of the

  6. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  7. Understanding Mechanical Design with Respect to Manufacturability

    Mondell, Skyler

    2010-01-01

    At the NASA Prototype Development Laboratory in Kennedy Space Center, Fl, several projects concerning different areas of mechanical design were undertaken in order to better understand the relationship between mechanical design and manufacturabiIity. The assigned projects pertained specifically to the NASA Space Shuttle, Constellation, and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. During the work term, mechanical design practices relating to manufacturing processes were learned and utilized in order to obtain an understanding of mechanical design with respect to manufacturability.

  8. Nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Findings: Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. Conclusion: According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions. PMID:28546981

  9. Nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity.

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions.

  10. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  11. The effect of implant macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative period: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2017-10-01

    Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P implant type and time (P implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations of this study, macro-thread design appears to play a role in implant stability in the early post

  12. Honour and respect in Danish prisons

    Laursen, Julie; Laws, Ben

    2017-01-01

    to create accountable and rational actors, who ‘self-manage’, the therapeutic ethos neglects participants’ life experiences and subcultural capital. Open expressions of moral values by prisoners (such as displays of honour and respect) are considered to be cognitive distortions which are dismissed......Using empirical data from prison-based cognitive-behavioural programmes, this article considers how prisoners’ subcultural capital shapes their responses to demands for ‘cognitive self-change’. We argue that accounts of ‘respect’ in the prior literature fail to capture how prisoners react...

  13. Respect distances. Rationale and means of computation

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hoekmark, Harald [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Canisters with spent nuclear fuel can obviously not be located within deformation zones as this might jeopardise their long term mechanical stability and thereby constitute a potential hazard to the biosphere. Less apparent, but equally important, is the fact that earthquakes trigger reactivation, slip, of structures some distance from their hypocentres due to, among many other factors, stress redistribution. Fault slip across a deposition hole might damage the isolation capacity of the canister and thereby jeopardise the overall integrity of the barrier system. Therefore, the following question might be posed: What is the distance from a deformation zone beyond which a canister can be safely emplaced? This respect distance cannot be readily computed because, unknown future events aside, there are some complicated aspects that need to be addressed e.g. degree of conservatism, scale, our ability to model ice sheets and earthquakes, etc. In this report we discuss various aspects of the assignment of respect distances, propose a methodology for its assignment and apply the methodology to the Forsmark Site as a worked example. Our main concern, in the context discussed in this report, is the post glacial faults anticipated to occur after the next glaciations. To properly address conservativeness, analysis of risk, and its implementation in safety analysis, we provide an extensive compilation of our current knowledge on post glacial faults as an appendix.

  14. Respect distances. Rationale and means of computation

    Munier, Raymond; Hoekmark, Harald

    2004-12-01

    Canisters with spent nuclear fuel can obviously not be located within deformation zones as this might jeopardise their long term mechanical stability and thereby constitute a potential hazard to the biosphere. Less apparent, but equally important, is the fact that earthquakes trigger reactivation, slip, of structures some distance from their hypocentres due to, among many other factors, stress redistribution. Fault slip across a deposition hole might damage the isolation capacity of the canister and thereby jeopardise the overall integrity of the barrier system. Therefore, the following question might be posed: What is the distance from a deformation zone beyond which a canister can be safely emplaced? This respect distance cannot be readily computed because, unknown future events aside, there are some complicated aspects that need to be addressed e.g. degree of conservatism, scale, our ability to model ice sheets and earthquakes, etc. In this report we discuss various aspects of the assignment of respect distances, propose a methodology for its assignment and apply the methodology to the Forsmark Site as a worked example. Our main concern, in the context discussed in this report, is the post glacial faults anticipated to occur after the next glaciations. To properly address conservativeness, analysis of risk, and its implementation in safety analysis, we provide an extensive compilation of our current knowledge on post glacial faults as an appendix

  15. Promoting respect at home and abroad

    2015-01-01

    This week, I’d like to focus on respect, whether at home, at work or on the international scene. Last week, I had the opportunity to visit the SESAME laboratory in Jordan along with the new European Commissioner for Research, Carlos Moedas. Since taking up his post, Mr Moedas has attached great importance to the role science can play in diplomacy, and the visit was on his initiative.   Through the EU-funded CESSAMag project, CERN is coordinating the provision of magnets and power supplies for the SESAME main ring. The first are currently being tested at CERN by a team involving accelerator scientists from the SESAME members, and all are due to be delivered to SESAME in time for commissioning in the second half of 2016. SESAME, and CERN’s contribution to the project, are well documented in the pages of the Bulletin, but what really impresses when you visit the lab is the diversity of people working there and the degree of mutual respect they show to each other. SESAME will...

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.

  17. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  18. Manger hors norme, respecter les normes

    Régnier, Faustine

    2007-01-01

    Fondée sur un corpus de près de 10 000 recettes de cuisine de la presse féminine française et allemande (1930‑2000), cette contribution met en évidence la façon dont l’exotisme permet de manger hors norme tout en restant dans les normes. Les pratiques culinaires étrangères ne peuvent être adoptées qu’au terme d’un travail de normalisation. Elles sont modifiées de manière à ce que soient respectées les normes du pays d’accueil, par là même mises en œuvre. Elles sont donc conçues comme un ensem...

  19. A workplace marked by respect and understanding

    2010-01-01

    Integrity, commitment, professionalism, creativity and diversity: five words that each and every one of us at CERN can identify with, because they represent the core values of this Organization. That’s why they have been chosen as the starting point for our new Code of Conduct, which is being launched this week.  A Code of Conduct describes the basic standards and rules of behaviour that we can expect in the workplace, and it is a statement of the way we see our Organization’s values. CERN’s mission is fundamental research in physics: pushing back the frontiers of human knowledge. In support of that mission, we drive innovation, stimulate international collaboration and inspire a rising generation of scientists. We do all this while respecting the highest ethical standards, and it is this aspect of CERN life that the Code of Conduct describes. CERN’s Code of Conduct has been developed through a collaborative and transparent process to foster shared appre...

  20. Respectful doubts on the new ICRP recommendations

    Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1992-01-01

    The admiration and deference an International Organization, as ICRP, deserves not only by its altruistic mission but also by the eminent and distinguished scientists who work for it, in some way 'dazzles' to simple students of its theories and, in some way 'force' us to accept, sometimes without any critical, serious and previous meditation, its recommendations. But it is not the bad thing this kind of 'blindness' we have before the almighty ...ICRP dixit..., the worst thing is that non-specialist and non-specialized persons believe as 'dogmas' and 'axioms' the ICRP recommednations and make of them legal dispositions through standards and regulations. Standards an regulations which can frustate an industrial or any other type of peaceful nuclear activity due to the economic or the social reasons derived from ICRP recommendations. The inflexibility (weakened in the arguments but strengthened in the recommendations) of this influent Organism on the 'linearity without threshold' in the dose-effect relationship and the compromises of the International Labor Organization (ILO) with respect ICRP recommedations provole irrational, ilogical and non desirable answers. (author)

  1. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests.

  2. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the Trypanosoma cruzi proliferative cycle identifies the periodically expressed mRNAs and their multiple levels of control.

    Santiago Chávez

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan parasite causing American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease, a neglected parasitosis with important human health impact in Latin America. The efficacy of current therapy is limited, and its toxicity is high. Since parasite proliferation is a fundamental target for rational drug design, we sought to progress into its understanding by applying a genome-wide approach. Treating a TcI linage strain with hydroxyurea, we isolated epimastigotes in late G1, S and G2/M cell cycle stages at 70% purity. The sequencing of each phase identified 305 stage-specific transcripts (1.5-fold change, p≤0.01, coding for conserved cell cycle regulated proteins and numerous proteins whose cell cycle dependence has not been recognized before. Comparisons with the parasite T. brucei and the human host reveal important differences. The meta-analysis of T. cruzi transcriptomic and ribonomic data indicates that cell cycle regulated mRNAs are subject to sub-cellular compartmentalization. Compositional and structural biases of these genes- including CAI, GC content, UTR length, and polycistron position- may contribute to their regulation. To discover nucleotide motifs responsible for the co-regulation of cell cycle regulated genes, we looked for overrepresented motifs at their UTRs and found a variant of the cell cycle sequence motif at the 3' UTR of most of the S and G2 stage genes. We additionally identified hairpin structures at the 5' UTRs of a high proportion of the transcripts, suggesting that periodic gene expression might also rely on translation initiation in T. cruzi. In summary, we report a comprehensive list of T. cruzi cell cycle regulated genes, including many previously unstudied proteins, we show evidence favoring a multi-step control of their expression, and we identify mRNA motifs that may mediate their regulation. Our results provide novel information of the T. cruzi proliferative proteins and the integrated levels of

  3. Contribution of nucleus accumbens core (AcbC to behavior control during a learned resting period: introduction of a novel task and lesion experiments.

    Chika Sato

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of resting state neural activity has received much attention. To better understand the roles of different brain regions in the regulation of behavioral activity in an arousing or a resting period, we developed a novel behavioral paradigm (8-arm food-foraging task; 8-arm FFT using the radial 8-arm maze and examined how AcbC lesions affect behavioral execution and learning. Repetitive training on the 8-arm FFT facilitated motivation of normal rats to run quickly to the arm tips and to the center platform before the last-reward collection. Importantly, just after this point and before confirmation of no reward at the next arm traverse, locomotor activity decreased. This indicates that well-trained rats can predict the absence of the reward at the end of food seeking and then start another behavior, namely planned resting. Lesions of the AcbC after training selectively impaired this reduction of locomotor activity after the last-reward collection without changing activity levels before the last-reward collection. Analysis of arm-selection patterns in the lesioned animals suggests little influence of the lesion in the ability to predict the reward absence. AcbC lesions did not change exploratory locomotor activity in an open-field test in which there were no rewards. This suggests that the AcbC controls the activity level of planned resting behavior shaped by the 8-arm FFT. Rats receiving training after AcbC lesioning showed a reduction in motivation for reward seeking. Thus, the AcbC also plays important roles not only in controlling the activity level after the last-reward collection but also in motivational learning for setting the activity level of reward-seeking behavior.

  4. The phospho-occupancy of an atypical SLIMB-binding site on PERIOD that is phosphorylated by DOUBLETIME controls the pace of the clock.

    Chiu, Joanna C; Vanselow, Jens T; Kramer, Achim; Edery, Isaac

    2008-07-01

    A common feature of animal circadian clocks is the progressive phosphorylation of PERIOD (PER) proteins, which is highly dependent on casein kinase Idelta/epsilon (CKIdelta/epsilon; termed DOUBLETIME [DBT] in Drosophila) and ultimately leads to the rapid degradation of hyperphosphorylated isoforms via a mechanism involving the F-box protein, beta-TrCP (SLIMB in Drosophila). Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster model system, and show that a key step in controlling the speed of the clock is phosphorylation of an N-terminal Ser (S47) by DBT, which collaborates with other nearby phosphorylated residues to generate a high-affinity atypical SLIMB-binding site on PER. DBT-dependent increases in the phospho-occupancy of S47 are temporally gated, dependent on the centrally located DBT docking site on PER and partially counterbalanced by protein phosphatase activity. We propose that the gradual DBT-mediated phosphorylation of a nonconsensus SLIMB-binding site establishes a temporal threshold for when in a daily cycle the majority of PER proteins are tagged for rapid degradation. Surprisingly, most of the hyperphosphorylation is unrelated to direct effects on PER stability. We also use mass spectrometry to map phosphorylation sites on PER, leading to the identification of a number of "phospho-clusters" that explain several of the classic per mutants.

  5. Information Technology Management: Report in Defense Business Management System Controls Placed in Operation and Tests of Operating Effectiveness for the Period October 1, 2004 through May 15, 2005

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Beima, Addie M; Perkins, Michael; Stavenjord, Kenneth H; Roberts, Donna A; Vines, Shurman; Gladden, Cindy; Tran, Ahn; Stewart, Towanda L

    2005-01-01

    ... to an audit of financial statements; (2) the controls included in the description were suitably designed to achieve the control objectives specified in the description, if those controls were complied with satisfactorily, and user organizations applied the controls contemplated in tbe design of controls at DFAS and DISA; and (3) such controls had been placed in operation as of May 15, 2005.

  6. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of providing information on childbirth and postnatal period to partners of pregnant women.

    Takehara, Kenji; Okamura, Makoto; Sugiura, Naomi; Suto, Maiko; Sasaki, Hatoko; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-07-27

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the distribution of a booklet providing information to fathers during their partners' pregnancies on fathers' and mothers' postpartum mental health and quality of life (QOL), as well as on fathers' childcare participation and living situations. This randomised controlled trial will comprise 554 couples consisting of pregnant women due to give birth at an obstetric institution in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and their partners. Participants will be recruited during prenatal check-ups in the third trimester, and those who provide written consent will be allocated randomly to an intervention and a control group. The pregnant women's partners allocated to the intervention group will be given a booklet written for men containing information on childbirth and postnatal period. Its content will include matters such as what preparations the partner should make before birth and tips for housework and childcare as well as how to prevent unintentional injury to the baby. The control group will not receive any intervention. A baseline survey in the third trimester and follow-up surveys at 1 and 3 months post partum will be carried out using self-administered questionnaires. The primary outcome is the proportion of new mothers' partners at risk for paternal depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥8). Secondary outcomes include the risk of postnatal depression in new mothers, QOL of new mothers and their partners, partners' knowledge of and engagement in housework and childcare, marital relations and parenting stress on the part of new mothers. This study has been approved by the Ethical Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. The results of the study will be widely disseminated as peer-reviewed papers and at international conferences, with the aim of improving public health services in Japan. UMIN000021475; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  7. A periodic table for cancer.

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  8. Respect-Due and Respect-Earned: Negotiating Student-Teacher Relationships

    Goodman, Joan F.

    2009-01-01

    Respect is a cardinal virtue in schools and foundational to our common ethical beliefs, yet its meaning is muddled. For philosophers Kant, Mill, and Rawls, whose influential theories span three centuries, respect includes appreciation of universal human dignity, equality, and autonomy. In their view children, possessors of human dignity, but…

  9. "We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

  10. Research as a Respectful Practice: An Exploration of the Practice of Respect in Qualitative Research

    O'Grady, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of respect within qualitative research methods. As interpersonal respect plays a significant role in the esteem felt within a relationship, it can also serve to cultivate trust between researchers and their participants in a research study. This article details the findings of a research study examining respect…

  11. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  12. Medical Records and Correspondence Demand Respect

    M Benamer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: I was amazed recently to see a patient from Libya who came to the UK for treatment based on the advice of his Libyan physicians. The patient carried with him no referral letter whatsoever. Not one physician familiar with his case bothered to write a few lines for the poor patient, although each of those doctors saw the patient at least twice and prescribed one or more treatment. The patient carried with him different medications that had been prescribed, and a few empty containers of other medicines he had used. I mention the above short tale to bring to light what I feel is a major ethical problem with the way medicine is practiced in Libya [1]. The keeping of good medical records together with clear and concise correspondence between physicians is imperative for several reasons. Not only does it avoid duplication of services and unnecessary costs, it decreases the time invested by both the patient and physician, and it fosters a collegial relationship among healthcare providers. Many times, referring physicians may not know each other. It provides a channel for them to learn from each other as well as a method for them to form professional relationships. It occurred to me that colleagues in Libya may be shy of writing referral letters or may even be phobic about disclosing their practice habits. Patient information can best be written as referral letters which summaries the patient presentation, testing, response to treatment, possible consultation, and reason for referral. The referral may be because the physician(s initially treating the patient simply have tried all treatments known to them, or they may need to refer if they lack certain diagnostic equipment necessary to continue the care. To refer the patient to colleagues simply says “we think more can be done for this patient but we may not be able to do it here; please evaluate.” It shows respect for the patient and for the colleague. No physician knows everything

  13. Terminology report respect distance. The Use of the term respect distance in Posiva and SKB

    Lampinen, H.

    2007-09-01

    The term respect distance is used in some key publications of the Finnish Nuclear Waste Management Company, Posiva, and the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company, SKB (Svensk Kaernbrenslehantering). Posiva and SKB researchers use the same terms in their reports, and it is acknowledged that the terms used by both companies are not used in the same way, though the differences are often subtle. This report is a literature study of the term 'respect distance' and the terms immediately associated to it. Vital terms related to the respect distance and issues concerning the use of scale concepts in Posiva and SKB are gathered in the end of report. Posiva's respect distances consider the seismic, hydrological and mechanical properties of the deterministic deformation zones as important issues that constitute a risk for longterm safety. These requirements for respect distances are an interpretation of STUK's YVL 8.4 Guide. At present, Posiva's criteria regarding respect distances follow the instructions given in the Host Rock Classification system (HRC), whereas the size of a deformation zone to which respect distances are applied vary from the regional to local major and minor. This and other criteria that are given for respect distances may, however, change in the near future as Posiva's Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC) programme proceeds. SKB's considerations of respect distances acknowledge that the hydraulic and mechanical aspects of a deformation zone have an effect on the respect distance. However, the seismic risk is considered to overshadow the other effects on a regional scale. The respect distance defined for a deformation zone is coupled with the size of a fracture where secondary slip could occur. In the safety assessment it is assumed that this fracture cuts a deposition hole location. In SKB the respect distance is determined for regional and local major deformation zones. The trace length of such a zone is defined as being ≥ 3 km. For deformation zones

  14. Survival of bonded lingual retainers with chemical or photo polymerization over a 2-year period: a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Kloukos, Dimitrios; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this trial was to compare the survival rates of mandibular lingual retainers bonded with either chemically cured or light-cured adhesive after orthodontic treatment. Patients having undergone orthodontic treatment at a private orthodontic office were randomly allocated to fixed retainers placed with chemically cured composite or light-cured composite. Eligibility criteria included no active caries, restorations, or fractures on the mandibular anterior teeth, and adequate oral hygiene. The main outcome was any type of first-time lingual retainer breakage; pattern of failure (adapted adhesive remnant index scores) was a secondary outcome. Randomization was accomplished with random permuted blocks of 20 patients with allocation concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Blinding was applicable for outcome assessment only. Patients were reviewed at 1, 3, and 6 months and then every 6 months after placement of the retainer until completion of the study. Data were analyzed using survival analysis including Cox regression; sensitivity analysis was carried out after data imputation for subjects lost to follow-up. Two hundred twenty patients (median age, 16 years; interquartile range, 2; range, 12-47 years) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either chemical or light curing. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, the median follow-up period was 2.19 years (range, 0.003-3.64 years), and 16 patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 47 of 110 (42.7%) and 55 of 110 (50.0%) retainers had some type of failure with chemically cured and light-cured adhesive, respectively (log-rank test, P = 0.35). Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.70; P = 0.47). There was weak evidence that age is a significant predictor for lingual retainer failures (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00; P = 0.08). Adhesive remnant index scoring was

  15. Transient period analysis of a distillation column using a control approach with distributed heating; Analise do periodo transiente de uma coluna de destilacao usando abordagem de controle com aquecimento distribuido

    Werle, Leandro O.; Steinmacher, Fernanda R.; Marangoni, Cintia; Araujo, Pedro H.H de; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Sayer, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The distillation process is widely used in oil refineries. The non-linear behavior, the coupling between variables and the high time constants, associated to the response delay, result in long transient periods operating out of the desired conditions, obtaining out of specification products. Even with several researches in more and more complex control approaches, few works approached the aspect of transient minimization. Moreover, the control of distillation columns is carried out centralized at the bottom and the top. In the present work the effect of the distributed control is evaluated, through the electric resistance located on an intermediate tray of the column. The objective of the work is reducing the operation transients when a disturbance is applied. For the current study, experiments have been carried out in a pilot distillation unit composed of 13 trays and instrumented in fieldbus, processing an ethanol-water mixture. Step disturbances of 50% in the feeding flow rate of have been carried out. The comparison of the results showed that the introduction of the distributed heating throughout the column allows faster dynamics, revealing itself as a valid option for the transient reduction. (author)

  16. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of metformin versus combined oral contraceptives in adolescent PCOS women through a 24 month follow up period

    H.A. El Maghraby

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare metformin and combined oral contraceptive pill (COC effects over 24 months in adolescent PCOS. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: Alexandria ICSI centre. Patients: 117 adolescent girls with PCOS, were randomized to: group A (n = 40: metformin, group B (n = 40: COC, and group C (n = 39: control. Interventions: Group A: received metformin, group B: received combined oral contraceptives. Main outcome measures: Improvement in cycle rhythm and hirsutism. Results: In group B a significant decline in serum testosterone reached the lowest value by the end of the second year (0.7 ± 0.2 versus 1.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. By the end of the study, group A showed a significant decline in fasting (18.6 ± 3.0–10.0 ± 3.0 μIU/ml and after-load insulin levels (126 ± 43–64 ± 15 μIU/ml with a significant rise in glucose/insulin ratio (GIR from 4.1 ± 0.3 to 4.6 ± 0.5. Group B showed a significant rise in fasting and after-load insulin (from 15.0 ± 3.0 μIU/ml and 103.0 ± 91.0 μIU/ml to 19.0 ± 4.0 and 187.0 ± 22.0 μIU/ml, respectively and GIR dropped significantly from 4.4 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3. Metformin was associated with a significant loss of weight from 87.0 ± 6.0 to 72.0 ± 0.5 kg while COC was associated with a non-significant gain in weight (from 84.0 ± 6.0 to 91.0 ± 9.0 kg. Conclusions: Metformin and COC have comparable therapeutic effectiveness on cycle regularity and hirsutism. Metformin was associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome, while COC was associated with a deterioration of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin add-on to insulin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label period.

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuoki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Miyayama, Kyoko; Yokota, Shoko; Terata, Ryuji; Gouda, Maki

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period. The difference between placebo and teneligliptin in change in HbA1c in the double-blind period (least squares mean ± SE) was -0.80% ± 0.11%; teneligliptin was superior (ANCOVA, P 1). The HbA1c-lowering effect of teneligliptin was maintained throughout the open-label period. The incidence of adverse events was 53.5% with placebo and 44.2% with teneligliptin in the double-blind period, 66.7% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period, and 77.9% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. The incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms was 11.1% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period and 27.3% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. Teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control. NCT02081599.

  19. Acute glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes of three strategies for interrupting prolonged sitting time in postmenopausal women: A pilot, laboratory-based, randomized, controlled, 4-condition, 4-period crossover trial.

    Jacqueline Kerr

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most is unclear.In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2 in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b 2 minutes walking every hour; and c 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size.Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second

  20. Everywhere divergent Fourier series with respect to the Walsh system and with respect to multiplicative systems

    Bochkarev, S V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new construction of everywhere divergent Fourier-Walsh series is presented. This construction enables one to halve the gap in the Lebesgue-Orlicz classes between the Schipp-Moon lower bound established by using Kolmogorov's construction and the Sjoelin upper bound obtained by using Carleson's method. Fourier series which are everywhere divergent after a rearrangement are constructed with respect to the Walsh system (and to more general systems of characters) with the best lower bound for the Weyl factor. Some results related to an upper bound of the majorant for partial sums of series with respect to rearranged multiplicative systems are established. The results thus obtained show certain merits of harmonic analysis on the dyadic group in clarifying and overcoming fundamental difficulties in the solution of the main problems of Fourier analysis

  1. Effect of Different Growth Stages and Dew Period Length on Disease Development of Alternaria alternata as a Biological Control Agent for Convolvulus arvensis

    E Zeidali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Field bindweed is an important perinial weed of agricultural crops word-wide. There are plant pathogen fungus which could cause necrotic spots on the leaves and stems of convolvulus arvensis under natural coditions. In order to evaluate the effects of weed growth stage and length of dew period on disease development causes by Aletrnaria alternata and Fusarium sp. two expriments were performed in the greenhouse based on a completely randomized design in factorial arrangement with four replications during 2006-2007. Spore concentration for both experiments was 107 spores per ml of distilled water. In the first experiment, treatments were different growth stages of field bindweed (cotyledon, 4-leaf, 6-leaf, 9-11-leaf stages. Results showed that disease development in the fungus of A. alternata was higher than Fusarium sp. The most susceptable growth stage of field bindweed plants to A. alternata was 2-4-leave stage. The second expriment was performed in order to study the effect of dew period length (6, 12, 24 and 48 hour dew periods on disease development at 4-leaf growth stage of field bindweed. The maximum disease development and minimum weed dry weight were observed with application of the fungus of A. alternata at dew periods of 24 and 48 hour, however, plant damage was also observed with a length of 6 hours dew period.

  2. The Scope of the Obligation to Respect and to Ensure Respect for International Humanitarian Law

    Tomasz Zych

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article disputes what seems to have become the dominant interpretation of the obligation to respect and to ensure respect for International Humanitarian Law, as codified in common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions and in Article 1(1 of Additional Protocol I. According to this dominant interpretation, States are required to take all appropriate measures to ensure that IHL is observed universally, including by other States and by non-State actors operating in other States. It is argued that the intention of the High Contracting Parties, coupled with their subsequent practice, calls for a much more narrow interpretation of that obligation. Cet article conteste ce qui semble être devenue l’interprétation dominante de l’obligation de respecter et de faire respecter le Droit International Humanitaire, tel que codifiée à l’article 1 commun aux Conventions de Genève et à l’article 1(1 du Protocole additionnel I. Selon cette interprétation dominante, les États doivent prendre toutes les mesures appropriées pour assurer que le DIH soit observé de façon universelle, y compris par d’autres États ainsi que par des acteurs non étatiques qui opèrent à l’intérieur d’autres États. On soutient que l’intention des Hautes Parties contractantes, en conjonction avec leur pratique subséquentes, laisse entendre une interprétation beaucoup plus étroite de cette obligation.

  3. Efeito de períodos de controle de plantas daninhas sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de eucalipto Effects of weed control periods on initial growth and development of eucalypt

    R.E.B. Toledo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos períodos de convivência e de controle de Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Para isso, um ensaio foi conduzido, no município de Três Lagoas-MS, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1997. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram de diferentes épocas e períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na cultura do eucalipto. As épocas foram divididas em dois grupos. No primeiro, a convivência se iniciava no transplante das mudas e era estendida até 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 e 364 dias após. No segundo grupo, a convivência se iniciava aos 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224 e 252 dias após o transplante e era estendida até o final de um ano. As principais plantas daninhas que ocorreram na área experimental foram Brachiaria decumbens e Spermacocea latifola. As plantas jovens de eucalipto foram bastante suscetíveis à interferência das plantas daninhas, apresentando um período anterior à interferência inferior a 14-28 dias. Para assegurar o desenvolvimento da cultura, o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 140 dias, e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência, de 14-28 a 140 dias após o transplante, considerando o índice de 5% de redução em diâmetro.A field trial was carried out in Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil, from January to December of 1997, to study the effects of control and coexistence period of Brachiaria decumbens on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of different periods of weed-eucalypt association. The periods were divided in two groups. In the first one, the weed-eucalypt coexistence initiated during the eucalypt transplanting, continuing up to 28, 56, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 and 364 days after it. In the second group, the

  4. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  5. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Ghasemi Gojani, Marzieh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah

    2018-04-01

    The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) and problem-solving skills training (PSS) on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treatment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. On the 10 th th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42) and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05) and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7) (P<0.001), but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial

    Marzieh Ghasemi gojani, , ,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI and problem-solving skills training (PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treat- ment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. Results On the 10th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42 and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05 and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7 (P<0.001, but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. Conclusion According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1.

  7. Information Technology Management: Report on Standard Finance System Controls Placed in Operation and Tests of Operating Effectiveness for the Period October 1, 2004 through March 31, 2005

    2005-01-01

    .... Department of Defense personnel who manage and use the Standard Finance System (STANFINS) will also find this report of interest as it contains information about STANFINS general and application controls...

  8. Statistical Review of surface dose in the period 1995-2010, measured by different types of TLD dosimeters

    Pastor Antolin, S.; Munoz Blasco, J.; Llansana Arnalot, J.; Gultresa Colomer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the evolution of the number of special controls over the period 1985 to 2010 and the evolution of the doses in the period 1995 to 2010. Comparing the standard dose extremities respect to whole body in cases where users use both types of control in the same installation.

  9. Sustained Malaria Control Over an 8-Year Period in Papua New Guinea: The Challenge of Low-Density Asymptomatic Plasmodium Infections.

    Koepfli, Cristian; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Jally, Shadrach; Malau, Elisheba; Maripal, Samuel; Ginny, Jason; Timinao, Lincoln; Kattenberg, Johanna Helena; Obadia, Thomas; White, Michael; Rarau, Patricia; Senn, Nicolas; Barry, Alyssa E; Kazura, James W; Mueller, Ivo; Robinson, Leanne J

    2017-12-12

    The scale-up of effective malaria control in the last decade has resulted in a substantial decline in the incidence of clinical malaria in many countries. The effects on the proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections and on transmission potential are yet poorly understood. In Papua New Guinea, vector control has been intensified since 2008, and improved diagnosis and treatment was introduced in 2012. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Madang Province in 2006 (with 1280 survey participants), 2010 (with 2117 participants), and 2014 (with 2516 participants). Infections were quantified by highly sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and gametocytes were quantified by reverse-transcription qPCR analysis. Plasmodium falciparum prevalence determined by qPCR decreased from 42% in 2006 to 9% in 2014. The P. vivax prevalence decreased from 42% in 2006 to 13% in 2010 but then increased to 20% in 2014. Parasite densities decreased 5-fold from 2006 to 2010; 72% of P. falciparum and 87% of P. vivax infections were submicroscopic in 2014. Gametocyte density and positivity correlated closely with parasitemia, and population gametocyte prevalence decreased 3-fold for P. falciparum and 29% for P. vivax from 2010 to 2014. Sustained control has resulted in reduced malaria transmission potential, but an increasing proportion of gametocyte carriers are asymptomatic and submicroscopic and represent a challenge to malaria control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  11. The natural history of subjective tinnitus in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of no-intervention periods in controlled trials.

    Phillips, John S; McFerran, Don J; Hall, Deborah A; Hoare, Derek J

    2018-01-01

    Tinnitus is a prevalent condition, but little has been published regarding the natural history of the condition. One technique for evaluating the long-term progression of the disease is to examine what happens to participants in the no-intervention control arm of a clinical trial. The aim of this study was to examine no-intervention or waiting-list data reported in trials, in which participants on the active arm received any form of tinnitus intervention. CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE, ASSIA, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO Host, and Cochrane. Inclusion criteria followed the PICOS principles: Participants, adults with tinnitus; Intervention, none; Control, any intervention for alleviating tinnitus; Outcomes, a measure assessing tinnitus symptoms using a multi-item patient-reported tinnitus questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures included multi-item patient-reported questionnaires of mood and health-related quality of life and measures that quantified change in tinnitus loudness; Study design, randomized controlled trials or observational studies utilizing a no-intervention or waiting-list control group. Data were extracted and standardized mean difference was calculated for each study to enable meta-analysis. The evidence strongly favored a statistically significant decrease in the impact of tinnitus over time, though there was significant heterogeneity and clinical significance cannot be interpreted. Outcome data regarding secondary measures did not demonstrate any clinically significant change. Participants allocated to the no-intervention or waiting-list control arm of clinical trials for a tinnitus intervention show a small but significant improvement in self-reported measures of tinnitus with time; the clinical significance of this finding is unknown. There is, however, considerable variation across individuals. These findings support previous work and can cautiously be used when counseling patients. Laryngoscope, 128:217-227, 2018. © 2017 The

  12. Controlled Manipulation with a Bose–Einstein Condensates N-Soliton Train under the Influence of Harmonic and Tilted Periodic Potentials

    Feng-De, Zong; Jie-Fang, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A model of the perturbed complex Toda chain (PCTC) to describe the dynamics of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) N-soliton train trapped in an applied combined external potential consisting of both a weak harmonic and tilted periodic component is first developed. Using the developed theory, the BEC N-soliton train dynamics is shown to be well approximated by 4N coupled nonlinear differential equations, which describe the fundamental interactions in the system arising from the interplay of amplitude, velocity, centre-of-mass position, and phase. The simplified analytic theory allows for an efficient and convenient method for characterizing the BEC N-soliton train behaviour. It further gives the critical values of the strength of the potential for which one or more localized states can be extracted from a soliton train and demonstrates that the BEC N-soliton train can move selectively from one lattice site to another by simply manipulating the strength of the potential. (general)

  13. Controlling optical properties of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays by changing the substrate, topologic shapes of nanoparticles, and polarization direction of incident light

    Ting, Li; Li, Yu; Zhi-Xin, Lu; Gang, Song; Kai, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various parameters including thickness and dielectric constants of substrates, shapes of nanoparticles, and polarization direction of incident light, on the extinction spectra of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays are investigated by the full-vectorial three-dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The calculated results show that the substrate affects the extinction spectra by coupling the fields co-excited by the substrate and gold nanoparticles. Extinction spectra are influenced by the shapes of the nanoparticles, but there are no obvious changes in extinction spectra for similar shapes. The polarization direction of incident light has a great influence on the extinction spectra. The implications of these results are discussed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Controlled biomass formation and kinetics of toluene degradation in a bioscrubber and in a reactor with a periodically moved trickle-bed.

    Wübker, S M; Laurenzis, A; Werner, U; Friedrich, C

    1997-08-20

    The kinetics of degradation of toluene from a model waste gas and of biomass formation were examined in a bioscrubber operated under different nutrient limitations with a mixed culture. The applicability of the kinetics of continuous cultivation of the mixed culture was examined for a special trickle-bed reactor with a periodically moved filter bed. The efficiency of toluene elimination of the bioscrubber was 50 to 57% and depended on the toluene mass transfer as evident from a constant productivity of 0.026 g dry cell weight/L . h over the dilution rate. Under potassium limitation the biomass productivity was reduced by 60% to 0.011 g dry cell weight/L . h at a dilution rate of 0.013/h. Conversely, at low dilution rates the specific toluene degradation rates increased. Excess biomass in a trickle-bed reactor causes reduction of interfacial area and mass transfer, and increase in pressure drop. To avoid these disadvantages, the trickle-bed was moved periodically and biomass was removed with outflowing medium. The concentration of steady state biomass fixed on polyamide beads decreased hyperbolically with the dilution rate. Also, the efficiency of toluene degradation decreased from 72 to 56% with increasing dilution rate while the productivity increased. Potassium limitation generally caused a reduction in biomass, productivity, and yield while the specific degradation increased with dilution rate. This allowed the application of the principles of the chemostat to the trickle-bed reactor described here, for toluene degradation from waste gases. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 686-692, 1997.

  15. The effect of tobacco control measures during a period of rising cardiovascular disease risk in India: a mathematical model of myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Sanjay Basu

    Full Text Available We simulated tobacco control and pharmacological strategies for preventing cardiovascular deaths in India, the country that is expected to experience more cardiovascular deaths than any other over the next decade.A microsimulation model was developed to quantify the differential effects of various tobacco control measures and pharmacological therapies on myocardial infarction and stroke deaths stratified by age, gender, and urban/rural status for 2013 to 2022. The model incorporated population-representative data from India on multiple risk factors that affect myocardial infarction and stroke mortality, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. We also included data from India on cigarette smoking, bidi smoking, chewing tobacco, and secondhand smoke. According to the model's results, smoke-free legislation and tobacco taxation would likely be the most effective strategy among a menu of tobacco control strategies (including, as well, brief cessation advice by health care providers, mass media campaigns, and an advertising ban for reducing myocardial infarction and stroke deaths over the next decade, while cessation advice would be expected to be the least effective strategy at the population level. In combination, these tobacco control interventions could avert 25% of myocardial infarctions and strokes (95% CI: 17%-34% if the effects of the interventions are additive. These effects are substantially larger than would be achieved through aspirin, antihypertensive, and statin therapy under most scenarios, because of limited treatment access and adherence; nevertheless, the impacts of tobacco control policies and pharmacological interventions appear to be markedly synergistic, averting up to one-third of deaths from myocardial infarction and stroke among 20- to 79-y-olds over the next 10 y. Pharmacological therapies could also be considerably more potent with further health system

  16. The effect of tobacco control measures during a period of rising cardiovascular disease risk in India: a mathematical model of myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Basu, Sanjay; Glantz, Stanton; Bitton, Asaf; Millett, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We simulated tobacco control and pharmacological strategies for preventing cardiovascular deaths in India, the country that is expected to experience more cardiovascular deaths than any other over the next decade. A microsimulation model was developed to quantify the differential effects of various tobacco control measures and pharmacological therapies on myocardial infarction and stroke deaths stratified by age, gender, and urban/rural status for 2013 to 2022. The model incorporated population-representative data from India on multiple risk factors that affect myocardial infarction and stroke mortality, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. We also included data from India on cigarette smoking, bidi smoking, chewing tobacco, and secondhand smoke. According to the model's results, smoke-free legislation and tobacco taxation would likely be the most effective strategy among a menu of tobacco control strategies (including, as well, brief cessation advice by health care providers, mass media campaigns, and an advertising ban) for reducing myocardial infarction and stroke deaths over the next decade, while cessation advice would be expected to be the least effective strategy at the population level. In combination, these tobacco control interventions could avert 25% of myocardial infarctions and strokes (95% CI: 17%-34%) if the effects of the interventions are additive. These effects are substantially larger than would be achieved through aspirin, antihypertensive, and statin therapy under most scenarios, because of limited treatment access and adherence; nevertheless, the impacts of tobacco control policies and pharmacological interventions appear to be markedly synergistic, averting up to one-third of deaths from myocardial infarction and stroke among 20- to 79-y-olds over the next 10 y. Pharmacological therapies could also be considerably more potent with further health system improvements. Smoke

  17. Periodically modulated dark states

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  18. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of trade unions to supervision and control of legislation on labor maintenance in the period of establishment in Ukraine in 1917–1921

    Галина Василівна Терела

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, on the basis of the conducted analysis of the resolutions, instructions, subtitles of the People's Commissariat of Labor of the UkrSSR, the memoranda of the local departments of labor as well-known and for the first time discovered in the archival funds, it was determined that the factory and plant committees and local service committees, being primary centers of All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions, served as a low authority to legislation on labor legislation maintenance. For this purpose, under the factory committees and trade unions permanent commissions were established for labor protection. The order of the involvement of trade unions to the election of labor (legal, out of district and sanitary labor inspectors, controllers of the People's Committee of state control is analyzed. It was clarified that in practice the involvement of trade unions in the activity of supervision and control bodies in the field of labor was not as active as it was decreed, and was partially replaced by the party representation. It is confirmed that due to proclaimed at the tenth congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks the necessity of full transfer of functions on labor protection from the People's Commissariat of Labor to the All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions, the Labor inspectorate joined the board of trade unions with the preservation of all its state-compulsory functions, including control over the implementation of labor service, the fight against desertion. It is concluded that after the events of 1917, trade unions lost the role of antipodes of state power and began to play the role of its active ally, which stemmed from the class nature of the state of the proletariat, which was declared as a defender of the interests of workers.

  20. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  1. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  2. [Restoring dignity and respect to health care workers].

    Nedić, Olesja

    2006-01-01

    This year, the World Health Organization focuses on restoring dignity and respect to health care workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workplace stressors in physicians. The present study was performed in the period 2002 - 2004, among physicians treated in the Health Center Novi Sad. The examinees were asked to fill out a questionnaire--a workplace survey--to identify workplace stressors by using a self-evaluation method The physicians were divided into three groups: those practicing surgery (S), internal medicine (IM) and preventive-diagnostics (PD). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS and STATISTICA software. The sample included 208 physicians with an average age of 40 years (SD = 7,1); average work experience of 22 years (SD = 8,1). 65 physicians from group S and 108 physicians from group IM, identified the following workplace stressors: treating patients in life-threatening situations (47.7%, 30.6%, respectfully); on-call duty (13.8%, 12%); low salary (10.8%, 10.2%); limited diagnostic and therapeutic resources in the IM group. 35 physicians from the DP group identified the following stressors: low salary (25%), treating patients in life-threatening situations and a great number of patients (16%). The analysis of all examined physicians revealed the following workplace stressors: treating patients in life-threatening situations (34.6%), low salary (13%), on-call duty and overtime, and too many patients per physician (11.5%). Restoring the reputation of health workers can be done by providing new equipment to resolve life-threatening situations, by increasing salaries, reducing on-call time, as well as the number of patients. Generally speaking, this should help to improve the quality of work in the health care system, in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO.

  3. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus...

  4. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part II: The role of the upper ocean short-term periodic and episodic mixing events

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new production by 25% and 10% respectively relative to that predicted with daily and weekly forcing. This decrease varied regionally, being a 30% reduction in equatorial areas primarily because of increased light limitation resulting from deepening of the mixed layer overnight as well as enhanced storm activity, and 25% at moderate and high latitudes primarily due to increased grazing pressure resulting from late winter stratification events. Mini-blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occur in the model during these events, leading to zooplankton populations being sufficiently well developed to suppress the progress of phytoplankton blooms. A 10% increase in primary production was predicted in the peripheries of the oligotrophic gyres due to increased storm-induced nutrient supply end enhanced winter production during the short term stratification events that are resolved in the run forced by 6 h meteorological fields. By resolving the diurnal cycle, model performance was significantly improved with respect to several common problems: underestimated primary production in the oligotrophic gyres; overestimated primary production in the Southern Ocean; overestimated magnitude of the spring bloom in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, and overestimated primary production in equatorial areas. The result of using 6 h forcing on predicted ecosystem dynamics was profound, the effects persisting far beyond the hourly timescale, and having major consequences for predicted global and new production on an annual basis.

  5. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on blood glucose concentrations in the perioperative period: a randomized, placebo-controlled investigation in gynecologic surgical patients.

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Avram, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven B; Shear, Torin; Vender, Jeffery S; Gray, Jayla; Landry, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone). Blood glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after administration in the early groups and at baseline and 8 and 24 hours after administration in the late groups. The incidence of hyperglycemic events (the number of patients with at least 1 blood glucose concentration >180 mg/dL) was determined. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time in all control and dexamethasone groups (from median baselines of 94 to 102 mg/dL to maximum medians ranging from 141 to 161.5 mg/dL, all P < 0.001). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups receiving dexamethasone (either 4 or 8 mg) and those receiving saline at any measurement time. The incidence of hyperglycemic events did not differ in any of the early (21%-28%, P = 0.807) or late (13%-24%, P = 0.552) groups. Because blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration of single low-dose dexamethasone did not differ from those observed after saline administrations, these results suggest clinicians need not avoid using dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis out of concerns related to hyperglycemia.

  6. The mechanism and theoretical basis of the management of intensity of the heat transfer control through periodic influences on the turbulent boundary layer

    Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Fedorov, Ruslan V.; Khakhaleva, Larisa V.; Chukalin, Andrey V.; Bondarenko, Aleksandr A.; Kovrizhnykh, Evgeny N.

    2017-07-01

    Generalization of classical model of a displacement way on the transfer of heat exchange and mass exchange of a stream in the boundary layer, confirmed by the control action of the different nature, is undertaken. Here are given the results of numerical research which have allowed explaining the mechanism, to reveal efficiency and limits of various ways of management of intensity in exchange processes. The possibility of management of intensity in processes of a thermolysis and friction by use of the perforated surface with the damping cavities is analyzed.

  7. Organisation of Dietary Control for Nutrition-Training Intervention Involving Periodized Carbohydrate (CHO) Availability and Ketogenic Low CHO High Fat (LCHF) Diet.

    Mirtschin, Joanne G; Forbes, Sara F; Cato, Louise E; Heikura, Ida A; Strobel, Nicki; Hall, Rebecca; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-12

    We describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions (HCHO); a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low CHO and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake, and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF). 7-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs. Menus also included nutrition support pre, during and post-exercise. Daily monitoring, via observation and food checklists, showed that energy and macronutrient targets were achieved: diets were matched for energy (~14.8 MJ/d) and protein (~2.1 g.kg/d), and achieved desired differences for fat and CHO: HCHO and PCHO: CHO = 8.5 g/kg/d, 60% energy; fat = 20% of energy; LCHF: 0.5 g/kg/d CHO, fat = 78% energy. There were no differences in micronutrient intakes or density between HCHO and PCHO diets; however, the micronutrient density of LCHF was significantly lower. Daily food costs per athlete were similar for each diet (~AUDS$27 ± 10). Successful implementation and monitoring of dietary interventions in sports nutrition research of the scale of the present study require meticulous planning and the expertise of chefs and sports dietitians. Different approaches to sports nutrition support raise practical challenges around cost, micronutrient density, accommodation of special needs and sustainability.

  8. Respecting the Aging Self: Communication in the Nursing Home

    Jean Tinney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on findings of an ethnographic nursing home study that explores the role of communication in maintaining residents’ sense of self. These findings suggest that the nursing home can be a site for recovery for the aging self, despite loss and bereavement and the negative effects on self-esteem of pain, illness and loss of function. However, where care privileges the body over social and emotional needs, residents have inadequate opportunities for communication essential to make sense of being old and in care. The key to sustaining the aging self is empathetic communication that recognizes the individuality and value of each older person, no matter how reduced by present illness or incapacity, and at the same time respects residents’ rights of choice and personal control. Harried staff, often well-intentioned but unsupported by management, carry an unfair burden. Frequently called upon to do more with less, they find themselves faced with the competing pressures of work routines and residents’ emotional needs. In trying to balance these competing needs and provide opportunities for residents to exert personal control over their lives, they must protect both the residents and themselves from the results of “wrong” choices.

  9. Indonesia Cohort of IO HAT Study to Evaluate Diabetes Management, Control, and Complications in Retrospective and Prospective Periods Among Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Achmad Rudijanto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: hypoglycemia is a major adverse event of insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus patients. The study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of hypoglycemia among insulin treated patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the Indonesian cohort. Methods: this Indonesian cohort study consisted of retrospective and prospective evaluation of hypoglycemic episodes, using International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT in 374 patients with diabetes (T1DM; n=17 or T2DM; n=357. The patients of ≥18 years of age and treated with insulin for >12 months were selected for this study (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02306681. Results: a total of 374 patients were enrolled in this study and completed SAQ1. All patients with T1DM (17 [100%], and 347 (97.2% patients with T2DM completed SAQ2. Almost all the patients in the 4-week prospective period reported at least one hypoglycemic event (T1DM 100%, T2DM 99.4% and the incidence rate of any hypoglycemia was 67.5 events per patient-year (PPY and 25.7 events PPY for T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively. Among patients with T1DM and T2DM, 5.9% and 36.4%, respectively, did not know what hypoglycemia was at baseline, also high proportion of patients had impaired hypoglycemic awareness in the study (82.4% and 62.7%, respectively. Conclusion: overall, high proportion of patients reported hypoglycemic events in the prospective period indicating under reporting during the retrospective period due to recall bias. Therefore, there is a need for patient education program to improve the awareness of hypoglycemia in diabetes patient in Indonesia.

  10. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Periodic variation in bile acids controls circadian changes in uric acid via regulation of xanthine oxidase by the orphan nuclear receptor PPARα.

    Kanemitsu, Takumi; Tsurudome, Yuya; Kusunose, Naoki; Oda, Masayuki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2017-12-29

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD), also known as xanthine dehydrogenase, is a rate-limiting enzyme in purine nucleotide degradation, which produces uric acid. Uric acid concentrations in the blood and liver exhibit circadian oscillations in both humans and rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that XOD expression and enzymatic activity exhibit circadian oscillations in the mouse liver. We found that the orphan nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcriptionally activated the mouse XOD gene and that bile acids suppressed XOD transactivation. The synthesis of bile acids is known to be under the control of the circadian clock, and we observed that the time-dependent accumulation of bile acids in hepatic cells interfered with the recruitment of the co-transcriptional activator p300 to PPARα, thereby repressing XOD expression. This time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the hepatic expression of XOD, which, in turn, led to circadian alterations in uric acid production. Finally, we also demonstrated that the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the XOD inhibitor febuxostat was enhanced by administering it at the time of day before hepatic XOD activity increased. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for the circadian alterations in uric acid production and also underscore the importance of selecting an appropriate time of day for administering XOD inhibitors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Protective properties of the plasma of burnt and irradiated rats with respect to the lethal effect of endotoxins in vivo

    Budagov, R.S.; Chureeva, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of endotoxins s. typhimurium and E. coli to preliminarily irradiated rats resulted in death of 80% of animals during 24 hours. At combined injection of endoxins with heterologic plasma of intact rats death decreased to 12 and 19% respectively. Deep burn of skin, acute radiation sickness and combined radiation-thermal injury did not eliminate the given phenomenon of humoral detoxication; at different periods after thermal, radiation and combined effects plasma of test rats produced protective effect practically the same as at the control

  13. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy.To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility.The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637.Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available.Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30.After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14 and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups.This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  14. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  15. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum period.

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A K

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression.

  16. The effects of d-aspartic acid supplementation in resistance-trained men over a three month training period: A randomised controlled trial.

    Geoffrey W Melville

    Full Text Available Research on d-aspartic acid (DAA has demonstrated increases in total testosterone levels in untrained men, however research in resistance-trained men demonstrated no changes, and reductions in testosterone levels. The long-term consequences of DAA in a resistance trained population are currently unknown.To evaluate the effectiveness of DAA to alter basal testosterone levels over 3 months of resistance training in resistance-trained men.Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in healthy resistance-trained men, aged 18-36, had been performing regular resistance training exercise for at least 3 d.w-1 for the previous 2 years. Randomised participants were 22 men (d-aspartic acid n = 11; placebo n = 11 (age, 23.8±4.9 y, training age, 3.2±1.5 y.D-aspartic acid (6 g.d-1, DAA versus equal-weight, visually-matched placebo (PLA. All participants performed 12 weeks of supervised, periodised resistance training (4 d.w-1, with a program focusing on all muscle groups.Basal hormones, total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, estradiol (E2, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and albumin (ALB; isometric strength; calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; calf muscle thickness; quadriceps muscle CSA; quadriceps muscle thickness; evoked V-wave and H-reflexes, were assessed at weeks zero (T1, after six weeks (T2 and after 12 weeks (T3.No change in basal TT or FT were observed after the intervention. DAA supplementation (n = 10 led to a 16%, 95% CI [-27%, -5%] reduction in E2 from T1-T3 (p<0.01. The placebo group (n = 9 demonstrated improvements in spinal responsiveness (gastrocnemius at the level of the alpha motoneuron. Both groups exhibited increases in isometric strength of the plantar flexors by 17%, 95% CI [7%, 28%] (p<0.05 as well as similar increases in hypertrophy in the quadriceps and calf muscles.The results of this paper indicate that DAA supplementation is ineffective at changing testosterone levels, or positively affecting training

  17. The effects of d-aspartic acid supplementation in resistance-trained men over a three month training period: A randomised controlled trial.

    Melville, Geoffrey W; Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M

    2017-01-01

    Research on d-aspartic acid (DAA) has demonstrated increases in total testosterone levels in untrained men, however research in resistance-trained men demonstrated no changes, and reductions in testosterone levels. The long-term consequences of DAA in a resistance trained population are currently unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of DAA to alter basal testosterone levels over 3 months of resistance training in resistance-trained men. Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in healthy resistance-trained men, aged 18-36, had been performing regular resistance training exercise for at least 3 d.w-1 for the previous 2 years. Randomised participants were 22 men (d-aspartic acid n = 11; placebo n = 11) (age, 23.8±4.9 y, training age, 3.2±1.5 y). D-aspartic acid (6 g.d-1, DAA) versus equal-weight, visually-matched placebo (PLA). All participants performed 12 weeks of supervised, periodised resistance training (4 d.w-1), with a program focusing on all muscle groups. Basal hormones, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin (ALB); isometric strength; calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); calf muscle thickness; quadriceps muscle CSA; quadriceps muscle thickness; evoked V-wave and H-reflexes, were assessed at weeks zero (T1), after six weeks (T2) and after 12 weeks (T3). No change in basal TT or FT were observed after the intervention. DAA supplementation (n = 10) led to a 16%, 95% CI [-27%, -5%] reduction in E2 from T1-T3 (p<0.01). The placebo group (n = 9) demonstrated improvements in spinal responsiveness (gastrocnemius) at the level of the alpha motoneuron. Both groups exhibited increases in isometric strength of the plantar flexors by 17%, 95% CI [7%, 28%] (p<0.05) as well as similar increases in hypertrophy in the quadriceps and calf muscles. The results of this paper indicate that DAA supplementation is ineffective at changing testosterone levels, or positively affecting training

  18. The Periodic Pyramid

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  19. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  20. Preliminary analysis of relation between natural and anthropic elements in the calanco area of Podere Paiccia (Southern Tuscany - Italy): crowns of mudflow vs. erosion control practices (graticciate) during the period 1989-2015.

    Colica, Antonella; Martinelli, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The study area Podere Paiccia, which is characterized by four calanchi, extends over a surface of 155,000 square meters, on N-NNW slopes, from 435 to 513m, with an average slope of 25° and it develops on Pliocene marine bedrocks. The calanchi represent an important morphology in southern Tuscany and also in Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene bedrock in nearby areas of piedmont zones of Apennines. During the 1989 the "Consorzio di Bonifica della Val d'Orcia" introduced erosion control practices named graticciate (fences) along three of the four calanchi. They consisted of chestnut stakes (about 1 m long), fixed in the ground, connected by smaller transverse stakes and placed perpendicularly to the slopes, at 7-10 meters intervals, extending laterally for about 10 meters. These calanchi are formed by gullies, rills, crowns and mudflows. The crowns, one of the more dynamic erosional forms, are generally arch-shaped (40-50 cm in height, vary in width, gradient 54°÷90°). The four calanchi, named 1-2-3-4, were divided into three zones of equal size: high, medium and low. The analysis conducted by photo shoots and field measurements, during the years 1989-1992-1996-2002-2005-2015, aim to discover the relation between crowns and graticciate. In 1989, 1 did not present graticciate, 2 had graticciate in all 3 zones (28), 3 and 4 had graticciate (24 and 22 respectively) but only in the medium and high zones. The crowns (57 in 1, 58 in 2, 78 in 3 and 56 in 4) rise towards the ridges. In case during the ascend crowns meet the graticciate, these last are deformed and then destroyed (periods: 1989÷1992, 1992÷1996, 1996÷2002, 2002÷2005, 2005÷2015, graticciate destroyed along the 2, 3, 4,% mean values: 51, 87, 100 - 26, 46, 72, 90 costant value from 2005 - 57, 75 costant value 1992÷2002, 78,100). Until total destruction, graticciate limit the number of crowns in the high zones. Along 2, 3 and 4 the number of crowns is greater in the medium zones (mean values of the ratios

  1. What Does ‘Respect for Difference’ Mean?

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    In his chapter, Laegaard (Chapter 2) focuses on liberal institutions. He questions the solidity of the distinction between ‘respect for difference’ and ‘respect for dignity’, by paying attention to what it means for institutions to respect difference. He concludes that from this perspective, the ...... how multiculturalism remains deeply connected to liberal values, even in its apparently more radical versions....

  2. Metabolic control and chronic complications during a 3-year follow-up period in a cohort of type 2 diabetic patients attended in primary care in the Community of Madrid (Spain).

    Arrieta, Francisco; Piñera, Marbella; Iglesias, Pedro; Nogales, Pedro; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Angel; Abanades, Juan Carlos; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio; Calañas, Alfonso; Balsa, José Antonio; Zamarrón, Isabel; Rovira, Adela; Vázquez, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze both metabolic control and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients regularly attended in primary care during a 3 years of follow-up in the Community of Madrid (Spain). From 2007 to 2010 we prospectively included 3268 patients with T2D attended by 153 primary care physicians from 51 family health centers. An prospective cohort study with annual evaluation over 3 years to the same population was performed. We measured the goals of control in diabetic patients and the incidence of chronic complications of diabetes during the study period. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels (143±42mg/dl vs 137±43mg/dl, p1.2% vs 7.02±1.2%, p191.4±38mg/dl vs 181.5±36mg/dl, p114.7±31mg/dl vs 105.5±30mg/dl, p144.5±93mg/dl vs 138±84mg/dl, p14mg/dl vs 49.9±16mg/dl, pdiabetic complications throughout the study period was low, with a incidence of coronary heart disease of 6.2%, peripheral arterial disease 3%, ischemic stroke 2.8%, diabetic foot 11.2%, nephropathy 5.9%, retinopathy 4.5%, and neuropathy 3%. Metabolic control in T2D patients attended in primary care in the Community of Madrid throughout 3 years is adequate and is accompanied by low percent of chronic diabetic complications during this period of follow-up. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-esteem and social respect within the high school.

    Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J

    1998-08-01

    A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.

  4. Painful menstrual periods

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  5. Middle Helladic Period

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  6. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    ... stomach disorders, or ulcers should not take NSAIDs. What types of birth control methods help control dysmenorrhea? Birth control methods that ... can be used to treat dysmenorrhea as well. What types of medication can be used ... birth control pills, the birth control implant, the injection, or ...

  7. On some periodicity effects

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  8. The Living Periodic Table

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  9. A randomised controlled trial of multiple periods of outdoor free-play to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among 3 to 6 year old children attending childcare: study protocol

    Luke Wolfenden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of physical activity interventions in centre-based childcare services has been recommended to improve child health. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of scheduling multiple periods of outdoor free play in increasing the time children spend in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA during childcare. Methods The study will employ a between group cluster randomised controlled trial design. Fourteen childcare services in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, who currently implement a single session of free outdoor play between their core operational hours of 9 am to 3 pm will be recruited into the trial. Childcare services will be randomised to an intervention or a no intervention control group. Childcare services in the intervention group will be supported by an early childhood education specialist to provide three periods of outdoor free play for children between the hours of 9 am to 3 pm. Each period of outdoor free play will be at least 15 min in duration but must equate to their total usual duration of outdoor play. Services in the control group will continue to implement a single period of outdoor play. The primary trial outcome is minutes of time children spend in MVPA whilst in care assessed objectively via accelerometer over 5 days. Outcome assessment will occur at baseline and 3 months post baseline. Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM under an intention to treat framework will be used to compare differences between groups in the primary trial outcome at follow-up. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to test assumptions of missing data. Per protocol analysis will be performed using services that implemented the intervention as intended and subgroup analysis undertaken by gender and baseline physical activity levels of children. Discussion The study tests a simple ecological intervention that has the potential to increase child physical activity in care

  10. Periods and Nori motives

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  11. Ecological periodic tables: In principle and practice

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are iconic information organizing structure in chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively, because they are simple, exceptionally useful and they foster the expansion of sci...

  12. Existence of Periodic Solutions and Stability of Zero Solution of a Mathematical Model of Schistosomiasis

    Lin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model on schistosomiasis governed by periodic differential equations with a time delay was studied. By discussing boundedness of the solutions of this model and construction of a monotonic sequence, the existence of positive periodic solution was shown. The conditions under which the model admits a periodic solution and the conditions under which the zero solution is globally stable are given, respectively. Some numerical analyses show the conditional coexistence of locally stable zero solution and periodic solutions and that it is an effective treatment by simply reducing the population of snails and enlarging the death ratio of snails for the control of schistosomiasis.

  13. Contempt as the absence of appraisal, not recognition, respect.

    Mason, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Fessler's defense of a sentiment construct for contempt captures features distinguishing the phenomenon from basic emotions and highlights the fact that it comprises a coordinated syndrome of responses. However, their conceptualization of contempt as the absence of respect equivocates. Consequently, a "dignity" culture that prescribes respect does not thereby limit legitimate contempt in the manner the authors claim.

  14. Kant's Conception of Respect and African American Education Rights

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Immanuel Kant envisioned a kind of respect in which one recognizes each human (1) as being not fully comprehensible by any human understanding, (2) as being an end in him- or herself, and (3) as being a potential source of moral law. In this essay, Gregory Lewis Bynum uses this conception of respect as a lens with which to examine African American…

  15. Quantum mechanics with respect to different reference frames

    Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric (Schroedinger) quantization of nonrelativistic mechanics with respect to different reference frames is considered. In classical nonrelativistic mechanics, a reference frame is represented by a connection on a configuration space fibered over a time axis R. Under quantization, it yields a connection on the quantum algebra of Schroedinger operators. The operators of energy with respect to different reference frames are examined

  16. Relocating Respect and Tolerance: A Practice Approach in Empirical Philosophy

    Anker, Trine; Afdal, Geir

    2018-01-01

    Respect and tolerance are key values in education. They are also among the aims of education and are brought to the foreground in educational policy. We argue that these values are neither philosophically nor politically given aims for which education is a means. Instead, respect and tolerance are enacted and negotiated through educational…

  17. The Problematic Promotion of Abstinence: An Overview of Sex Respect.

    Goodson, Patricia; Edmundson, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Presents the results of a content evaluation of the abstinence-based sexuality education curriculum, "Sex Respect," focusing on the curriculum's message and presentation. Results indicate Sex Respect omits basic content and includes misinformation, especially in the areas of human sexual response and reproductive health, and needs revision.…

  18. Mean-periodic functions

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  19. Control of radiation fields at the RA reactor (Radiological data relevant for the period when irregularities on the fuel elements were observed), Part 2, Annex 1; Kontrola radijacionih polja na reaktoru RA (Neki podaci relevantni za ocenu radijacione situacije na reaktoru za period u kome su otkrivene neregularnosti na reaktorskom gorivu), Prilog 1, Deo 2

    Ninkovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1980-10-15

    Within the radiation protection program at the RA reactor, the fundamental radiation field characteristics are the controlled and measured in the working environment. Gamma radiation levels are measured at typical points of the reactor system, neutron and gamma radiation levels are measured in each working room, radioactive aerosol concentration and radioactive gases contents in the air are measured in the working rooms. Contamination of working surfaces, tools, equipment, clothes are under control as well as individual radiation exposure. Internal and external exposure during manipulation of contaminated or activated objects, activated material, radiation sources and radioactive waste are controlled nad registered. All the measured data are registered in the diaries of the personnel on duty, and in the periodical reports. Review of these documents for the period February-March 1979 showed no discrepancies in comparison with the relevant data for the previous years. At the end of March, when irregularities were noticed on the fuel elements from the last batch in the reactor core, the question arose whether there was any fission product release from any of the fuel elements. Owing to the experience from the previous and up to now only event of fuel cladding failure, about nine years ago, it could have been concluded that there was no leaking. In case of leaking it would have been possible to register increase radiation level at typical points of the reactor components and in the working environment. It would have been possible to detect higher quantities of fresh fission products like {sup 131} I in the coolant. Nothing of the mentioned events was detected. It could be concluded that there no fuel element was leaking, and that the standard manipulation of fuel is safe and can be proceeded without risk of contamination of the working space or the environment. Annexes of this report include the original values of the measurements from the diaries and reports for the

  20. Survival period, infectivity and morphological composition of ...

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... At the end of each maintenance period (hours), three clean albino mice were ... for up to 12 and 24 hours respectively were infective for the mice inoculation test. ... period (21.0days) higher peak parasitaemia (15-20 parasites per field) and higher population of slender forms.

  1. R-E-S-P-E-C-T: The Relationship Between Being Respected and Quality of Life of Disabled People

    Carli Friedman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations exclaims "all human beings have the right to be treated with dignity and respect" (Annan, 2005, p. 34. Yet, disabled people have long been denied respect in the United States and have been subjected to disability oppression and ableism. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between respect and disability, particularly respect's impact on the quality of life of disabled people. We had two research questions: (1. what factors predict disabled people being respected? and, (2. how does being respected impact the quality of life of disabled people? To explore these questions, we used secondary Personal Outcome Measures® data from approximately 1,500 disabled people; we analyzed this data to examine relationships between disabled people's interpretations of feeling and being respected, and their quality of life. Our findings revealed being respected had a significant impact on every area of ones' quality of life. Problematically, this also included areas which should be considered non-negotiable fundamental human and civil rights, that should not depend on if, and how, people respect disabled people. While the attitudes underlying the disrespect of disabled people are harmful and problematic, human and civil rights should be inalienable – ones' access to exercise their rights, to safety, to health, and to many other domains should not depend on others' attitudes about, and treatment toward, you.

  2. Report on environmental control at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, Vinca, Period 01.01. - 31.12.1979. Annex 3; Izvestaj o radu na kontroli okoline Instituta 'Boris Kidric', Vinca, Period 01.01. - 31.12.1979. god., Prilog 3

    NONE

    1980-10-15

    This report includes description of the regular tasks performed on the territory of the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, namely, radioactivity control of water, precipitation, soil, plants, radioactivity control of aerosols and meteorology measurements. During 1979, total beta activity of aerosols in the air were measured at three measuring stations, two located in the Institute and one about three kilometers far from the Institute in the direction of the predominant wind towards Belgrade. Total of 761 samples were measured. From the obtained results it can be concluded that during the reporting period there was no environmental contamination caused by RA reactor operation. During 1979 the radioactivity of air was significantly lower compared to previous years. [Serbo-Croat] Izvestaj obuhvata prikaz standardnih poslova koji se obavljaju na teritoriji Instituta 'Boris Kidic' u Vinci, i to kontrolu radioaktivnosti voda, padavina, rastinja, zamljista, kontrolu radioaktivnosti aerosola, i meteoroloska merenja. U toku 1979. godine vrsena su merenja ukupne beta aktivnosti aerosola u vazduhu na tri merne stanice, dve u krugu Instituta a jedna na oko 3 km daleko od Instituta u pravcu predominantnog vetra prema Beogradu. Izmeren je 761 uzorak. Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata moze se zakljuciti da u ovom periodu nije bilo kontaminacije okoline usled rada nuklearnog reaktora u Institutu. Tokom 1979. godine doslo je do uocljivog opadanja readioaktivnosti vazduha u odnosu na prethodne godine.

  3. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  4. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  5. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  6. Super periodic potential

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  7. Establishing contract periods

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  8. The Periodic Table CD.

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  9. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  10. Periodic testing in operative action

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  11. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  12. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  13. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.206 Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location. The battery or power supply for each signal control relay circuit, where an open...

  14. "When Meeting 'Khun' Teacher, Each Time We Should Pay Respect": Standardizing Respect in a Northern Thai Classroom

    Howard, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how Northern Thai (Muang) children are socialized into the discourses and practices of respect in school, a process that indexically links Standard Thai to images of polite and respectful Thai citizenship. Focusing on the socialization of politeness particles, the paper examines how cultural models of conduct are taken up,…

  15. What deserves our respect? Reexamination of respect for autonomy in the context of the management of chronic conditions.

    Enzo, Aya; Okita, Taketoshi; Asai, Atsushi

    2018-05-29

    The global increase in patients with chronic conditions has led to increased interest in ethical issues regarding such conditions. A basic biomedical principle-respect for autonomy-is being reexamined more critically in its clinical implications. New accounts of this basic principle are being proposed. While new accounts of respect for autonomy do underpin the design of many public programs and policies worldwide, addressing both chronic disease management and health promotion, the risk of applying such new accounts to clinical setting remain understudied. However, the application of new accounts of respect for autonomy to clinical settings could support disrespectful attitudes toward or undue interference with patients with chronic conditions. Reconsidering autonomy and respect using Kantian accounts, this paper proposes respect for persons as an alternative basic bioethical principle to respect for autonomy. Unlike the principle of respect for persons in the Belmont Report, our principle involves respecting any patient's decisions, behaviors, emotions, or life-style regardless of his or her "autonomous" capabilities. Thus, attitudes toward patients should be no different irrespective of the assessment of their decisional or executive capabilities.

  16. Lipschitz estimates for convex functions with respect to vector fields

    Valentino Magnani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present Lipschitz continuity estimates for a class of convex functions with respect to Hörmander vector fields. These results have been recently obtained in collaboration with M. Scienza, [22].

  17. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs

  19. 26 CFR 1.865-2 - Loss with respect to stock.

    2010-04-01

    ... principal purpose of holding the N stock without significant risk of loss until the recapture period expired... of enabling P to hold the N stock without significant risk of loss. Accordingly, under paragraph (b... diminishes P's risk of loss with respect to the F stock (and vice versa). P holds N and F with a principal...

  20. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  1. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  2. Size-controlled synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanospheres via a PEG assisted hydrothermal route and their catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of NiFe 2 O 4 NPs with (C 4 H 9 ) 3 N as hydroxylating agent. • PEG 4000 was used as surfactant to control sizes of NPs. • The TEM images revealed the material to be spherical in shape with sizes 2–10 nm. • NiFe 2 O 4 was used as recyclable catalyst for oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid. - Abstract: A novel and facile approach for synthesis of spinel nickel ferrites (NiFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles (NPs) employing homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating is reported. The synthesis involves use of tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent in synthesis of nickel ferrites. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized NiFe 2 O 4 NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD pattern revealed formation of cubic face-centered NiFe 2 O 4 and TEM image showed spherical particles of sizes 2–10 nm. These NiFe 2 O 4 NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of cyclic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This eco-friendly procedure affords products in very high yield and selectivity. The reusability of the catalyst is proved to be noteworthy as the material exhibits no significant changes in its catalytic activity even after five cycles of reuse.

  3. Water: From Neglect to Respect. Water in Africa.

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  4. Periodic table of elements

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  6. Forum | Accelerating respect @ CERN | 5 May | Council Chamber

    2015-01-01

    Forum for discussion: Accelerating respect @ CERN - What does this mean in our daily working lives?   Tuesday, 5 May at 2 p.m. Council Chamber Join our forum for discussion on the topic of “Respect in the workplace” where Alan Richter will be leading a discussion on the relationship between respect and trust, including some recent research on trust, and exploring the role of unconscious bias, how respect is differently interpreted across cultures, and the connection between respect, listening, and the appreciative inquiry process. Alan Richter is the president of QED Consulting, a 26-year-old company based in New York. He has consulted to organisations in the areas of leadership, values, culture and change and is a recognised pioneer in global diversity and international ethics. He has worked with CERN, NASA, the UN and many global companies and leading universities around the world. He has a Ph.D. in Philosophy from London University, and a Master’s degree fro...

  7. The Ontario printed educational message (OPEM trial to narrow the evidence-practice gap with respect to prescribing practices of general and family physicians: a cluster randomized controlled trial, targeting the care of individuals with diabetes and hypertension in Ontario, Canada

    Grimshaw Jeremy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are gaps between what family practitioners do in clinical practice and the evidence-based ideal. The most commonly used strategy to narrow these gaps is the printed educational message (PEM; however, the attributes of successful printed educational messages and their overall effectiveness in changing physician practice are not clear. The current endeavor aims to determine whether such messages change prescribing quality in primary care practice, and whether these effects differ with the format of the message. Methods/design The design is a large, simple, factorial, unblinded cluster-randomized controlled trial. PEMs will be distributed with informed, a quarterly evidence-based synopsis of current clinical information produced by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada, and will be sent to all eligible general and family practitioners in Ontario. There will be three replicates of the trial, with three different educational messages, each aimed at narrowing a specific evidence-practice gap as follows: 1 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, hypertension treatment, and cholesterol lowering agents for diabetes; 2 retinal screening for diabetes; and 3 diuretics for hypertension. For each of the three replicates there will be three intervention groups. The first group will receive informed with an attached postcard-sized, short, directive "outsert." The second intervention group will receive informed with a two-page explanatory "insert" on the same topic. The third intervention group will receive informed, with both the above-mentioned outsert and insert. The control group will receive informed only, without either an outsert or insert. Routinely collected physician billing, prescription, and hospital data found in Ontario's administrative databases will be used to monitor pre-defined prescribing changes relevant and specific to each replicate, following delivery of the educational messages. Multi

  8. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  9. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  10. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  11. Periodic Table of Students.

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  12. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  13. Properties of Commercial PVC Films with Respect to Electron Dosimetry

    Miller, Arne; Liqing, Xie

    The properties of three commercially available polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film supplies and one made without additives were tested with respect to their application as routine dose monitors at electron accelerators. Dose fractionation was found to increase the response and the post-irradiation heat...

  14. Consumer Behavior in respect of milk in The Netherlands

    J.G. Termorshuizen (Koos); M.T.G. Meulenberg; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, consumer behaviour in the Netherlands in respect of milk is investigated using a model based on the EKB model, a so-called integrated model of consumer behaviour. The objectives of the study are: to gain insight into the factors that influence buying and consumption

  15. Working together to build a respectful workplace: transforming OR culture.

    Costello, Judy; Clarke, Cathy; Gravely, Gillian; D'Agostino-Rose, Dina; Puopolo, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Respect is important in the creation of a positive perioperative work environment and effective OR teams. Low scores for respect in the OR on an employee opinion survey and responses on a more customized survey that examined issues associated with respect prompted leaders at the University Health Network to undertake a multiyear organizational strategy to address respect and quality of worklife initiatives. An interprofessional quality of worklife task force convened to create an action plan to address the outcomes of the surveys. The work of the task force included developing and implementing a code of conduct team charter for the OR, empowering leaders to better manage conflict through education and coaching, creating a collaborative, consistent approach to conflict resolution, and designing an education strategy for staff members to enhance communication and conflict resolution. Results of recent employee opinion surveys have reflected positive outcomes. Efforts to sustain the effects of the project include quarterly recognition awards and ongoing education focused on wellness and communication skills. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Administrative Jurisdiction in NMa decisions with respect to Energy Jurisdiction

    Algera, W.T.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 decisions were made in 14 energy issues with respect to decisions of the Netherlands Competition Authority NMa. All the decisions were done by Court of Appeal for trade and industry. The decisions touch upon a broad spectrum of subjects and comprise several procedures. They are discussed and commented in this thematic annual analysis. [nl

  17. Availability and traditional practice with respect to fodder trees and ...

    The paper reports a study that provided important information from farmers of the floodplain area of Bangladesh for setting research and development priorities with respect to indigenous and exotic fodder trees. Indigenous knowledge of fodder trees from the floodplain area may be an important tool in planning nutrition for ...

  18. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  19. Respecting Preferences : Gender Justice and the Normative Hierarchy View

    J. Kloeg (Julien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTheorists of justice have to steer between two rocks. On the one hand, there is the intuition that an individual’s morally permitted preferences should be respected: it is not justifiable to intervene with them. On the other hand, such preferences are the result of formation processes,

  20. WWER 440 integrity assessment with respect to PTS events

    Hrazsky, M.; Mikua, M.; Hermansky, P.

    1997-01-01

    The present state of art in WWER 440 RPV integrity assessment with respect to PTS events utilized in Slovakia is reviewed briefly in this paper. Recent results of some PTS's (very severe) analyses, shortly described in our paper, have confirmed the necessity of elaboration of new more sophisticated procedures again. Such methodology should be based on prepared IAEA Guidance. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  1. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2016-12-01

    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  2. Respectful maternity care in Ethiopian public health facilities

    Sheferaw, Ephrem D.; Bazant, Eva; Gibson, Hannah; Fenta, Hone B.; Ayalew, Firew; Belay, Tsigereda B.; Worku, Maria M.; Kebebu, Aelaf E.; Woldie, Sintayehu A.; Kim, Young-Mi; van den Akker, T.; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Disrespect and abuse of women during institutional childbirth services is one of the deterrents to utilization of maternity care services in Ethiopia and other low- and middle-income countries. This paper describes the prevalence of respectful maternity care (RMC) and mistreatment of

  3. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  4. Promoting Respect as a Human Value in a Public School

    Corzo, Josefina Quintero; Castañeda, Yeisson Soto

    2017-01-01

    This is a case study report arising from a series of daily observations of the students' behavior made in a primary public school located near to the capital city, Manizales-Colombia, where it was possible to notice the difficulties students had in order to coexist due to the lack of respect with their classmates, in group activities or actually…

  5. Integration with respect to the Euler characteristic and its applications

    Gusein-Zade, Sabir M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-16

    The notion of integration with respect to the Euler characteristic and its generalizations are discussed: integration over the infinite-dimensional spaces of arcs and functions, motivic integration. The author describes applications of these notions to the computation of monodromy zeta functions, Poincare series of multi-index filtrations, generating series of classes of certain moduli spaces, and so on. Bibliography: 70 titles.

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  7. Development of an approach for the analysis of network technologies in safety related instrumentation and control systems with respect to the propagation and effect of postulated failures; Entwicklung eines Ansatzes zur Analyse der Netzwerktechnologien in sicherheitsrelevanten Leittechniksystemen hinsichtlich Verbreitung und Auswirkung postulierter Fehler

    Herb, Joachim; Jopen, Manuela; Lindner, Falk; Piljugin, Ewgenij; Vogt, Pascal

    2015-06-15

    So far, safety related instrumentation and control (I and C) functions in nuclear power plants, such as controlling of safety systems, were mostly performed by conventional (analog) I and C equipment. For some years now, I and C systems and equipment in nuclear power plants worldwide, but also in Germany, are modernized by computer-based I and C systems. In signal processing of the computer-based I and C systems, modern network technologies are used both for internal and external communication, whereas the reliability and safety for information transfer and processing plays an important role. National and interna-tional operational experience shows a significant influence of communication in a net-worked I and C system on its reliability. The aim of the GRS within the project 361R01351 ''Development of an approach for an analysis of network technologies in safety related I and C systems in view of distribution and effect of postulated failures'' was to improve the expertise in the field of network communication, to investigate phenomenologically potential sources of failures and fault propagation paths (Network failures) in a generic I and C system as well as to develop methodic approaches for analyses of propagation and effect of postulated failures in typical networks. The GRS conducted extensive research in the field of ''Data communication in digital I and C systems''. In this report, the basic principles of data communication of computer-based I and C systems are presented. This includes, among other things, network topolo-gies, communication protocols and standards as well as generic failures. Additionally, the properties of different analysis methods and its applicability for reliability analyses of network communication in computer-based I and C systems are discussed. Based on state of the art evaluation, an analysis approach was developed, which takes into account the specific properties of network communication and

  8. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    is understood as something we should presume everyone possesses, it provides a strong basis for equal respect among people from diverse cultures. A Kantian conception of autonomy can justify the right to freedom of expression while it at the same time requires that we in the exercise of freedom of expression......Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more...... complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disrespect for diversity only when it is understood as a character ideal that must be promoted as an end in itself. If it by contrast...

  9. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  10. Teaching about Respect and Tolerance with Presentations on Cultural Values

    Hamdi Serin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching students from diverse backgrounds requires more than sufficient. Very often battles occur among students due to not understanding each other’s values. This study presents experience of a teacher who teaches students from diverse religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. As disrespect, misunderstanding and intolerance were common in the class, it was difficult for the teacher to advance respect among the students for diversity. In order to encourage the students to embrace diversity, the teacher made them introduce their cultures through presentations in the classroom. Although at the beginning the students continued to tease each other by making fun of each other’s cultural values, after some time it was discovered that they were entering the classroom with a real respect and tolerance for diversity.

  11. Size-controlled synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres via a PEG assisted hydrothermal route and their catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar, E-mail: ssd_iitg@hotmail.com

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs with (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 3}N as hydroxylating agent. • PEG 4000 was used as surfactant to control sizes of NPs. • The TEM images revealed the material to be spherical in shape with sizes 2–10 nm. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was used as recyclable catalyst for oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid. - Abstract: A novel and facile approach for synthesis of spinel nickel ferrites (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles (NPs) employing homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating is reported. The synthesis involves use of tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent in synthesis of nickel ferrites. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD pattern revealed formation of cubic face-centered NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TEM image showed spherical particles of sizes 2–10 nm. These NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of cyclic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This eco-friendly procedure affords products in very high yield and selectivity. The reusability of the catalyst is proved to be noteworthy as the material exhibits no significant changes in its catalytic activity even after five cycles of reuse.

  12. New forms of -compactness with respect to hereditary classes

    Abdo Mohammed Qahis

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available A hereditary class on a set X is a nonempty collection of subsets closed under heredity. The aim of this paper is to introduce and study strong forms of u-compactness in generalized topological spaces with respect to a hereditary class, called  SuH-compactness and S- SuH-compactness. Also several of their properties are presented. Finally some eects of various kinds of functions on them are studied.

  13. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...

  14. Calibration of an Aethalometer with Respect to Varying Humidities

    Hannemann, A.; Weingartner, E.; Saathoff, H. [FZ Karlsruhe (Georgia); Schnalter, M. [FZ Karlsruhe (Georgia); Baltensperger, U.

    2004-03-01

    The determination of the light absorption coefficient of the atmospheric aerosol is important with respect to its climate forcing. Measurements of b{sub abs} by means of filter based absorption techniques (e.g. with aethalometers) require to correct for artefacts from condensable gases. Otherwise derived absorption coefficients may be too high, leading to an underestimation of climate relevant parameters such as the single scattering albedo. The corrections presented here enhance the accuracy of aethalometer datasets. (author)

  15. Selectivity of Black Death mortality with respect to preexisting health

    DeWitte, Sharon N.; Wood, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347–1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions (“frailty”)? Many researchers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naïve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of age, sex, or frailty. If this were true, Black Death cemeteries would provide unbiased cross-sections of demographic and epidemiological...

  16. Raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    is a pedagogical tool which raises students’ awareness with respect to the necessity of employing scientific and researched based material. The tool is not only used in the theoretical setting but also in clinical practice. Students and clinical advisors evaluate the relevance of the pedagogical tool via...... questionnaires. The data will be analyzed and form the basis for further innovative teaching developments promoting the theory-clinical connection in the learning environment. Keywords: literature, education, pedagogical tool, theory-practice connection....

  17. WWER 440 integrity assessment with respect to PTS events

    Hrazsky, M; Mikua, M; Hermansky, P [Nuclear Power Plant Research Inst. Trnava Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-09-01

    The present state of art in WWER 440 RPV integrity assessment with respect to PTS events utilized in Slovakia is reviewed briefly in this paper. Recent results of some PTS`s (very severe) analyses, shortly described in our paper, have confirmed the necessity of elaboration of new more sophisticated procedures again. Such methodology should be based on prepared IAEA Guidance. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig.

  18. Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations

    Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase...

  19. Teaching ethics: when respect for autonomy and cultural sensitivity collide.

    Minkoff, Howard

    2014-04-01

    Respect for autonomy is a key ethical principle. However, in some cultures other moral domains such as community (emphasizing the importance of family roles) and sanctity (emphasizing the sacred and the spiritual side of human nature) hold equal value. Thus, an American physician may sometimes perceive a conflict between the desire to practice ethically and the wish to be sensitive to the mores of other cultures. For example, a woman may appear to be making what the physician thinks is a bad clinical choice because her spouse is speaking on her behalf. That physician may find it difficult to reconcile the sense that the patient had not exercised freely her autonomy with the desire to be culturally sensitive. In this article, the means by which a physician can reconcile respect for other cultures with respect for autonomy is explored. The question of whether physicians must always defer to patients' requests solely because they are couched in the language of cultural sensitivity is also addressed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. "Children are from heaven" or how today children respect adults

    Barbara Vogrinec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the text is a returning to the patriarchal, which is not simply the one that we are witnessing today, in the time of so-called postmodern, postpatriarchal society in its (until now last form. It is a matter of returning to rules, of which the basic premise is that adults are subjects (transcendences, freedoms, activities and children are subjects that are objects for adults (imanences, non-freedoms, pasivities, but which notwithstanding differ from the oldfashioned rules from the past. We attempted to explain this returning, following the example of rules offered by the book Children Are From Heaven – a selfhelp book, published at the end of the nineties of the 20th century, which immediately became the world's bestseller. In addition, our aim was to answer the following questions: What has happened with rules of civilization and good manners, regulating the relations between children and adults today? How have they changed and what has happened with children's or adults's relation to these rules or their performings? How has this relation changed? Considering the mentioned basic premise which implies that children respect adults, we also tried to answer the question: What has happened with the respect, or, how do children respect adults today? Disscussion is presented in the framework of lacanian psychoanalysis.

  1. Humility and respect: core values in medical education.

    Gruppen, Larry D

    2014-01-01

    Many of the values and behaviours described in the original Hippocratic Oath are relevant to medical education. In particular, the values of intellectual humility and respect for one's colleagues are essential in all scientific disciplines. There are three contexts within medical education from which to consider humility and respect: uncertainty; theory, and colleagues. As medical education grows in scope and participation, we will be required to acknowledge that we 'know not' with increasing frequency. The uncertainty of what we do and do not know is compounded by uncertainty about whether ignorance is individual or corporate. As difficult as it is to admit that we 'know not', it is dangerous NOT to recognise the limits of our knowledge and experience. Theories are critical tools in understanding complex phenomena. They identify constructs and relationships that are important and those that are irrelevant. We tend to forget that theories are models or simplified representations of reality and not in themselves 'truths'. Viewing problems from other theoretical perspectives can widen our horizons by allowing us to identify possibly important concepts and relationships that we have not considered. Colleagues are invaluable for helping us respond to our 'knowing not' and for providing alternative perspectives when our theories lead us astray. However, colleagues come in many guises and include close colleagues, as well as those in distant fields. As obviously desirable as humility and respect seem to be, there are conflicts that prevent us from being humble and respectful. Such conflicts include other salient professional values, such as critical scepticism, competition and confidence. Adoption of the values of humility and respect in medical education can be fostered through intentional behaviours, both as individuals and as a discipline. We can deliberately seek to broaden our horizons to promote intellectual humility. We can foster collaboration among colleagues

  2. Ecological periodic tables: in principle and practice - January 2013

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are iconic information organizing structures in chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively. Ecological periodic tables are information organizing structures for ecology. T...

  3. Ecological periodic tables: Killer apps for translational ecology

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are information organizing structures that have transformed chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively. Ecological periodic tables are information organizing structures wit...

  4. Generator of an exponential function with respect to time

    Janin, Paul; Puyal, Claude.

    1981-01-01

    This invention deals with an exponential function generator, and an application of this generator to simulating the criticality of a nuclear reactor for reactimeter calibration purposes. This generator, which is particularly suitable for simulating the criticality of a nuclear reactor to calibrate a reactimeter, can also be used in any field of application necessitating the generation of an exponential function in real time. In certain fields of thermodynamics, it is necessary to represent temperature gradients as a function of time. The generator might find applications here. Another application is nuclear physics where it is necessary to represent the attenuation of a neutron flux density with respect to time [fr

  5. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  6. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  7. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  8. A role for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) in taste memory consolidation and in thermal control establishment during the critical period for sensory development.

    Tirosh, Sharon; Elkobi, Alina; Rosenblum, Kobi; Meiri, Noam

    2007-05-01

    All species exhibit critical periods for sensory development, yet very little is known about the molecules involved in the changes in the network wiring that underlies this process. Here the role of transcription regulation of the translation machinery was determined by evaluating the expression of eIF2Bepsilon, an essential component of translation initiation, in both taste-preference development and thermal control establishment in chicks. Analysis of the expression pattern of this gene after passive-avoidance training revealed clear induction of eIF2Bepsilon in both the mesopallium intermediomediale (IMM) and in the striatum mediale (StM). In addition, a correlation was found between the concentration of methylanthranilate (MeA), which was the malaise substrate in the passive-avoidance training procedure, the duration of memory, and the expression level of eIF2Bepsilon. Training chicks on a low concentration of MeA induced short-term memory and low expression level of eIF2Bepsilon, whereas a high concentration of MeA induced long-term memory and a high expression level of eIF2Bepsilon in both the IMM and StM. Furthermore, eIF2Bepsilon-antisense "knock-down" not only reduced the amount of eIF2Bepsilon but also attenuated taste memory formation. In order to determine whether induction of eIF2Bepsilon is a general feature of neuronal plasticity, we checked whether it was induced in other forms of neuronal plasticity, with particular attention to its role in temperature control establishment, which represents hypothalamic-related plasticity. It was established that eIF2Bepsilon-mRNA was induced in the preopotic anterior hypothalamus during heat conditioning. Taken together, these results correlate eIF2Bepsilon with sensory development.

  9. Randomizing growing networks with a time-respecting null model

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Medo, Matúš

    2018-05-01

    Complex networks are often used to represent systems that are not static but grow with time: People make new friendships, new papers are published and refer to the existing ones, and so forth. To assess the statistical significance of measurements made on such networks, we propose a randomization methodology—a time-respecting null model—that preserves both the network's degree sequence and the time evolution of individual nodes' degree values. By preserving the temporal linking patterns of the analyzed system, the proposed model is able to factor out the effect of the system's temporal patterns on its structure. We apply the model to the citation network of Physical Review scholarly papers and the citation network of US movies. The model reveals that the two data sets are strikingly different with respect to their degree-degree correlations, and we discuss the important implications of this finding on the information provided by paradigmatic node centrality metrics such as indegree and Google's PageRank. The randomization methodology proposed here can be used to assess the significance of any structural property in growing networks, which could bring new insights into the problems where null models play a critical role, such as the detection of communities and network motifs.

  10. [Re]considering Respect for Persons in a Globalizing World.

    Padela, Aasim I; Malik, Aisha Y; Curlin, Farr; De Vries, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary clinical ethics was founded on principlism, and the four principles: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, remain dominant in medical ethics discourse and practice. These principles are held to be expansive enough to provide the basis for the ethical practice of medicine across cultures. Although principlism remains subject to critique and revision, the four-principle model continues to be taught and applied across the world. As the practice of medicine globalizes, it remains critical to examine the extent to which both the four-principle framework, and individual principles among the four, suffice patients and practitioners in different social and cultural contexts. Using the four-principle model we analyze two accounts of surrogate decision making - one from the developed and one from the developing world - in which the clinician undertakes medical decision-making with apparently little input from the patient and/or family. The purpose of this analysis is to highlight challenges in assessing ethical behaviour according to the principlist model. We next describe cultural expectations and mores that inform both patient and clinician behaviors in these scenarios in order to argue that the principle of respect for persons informed by culture-specific ideas of personhood may offer an improved ethical construct for analyzing and guiding medical practice in a globalized and plural world. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. RESPECTING THE CONFIDENTIALITY AND ANONYMITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIOLOGY

    Maria OPREA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, a philosophical discipline, formulates a set of principles that must be followed, in respect of good and truth, fundamental values of humanity. The world of scientific research, of all kinds, also obeys moral imperatives and principles and is called upon to answer to society not only in relation to the discoveries themselves but, above all, in relation to the possible destructive effects on man or his life environment. The researcher in the sphere of social sciences is more involved in the act of responsibility, the more the topic subject of the study is the individual, the social group, the social environment. He must rigorously follow the principles and requirements of fair, honest, objective studies that do not harm the dignity of the human being. In line with the ethical rigors of scientific research, the article aims to highlight some aspects of respecting the principle of confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research in the field of sociology, with reference to the study of vulnerable groups in Arad County.

  12. Ombuds’ corner: Is our respectful workplace strategy working?

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “I hope that the Code of Conduct will be a valuable tool in the maintenance and development of a workplace marked by mutual respect and understanding. We should familiarize ourselves with it, and incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.”*   “The Organization does not tolerate harassment, which can result in administrative and/or disciplinary action.”** Our Code of Conduct (“the Code”) sets the basic standards of ethical behaviour that we must first all set for ourselves. In addition, we are also entitled to expect our workplace colleagues to respect these standards. In biblical terms, if I may, the Code is an incentive for us to notice the beam obstructing our eyes and not focus on the speck in the eyes of our colleagues. In short, we should first look to ourselves to apply the Code. Managers, whatever their position, should be accountable for their team being aware of the Code and are acting according to its values - just as they...

  13. An evaluation of the cognitive and mood effects of an energy shot over a 6h period in volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study.

    Wesnes, Keith A; Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2013-08-01

    Energy drinks are widely available mostly containing glucose, and several have been demonstrated to improve alertness and cognitive function; these effects generally being identified 30-60min after administration. The present study assessed whether an energy shot without carbohydrates would affect major aspects of cognitive function and also mood in volunteers over a 6h time period. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,crossover study compared the acute effects of the energy shot with a matching placebo in 94 healthy volunteers. Cognitive function was assessed with a widely used set of automated tests of attention and memory. Mood was assessed with the Bond-Lader, Beck Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Index, Chalder Fatigue Scales (CFS), and the POMS. The volunteers were requested to limit their sleep to between 3 and 6h the night before each testing day. Compared to the placebo, the energy shot significantly improved 6 validated composite cognitive function measures from the CDR System as well as self-rated alertness; the benefits on 4 of the cognitive measures still remaining at 6h. The overall effect sizes of the performance improvements were in the small to medium range and thus notable in this field. In conclusion, an energy shot can significantly improve important aspects of cognitive function for up to 6h compared to placebo in partially sleep-deprived healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A safety analysis of edaravone (MCI-186) during the first six cycles (24 weeks) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapy from the double-blind period in three randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

    Kalin, Alexander; Medina-Paraiso, Elvia; Ishizaki, Kaoru; Kim, Alex; Zhang, Yannong; Saita, Takanori; Wasaki, Masahiko

    2017-10-01

    There continues to be a need for new therapies to treat ALS. Provide an overview of safety for edaravone in ALS patients during the first six cycles of treatment. Analysis was based on three randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), including AEs leading to discontinuation, serious adverse events (SAEs), and deaths. The analysis included a total of 368 patients (184 in the edaravone group and placebo group, respectively). Of those, 94.6% of the edaravone group and 90.2% of placebo group completed six cycles of therapy. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. TEAE incidence in the edaravone group and placebo group was 87.5% and 87.0%, respectively. TEAEs ocurring at ≥2% incidence in the edaravone group compared to placebo were contusion (14.7% vs. 8.7%), gait disturbance (12.5% vs. 9.2%), headache (8.2% vs. 5.4%), eczema (6.5% vs. 2.2%), dermatitis contact (6.0% vs. 3.3%), respiratory disorder (4.3% vs. 1.1%), and glucose urine present (3.8% vs. 1.6%). There was no imbalance in TEAEs leading to discontinuation (2.2% [edaravone], and 5.4% [placebo]). SAE incidence was 17.4% in the edaravone group and 22.3% in placebo group. Treatment-emergent deaths occurred in 2.2% in the edaravone group and 1.1% in placebo group, all respiratory in nature and attributed to worsening ALS. Data collected from three double-blind assessments found that while some TEAEs were more common in the edaravone group compared to placebo, the overall incidences of SAEs, deaths, and discontinuations due to AEs were similar or less for edaravone compared to placebo.

  15. The periodic table in Flatland

    Kibler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aufbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of an Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra U q (so(D)), that breaks down the SO (D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated with some details. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. (authors). 55 refs

  16. Language and Vulnerability—A Lacanian Analysis of Respect

    Laurie Laufer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lacan's original approach to language expands the reaches of psychoanalysis. Not limited to a set of technical instructions that guide “treatments of the soul,” lacanian psychoanalysis can be seen as a theoretical toolbox whose utility is multidisciplinary. This paper contends that, by establishing a connection between (i the idea that subjects are produced by language and bear the mark of the unconscious; and (ii an approach to the production of symptoms that acknowledges the importance of their sense, lacanian theories enlighten discussions on the theme of vulnerability. We claim that Lacan's description of psychoanalysis as an apparatus that respects the person and (foremost their symptoms generates evidence of the existence of a kind of recognition that takes into account the vulnerability of a given subject without assigning them to a fixed position of victim. This perspective enriches contemporary debates on the relationship between identity and vulnerability.

  17. How to Respect the Will of Mentally Ill Persons?

    Theda Rehbock

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I oppose the current account of autonomy and informed consent in bioethics through criticising the four underlying prejudices of an objectivistic, dualistic, rationalistic and individualistic misunderstanding of the will. With special regard to the case of patients with dementia I argue for the thesis that the principle of autonomy, as moral principles in general, has unconditional and universal validity, but has to be applied differently in the face of specific situations and circumstances by means of the power of judgment (Urteilskraft. As the philosophical resp. anthropological basis of my argument I develop a broad understanding of the will in an Aristotelian and phenomenological sense. The practical consequences of my thesis consist in the ethical requirement of equal respect for the will of mentally ill patients.

  18. To be liked versus respected: Divergent goals in interracial interactions.

    Bergsieker, Hilary B; Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2010-08-01

    Pervasive representations of Blacks and Latinos as unintelligent and of Whites as racist may give rise to divergent impression management goals in interracial interactions. We present studies showing that in interracial interactions racial minorities seek to be respected and seen as competent more than Whites do, whereas Whites seek to be liked and seen as moral more than racial minorities do. These divergent impression management goals are reflected in Whites' and racial minorities' self-report responses (Studies 1a, 1b, 2, and 4) and behaviors (Studies 3a and 3b). Divergent goals are observed in pre-existing relationships (Study 2), as well as in live interactions (Studies 3a, 3b, and 4), and are associated with higher levels of negative other-directed affect (Study 4). Implications of these goals for interracial communication and misunderstandings are discussed.

  19. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative.

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  20. Flexibility of the genetic code with respect to DNA structure

    Baisnée, P. F.; Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    Motivation. The primary function of DNA is to carry genetic information through the genetic code. DNA, however, contains a variety of other signals related, for instance, to reading frame, codon bias, pairwise codon bias, splice sites and transcription regulation, nucleosome positioning and DNA...... structure. Here we study the relationship between the genetic code and DNA structure and address two questions. First, to which degree does the degeneracy of the genetic code and the acceptable amino acid substitution patterns allow for the superimposition of DNA structural signals to protein coding...... sequences? Second, is the origin or evolution of the genetic code likely to have been constrained by DNA structure? Results. We develop an index for code flexibility with respect to DNA structure. Using five different di- or tri-nucleotide models of sequence-dependent DNA structure, we show...

  1. Respecting the Dignity of Children with Disabilities in Clinical Practice.

    Cureton, Adam; Silvers, Anita

    2017-09-01

    Prevailing philosophies about parental and other caregiver responsibilities toward children tend to be protectionist, grounded in informed benevolence in a way that countenances rather than circumvents intrusive paternalism. And among the kinds of children an adult might be called upon to parent or otherwise care for, children with disabilities figure among those for whom the strongest and snuggest shielding is supposed be deployed. In this article, we examine whether this equation of securing well-being with sheltering by protective parents and other care-givers should unreflectively be adopted for disabled children. We also consider why healthcare providers might reasonably be reluctant to yield to this principle, even if parents instinctively suppose that protectionism is the parenting policy that best serves their disabled child's interest. We contend that caregivers owe children with disabilities at least as much, and possibly more, respect for self-governance than other children need. In spite of disabled children's vulnerability and even in view of it, we argue that they should be accorded not only welfare rights to well-being but at least a modified version of liberty rights as well. Healthcare providers are especially favorably positioned to facilitate the latter response. The main components of respectful caregiving can come into conflict with one another, but we present some priorities that advise against adopting a protectionist account of parenting rights, or at least against accepting protectionist views that focus parenting narrowly on shaping ideas about the child's welfare. In sum, caring for a disabled child, we argue, involves more than creating conditions that will afford her contentment and comfort over the course of life.

  2. A comprehensive guide for designing more efficient irrigation systems with respect to application control

    Khaddam, Issam; Schuetze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide water scarcity problems are expected to aggravate due to the increasing population and the need to produce more food. Irrigated agriculture is considered the highest consumer of fresh water resources with a rate exceeds 70% of global consumption. Consequently, an improvement in the efficiency of all irrigation methods, such as furrow or drip irrigation, becomes more necessary and urgent. Therefore, a more precise knowledge about soil water distribution in the root zone and the water balance components is required. For this purpose and as a part of the SAPHIR project (Saxonian Platform for high Performance Irrigation), a 2D simulation- based study was performed with virtual field conditions. The study investigates the most important design parameters of many irrigation systems, such as irrigation intensity and duration, and shows there influence on the water distribution efficiency. Furthermore, three main soil textures are used to test the impact of the soil hydraulic properties on irrigation effectiveness. A numerous number of irrigation scenarios of each irrigation system was simulated using HYDRUS 2D. Thereafter, the results were digitally calculated, compiled and made available online in the so called "Irrigation Atlases". The irrigation atlases provide graphical results of the soil moisture and pressure head distributions in the root zone. Moreover, they contain detailed information of the water balance for all simulated scenarios. The most studies evaluate the irrigation water demands on local, regional or global scales and for that an efficient water distribution is required. In this context, the irrigation atlases can serve as a valuable tool for the implementation of planned irrigation measures.

  3. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  4. A randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover, definitive QT study of the effects of APF530 exposure, high-dose intravenous granisetron, and moxifloxacin on QTc prolongation

    Mason, Jay W; Moon, Thomas E; O’Boyle, Erin; Dietz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory concern about potential QT-interval prolongation by serotonin-receptor antagonist antiemetics prompted product-label changes. The first-generation serotonin-receptor antagonist granisetron is available in oral (PO), intravenous (IV), and transdermal formulations. APF530 is a formulation that provides sustained release of granisetron when administered as a single subcutaneous (SC) injection. The Phase I study reported here evaluated effects of APF530 on electrocardiographic intervals. This single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial randomized healthy men and women to receive varying sequences of APF530 1 g SC, granisetron 50 μg/kg IV, moxifloxacin 400 mg PO, and placebo. Subjects were assessed for 49 hours after each treatment. The primary objective was to evaluate differences between baseline-adjusted, heart rate-corrected QT-interval change using the Fridericia rate correction (dQTcF) for APF530 1 g SC and placebo. Electrocardiograms were performed at various times throughout the assessment period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were evaluated. The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for mean baseline-adjusted dQTcF at each post-dose time point between APF530 and placebo excluded 10 ms, indicating that APF530 1 g SC had no clinically significant effect on QTcF. Maximum observed QTcF change was 4.15 ms (90% CI, 0.94 to 7.36) at Hour 3. No clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram intervals were observed. APF530 SC pharmacokinetics were as expected, with slow absorption (maximum plasma concentration 35.8 ng/mL, median time to maximum plasma concentration 11.1 hours) and slow elimination (mean half-life 18.6 hours; systemic clearance 20.2 L/hour) of granisetron versus the expected early peak concentration and elimination of granisetron IV. APF530 SC was well tolerated. Adverse events, most commonly constipation and SC injection-site reactions, were generally mild and quickly resolved. APF530 1 g SC did

  5. A randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover, definitive QT study of the effects of APF530 exposure, high-dose intravenous granisetron, and moxifloxacin on QTc prolongation

    Mason JW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jay W Mason,1 Thomas E Moon,2 Erin O’Boyle,3 Albert Dietz41Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Tarizona eHealth Services, Inc., San Carlos, CA, 3AP Pharma, Redwood City, CA, 4Spaulding Clinical Research, West Bend, WI, USABackground: Regulatory concern about potential QT-interval prolongation by serotonin-receptor antagonist antiemetics prompted product-label changes. The first-generation serotonin-receptor antagonist granisetron is available in oral (PO, intravenous (IV, and transdermal formulations. APF530 is a formulation that provides sustained release of granisetron when administered as a single subcutaneous (SC injection. The Phase I study reported here evaluated effects of APF530 on electrocardiographic intervals.Methods: This single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial randomized healthy men and women to receive varying sequences of APF530 1 g SC, granisetron 50 μg/kg IV, moxifloxacin 400 mg PO, and placebo. Subjects were assessed for 49 hours after each treatment. The primary objective was to evaluate differences between baseline-adjusted, heart rate-corrected QT-interval change using the Fridericia rate correction (dQTcF for APF530 1 g SC and placebo. Electrocardiograms were performed at various times throughout the assessment period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were evaluated.Results: The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for mean baseline-adjusted dQTcF at each post-dose time point between APF530 and placebo excluded 10 ms, indicating that APF530 1 g SC had no clinically significant effect on QTcF. Maximum observed QTcF change was 4.15 ms (90% CI, 0.94 to 7.36 at Hour 3. No clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram intervals were observed. APF530 SC pharmacokinetics were as expected, with slow absorption (maximum plasma concentration 35.8 ng/mL, median time to maximum plasma concentration 11.1 hours and slow elimination (mean half-life 18.6 hours

  6. Requirements on PWR reactor design with respect to seismic effects

    Novak, J.; Pecinka, L.

    1981-01-01

    From the seismic point of view the individual parts of a nuclear power plant must be built such as to allow the shutdown of the reactor up to the safe shutdown earthquake level, the removal of after-heat and the prevention of uncontrolled release of radioactivity into the environment. To the level of operating basic earthquake the plant must be designed such as to allow the operation of the reactor for a period of 100 hours from the seismic event without exceeding the permissible annual dose to personnel and population. The possibility of a loss-of-coolant accident owing to a seismic event is reduced mainly by the integrated performance of the primary circuit, the high-strength structure, the insulation of the main components from the shift of the foundations and the use of floating structures. The pressure vessel of the WWER-1000 reactor is therefore pAaced in a shaft on a support ring and is locked by another support ring. (Z.M.)

  7. Statistical Review of surface dose in the period 1995-2010, measured by different types of TLD dosimeters; Revision estadistica de las dosis superficiales, en el periodo 1995-2010, medidas mediante distintos tipos de dosimetros TLD

    Pastor Antolin, S.; Munoz Blasco, J.; Llansana Arnalot, J.; Gultresa Colomer, J.

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the evolution of the number of special controls over the period 1985 to 2010 and the evolution of the doses in the period 1995 to 2010. Comparing the standard dose extremities respect to whole body in cases where users use both types of control in the same installation.

  8. RESPECT THE MASTER: ERDOGAN ERSEN (A MONOGRAPHIC CONVERSATION

    Gul ERBAY ASLITURK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study that is interview with Erdogan Ersen on Sunday 15 June 2008, to the immortal. According to Sadi Diren, the Turkish ceramic art of the contemporary circuit, 1951-1962, a formation circuit. Nasip İyem, Mediha Akarsu, Seniye Fenmen, Belma Diren, Cemil Eren, Tüzüm Kızılcan, Atilla Galatalı, Ruzen Galatalı, Erdogan Ersen, Alev Ebüzziya, Melike Abasıyanık, Cevdet Altuğ, Müfide Çalık, Melike Sasa, Ayfer Karamani, Sabit Karamani, Cavit Bozok and Hakkı Karayiğitoglu are well-known names in this period. Erdoğan Ersen, who was born in 1931 in Istanbul, the State Academy of Fine Arts “Gallery” with Sadi Diren received training. Then completed the Department of Theatre Costume and Fashion. He studied watercolor at the academy from Kenan Temizal and Zeki Faik İzer. With the return of Sadi Diren Germany, he learned ceramics by Sadi Diren in Eczacıbaşı. He continued Eczacibaşı Art Workshop. He worked for a while with Cevdet Altuğ and Tüzüm Kızılcan in Taylan Ceramic. Next, he set up in agreement for Art Workshop with Rebii Gorbon in Gorbon Seramik. Then he is awarded with “The Golden Orange Award” “Working in The World” in Italy in 1965. He continued his profession until his retirement (1999 in Gorbon. Name until the last days, he worked watercolor paintings. He passed away on 13th November 2009.

  9. A comparison of leadership styles with respect to biographical characteristics

    Javad Afshari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose: Managers, when applying their leadership styles, are affected by some of their own traits. This article intends to compare the leadership styles of the managers of Zabol University of Medical Sciences with respect to Hersey and Blanchard model that was based on their biographical characteristics. Research design, approach and method: The research methodology is descriptive-causal and comparative. The data were collected from 300 individuals (124 female and 176 male participants. Main findings: No significant difference was observed between the directive, persuasive, participative and delegative leadership styles of male and female managers. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the directive, persuasive, participative and delegative leadership styles of managers, considering their work experience, education level and field of study. Research limitations: The conservative atmosphere in university environments may affect the manager’s responses to the questionnaire; therefore, in the generalisation of the results, this issue should be taken into account. Practical implications: It is recommended to hold in-service courses for managers who have a lower education level or less work experience or have been graduated from the fields of study other than the Management major. It is also suggested to pay attention to the managers’ fields of study and managerial experiences at the time of employment. Contribution: This study enhances the quality of managers’ leadership style and consequently increases the productivity in university environments.

  10. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  11. Respect for patient autonomy as a medical virtue.

    Cook, Thomas; Mavroudis, Constantine D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Mavroudis, Constantine

    2015-12-01

    Respect for patient autonomy is an important and indispensable principle in the ethical practice of clinical medicine. Legal tenets recognise the centrality of this principle and the inherent right of patients of sound mind - properly informed - to make their own personal medical decisions. In the course of everyday medical practice, however, challenging cases may result in ethical dilemmas for the patient, the physician, and society. Resolution of these dilemmas requires a thorough understanding of the underlying principles that allow the clinician to make informed decisions and to offer considered therapeutic options to the patient. We argue in this paper that there is also need for a transition of moral competency from understanding principles to attaining virtue in the classic Aristotelian tradition. Achieving moral virtue is based on a lifetime of learning, practising, and watching how others, who have achieved virtue, act and perform their duties. We further claim that learning moral virtue in medical practice is best realised by incorporating the lessons learnt during daily rounds where frank discussions and considered resolutions can occur under the leadership of senior practitioners who have achieved a semblance of moral excellence.

  12. Are there limits to respect for autonomy in bioethics?

    de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the significance of respect for personal autonomy in bioethics with reference to its practical expression: rational informed patient choice. The question is whether, given the apparent practical limitations to this notion, bioethical autonomy should be seen as an absolute. After a historical review of informed consent and its development, I discuss the requirements for informed consent. Some inherent tensions are evaluated, as is the applicability of the notion that in order to be legitimate, autonomy should do some ethical work. Limits to the notion of informed consent are explored with reference to six examples: the right of women to reproductive autonomy; the autonomy of legally minor Jehovah's Witnesses; autonomy in cosmetic surgery; inappropriate treatment; autonomy and human medical research, and euthanasia and other end-of-life options. The discussion is within a South African framework with reference to other jurisdictions and decisions where appropriate. I conclude that whilst some unusual instances of limitation of bioethical informed consent might be ethically justifiable, the arguments presented point to the opposite: the unfounded limitation of informed consent.

  13. Advancing Respect for Labour Rights Globally through Public Procurement

    Olga Martin-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments are mega-consumers of many manufactured products and services. As such they should in principle be able to influence workers’ rights abroad via the terms of purchase contracts. Yet to date little attention has been paid to the potential of public procurement to promote respect for labour rights globally besides the international trade law framework. Building on a limited emerging scholarship and policy developments, this article addresses this gap. Section 2 considers legal definitions of public procurement and distinguishes primary and secondary aims of procurement under key international and regional procurement regimes. This highlights that, although historically used to advance labour rights domestically, these regimes have restricted public buyers’ scope to advance labour rights beyond national borders. Section 3 explores new international policy frameworks on responsible global value chains and supply chains which by contrast appear to augur the greater use of public procurement to promote labour rights globally in future. Section 4 argues, supported by analysis of the limited examples available, that public buying has the potential to positively influence enjoyment of labour rights in practice. Concluding, Section 5 reflects on what the more specific impacts of public procurement in this context may be, and how public buying should complement other mechanisms for improving labour conditions across supply chains, such as social clauses in trade agreements. Finally, we outline issues for further research and the future policy agenda.

  14. Respect for nursing professional: Silence must be heard

    Sundeep Mishra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The value of care giving seems to be at an all-time low. whether it is clinical (bedside or for children and elderly at home (homemakers. Currently, individuals who pass away any opportunity (for themselves to care for another individual instead are considered weak and/or unmotivated. Thus, it is not surprising that modern society often fails to respect the nursing professionals to the extent of underplaying their strengths, skills, and even clinical abilities. While qualities such as kindness, team spirit, and willingness to get their hands dirty are the core of this profession, nursing professionals have a complex variety of set duties, involving drug dosage, trouble-shooting, ongoing patient monitoring, and providing holistic comfort and support to the sick and needy. Beyond classical role, the nursing professional has currently ventured into other roles as well, as a nurse practitioner, administrator, researcher, or even an educator. Thus, considering the wide spectrum of duties performed by nursing professionals, they do deserve more status and power rather than be treated like “ward housewives.”

  15. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  16. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  17. Application of Periodic 3DPCM for Core Monitoring System

    Jeong, Wi-Soo; Lee, Hae-Chan; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Lee, Chang-Kue; Park, Sang-weon; Baek, Jin-su

    2014-01-01

    The OASIS (Online core Analysis and Simulation System) was developed for WH type PWR which has movable in-core detector. 3DPCM (3D Power Connection Method) was also developed to measure 3D core power distribution using the fixed in-core detector signals and tested for KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Plant) such as OPR1000 and APR1400. According to previous study, 3DPCM coupling with neutronics code shows high accuracy. However, this method requires the neutronics code results at each calculation. Therefore, the long calculation time makes it impractical in the online monitoring system requiring the real-time 3D power distribution. In this paper, the 3DPCM based alternative methodology which called periodic 3DPCM is proposed to reduce the calculation time within the reasonable accuracy. The periodic 3DPCM is proposed to reduce the number of neutronics calculation with reasonable accuracy for the application to the online monitoring system development. The periodic 3DPCM is analyzed by 3 cases of sensitivity studies. The errors for the results of power changing operation, ASI changing simulation, and lead control rod insertion are bounded in 0.25%, 1.07%, and 1.15%, respectively. If the update time is shorten as 1 hour, the errors for power changing operation and ASI changing simulation are bounded in 0.07% and 0.56%, respectively. As a result, the update time of 1 hour and prompt update at 30% control rod position change are reasonable considering both conservativeness and effectiveness to update the prediction values. OASIS program utilizing periodic 3DPCM is verified using the plant measurement data and snapshot files which were generated during 45 days operation

  18. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  19. Focusing on relationships, not information, respects autonomy during antenatal consultations.

    Gaucher, Nathalie; Payot, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Policy statements regarding antenatal consultations for preterm labour are guided by physicians' concerns for upholding the legal doctrine of informed consent, through the provision of standardised homogeneous medical information. This approach, led by classical in-control conceptions of patient autonomy, conceives moral agents as rational, independent, self-sufficient decision-makers. Recent studies on these antenatal consultations have explored patients' perspectives, and these differ from guidelines' suggestions. Relational autonomy - which understands moral agents as rational, emotional, creative and interdependent - resonates impressively with these new data. A model for antenatal consultations is proposed. This approach encourages clinicians to explore individual patients' lived experiences and engage in trusting empowering relationships. Moreover, it calls on physicians to enhance patients' relational autonomy by becoming advocates for their patients within healthcare institutions and professional organisations, while calling for broadscale policy changes to encourage further funding and support in investigations of the patient's voice. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The brazilian nuclear policy with respect to the public opinion

    Freitas Brandao Bittencourt, C.

    1988-01-01

    Four decades of the Brazilian nuclear history have been analysed with special emphasis placed on government policy and its repercussion on public opinion. The implications of the new constitutional regulations which rule the issue are discussed. it is also studied the change in the nuclear program structure, enforced in August 1988. At different times, the government decisions on nuclear energy could be classified as miser, extravagant, dissimulated and frank, successively. Their aftermaths, which show little consistency with the expectations laid on them, have led to discredit by part of the society, which is controlled by a scientific - intellectual elite. However, recent successes are likely to reverse this trend, if the government explores them properly. (author) [pt

  1. IS Audit Considerations in Respect of Current Economic Environment

    Vlasta Svata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accountancy organizations, regulatory bodies, standard setters, and other international organizations have developed guidance, articles, frameworks and resources on issues related to the global financial crisis. Now there is a clear and widely accepted need for more rigorous governance over companies´ systems of internal control. Historically there exist many different activities aiming to support effective enterprise governance (legislative acts, best practices, standards, frameworks. But all these activities may have reinforced the already-existing focus on enterprise governance, but they did not necessarily bring clarity to the topic. Therefore we can currently notice some changes aiming to improve the adoption and adaptation of best practices and standards within the area of enterprise governance. The paper discusses the changes in the Enterprise Governance of IT/IS, audit/assurance evolution, and intended Cobit improvements.

  2. 26 CFR 1.52-3 - Limitations with respect to certain persons.

    2010-04-01

    ... control, under § 1.52-1 (a) and (b). (b) Regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitations with respect to certain persons. 1.52-3 Section 1.52-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX...

  3. Radiation protection with respect for nature, views from Japan

    Fujimoto, K.

    2002-01-01

    My new proposal was summarised below for the protection of environment based on the understanding that we can exist on earth only in the balance of nature. We must follow the providence of nature and attain the golden mean in nature. For justification and optimisation, any concrete idea has not been provided, but one of the approaches was shown in the present paper. We have to abandon anthropocentrism and change our sense of value and moral standards with the respect for nature. For practice, the dose limit at the boundary of facilities could be derived from the regional difference of dose rates in the world as an acceptable level to nature. The dose rate would be around 1 mGy per year. Release limit for radionuclides could be defined separately to natural and artificial nuclides. For natural radionuclides, normal ambient concentration can be used for the limit. For artificial radionuclides, the limit might be based on the derived dose rate taking into account the accumulation. For intervention, an analogical approach to natural disasters could be applied. When the situation is easy to recover, then it should be restored. In case it is not easy, then the damage should be confined not to spread outside. For potential exposure, two approaches are suggested for prevention and mitigation. Renewal system is proposed for prevention and decentralization for mitigation. A rigid number for the dose limit is shown in the present paper, as well as renewal or relocation for the radiation protection for environment. However, it is not necessary to take them as they are. For the practical application, definitely it requires some modification. Therefore, present suggestions should be taken as some hint for the establishment of radiation protection system for environment. Especially the suggested dose limit of 1 mGy per year should be taken as the lowest limit for the acceptable level to nature. (author)

  4. Capacity for Preferences: Respecting Patients with Compromised Decision-Making.

    Wasserman, Jason Adam; Navin, Mark Christopher

    2018-05-01

    When a patient lacks decision-making capacity, then according to standard clinical ethics practice in the United States, the health care team should seek guidance from a surrogate decision-maker, either previously selected by the patient or appointed by the courts. If there are no surrogates willing or able to exercise substituted judgment, then the team is to choose interventions that promote a patient's best interests. We argue that, even when there is input from a surrogate, patient preferences should be an additional source of guidance for decisions about patients who lack decision-making capacity. Our proposal builds on other efforts to help patients who lack decision-making capacity provide input into decisions about their care. For example, "supported," "assisted," or "guided" decision-making models reflect a commitment to humanistic patient engagement and create a more supportive process for patients, families, and health care teams. But often, they are supportive processes for guiding a patient toward a decision that the surrogate or team believes to be in the patient's medical best interests. Another approach holds that taking seriously the preferences of such a patient can help surrogates develop a better account of what the patient's treatment choices would have been if the patient had retained decision-making capacity; the surrogate then must try to integrate features of the patient's formerly rational self with the preferences of the patient's currently compromised self. Patients who lack decision-making capacity are well served by these efforts to solicit and use their preferences to promote best interests or to craft would-be autonomous patient images for use by surrogates. However, we go further: the moral reasons for valuing the preferences of patients without decision-making capacity are not reducible to either best-interests or (surrogate) autonomy considerations but can be grounded in the values of liberty and respect for persons. This has

  5. Promoting Culturally Respectful Cancer Education Through Digital Storytelling.

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Cueva, Katie

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality among Alaska Native people. Over half of Alaska Native people live in rural communities where specially trained community members called Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) provide health care. In response to CHA/Ps' expressed desire to learn more about cancer, four 5-day cancer education and digital storytelling courses were provided in 2014. Throughout each course, participants explored cancer information, reflected on their personal experiences, and envisioned how they might apply their knowledge within their communities. Each course participant also created a personal and authentic digital story, a methodology increasingly embraced by Indigenous communities as a way to combine storytelling traditions with modern technology to promote both individual and community health. Opportunities to learn of CHA/Ps' experiences with cancer and digital storytelling included a 3-page end-of-course written evaluation, a weekly story-showing log kept for 4 weeks post-course, a group teleconference held 1-2 weeks post-course, and a survey administered 6 months post-course. Participants described digital storytelling as a culturally respectful way to support cancer awareness and education. Participants described the process of creating digital stories as supporting knowledge acquisition, encouraging personal reflection, and sparking a desire to engage in cancer risk reduction activities for themselves and with their families and patients. As a result of creating a personalized digital story, CHA/Ps reported feeling differently about cancer, noting an increase in cancer knowledge and comfort to talk about cancer with clients and family. Indigenous digital stories have potential for broad use as a culturally appropriate health messaging tool.

  6. [Human values and respect of human rights in oppressive conditions].

    Bomba, J

    1993-01-01

    Human rights, an issue of political debates in the last decades, listed in the United Nations Declaration of 1946 are rooted in the humanistic tradition of philosophy and religion. The UN declared their universal character and made state organizations responsible for their observation. Among all human rights that for freedom is usually perceived as crucial. Psychiatry developed in Europe primarily a caring function. The medical model developed in psychiatry through the 19th c. supplied the criteria for medical diagnosis of mental disturbance, and elaborated a system of treatment which included long term hospitalization. Medicalization of psychiatry (recently coming back) is a force which gives courage to those who suffer, to their families, and to professionals as well. This power however, can be easily abused, when a psychiatrist adopts a position of someone who knows better that which is good for his/her patient. Legal regulations of the circumstances of psychiatric treatment, especially treatment against the patient's will should prevent the abuse of the mentally disturbed person's right for freedom. The goal is usually achieved by clear description of clinical and other conditions under which a person can be committed, and by establishing the committed person's right to claim the decision to be unjust. Poland is a country without legal regulation in the area of mental health (there are only administrative acts). For more than sixty years several projects on mental health law have been worked on. The last one which came to the Sejm (parliament) in 1980 was withdrawn by the "Solidarity" Trade Union. At present, the membership of Poland in international organizations makes an introduction of mental health law an obligation. Having no legal regulation, Polish psychiatry has been a self-regulating system. It is worth to note that even in the hard Stalinist period (1947-1956) there was no abuse of psychiatry for political reasons. The main reason for Polish

  7. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  8. Replicate periodic windows in the parameter space of driven oscillators

    Medeiros, E.S., E-mail: esm@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei, Campus Alto Paraopeba, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Medrano-T, R.O. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We apply a weak harmonic perturbation to control chaos in two driven oscillators. > We find replicate periodic windows in the driven oscillator parameter space. > We find that the periodic window replication is associated with the chaos control. - Abstract: In the bi-dimensional parameter space of driven oscillators, shrimp-shaped periodic windows are immersed in chaotic regions. For two of these oscillators, namely, Duffing and Josephson junction, we show that a weak harmonic perturbation replicates these periodic windows giving rise to parameter regions correspondent to periodic orbits. The new windows are composed of parameters whose periodic orbits have the same periodicity and pattern of stable and unstable periodic orbits already existent for the unperturbed oscillator. Moreover, these unstable periodic orbits are embedded in chaotic attractors in phase space regions where the new stable orbits are identified. Thus, the observed periodic window replication is an effective oscillator control process, once chaotic orbits are replaced by regular ones.

  9. Complex dynamics and switching transients in periodically forced Filippov prey–predator system

    Tang, Guangyao; Qin, Wenjie; Tang, Sanyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We develop a Filippov prey–predator model with periodic forcing. •The sliding mode dynamics and its domain have been investigated. •The existence and stability of sliding periodic solution have been discussed. •The complex dynamics are addressed through bifurcation analyses. •Switching transients and their biological implications have been discussed. - Abstract: By employing threshold policy control (TPC) in combination with the definition of integrated pest management (IPM), a Filippov prey–predator model with periodic forcing has been proposed and studied, and the periodic forcing is affected by assuming a periodic variation in the intrinsic growth rate of the prey. This study aims to address how the periodic forcing and TPC affect the pest control. To do this, the sliding mode dynamics and sliding mode domain have been addressed firstly by using Utkin’s equivalent control method, and then the existence and stability of sliding periodic solution are investigated. Furthermore, the complex dynamics including multiple attractors coexistence, period adding sequences and chaotic solutions with respect to bifurcation parameters of forcing amplitude and economic threshold (ET) have been investigated numerically in more detail. Finally the switching transients associated with pest outbreaks and their biological implications have been discussed. Our results indicate that the sliding periodic solution could be globally stable, and consequently the prey or pest population can be controlled such that its density falls below the economic injury level (EIL). Moreover, the switching transients have both advantages and disadvantages concerning pest control, and the magnitude and frequency of switching transients depend on the initial values of both populations, forcing amplitude and ET

  10. Good practices with respect to the development and use of nuclear power plant procedures

    1998-12-01

    This technical publication is intended to provide information to nuclear power plant managers concerning good practices in respect to the development and use of NPP procedures. It is a part of an ongoing project on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control and is based on lessons learned from NPPs and utilities. The overall objective of this project is to provide systematic guidance on current and emerging instrumentation and control technologies including: protection and automation systems, control rooms, operator support systems, training simulators and human factors. It is intended to be applicable to NPPs in Member States that are in operation, under construction or being commissioned. The good practices described are consistent with the IAEA Safety Series recommendations with respect to the development and use of NPP procedures including the four categories: administrative procedures, operating procedures (normal, alarm response, abnormal and emergency procedures), maintenance and technical support procedures, and testing and surveillance procedures

  11. Is employment-focused case management effective for patients with substance use disorders? Results from a controlled multi-site trial in Germany covering a 2-years-period after inpatient rehabilitation.

    Saal, Susanne; Forschner, Lukas; Kemmann, Dietmar; Zlatosch, Jacqueline; Kallert, Thomas W

    2016-08-05

    Substance use disorders are associated with unemployment. An employment-focused case management (CMRE) has been conceptualised as a specific intervention to help substance use disorder patients return to competitive employment immediately after inpatient rehabilitation. This study investigated the effect of the intervention on return to work of persons with substance use disorders. The study was conducted in four German inpatient rehabilitation departments, and included unemployed patients (aged between 18 and 63 years) with a main clinical diagnosis of ICD-10 F10-19 disorders. Six weeks before discharge, patients were randomly allocated to CMRE or standard care (SC) using a quasi-randomised approach. The primary outcome measure was integration into competitive employment 24 months after discharge from rehabilitation. Secondary outcome domains were abstinence, duration of employment, proportion of publicly funded employment, satisfaction with life, precarious housing situation and precarious financial situation, and use of follow-up services. Outcome measures were assessed 6 weeks and 1-2 days prior to discharge, and 12 and 24 months after discharge from rehabilitation. One hundred sixty patients were allocated into the CMRE group and 160 patients into the control group. 267 resp. 179 participants could be included in the analyses performed for the 12-, and the 24-months follow-up assessments. At the study endpoint the rate of integration into the primary labour market was 35.6 % in the CMRE group and 41.2 % in the control group, respectively (Relative Risk 0.92, 95 % CI, 0.47; 1.79). There was a significantly higher proportion in the CMRE group, however, which immediately after discharge linked with services of the Federal Employment Agency or Job Centres. There were no statistically significant differences in other outcomes between the groups. Compared to SC, the additional specific CMRE intervention did not result in superior effects on return to work

  12. Governance Through Privacy, Fairness, and Respect for Individuals.

    Baker, Dixie B; Kaye, Jane; Terry, Sharon F

    2016-01-01

    Individuals have a moral claim to be involved in the governance of their personal data. Individuals' rights include privacy, autonomy, and the ability to choose for themselves how they want to manage risk, consistent with their own personal values and life situations. The Fair Information Practices principles (FIPPs) offer a framework for governance. Privacy-enhancing technology that complies with applicable law and FIPPs offers a dynamic governance tool for enabling the fair and open use of individual's personal data. Any governance model must protect against the risks posed by data misuse. Individual perceptions of risks are a subjective function involving individuals' values toward self, family, and society, their perceptions of trust, and their cognitive decision-making skills. Individual privacy protections and individuals' right to choose are codified in the HIPAA Privacy Rule, which attempts to strike a balance between the dual goals of information flow and privacy protection. The choices most commonly given individuals regarding the use of their health information are binary ("yes" or "no") and immutable. Recent federal recommendations and law recognize the need for granular, dynamic choices. Individuals expect that they will govern the use of their own health and genomic data. Failure to build and maintain individuals' trust increases the likelihood that they will refuse to grant permission to access or use their data. The "no surprises principle" asserts that an individual's personal information should never be collected, used, transmitted, or disclosed in a way that would surprise the individual were she to learn about it. The FIPPs provide a powerful framework for enabling data sharing and use, while maintaining trust. We introduce the eight FIPPs adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services, and provide examples of their interpretation and implementation. Privacy risk and health risk can be reduced by giving consumers control, autonomy, and

  13. Biogeochemistry of Metals in Periodic Cicada

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L. H.; Hancock, T. C.

    2005-05-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in three species of 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) to determine the bioavailability of metals from both uncontaminated and lead-arsenate-pesticide contaminated soils and evaluate whether these metal concentrations might threaten wildlife. Collections were made in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia during Brood X emergence in May and June 2004. Periodic cicadas emerge synchronously at high density after 13 or 17 years of underground development, feeding on xylem fluids, and molt into their adult form leaving a keratin exoskeleton shell. They are an important food source for birds and animals during emergence events, and influence nutrient cycles in woodland settings. Soil concentrations at the collection sites vary over one order of magnitude for Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn and over two orders of magnitude for As, Au, and Pb. The concentration levels of metals in adult periodic cicadas do not pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events. The adult cicadas contain concentrations of metals similar to, or less than, other invertebrates, such as earthworms. Average adult cicada body concentrations for As, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn are 3, 64, 0.015, 0.4, and 160 mg/Kg (dry weight), respectively. Much of the cicada nymph body load of metals is partitioned into the molt exoskeleton. Elements, such as Al, Fe, and Pb, are strongly enriched in the exoskeleton relative to the adult body; Cu and Zn are enriched in bodies. Concentrations of Fe, Co, and Pb, when normalized to inert soil constituents such as aluminum and cerium, are similar between the molt exoskeleton and their host soil, implying that passive assimilation through prolonged soil contact (adhesion or adsorption) may control these metal concentrations. Normalized concentrations of bioessential elements, such as S, P, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Mo, and

  14. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  15. Development status of oxygen solid electrolyte sensors in HLMC in respect to monoblock reactor facilities

    Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Shelemet'ev, V.M.; Sadovnichij, R.P.; Ivanov, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    The results of developing sensors on the base of solid electrolytes to control oxygen in lead and lead-bismuth coolants are considered. It is found out that ceramic detecting elements on the base of solid electrolytes from oxide ceramics are able to work a long time in conditions of high temperatures and thermal shocks in molten metals (in gases). They show stable conducting and mechanical properties, thermal resistance, low gas permeability. Using considered detecting elements different sensors, including ones for monoblock reactors and facilities, are developed and manufactured. The given sensors can be used for both continuous and periodical oxygen control in heavy liquid metal coolants [ru

  16. Efeito do período de exposição a concentrações de diquat no controle de plantas de Egeria densa, Egeria najas e Ceratophyllum demersum Effect of the period of exposure to diquat concentrations on the control of Egeria densa, Egeria najas and Ceratophyllum demersum

    D. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O período de permanência do herbicida na água pode ser influenciado pelo fluxo da água nos reservatórios e pela adsorção a partículas de argilas em suspensão, bem como pela degradação luminosa e por microrganismos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar diferentes períodos de exposição a concentrações do herbicida diquat no controle de Egeria densa, Egeria najas e Ceratophyllum demersum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 6 x 5, mais uma testemunha. Foram testados seis períodos de exposição das plantas (30, 60, 120, 240, 480 e 960 minutos a cinco concentrações do herbicida diquat (0,075; 0,15; 0,3; 0,6; e 1,2 ppm produto comercial Reward 240 g L ¹. As avaliações de controle das plantas daninhas imersas foram visuais e, no final do experimento, foi avaliada a massa seca das plantas, para determinar a porcentagem de redução da biomassa. Observou-se que apenas 30 minutos de exposição das espécies imersas E. densa e C. demersum à concentração de 0,075 ppm foi suficiente para proporcionar redução da massa seca em ambas as espécies. Para controle de E. najas aos 7 DAA houve necessidade de um período maior que 120 minutos de exposição, considerando a mesma concentração do herbicida. Esses resultados evidenciam o potencial de uso do diquat no controle de plantas daninhas aquáticas imersas em locais que apresentam rápida renovação de água.The period of herbicide permanence in water can be influenced by the water flow in the reservoirs and the adsorption of clay particles in suspension, as well as by luminous degradation and microorganisms. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different exposure periods to diquat concentrations on the control of Egeria densa, Egeria najas and Ceratophyllum demersum. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with four replicates, in a factorial scheme 6 x 5

  17. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period.

    Evans, Charity H; Lee, Jane; Ruhlman, Melissa K

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common finding in surgical patients during the perioperative period. Factors contributing to poor glycemic control include counterregulatory hormones, hepatic insulin resistance, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, use of dextrose-containing intravenous fluids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. Hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is associated with increased morbidity, decreased survival, and increased resource utilization. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period contributes to reduced morbidity and mortality. To readily identify hyperglycemia, blood glucose monitoring should be instituted for all hospitalized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Control rod displacement

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  19. Disruption of the circadian period of body temperature by the anesthetic propofol.

    Touitou, Yvan; Mauvieux, Benoit; Reinberg, Alain; Dispersyn, Garance

    2016-01-01

    The circadian time structure of an organism can be desynchronized in a large number of instances, including the intake of specific drugs. We have previously found that propofol, which is a general anesthetic, induces a desynchronization of the circadian time structure in rats, with a 60-80 min significant phase advance of body temperature circadian rhythm. We thus deemed it worthwhile to examine whether this phase shift of body temperature was related to a modification of the circadian period Tau. Propofol was administered at three different Zeitgeber Times (ZTs): ZT6 (middle of the rest period), ZT10 (2 h prior to the beginning of activity period), ZT16 (4 h after the beginning of the activity period), with ZT0 being the beginning of the rest period (light onset) and ZT12 being the beginning of the activity period (light offset). Control rats (n = 20) were injected at the same ZTs with 10% intralipid, which is a control lipidic solution. Whereas no modification of the circadian period of body temperature was observed in the control rats, propofol administration resulted in a significant shortening of the period by 96 and 180 min at ZT6 and ZT10, respectively. By contrast, the period was significantly lengthened by 90 min at ZT16. We also found differences in the time it took for the rats to readjust their body temperature to the original 24-h rhythm. At ZT16, the speed of readjustment was more rapid than at the two other ZTs that we investigated. This study hence shows (i) the disruptive effects of the anesthetic propofol on the body temperature circadian rhythm, and it points out that (ii) the period Tau for body temperature responds to this anesthetic drug according to a Tau-response curve. By sustaining postoperative sleep-wake disorders, the disruptive effects of propofol on circadian time structure might have important implications for the use of this drug in humans.

  20. Period Variations for the Cepheid VZ Cyg

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Engle, Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Wells, Mark; Laney, Clifton D.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cepheid Period-Luminosity law is a key rung on the extragalactic distance ladder. However, numerous Cepheids are known to undergo period variations. Monitoring, refining, and understanding these period variations allows us to better determine the parameters of the Cepheids themselves and of the instability strip in which they reside, and to test models of stellar evolution. VZ Cyg, a classical Cepheid pulsating at ˜4.864 days, has been observed for over 100 years. Combining data from literature observations, the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) transit survey, and new targeted observations with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak, we find a period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0642 ± 0.0018 s yr-1. However, when only the recent observations are examined, we find a much higher period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0923 ± 0.0110 s yr-1. This higher rate could be due to an apparent long-term (P ≈ 26.5 years) cyclic period variation. The possible interpretations of this single Cepheid’s complex period variations underscore both the need to regularly monitor pulsating variables and the important benefits that photometric surveys such as KELT can have on the field. Further monitoring of this interesting example of Cepheid variability is recommended to confirm and better understand the possible cyclic period variations. Further, Cepheid timing analyses are necessary to fully understand their current behaviors and parameters, as well as their evolutionary histories.