Sample records for respecting mother earth

  1. When Mothers Are No Longer Respected.

    Jones, Carole


    A former childcare worker addresses the connection between social problems plaguing modern life and society's attitudes toward the role of women and mothering. She describes the detrimental effects on children who are placed in day care at an early age and urges that families abandon materialism and work toward improving the quality of their own…


    Teyeb, Oumer; Boussif, Malek; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    the performance from an end-2-end (E2E), user-perceived Quality Of Service (QoS) point of view. In this paper, the design and implementation of RESPECT, an easily configurable network emulator is described. RESPECT was originally geared towards Universal Mobile Communications System (UMTS) networks, but thanks...... to its modular and scalable design, it is being extended for generic heterogeneous networks. Using RESPECT, QoS studies can be carried out to study the behavior of different services in different network conditions, identify generalized service dependent performance metrics for already existing services...

  3. Mingadhuga Mingayung: Respecting Country through Mother Mountain's Stories to Share Her Cultural Voice in Western Academic Structures

    McKnight, Anthony


    The cultural invasion of Yuin Country in Australia not only colonized the Yuin people and Yuin Country itself, but also contributed to non-Aboriginal people's continual colonized journey of disconnecting self from Mother Earth. Cultural awareness is a process driven by Western theories informed by the colonial dualism that functions on separation…

  4. Mother Lode: The Untapped Rare Earth Mineral Resources of Vietnam


    to exert their monopolistic control of the market by artificially restricting supply in the interest of higher commodity prices, but were rather...linked. World markets for rare earth elements are at present a near-monopoly controlled by China, and it is becoming ever clearer that alternative... markets for rare earth elements are at present a near- monopoly controlled by China, and it is becoming ever clearer that alternative sources for these

  5. The challenge of achieving professionalism and respect of diversity in a UK Earth Sciences department

    Imber, Jonathan; Taylor, Michelle; Callaghan, Mark; Castiello, Gabriella; Cooper, George; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Herron, Louise; Hoult, Jill; Lo, Marissa; Love, Tara; Macpherson, Colin; Oakes, Janice; Phethean, Jordan; Riches, Amy


    The Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, has a balanced gender profile at undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral levels (38%, 42% and 45% females, respectively), but one of the lowest percentages, relative to the natural applicant pool, of female academic staff amongst UK geoscience departments. There are currently 9% female academic staff at Durham, compared with a median value (in November 2015) of 20% for all Russell Group geoscience departments in the UK. Despite the fact that the female staff group is relatively senior, the Department's current academic management is essentially entirely male. The Department has an informal working culture, in which academics operate an "open door" policy, and staff and students are on first name terms. This culture, open plan office space, and our fieldwork programme, allow staff and students to socialise. A positive outcome of this culture is that > 95% of final year undergraduate students deemed the staff approachable (National Student Survey 2016). Nevertheless, a survey of staff and research student attitudes revealed significant differences in the way males and females perceive our working environment. Females are less likely than males to agree with the statements that "the Department considers inappropriate language to be unacceptable" and "inappropriate images are not considered acceptable in the Department". That anyone could find "inappropriate" language and images "acceptable" is a measure of the challenge faced by the Department. Males disagree more strongly than females that they "have felt uncomfortable because of [their] gender". The Department is proactively working to improve equality and diversity. It held a series of focus group meetings, divided according to gender and job role, to understand the differences in male and female responses. Female respondents identified examples of inappropriate language (e.g. sexual stereotyping) that were directed at female, but not male, colleagues. Males

  6. Practicing Partnership with the Earth: Nurturing the Evolution of a Caring Alliance Based on Reciprocity and Respect

    Ann Amberg


    This article highlights the value and importance of partnership practices focused on deepening our personal relationship with nature. In a context of the movement from domination to partnership systems, the author suggests the possibility of identifying ourselves in a larger context, as planetary humans, and offers insight into the perceptive shifts required to cultivate reciprocal and respectful relationships with the natural world. Through the suggestion of accessible earth-focused partners...

  7. A New Creation on Earth: Death and Transformation in the Yoga of Mother Mirra Alfassa

    Stephen Lerner Julich


    Full Text Available This paper acts as a précis of the author’s dissertation in East-West Psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. The dissertation, entitled Death and Transformation in the Yoga of Mirra Alfassa (1878-1973, Mother of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram: A Jungian Hermeneutic, is a cross-cultural exploration and analysis of symbols of death and transformation found in Mother’s conversations and writings, undertaken as a Jungian amplification. Focused mainly on her discussions of the psychic being and death, it is argued that the Mother remained rooted in her original Western Occult training, and can best be understood if this training, under the guidance of Western Kabbalist and Hermeticist Max Théon, is seen, not as of merely passing interest, but as integral to her development.

  8. The nonlinear gyroresonance interaction between energetic electrons and coherent VLF waves propagating at an arbitrary angle with respect to the earth's magnetic field

    Bell, T. F.


    A theory is presented of the nonlinear gyroresonance interaction that takes place in the magnetosphere between energetic electrons and coherent VLF waves propagating in the whistler mode at an arbitrary angle psi with respect to the earth's magnetic field B-sub-0. Particularly examined is the phase trapping (PT) mechanism believed to be responsible for the generation of VLF emissions. It is concluded that near the magnetic equatorial plane gradients of psi may play a very important part in the PT process for nonducted waves. Predictions of a higher threshold value for PT for nonducted waves generally agree with experimental data concerning VLF emission triggering by nonducted waves.

  9. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from 45Ca, 90Sr and 226Ra

    Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.


    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for 45 Ca, 90 Sr and 226 Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for 45 Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as 90 Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  10. Respective roles and interactions of T-lymphocyte and PGE2-mediated monocyte suppressive activities in human newborns and mothers at the time of delivery

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Mamas, S.; Dray, F.; Griscelli, C.


    Recently the concept of a poorly functional humoral immune response in the newborn was proposed. Data have been presented indicating that the impaired newborn B cell maturation, as shown in vitro in a pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell maturation system, is due both to an immaturity of lymphocyte subsets and to an increased suppressive T activity. In the present work, we present evidence that there exists a predominance of a naturally occurring T lymphocyte suppressive activity in the cord blood in that the removal of the suppressive activity by irradiation allows a normal maturation of newborn B cells. Such normal maturation of newborn B cells can also be obtained using mixed cultures of adult T cells and newborn B cells. Newborn suppressor T cells belong to both EA gamma (+) and EA gamma (-) fractions, and it is not known whether these two groups do or do not belong to different subsets. The PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity does not play any role in the suppression observed in newborns since newborn monocytes are poorly suppressive and since they produce a smaller amount of PGE2 than adult monocytes. Some observations suggest, on the contrary, that the suppressive T lymphocytes can regulate the level of the PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity. It should be noticed that similar observations about T lymphocyte and PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activities have been made at the same time using mothers' cells. These observations suggest the possibility that such changes in B cell immune regulation may result from an interaction between maternal and fetal lymphoid cells

  11. Earth

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  12. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from {sup 45}Ca, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D


    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for {sup 45}Ca, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for {sup 45}Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as {sup 90}Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  13. Preconception and prenatal urinary concentrations of phenols and birth size of singleton infants born to mothers and fathers from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) study.

    Messerlian, Carmen; Mustieles, Vicente; Minguez-Alarcon, Lidia; Ford, Jennifer B; Calafat, Antonia M; Souter, Irene; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ


    Although pregnancy concentrations of some phenols have been associated with infant size at birth, there is limited data on the effect of preconception exposure. We aimed to examine paternal and maternal preconception and maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations in relation to birth weight and head circumference. We evaluated 346 singletons born to 346 mothers and 184 fathers (184 couples) from a prospective preconception cohort of subfertile couples from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study in Boston, USA. We used multiple urine samples collected before the index pregnancy in both men and women to estimate mean preconception urinary benzophenone-3, triclosan, butylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, or ethylparaben concentrations. We also estimated mean maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations by averaging trimester-specific urine samples. Birth weight and head circumference were abstracted from delivery records. We estimated the association of natural log-phenol concentrations with birth outcomes using multivariable linear regression models, adjusting for known confounders. In adjusted models, each log-unit increase in paternal preconception benzophenone-3 concentration was associated with a 137 g increase in birth weight (95% CI: 60, 214). Additional adjustment for prenatal benzophenone-3 concentration strengthened this association. None of the maternal preconception phenol concentrations were associated with birth weight. However, maternal prenatal triclosan concentrations were associated with a 38 g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -76, 0). Few associations were observed between phenols and head circumference except for a decrease of 0.27 cm (95% CI: -54, 0) in relation to maternal preconception methylparaben concentration. Although our findings should be interpreted in light of inherent study limitations, these results suggest potential evidence of associations between some paternal or maternal phenol concentrations and

  14. (MOther Re-spect: Maternal Subjectivity, the Ready-made mother-monster and The Ethics of Respecting

    Bracha L. Ettinger


    Full Text Available A groundbreaking theoretician working at the intersection of art, psychoanalysis, feminine sexuality, ethics and aesthetics, she is the author of several books and more than eighty psychoanalytical essays on what she has named "matrix" and "matrixial trans-subjectivity" since the mid 1980s. Her book The Matrixial Borderspace (essays from 1994-1999 appeared in English in 2006 (published by the University of Minnesota Press with a foreword by Judith Butler, an introduction by Griselda Pollock, and an afterword by Brian Massumi who also edited the collection. She is a practicing psychoanalyst and holds together the practice of artist and of psychoanalyst in a unique way. Her co-authored series of conversations with Emmanuel Lévinas, Edmond Jabès, Félix Guattari, Christian Boltanski and other artists and philosophers are considered, alongside her notebooks, photography, scannography, and painting, as major contributions to contemporary art and culture. She has also published famous photographs of Jean-François Lyotard, Jabès, Lévinas, Joyce McDougall and others. Ettinger is Professor of Psychoanalysis and Art at the Media & Communications Division of the European Graduate School in Saas Fee (Switzerland. A recent selection of her solo exhibitions includes the Freud Museum (June-July 2009 in London, the Finnish Academy of Fine Arts in Helsinki (August 2009, the Tapies Foundation, Barcelona (May 2010 and the Freud Dream Museum, St Petersburg (September 2010. Her paintings, photos, drawings and notebooks have been exhibited extensively in major museums of contemporary art and her solo exhibitions include Le Palais des beaux-Arts, Brussels (2000 and The Drawing Center, New York (2001. She has participated in group exhibitions at Centre G. Pompidou, Paris and Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, and her recent group exhibitions include Herzliya Museum of Contemporary Art (2006-2007 and The Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp (2006. Her paintings and drawings are included in public collections at Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris, Pori Museum of Art (Finland, Israel Museum (Jerusalem, Museum of Modern Art (England, Tel Aviv Museum of Art (Israel and Pompidou Centre (Paris. Ettinger's artistic work is a subject of reflection and research for a number of art historians and philosophers. The art historian Griselda Pollock and the philosophers Jean-François Lyotard, Christine Buci-Glucksmann and Judith Butler, have each dedicated several essays to her pioneering art and renovating thought - art and thought that have influenced not only the visual arts and psychoanalysis of the last two decades but also different fields such as contemporary philosophy, queer and gender studies and the domains of film and literature.

  15. Respect changes your life!

    Alizée Dauvergne


    CERN has recently joined the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie" (Respect can change our lives). As its name suggests, the association promotes respect, in all its forms. This decision will enable CERN to share some of its values, those it has in common with the association, with the community at large.   The new bilingual logo of the "Le respect ça change la vie" association. "CERN has been a member of the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie" since March," says Friedemann Eder, Head of the Relations with the Host States Service. Mutual respect, respecting the differences and the work of others, respect on the road, in the family, at school, etc. The association, which was founded in 2003 and now has a large number of members, promotes this universal value and encourages discussion on it. "CERN's history shows the importance and success o...

  16. Respect in Education

    Giesinger, Johannes


    This article discusses the educational significance of the moral demand for respect. In "Ethics and Education," Richard Peters presents a conception of educational respect that was recently taken up by Krassimir Stojanov. This article responds to both Peters' and Stojanov's contributions and proposes another understanding of educational respect:…

  17. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Walker, Rebecca L


    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  18. Toleration out of respect?

    Lægaard, Sune


    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  19. Ombud's Corner: Respect @ CERN

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill


    Since 2010 CERN has been a member of the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie". Four years later and in conjunction with CERN’s celebration of its 60 years of ‘science for peace’, it is time to launch a new respectful workplace awareness campaign under the auspices of the Ombud.   Mutual respect is a basic pillar of peace. At CERN, we pride ourselves on our history, which started when a handful of Europe’s visionary scientists saw the opportunity that an international laboratory for fundamental research would present in bringing nations together. That idea has worked very well and, today, our success can be measured not only in terms of unprecedented scientific achievements but also in terms of training and education, and exemplary collaboration across borders, cultures and an extensive range of differences. In order for history to continue along these positive lines, and coming back to the awareness campai...

  20. Respect as an Incentive

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    Assuming that people care not only about what others do but also on what others think, we study respect as a non-monetary source of motivation in a context where the length of the employment relationship is endogenous.  In our three-stage gift-exchange experiment, the employer can express respect...... by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further effort, the duration of relationships, and the profits of employers. Furthermore, we study whether employers...

  1. Respect or resignation?

    Liveng, Anne


    Students in the social- and health care worker education must learn to show "understanding" and "respect" for the seniors they help. How difficult it is to go from theory to practise becomes painfully obvious the forst time a student empties a bed pan.......Students in the social- and health care worker education must learn to show "understanding" and "respect" for the seniors they help. How difficult it is to go from theory to practise becomes painfully obvious the forst time a student empties a bed pan....

  2. Toleration out of respect?

    Lægaard, Sune


    be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...

  3. Diagnóstico de sífilis congênita: comparação entre testes sorológicos na mãe e no recém-nascido Diagnostic of congenital syphilis: a comparison between serological tests in mother and respective newborn

    Claudio Barsanti


    Full Text Available Para determinarmos as freqüências de sífilis materna e congênita, procedemos ao estudo da resposta aos testes treponêmicos e não treponêmicos de 1.000 parturientes e seus respectivos conceptos. As amostras de sangue venoso da mãe e do recém-nascido e do cordão umbilical foram testadas pelo método de VDRL. Os testes TPHA e ELISA (IgG, IgM foram utilizados para confirmar os resultados positivos; entre as mães VDRL positivas foi feita a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HIV. Encontramos 24 (2,4% mães VDRL reativas (da população estudada, todas HIV negativas e, entre seus recém-nascidos, 18 (1,8% sangue de cordão e 19 (1,9% sangue venoso positivos. Não houve caso de reatividade nos recém-nascidos sem correspondente positividade materna. O teste de VDRL materno pôde, portanto, ser utilizado, isoladamente, na seleção dos casos de sífilis gestacional e congênita, já que não houve maior sensibilidade diagnóstica através da utilização dos testes treponêmicos, que comparados entre si, mostraram-se semelhantes.For the purpose of establishing the incidence of maternal and congenital syphilis among pregnant women at delivery and their respective newborns, a study was carried out to determine treponemic and non-treponemic serology in one thousand (1,000 parturient women and their children at Santa Marcelina Hospital - São Paulo, between June 95 and July 96. All blood samples (maternal venous, umbilical cord and newborn venous were VDRL-tested, treponemic tests (TPHA, ELISA IgG, ELISA IgM being applied whenever one of the samples from mother or newborn proved positive. Further, an anti-HIV search was run through ELISA among VDRL-positive mothers. Among the 1,000 parturients, 24 (2.4% were found to be VDRL-reactive; 18 (1.8% newborn children of these 24 mothers presented positive serology in their umbilical cord blood and 19 (1.9% in venous blood. No positive newborns were found for negative mothers. From the high occurrence of

  4. Respect as an Incentive

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    whether employers’ decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations. We find that employers do make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee. Symbolic rewards are associated with higher profits and increased probability of continuing......In this paper we examine respect as a non-monetary source of motivation. Our experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they are valued by the employees, and how they affect employee effort, the duration of relationships, and profits of employers. We also study...

  5. Mother Trouble

    Griselda Pollock


    Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto.  Supplementing the  then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic,  defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis.  The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of  subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the  feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other.  Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics.  Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In

  6. Lone mothers in Sweden

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S


    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  7. Mothers: The Unacknowledged Victims.

    Patterson, G.R.


    Used coercion theory to investigate aversive mother- child interactions. Literature indicated younger children produced higher rates of aversive interactions with their mothers. Mothers' role satisfaction varied as a function of such rates. Observation data showed mothers of aggressive children encountered higher rates of aversive interactions…

  8. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Mother Infant Attachment among Mothers of Preterm Neonates

    Binu Margaret


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.

  9. Amygdala Response to Mother

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.


    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  10. Geomagnetic field of earth

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja


    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  11. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

    L. van Rooyen


    Full Text Available According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life style evolve through a process of learning and interaction with others. It is a timeconsuming and costly process which starts at infancy and continues throughout someone's life. Instruction concerning interpersonal relations and the teaching of respect cannot be confined to individual lessons or working sessions at home or in school. Discussions and conversations concerning interpersonal relations need to form an integral and natural part of a child’s life within the home environment and throughout the pupil's school career. It is senseless if educators talk about the importance of teaching respect only to reveal disrespectful behaviour themselves, or to talk about the importance of self-esteem in the paying of respect whilst causing children to feel negative about themselves. To be able to express respect to other human beings, one needs to be respected. A child needs to experience how it feels when homage is paid. The following rule of life applies in this regard: one can never give if one has never received respect.

  12. Children of imprisoned mothers.

    Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P


    To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.

  13. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Shimon eEdelman


    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  14. Pregnancy outcomes in mothers with advanced human ...

    2%, p=0.308) and to have low Apgar scores (28% vs. 12%, Apgar score < 4 at 5 minutes p=0.02). Perinatal sepsis and perinatal deaths were more common in infants born to mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants born to HIV negative mothers (8 vs. 3, p=0.003 and 14 vs. 5, p=0.025 respectively). External ...

  15. Stigma in mothers of deaf children.

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail


    A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child's treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child's deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother's level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation programs and standard services for the children themselves.

  16. International science conference RESpect report

    Radim Rybár


    Full Text Available Report is dedicated to aspects of conceiving the number of scientific magazine Acta Montanistica Slovaca, which purpose wasto publish specific key reports from the sixth year of international science conference RESpect 2011. The main aspect in the decisionprocess was to cover the conference agenda, complexity of the global problematic understanding, the subject of examination actualityand the results achievement level. The choice at the same time points on the technological, evaluative, environmental, economicaland application aspects of the RES usage, with accent on the Middle Europe region conditions.

  17. Estudo eritroleucométrico e proteinograma sérico do sangue do cordão umbilical e jugular de eqüinos ao nascimento e de suas respectivas mães Erythrocytometry and seric proteinogram of umbilical cord and jugular of foals at birth and respective mothers

    R.F. Godoy


    Full Text Available Colheram-se amostras de sangue do cordão umbilical (SCU e do sangue circulante de cinco eqüinos neonatos, imediatamente após o nascimento, e o sangue da própria mãe, utilizando-se um sistema a vácuo. O material foi submetido à contagem global de hemácias e leucócitos e à determinação do volume globular e da concentração de hemoglobina; à contagem diferencial de leucócitos em esfregaços sangüíneos; e ao cálculo dos índices eritrocitométricos. Foram realizadas a dosagem de proteínas séricas totais e a eletroforese das proteínas séricas em gel de agarose. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os parâmetros do SCU e do sangue da jugular dos potros. No SCU dos potros observaram-se valores mais elevados para contagem global de hemácias (9,75x10(6/µl, dosagem de hemoglobina (14,65g/dl e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (37,23g/dl; e valores menores para volume corpuscular médio (40,50fl, proteína total (4,37g/dl, alfa-globulinas (0,65g/dl, beta-globulinas (1,10g/dl, gama-globulinas (0g/dl e contagens global (5,40 x 10³/µl e diferencial de leucócitos, exceto contagem de neutrófilos bastonetes e monócitos, quando comparados com os valores obtidos no sangue de suas mães.Umbilical cord blood (UCB and systemic blood samples were collected from five equine neonates, immediately after birth. Systemic blood samples from their mothers were also collected at the same time, using a vacuum system. The samples were submitted to the following analyses: red blood cell and total white blood cell counts; determinations of packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration; differential white cell count in blood smears; and determination of erythrocytometric values. Total serum proteins quantification and serum proteins electrophoresis in agarose gel were done. No significant difference (P<0.05 was noted between averages in neonate jugular blood and equine UCB. Equine UCB showed higher values of red blood cell

  18. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn


    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  19. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia


    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  20. Rare earths

    Cranstone, D A


    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  1. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon


    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reintegration of young mothers

    Miranda Worthen


    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  3. Teaching and Mother Love.

    Klein, J. Theodore


    The teaching context is analogous to the context of maternal practice, reflecting the nature of the relationship between adult and child; and as such, the appropriate practice of mother love is seen as an ideal for teaching. (IAH)

  4. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    Kolarič, Sandra


    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  5. Rare earths


    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  6. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Hossein Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  7. Earth Rotation

    Dickey, Jean O.


    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  8. Knowledge and belief of nursing mothers on nutritional ...

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing mothers with respect to food restriction during acute diarrhoea in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. This single round cross-sectional study adopted a purposive sampling procedure to select 250 nursing mothers aged between 17 and 45 ...

  9. The Mothers on Respect (MOR index: measuring quality, safety, and human rights in childbirth

    Saraswathi Vedam


    Conclusion: The MOR index is a reliable, patient-informed quality and safety indicator that can be applied across jurisdictions to assess the nature of provider-patient relationships, and access to person-centered maternity care.

  10. Respecting and protecting our relationships: a community research HIV prevention program for teen fathers and mothers.

    Lesser, Janna; Verdugo, Robert L; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tello, Jerry; Kappos, Barbara; Cumberland, William G


    This article describes a two-phase community and academic collaboration funded by the California Collaborative Research Initiative to develop and test the feasibility of an innovative HIV prevention program relevant to the needs of the population of inner-city Latino teen parenting couples and realistic for implementation in community settings. The article describes (a) the identification of special issues that needed to be addressed before formation of a productive academic-community-based organization research partnership, including integrating a dominant theoretical model used in health education with principles of practice derived from clinical experience; (b) the first phase of the project that helped to inform the development of the HIV prevention program for couples; (c) examples from the intervention pilot study (Phase 2) that illustrate both the intervention strategies and the young participants' responses to the curriculum; and (d) the feasibility of program implementation and evaluation in a community setting.

  11. Are the Mothers of Hospitalized Socially Disadvantaged

    and number of doses of scheduled immunizations received by 207 socially disadvantaged ... poor socio-economic status, poor housing, one parent ... percent of the total children surveyed. ... female ratio of 1.421. ... This information was not available in respect of 30 fathers and 1 1 mothers. ... S percent) out of 228 fathers of.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding ...

    ... to determine maternal characteristics and the determinants of full immunization ... posters and symposia, while community leaders and doctors were found to be a ... 10,5% and 5.5%) respectively Only 10% of the mothers failed to report a ...

  13. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Jacek Hołówka


    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  14. Earth Charter and nuclear energy

    Grippi, Sidney


    The chapter presents Earth Charter, where are listed the principles in 4 sections: 1) respect and take care of the life community; 2) environmental integrity; social and economic welfare; 4) democracy, no-violence and peace

  15. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  16. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S


    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  17. Our Mother Corn.

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  18. Mothers in Honors

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily


    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  19. Mothers, Learners and Countermemory

    Quinn, Jocey


    This article explores how issues of learning and mothering emerged in research with women students. First it develops the notion of 'a motherhood standpoint'. It then considers how Foucault's concept of 'counter-memory', and, in particular, its reworking in feminist cultural theory as 'countermemory', can be used to explain why students…

  20. Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Related Factors in Turkey: A Controlled Study

    Unsal-Delialioglu, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Ozel, Sumru; Gorgulu, Gulderen


    The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was any difference, with respect to depression, between mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and mothers of healthy children. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether some additional factors had an impact on the depression of the mothers. The study included 49…

  1. Electronic and magnetic structure of RENi{sub 2}Mn{sub x}-compounds (RE = rare earth, x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25) with respect to ErNi{sub 2}Mn{sub x}

    Balinski, Kamil; Kuepper, Karsten [Department of Physics, Osnabrueck University (Germany); Chrobak, Artur [Department of Physics, University of Silesia in Katowice (Poland); Kuznetzsova, T.V.; Mushnikov, N.V.; Marchenkov, V.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Rare earth (RE) and transition metal (T) compounds are research field since the 1960s. Because of huge magnetocalorical effect and giant magnetostriction the RE-T-compounds are excellent for applications like magnetic cooling or hydrogen storage devices. Besides of that RE-Ni{sub 2}-type of alloys are, due to the relatively simple crystal structure and the fact that Ni{sub 2} does not indicate any %behavior with result in an magnetic moment, excellent candidates for studies of magnetic behavior of RE's and their binding partners. The electronic structure of ErNi{sub 2}Mn{sub x} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25) is characterized by XPS and ResPES, the magnetic structure is investigated by SQUID and PPMS techniques, and resistivity measurements are made. Variation in Mn concentration revealed the position of Mn 3d-states at 1.7 eV. The XPS intensity at 1.7 eV can be correlated with the behavior of the Curie temperature and the resistivity. While similar RENi{sub 2}Mn{sub x}-systems, where RE had been replaced by Gd and Tb, highest resistivity, Curie temperature and the highest Mn 3d-valence band state intensity were observed at x = 0.5. ErNi{sub 2}Mn{sub x}-system behave different and show the mentioned maxima at x = 1.25.

  2. a Comparison Between Chemically Dependent Mothers and Drug-Free Mothers: Lifestyle during the Perinatal Period

    Uskokovic, Lila Milica

    This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent mothers and their infants.

  3. Mother's Happiness with Cognitive - Executive Functions and Facial Emotional Recognition in School Children with Down Syndrome.

    Maryam Malmir; Maryam Seifenaraghi; Dariush D Farhud; G Ali Afrooz; Mohammad Khanahmadi


    Background: According to the mother?s key roles in bringing up emotional and cognitive abilities of mentally retarded children and respect to positive psychology in recent decades, this research is administered to assess the relation between mother?s happiness level with cognitive- executive functions (i.e. attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition ability as two factors in learning and adjustment skills in mentally retarded children with Down syndro...


    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.


  5. Earth thermics

    Ueda, M


    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  6. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Jacek Hołówka


    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  7. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B


    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  8. Incongruent Teen Pregnancy Attitudes, Coparenting Conflict, and Support Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers.

    Denny, T; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H


    The current longitudinal study examined whether differences between Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures ( N = 204 dyads) in attitudes on the status attained through teen pregnancy were associated with conflict in their coparenting relationship and whether coparenting conflict was associated with adolescent mothers' perceptions of social support. Findings revealed that when adolescents held more positive attitudes than their mother figures about the status gained through teen pregnancy, they tended to report greater coparenting conflict with their mother figures. Furthermore, greater coparenting conflict was significantly associated with decreases in adolescents' perceptions of social support (i.e., emotional, instrumental, companion support) 1 year later. Findings underscore the importance of incongruent attitudes and the quality of coparenting relationships between adolescent mothers and their mother figures in relation to support processes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' social support in the context of family subsystem attitudes and interactions.

  9. Sulfur Earth

    de Jong, B. H.


    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  10. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee


    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  11. The radioactive earth

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.


    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  12. Personality of mothers of substance-dependent patients

    David Baron


    Full Text Available David Baron1, Samir AbolMagd2, Salwa Erfan2, Mona El Rakhawy21Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2University of Cairo School of Medicine, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Drug addicts often come from dysfunctional families. The prevailing view in the literature is that mothers of drug-dependent patients can be characterized by strong emotional bonds and overprotection. Studies suggest that maternal rejection could be a major risk factor of developing drug addiction. This work is a continuation of our previous study of childhood parenting experiences of substance-dependent patients. The aims were to compare the personality profile of mothers of substance-dependent patients and that of mothers of matched control subjects; and to examine the relation between the personality of mothers of addicts, and severity of their offspring’s addiction. The study group consisted of 20 mothers of substance-dependent patients and a control group of 35 mothers of non-dependent subjects; mothers of both groups were age matched. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria. Personalities of mothers of both groups were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. Substance-dependent patients (sons were administered the Addiction Severity Index (ASI. The mean scores of the MMPI Scales were higher for mothers of dependent patients compared to mothers of non-dependent subjects. Scores on the depression, hysteria and paranoia scales were significantly higher for mothers of patients (P = 0.03, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between scores of hysteria, and psychopathic deviance and the ASI (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between scores of social introversion and the ASI drug/alcohol use status (P = 0.007, and family history dimensions (P = 0.003. Mothers of substance-dependent patients showed disturbances in aspects of personalities

  13. Mother\\'s Experiences of Having Mental Retarded Child

    Sima Mohammadkhan-Kermanshahi


    Full Text Available Objective: Giving birth and training to a child with Mental Retardation (MR can be stressful for mothers. Therefore mothers need role models and adequate preparation to effectively teach the child to function at optimum level within the environment. Nurses are in a strategic position to assume a vital role in a assisting these mothers. With observation, problem solving, and decision making. There is a lack of studies about mothers' experiences of having a child with MR. This study was preformed to investigate mother's experiences of having a child with MR and how explore and describe the experienced mothers with mental retarded child. Materials & Methods: A phenomenographic approach was used. The study was preformed at an exceptional school in Tehran. Twelve mothers were interviewed using guided interviews. Results: From 336 thematic sentences, Six categories emerged, the first having three subcategories and the second having twenty subcategories., the third having three, the fourth category having six, the fifth having two, and the sixth having two subcategories. Mother's experiences of having a child with MR, describes informants a variety of feelings, often ambivalent (acceptance and UN acceptance. In such a situation, attention to God and prayer are the most important coping strategies for positive adaptation in mothers' experiences of having a child with MR, but this perception can not effect to accept him alone. They emphasis on educational and psychological needs for better life. Conclusions: The findings of this study could be used in mothers education to promote understanding of mothers’ experiences and how best to help them. They could also be used in the general media to improve public understanding.

  14. School Trouble: A Mother's Burden.

    Dudley-Marling, Curt


    Used interviews with a diverse group of parents of children who struggled academically in school to examine the effects of school troubles on mothers. Overall, the material and emotional burden for children's schoolwork fell to the mothers, many of whom felt overwhelmed and believed that the demands of schooling had diminished their quality of…

  15. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  16. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    Literacy Work, 1974


    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  17. Where's the Feminism in Mothering?

    D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather


    This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…

  18. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  19. [Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution].

    Ma, W; Wang, J; Liang, C; Qi, R; Yang, M


    The terramycin crystallizing mother solution contained high organics and high nitrogen. There were many kinds of bioinhibition in it but not enough electronic donor. Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution was completed with up anarobic sludge bed in order to improve the biodegradability of wastewater and electronic donor in it. The variations of pH, COD, NH4+, and SO4(2-) were monitored. The COD removal was in a narrow range between 10% and 16.4% even when the HRT of the reactor was changed from 1.5 h to 6 h. pH increased because of formation of NH3 and reduction of SO4(2-). Most of SO4(2-) was reduced to S2- when the HRT was longer than 2 h. Batch experiments on hydrolyzed wastewater demonstrated that reaction rates of nitrification and denitrification increased by 90.9% and 45.2%, respectively.

  20. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    Merry, M.S.


    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  1. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi


    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  2. Effects of Yamase climatic condition during the pollen mother cell developmental stage on concentrations of Cs and Sr in brown rice

    Yanai, Masumi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi


    Effects of the Yamase climatic condition on the concentration of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in brown rice were examined in relation to the soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L cv. Yumeakari) were cultivated in an artificial climate chamber, and exposed to a simulated Yamase condition for 3 or 7 d during the pollen mother cell developmental stage. In these simulated treatments, temperature and light intensity were set to 5degC lower and 50% lower than the respective control values. Fog was generated with visibility of 70±30 m. Concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and the other minor elements in brown rice samples were analyzed. Measured Cs and Sr concentrations were found to be unaffected by the Yamase treatments, while concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo were increased. (author)

  3. Can we trust module-respect heuristics?

    Mo, Yuchang


    BDD (Binary Decision Diagrams) have proven to be a very efficient tool to assess Fault Trees. However, the size of BDD, and therefore the efficiency of the whole methodology, depends dramatically on the choice of variable ordering. The determination of the best variable ordering is intractable. Therefore, heuristics have been designed to select reasonably good variable orderings. One very important common feature for good static heuristics is to respect modules. In this paper, the notion of module-respect is studied in a systematic way. It is proved that under certain condition there always exists an optimal ordering that respects modules. This condition is that for each module there is always a smallest module BDD and each included module variable appears only once. On the other hand, it is shown that for the trees not satisfying the above sufficient condition the optimal orderings may not be able to be directly generated using module-respect heuristics, even when the shuffling strategy is used.

  4. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression].

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio


    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  5. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  6. Ombud's Corner: Respect in the workplace

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill


    Launched in a previous issue of the Bulletin (see here), the 'Respect@CERN' campaign has triggered some rich and varied reactions, and contributions received from colleagues have covered a wide range of themes that extend from the basic “golden rule of treating others as you would have them treat you” to some very specific observations of respectful behaviour in the CERN context.   “To me, respect is the core of all relationships, all exchanges: we cannot work together and achieve results without it,” says one colleague, while another underlines the equally important dimension of projecting and preserving one’s own self-respect where “whether or not we sleep well at night depends on whether or not we feel that we have been true to ourselves that day”. Respect in the workplace is different from everyday respect in that it is based on an “earned privilege where each colleague has been selected for ...

  7. Educating student midwives around dignity and respect.

    Hall, Jenny S; Mitchell, Mary


    There is currently limited information available on how midwifery students learn to provide care that promotes dignity and respect. In recent years the importance of dignity in healthcare and treating people with respect has received considerable emphasis in both a national and international context. The aim of this discussion paper is to describe an educational workshop that enables learning to promote dignity and respect in maternity care. An interactive workshop, using different creative methods as triggers for learning will be described. Provision of learning opportunities for students around dignity and respect is important to ensure appropriate care is provided in practice. The use of creative methods to inspire has contributed to deep learning within participants. An evaluation of the workshop illustrated how learning impacted on participants practice. Data to support this is presented in this paper. The use of creative teaching approaches in a workshop setting appears to provide an effective learning opportunity around dignified and respectful care. These workshops have evoked a deep emotional response for some participants, and facilitators must be prepared for this outcome to ensure a safe space for learning. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  9. Cardiopulmonary adaptation in large for gestational age infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

    Vela-Huerta, M; Aguilera-López, A; Alarcón-Santos, S; Amador, N; Aldana-Valenzuela, C; Heredia, A


    To compare cardiopulmonary adaptation in large for gestational age infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. Color Doppler echocardiography was performed in 113 (22 large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers, 21 of nondiabetic mothers and 70 adequate for gestational age newborns) full-term infants. Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly higher in infants of diabetic mothers than in those of nondiabetic mothers and normal infants at 24 h (38.5 vs. 32.5, and 35.5 mmHg, respectively). However, slow fall in this parameter was shown in all large for gestational age infants. Open ductus arteriosus was frequent in all large for gestational age infants, but its closure was significantly delayed in infants of diabetic mothers. Septal hypertrophy was higher in infants of diabetic mothers than in large for gestational age infants of nondiabetic mothers. Large for gestational age infants born from nondiabetic mothers showed delayed fall in pulmonary arterial pressure similar to those born from diabetic mothers but showed lower proportion of septal hypertrophy. Patent ductus arteriosus persisted for longer period of time in all large for gestational age infants than in normal infants, but its closure was significantly delayed in infants of diabetic mothers.

  10. Creating a culture of mutual respect.

    Kaplan, Kathryn; Mestel, Pamela; Feldman, David L


    The Joint Commission mandates that hospitals seeking accreditation have a process to define and address disruptive behavior. Leaders at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, took the initiative to create a code of mutual respect that not only requires respectful behavior, but also encourages sensitivity and awareness to the causes of frustration that often lead to inappropriate behavior. Steps to implementing the code included selecting code advocates, setting up a system for mediating disputes, tracking and addressing operational system issues, providing training for personnel, developing a formal accountability process, and measuring the results. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    Asveld, L.


    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  12. [Respect of patient's dignity in the hospital].

    Duguet, A-M


    Every code of ethics of health professionals in France considers the respect of dignity as a fundamental duty. The French 2002 Law on patient rights says that the person has the right to respect of dignity and of private life. After a presentation of the articles of ethics codes regarding dignity, this paper presents recommendations to deliver medical care in situations where dignity might be endangered such as for patients hospitalized in psychiatric services without consent, or for medical examination of prisoners or medical care to vulnerable patients unable to express their will, especially in palliative care or at the end of life. Respect of dignity after death is illustrated by the reflection conducted by the Espace Ethique de l'AP-HP (Paris area hospitals) and in the Chart of the mortuary yard. A survey of the patients' letters of complaint received by the emergency service of the Toulouse University Hospital showed that, in five years, there were 188 letters and 18 pointed out infringements to the dignity of the person. The health professional team is now aware of this obligation, and in the accreditation of the hospitals, the respect of dignity is one of the indicators of the quality of medical care.

  13. Nurturing the Respectful Community through Practical Life

    Bettmann, Joen


    Joen Bettmann's depiction of practical life exercises as character-building reveals how caring, careful, and independent work leads to higher self-esteem, more concern for others, better understanding for academic learning, and a self-nurturing, respectful classroom community. Particular aspects of movement and silence exercises bring out what…

  14. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Maria Fernandes


    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  15. Why Earth Science?

    Smith, Michael J.


    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  16. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  17. Understanding Mechanical Design with Respect to Manufacturability

    Mondell, Skyler


    At the NASA Prototype Development Laboratory in Kennedy Space Center, Fl, several projects concerning different areas of mechanical design were undertaken in order to better understand the relationship between mechanical design and manufacturabiIity. The assigned projects pertained specifically to the NASA Space Shuttle, Constellation, and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. During the work term, mechanical design practices relating to manufacturing processes were learned and utilized in order to obtain an understanding of mechanical design with respect to manufacturability.

  18. Nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen


    Background: Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Findings: Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. Conclusion: According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions. PMID:28546981

  19. Nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity.

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen


    Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions.

  20. Mother-offspring associations in northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus.

    Tolentino, Karynna; Roper, James J; Passos, Fernando C; Strier, Karen B


    Maternal care of offspring is ubiquitous among primates, but its duration varies across species due to factors such as dispersal patterns and social dynamics, which influence opportunities for and potential benefits of maternal investment in older offspring, respectively. We examined mother-offspring associations in wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), in which males are philopatric, females typically disperse before puberty, and social relationships among and between males and females are egalitarian. Associations were systematically recorded between ten mothers, each with two-six offspring in the study group, and all group members from August 2003-May 2004 at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Infants of both sexes received similarly high percentages of their mothers' association time. Mothers without infants also maintained strong associations with their youngest juvenile sons. Mothers did not spend consistently more time associating with either juvenile or adult sons than daughters. Our finding of non-preferential associations between muriqui mothers and their older male offspring suggests that extended maternal investment in offspring may be of minimal value in their egalitarian society compared with its value for species living in hierarchical societies.

  1. Correlates of First-Time Mothers' Postpartum Stress

    Chich-Hsiu Hung


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and its correlates following discharge from the hospital or clinic after vaginal delivery. One hundred and eightythree first-time mothers were enrolled from hospitals and clinics in Kaohsiung City. All first-time mothers reported normal pregnancies and vaginal deliveries, delivered healthy infants at term, and were surveyed during their postpartum periods after discharge from hospitals or clinics. The Hung Postpartum Stress Scale was used to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and stressors during their postpartum periods. The top ten postpartum stressors perceived by the women were: “the baby getting sick suddenly”, “the flabby flesh of my belly”, “the unpredictability of the baby's schedule”, “interrupted sleep”, “the shape of the baby's head due to the sleeping position”, “not sleeping enough”, “lack of information regarding infant's growth and development”, “the baby's crying”, “my life is restricted”, and “the baby choking during feeding”. There were no significant differences between the first-time mothers' demographic characteristics and their postpartum stress and its three components (negative body changes, maternal role attainment, lack of social support, respectively. Insight into the study results of first-time mothers' post- partum stress and stressors provides a reference for health professionals that the development of programs and resources addressing primiparous women's unique needs are required.

  2. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  3. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  4. Honour and respect in Danish prisons

    Laursen, Julie; Laws, Ben


    to create accountable and rational actors, who ‘self-manage’, the therapeutic ethos neglects participants’ life experiences and subcultural capital. Open expressions of moral values by prisoners (such as displays of honour and respect) are considered to be cognitive distortions which are dismissed......Using empirical data from prison-based cognitive-behavioural programmes, this article considers how prisoners’ subcultural capital shapes their responses to demands for ‘cognitive self-change’. We argue that accounts of ‘respect’ in the prior literature fail to capture how prisoners react...

  5. HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths.

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira


    Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.

  6. Respect distances. Rationale and means of computation

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hoekmark, Harald [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)


    Canisters with spent nuclear fuel can obviously not be located within deformation zones as this might jeopardise their long term mechanical stability and thereby constitute a potential hazard to the biosphere. Less apparent, but equally important, is the fact that earthquakes trigger reactivation, slip, of structures some distance from their hypocentres due to, among many other factors, stress redistribution. Fault slip across a deposition hole might damage the isolation capacity of the canister and thereby jeopardise the overall integrity of the barrier system. Therefore, the following question might be posed: What is the distance from a deformation zone beyond which a canister can be safely emplaced? This respect distance cannot be readily computed because, unknown future events aside, there are some complicated aspects that need to be addressed e.g. degree of conservatism, scale, our ability to model ice sheets and earthquakes, etc. In this report we discuss various aspects of the assignment of respect distances, propose a methodology for its assignment and apply the methodology to the Forsmark Site as a worked example. Our main concern, in the context discussed in this report, is the post glacial faults anticipated to occur after the next glaciations. To properly address conservativeness, analysis of risk, and its implementation in safety analysis, we provide an extensive compilation of our current knowledge on post glacial faults as an appendix.

  7. Respect distances. Rationale and means of computation

    Munier, Raymond; Hoekmark, Harald


    Canisters with spent nuclear fuel can obviously not be located within deformation zones as this might jeopardise their long term mechanical stability and thereby constitute a potential hazard to the biosphere. Less apparent, but equally important, is the fact that earthquakes trigger reactivation, slip, of structures some distance from their hypocentres due to, among many other factors, stress redistribution. Fault slip across a deposition hole might damage the isolation capacity of the canister and thereby jeopardise the overall integrity of the barrier system. Therefore, the following question might be posed: What is the distance from a deformation zone beyond which a canister can be safely emplaced? This respect distance cannot be readily computed because, unknown future events aside, there are some complicated aspects that need to be addressed e.g. degree of conservatism, scale, our ability to model ice sheets and earthquakes, etc. In this report we discuss various aspects of the assignment of respect distances, propose a methodology for its assignment and apply the methodology to the Forsmark Site as a worked example. Our main concern, in the context discussed in this report, is the post glacial faults anticipated to occur after the next glaciations. To properly address conservativeness, analysis of risk, and its implementation in safety analysis, we provide an extensive compilation of our current knowledge on post glacial faults as an appendix

  8. Promoting respect at home and abroad


    This week, I’d like to focus on respect, whether at home, at work or on the international scene. Last week, I had the opportunity to visit the SESAME laboratory in Jordan along with the new European Commissioner for Research, Carlos Moedas. Since taking up his post, Mr Moedas has attached great importance to the role science can play in diplomacy, and the visit was on his initiative.   Through the EU-funded CESSAMag project, CERN is coordinating the provision of magnets and power supplies for the SESAME main ring. The first are currently being tested at CERN by a team involving accelerator scientists from the SESAME members, and all are due to be delivered to SESAME in time for commissioning in the second half of 2016. SESAME, and CERN’s contribution to the project, are well documented in the pages of the Bulletin, but what really impresses when you visit the lab is the diversity of people working there and the degree of mutual respect they show to each other. SESAME will...

  9. Revisiting Respect for Persons in Genomic Research

    Debra J. H. Mathews


    Full Text Available The risks and benefits of research using large databases of personal information are evolving in an era of ubiquitous, internet-based data exchange. In addition, information technology has facilitated a shift in the relationship between individuals and their personal data, enabling increased individual control over how (and how much personal data are used in research, and by whom. This shift in control has created new opportunities to engage members of the public as partners in the research enterprise on more equal and transparent terms. Here, we consider how some of the technological advances driving and paralleling developments in genomics can also be used to supplement the practice of informed consent with other strategies to ensure that the research process as a whole honors the notion of respect for persons upon which human research subjects protections are premised. Further, we suggest that technological advances can help the research enterprise achieve a more thoroughgoing respect for persons than was possible when current policies governing human subject research were developed. Questions remain about the best way to revise policy to accommodate these changes.

  10. Maternal Socialization and Kindergarten Children's Behaviors from Jordanian Mothers' and Teachers' Perspectives

    Abu Al Rub, Majedah Fawzy; Rababaeh, Ebtesam Qasim; Mustafa, Intisar Ghazy


    This study investigated whether Jordanian mothers' self-reported parenting practices were associated with their kindergarten children's prosocial or anti-social behavior based on three parental patterns: nurturance, respect, and power assertion. The participants were 95 mothers with children in the kindergarten level in Jordan. Additionally, 13…

  11. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and…

  12. PFAS concentrations in plasma samples from Danish school children and their mothers

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S


    an association between plasma levels and the age of the mothers and higher levels of plasma PFASs in mothers with low parity. There were no associations between PFAS concentrations and residential area, dietary habits of the participants or with respect to the birth order of the children. The levels...

  13. Similarity of Mothers' and Preschool Teachers' Evaluations of Socialization Goals in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Döge, Paula; Keller, Heidi


    This study examines the similarity of socialization goals of a group of mothers with different cultural backgrounds and their children's respective preschool teachers in Germany. Additionally, the researchers were interested in the relationship between the degree of mother-teacher similarity and maternal satisfaction with child care. Questionnaire…

  14. "Giving Guilt the Flick"?: An Investigation of Mothers' Talk about Guilt in Relation to Infant Feeding

    Williams, Kate; Donaghue, Ngaire; Kurz, Tim


    Manuals offering advice to new parents on the topic of infant feeding have recently begun to attend to the possible implications of pro-breast-feeding discourses for mothers' subjective experiences, particularly with respect to guilt. In this article, we present a discursive analysis of focus groups with 35 Australian mothers in which we examine…

  15. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian


    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  16. From mothers to daughters: transgenerational food and diet communication in an underserved group.

    Wilson, Diane Baer; Musham, Catherine; McLellan, Mary S


    Studies show that young girls are highly influenced by their mothers' attitudes toward food and body image. To investigate the nature of the information about food that mothers transfer to their daughters, the researchers used focus groups comprising African American women. Results suggest that when educators work with low-income African American women, they should be cognizant of overeating from the perspectives of early food scarcity, reverence for the mother's authoritative role in the family and respect for cultural differences in body size norms. In addition, nutrition educators should counsel young mothers to understand the impact of their eating habits on their daughters.

  17. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane


    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  18. Manger hors norme, respecter les normes

    Régnier, Faustine


    Fondée sur un corpus de près de 10 000 recettes de cuisine de la presse féminine française et allemande (1930‑2000), cette contribution met en évidence la façon dont l’exotisme permet de manger hors norme tout en restant dans les normes. Les pratiques culinaires étrangères ne peuvent être adoptées qu’au terme d’un travail de normalisation. Elles sont modifiées de manière à ce que soient respectées les normes du pays d’accueil, par là même mises en œuvre. Elles sont donc conçues comme un ensem...

  19. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads.

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R; Maher, Jaclyn P; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla


    This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children ( N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days. EMA measured perceived stress, and past 2-hour healthy (i.e., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., pastries/sweets, soda/energy drinks) eating. Children reported more healthy and unhealthy eating on days when their mothers also engaged in more healthy and unhealthy eating, respectively. On days when mothers' perceived stress was greater than usual, they reported more healthy eating. Eating behaviors were coupled between mothers and children at the day level. Mothers' stress was related to their own eating but not to children's eating.

  20. Free oscillation of the Earth

    Y. Abedini


    Full Text Available   This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth.   We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.

  1. Assessment of Nutritional Practices of Pregnant Mothers on ...

    Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development throughout the entire life span. The nutrition requirement varies with respect to age, gender and during physiological changes such as pregnancy. Pregnancy is a critical phase in a woman's life, when the expectant mother needs optimal nutrients of ...

  2. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, and good knowledge of the national guidelines on PMTCT was 8.5%, 30.4% and 61.1% respectively. Knowledge of the national guidelines was significantly ...

  3. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Juuti, Kalle


    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  4. Rare earth sulfates

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.


    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  5. Rare earth germanates

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.


    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  6. Might electrical earthing affect convection of light

    Budrikis, Z.L.


    Partial convection of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel and verified by Fizeau, Zeeman and others. It is accepted as an important argument in favour of the Special Theory of Relativity. The suggestion is made here that the convection is partial only when the propagating medium is moved with respect to its electrically earthed surroundings and that it would be total if an earthed shield was co-moving with the medium. This is based on a reinterpretation of Maxwell's equations wherein they are seen as macroscopic relationships that are in each case valid only in respect of a particular inertial frame of reference, the local electrical earth frame. (Auth.)

  7. A workplace marked by respect and understanding


    Integrity, commitment, professionalism, creativity and diversity: five words that each and every one of us at CERN can identify with, because they represent the core values of this Organization. That’s why they have been chosen as the starting point for our new Code of Conduct, which is being launched this week.  A Code of Conduct describes the basic standards and rules of behaviour that we can expect in the workplace, and it is a statement of the way we see our Organization’s values. CERN’s mission is fundamental research in physics: pushing back the frontiers of human knowledge. In support of that mission, we drive innovation, stimulate international collaboration and inspire a rising generation of scientists. We do all this while respecting the highest ethical standards, and it is this aspect of CERN life that the Code of Conduct describes. CERN’s Code of Conduct has been developed through a collaborative and transparent process to foster shared appre...

  8. Respectful doubts on the new ICRP recommendations

    Diaz de la Cruz, F.


    The admiration and deference an International Organization, as ICRP, deserves not only by its altruistic mission but also by the eminent and distinguished scientists who work for it, in some way 'dazzles' to simple students of its theories and, in some way 'force' us to accept, sometimes without any critical, serious and previous meditation, its recommendations. But it is not the bad thing this kind of 'blindness' we have before the almighty ...ICRP dixit..., the worst thing is that non-specialist and non-specialized persons believe as 'dogmas' and 'axioms' the ICRP recommednations and make of them legal dispositions through standards and regulations. Standards an regulations which can frustate an industrial or any other type of peaceful nuclear activity due to the economic or the social reasons derived from ICRP recommendations. The inflexibility (weakened in the arguments but strengthened in the recommendations) of this influent Organism on the 'linearity without threshold' in the dose-effect relationship and the compromises of the International Labor Organization (ILO) with respect ICRP recommedations provole irrational, ilogical and non desirable answers. (author)

  9. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno


    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests.

  10. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C


    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  11. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Schwartz, Scott C


    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  12. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L


    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  13. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  14. Long-Period Tidal Variations of the Earth's Rotation Rate

    Desai, S.; Gross, R.; Wahr, J.


    Long-period tidal variations of the Earth's rotation rate are caused by the redistribution of mass associated with the respective elastic solid Earth tides, the ocean tide heights, and the anelasticity of the Earth's mantle, and by the relative angular momentum associated with the long-period ocean tide currents.

  15. Respect-Due and Respect-Earned: Negotiating Student-Teacher Relationships

    Goodman, Joan F.


    Respect is a cardinal virtue in schools and foundational to our common ethical beliefs, yet its meaning is muddled. For philosophers Kant, Mill, and Rawls, whose influential theories span three centuries, respect includes appreciation of universal human dignity, equality, and autonomy. In their view children, possessors of human dignity, but…

  16. "We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth


    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

  17. Research as a Respectful Practice: An Exploration of the Practice of Respect in Qualitative Research

    O'Grady, Emmanuel


    This article explores the practice of respect within qualitative research methods. As interpersonal respect plays a significant role in the esteem felt within a relationship, it can also serve to cultivate trust between researchers and their participants in a research study. This article details the findings of a research study examining respect…

  18. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

    Darshini Valoo


    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  19. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Rogayeh Koohi


    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  20. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank


    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population.

  1. Factors That Influence a Mother's Willingness to Preserve Umbilical Cord Blood: A Survey of 5120 Chinese Mothers.

    Haiyan Lu

    Full Text Available Umbilical Cord blood (UCB, which contains a substantive number of stem cells, could be widely used in transplants to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. However, only a small portion of mothers preserve or donate their UCB in China. The limited availability of UCB has hampered stem cell research and therapy nowadays. To date, no systemic investigations regarding factors that influence a mother's willingness to preserve UCB have been performed in China. In the current study, we are trying to determine those factors which will provide useful information for national health policy development and will raise awareness of the importance of UCB preservation.During 2011 to 2013, 5120 mothers with the average age of 26.1±8.4 years were included in this study. Those mothers participated in a standardized survey. The information gathered consisted of delivery time, occupation, level of education, knowledge of preservation of UCB, willingness to store UCB, and related concerns. The results have been analyzed with SPSS 16.0.The results showed that first-time mothers showed a greater willingness to preserve their UCB (73.3% compared to those having their second (48.9% or third child (40.3%. Mothers who were employed at Government Agencies and Organizations were more willing to preserve their UCB (87.3% than those employed at factories (62.0%, and those who were unemployed (27.3%. Mothers holding master's or college degrees were more willing to preserve their UCB (72.5% and 71.1%, respectively than mothers with high school diplomas (48.7% or those who only went to preliminary school or middle school (40.7%. The two strongest factors that influenced an unwillingness to preserve UCB were the high cost and concerns regarding the safety of the preservation.The results showed that mothers with higher education or those having better occupations are more likely to preserve their UCB in China. These mothers have

  2. Factors That Influence a Mother's Willingness to Preserve Umbilical Cord Blood: A Survey of 5120 Chinese Mothers.

    Lu, Haiyan; Chen, Yanwen; Lan, Qiaofen; Liao, Huanjin; Wu, Jing; Xiao, Haiyan; Dickerson, Carol A; Wu, Ping; Pan, Qingjun


    Umbilical Cord blood (UCB), which contains a substantive number of stem cells, could be widely used in transplants to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. However, only a small portion of mothers preserve or donate their UCB in China. The limited availability of UCB has hampered stem cell research and therapy nowadays. To date, no systemic investigations regarding factors that influence a mother's willingness to preserve UCB have been performed in China. In the current study, we are trying to determine those factors which will provide useful information for national health policy development and will raise awareness of the importance of UCB preservation. During 2011 to 2013, 5120 mothers with the average age of 26.1±8.4 years were included in this study. Those mothers participated in a standardized survey. The information gathered consisted of delivery time, occupation, level of education, knowledge of preservation of UCB, willingness to store UCB, and related concerns. The results have been analyzed with SPSS 16.0. The results showed that first-time mothers showed a greater willingness to preserve their UCB (73.3%) compared to those having their second (48.9%) or third child (40.3%). Mothers who were employed at Government Agencies and Organizations were more willing to preserve their UCB (87.3%) than those employed at factories (62.0%), and those who were unemployed (27.3%). Mothers holding master's or college degrees were more willing to preserve their UCB (72.5% and 71.1%, respectively) than mothers with high school diplomas (48.7%) or those who only went to preliminary school or middle school (40.7%). The two strongest factors that influenced an unwillingness to preserve UCB were the high cost and concerns regarding the safety of the preservation. The results showed that mothers with higher education or those having better occupations are more likely to preserve their UCB in China. These mothers have related

  3. Neither father nor biological mother

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti


    . Results: Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, whilelesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biologicalmother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what...

  4. Medical Records and Correspondence Demand Respect

    M Benamer


    Full Text Available To The Editor: I was amazed recently to see a patient from Libya who came to the UK for treatment based on the advice of his Libyan physicians. The patient carried with him no referral letter whatsoever. Not one physician familiar with his case bothered to write a few lines for the poor patient, although each of those doctors saw the patient at least twice and prescribed one or more treatment. The patient carried with him different medications that had been prescribed, and a few empty containers of other medicines he had used. I mention the above short tale to bring to light what I feel is a major ethical problem with the way medicine is practiced in Libya [1]. The keeping of good medical records together with clear and concise correspondence between physicians is imperative for several reasons. Not only does it avoid duplication of services and unnecessary costs, it decreases the time invested by both the patient and physician, and it fosters a collegial relationship among healthcare providers. Many times, referring physicians may not know each other. It provides a channel for them to learn from each other as well as a method for them to form professional relationships. It occurred to me that colleagues in Libya may be shy of writing referral letters or may even be phobic about disclosing their practice habits. Patient information can best be written as referral letters which summaries the patient presentation, testing, response to treatment, possible consultation, and reason for referral. The referral may be because the physician(s initially treating the patient simply have tried all treatments known to them, or they may need to refer if they lack certain diagnostic equipment necessary to continue the care. To refer the patient to colleagues simply says “we think more can be done for this patient but we may not be able to do it here; please evaluate.” It shows respect for the patient and for the colleague. No physician knows everything

  5. Spiritual needs of mothers with sick new born or premature infants-A cross sectional survey among German mothers.

    Büssing, Arndt; Waßermann, Undine; Christian Hvidt, Niels; Längler, Alfred; Thiel, Michael


    Spirituality is part of the basic needs of all humans, yet often undervalued by health professionals. Less is known about the spiritual needs of mothers of preterm or sick new born children. Identify unmet psychosocial and spiritual needs of these mothers, and to relate these needs to their perceived stress and impairments of life concerns. Anonymous cross-sectional survey with standardized instruments (e.g., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire) among 125 mothers of two paediatric departments in Germany. Mothers felt supported by their partner and hospital staff, and hospital staff assured 82% of them that they must not worry about their child's prognosis. They nevertheless did have specific unmet spiritual needs. Religious Needs and Existentialistic Needs scored lowest, while Giving/Generativity Needs were of moderate and Inner Peace Needs of strongest relevance. With respect to the expected diagnosis and prognosis of their child, there were no significant differences for their secular spiritual needs scores, but significant differences for Religious Needs which scored highest in mothers with children having an unclear prognosis (F=8.6; p=.004). Particularly Inner Peace Needs correlated with their stress perception (r=.34), impairments of life concerns (r=.25) and grief (r=.23). Mothers of sick born/premature children felt supported by the hospital team and their partner, but nevertheless experienced stress and daily life impairments, and particularly have unmet Inner Peace Needs. Addressing mothers' specific needs may help support them in their struggle with their difficult situation avoiding fears and insecurity and thus facilitating positive bonding to their child. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  7. Mission to Planet Earth

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  8. Cardiovascular malformations in infants of diabetic mothers

    Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G


    Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.

  9. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers.

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others


    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  10. Terminology report respect distance. The Use of the term respect distance in Posiva and SKB

    Lampinen, H.


    The term respect distance is used in some key publications of the Finnish Nuclear Waste Management Company, Posiva, and the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company, SKB (Svensk Kaernbrenslehantering). Posiva and SKB researchers use the same terms in their reports, and it is acknowledged that the terms used by both companies are not used in the same way, though the differences are often subtle. This report is a literature study of the term 'respect distance' and the terms immediately associated to it. Vital terms related to the respect distance and issues concerning the use of scale concepts in Posiva and SKB are gathered in the end of report. Posiva's respect distances consider the seismic, hydrological and mechanical properties of the deterministic deformation zones as important issues that constitute a risk for longterm safety. These requirements for respect distances are an interpretation of STUK's YVL 8.4 Guide. At present, Posiva's criteria regarding respect distances follow the instructions given in the Host Rock Classification system (HRC), whereas the size of a deformation zone to which respect distances are applied vary from the regional to local major and minor. This and other criteria that are given for respect distances may, however, change in the near future as Posiva's Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC) programme proceeds. SKB's considerations of respect distances acknowledge that the hydraulic and mechanical aspects of a deformation zone have an effect on the respect distance. However, the seismic risk is considered to overshadow the other effects on a regional scale. The respect distance defined for a deformation zone is coupled with the size of a fracture where secondary slip could occur. In the safety assessment it is assumed that this fracture cuts a deposition hole location. In SKB the respect distance is determined for regional and local major deformation zones. The trace length of such a zone is defined as being ≥ 3 km. For deformation zones

  11. Impact of the mother-nurse partnership programme on mother and infant outcomes in paediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

    Uhm, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Hee Soon


    To identify the effects of a mother-nurse partnership programme based on the core components of information sharing, negotiation and participation in care. Specifically, we examined the programme's effects on parental satisfaction, parental self-efficacy, perceived partnership and anxiety, as well as infants' time to reach full oral feeding and length of postoperative hospital stay, following cardiac surgery on infants at a paediatric intensive care unit with a restrictive visiting policy. Quasi-experimental study. An analysis of covariance was used to investigate between-group differences while ensuring homogeneity. A paediatric cardiac ICU. Parental satisfaction, parental self-efficacy, perceived partnership and anxiety. Data from 37 and 36 mothers in the control and experimental groups respectively, were analysed. Compared with controls, experimental group mothers reported significantly higher parental satisfaction (F = 39.29, p partnership (F = 62.30, p < .001) and lower anxiety (F = 12.93, p < .001), upon transfer to the ward. Infant outcomes did not differ between the groups. This programme appears to facilitate collaboration between nurses and mothers and positively influences mothers' emotional and cognitive outcomes following infants' cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L


    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission.

  13. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra


    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  14. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka


    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  15. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen


    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  16. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.


    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  17. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.


    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)

  18. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee


    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  19. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar


    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  20. [The actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and mother-adolescent communication on depression in mothers and adolescents in Kirogi families according to adolescent' development stage].

    Yun, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung Hee


    This study was conducted to compare the level of depression, self-esteem and mother-adolescent (M-A) communication perceived by both mothers and adolescents between the early adolescent (E-A) group and the late adolescent (L-A) group; and to examine the actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and M-A communication on depression in mothers and adolescents. Participants were 107 Kirogi families who resided in the Midwest region of the U. S. Data were collected from September, 2008 to March, 2009 using the scales of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-esteem and Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory. Mothers in E-A group reported higher scores on depression than mothers in L-A group. Adolescents in L-A group reported higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem than adolescents in E-A group. In the E-A group, mothers' self-esteem had big actor effect on mothers' depression and partner effect on adolescents' depression. In the L-A group, self-esteem of mothers and adolescents had actor effect on their depression respectively without partner effect. M-A communication of mothers influences mothers' depression negatively and adolescents' depression positively. In both group, M-A communication influences their depression with mediating effect of self-esteem. To promote Kirogi families' mental health, programs for mothers and adolescents should be developed differently according to adolescents' development stage.

  1. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  2. [Tunisian mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode].

    Bourgou, S; Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B


    schizophreniform disorder. The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was 11.5 months. Longer duration of untreated psychosis was associated with male gender (P=0.008). A significant relationship was also found between long DUP and stigmatization of mental hospital and psychiatry (respectively P=0.04 and P=0.05). Most of the mothers did not think that their child initially suffered from a psychotic disorder. In 63.3%, the cause of the child's symptomatology was attributed to spirit possession. The others reasons for seeking psychiatric treatment were: behavioral disorder in 77.3%, inefficacity of traditional practices in 54.5%, and patient refusal (40.9%). Stigmatization of the Razi hospital, the unique psychiatric hospital in the country, and of psychiatry in general were evoked by mothers as the main obstacles in initiating psychiatric treatment in more than half of the cases (70%). Others obstacles were: fear of side effects of psychiatric treatment (50%), patient refusal (40.9%), inaccessibility to psychiatric services (31.8%) and fear of an addiction to psychotropic agents (31.8%). Thirty-six percent of mothers underlined the need to consult in the occurrence of school difficulties or any change in the child's behavior; 27% proposed educational and anti-stigmatizing campaigns about the signs of early psychosis through radio, newspapers, cinema, and TV media advertisements. Making teachers and educators sensitive to psychosis was proposed by 13.6% of mothers; 9.1% thought that diagnostic skills should be improved in general practitioners. Knowledge of attitudes of mothers towards the illness of their child prior to psychiatric treatment and towards the start of treatment is essential for the development of interventions for reducing duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Surrogate mothering: exploitation or empowerment?

    Purdy, Laura M


    The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.

  4. The earth's gravitational field

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  5. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.


    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  6. Everywhere divergent Fourier series with respect to the Walsh system and with respect to multiplicative systems

    Bochkarev, S V


    In this paper a new construction of everywhere divergent Fourier-Walsh series is presented. This construction enables one to halve the gap in the Lebesgue-Orlicz classes between the Schipp-Moon lower bound established by using Kolmogorov's construction and the Sjoelin upper bound obtained by using Carleson's method. Fourier series which are everywhere divergent after a rearrangement are constructed with respect to the Walsh system (and to more general systems of characters) with the best lower bound for the Weyl factor. Some results related to an upper bound of the majorant for partial sums of series with respect to rearranged multiplicative systems are established. The results thus obtained show certain merits of harmonic analysis on the dyadic group in clarifying and overcoming fundamental difficulties in the solution of the main problems of Fourier analysis


    Miranda-Ríos, L Lizette; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Nuño-Cosío, M Eugenia; Campos-Barrera, Liliana R


    to identify the association between the percentage of adequacy of energy and protein and the distribution of macronutrients and sugar in the diets of mothers and schoolchildren with their respective BMI. in a cross-sectional study, 174 5-12-year-old schoolchildren and their mothers were randomly selected. BMI was measured, and 24-hour dietary surveys were administered on weekdays and weekends. The associations between the dietetic indicators in the mothers and their children and the BMI of the mothers and their children were assessed. The chi-square test, linear regression and odds ratio were used for analysis. excessive energy consumption in the mothers increased the risk of excessive energy consumption in their daughters by 11-fold (p=0.04). Maternal lipid intake was associated with the consumption of lipids in their sons and daughters (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious mothers and fathers.

    Teetsel, Rebekah N; Ginsburg, Golda S; Drake, Kelly L


    The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety.

  9. Anxiety Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Mothers and Fathers

    Teetsel, Rebekah N.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly L.


    The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers’ parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6–12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children’s dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers’ parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528

  10. The Scope of the Obligation to Respect and to Ensure Respect for International Humanitarian Law

    Tomasz Zych


    Full Text Available This article disputes what seems to have become the dominant interpretation of the obligation to respect and to ensure respect for International Humanitarian Law, as codified in common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions and in Article 1(1 of Additional Protocol I. According to this dominant interpretation, States are required to take all appropriate measures to ensure that IHL is observed universally, including by other States and by non-State actors operating in other States. It is argued that the intention of the High Contracting Parties, coupled with their subsequent practice, calls for a much more narrow interpretation of that obligation. Cet article conteste ce qui semble être devenue l’interprétation dominante de l’obligation de respecter et de faire respecter le Droit International Humanitaire, tel que codifiée à l’article 1 commun aux Conventions de Genève et à l’article 1(1 du Protocole additionnel I. Selon cette interprétation dominante, les États doivent prendre toutes les mesures appropriées pour assurer que le DIH soit observé de façon universelle, y compris par d’autres États ainsi que par des acteurs non étatiques qui opèrent à l’intérieur d’autres États. On soutient que l’intention des Hautes Parties contractantes, en conjonction avec leur pratique subséquentes, laisse entendre une interprétation beaucoup plus étroite de cette obligation.

  11. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.


    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  12. Training mothers in infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation with an instructional DVD and manikin.

    Barr, Gavin C; Rupp, Valerie A; Hamilton, Kimberly M; Worrilow, Charles C; Reed, James F; Friel, Kristin S; Dusza, Stephen W; Greenberg, Marna Rayl


    Classes in infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be time consuming and costly. To determine whether mothers in an obstetric unit could learn infant CPR by using a 22-minute instructional kit and to assess the value and confidence they gained by learning CPR. Quasi-experimental study with enrollment between January and December 2008. Obstetric unit in Lehigh Valley Hospital, a suburban teaching hospital in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Mothers at least 18 years old who had given birth within the previous 24 hours. The experimental group included mothers without prior CPR training who watched a 22-minute instructional DVD and practiced on a manikin. The control group included mothers with prior conventional CPR training. In both groups, knowledge and proficiency were assessed with written and practical examinations developed by certified CPR instructors. Participant surveys were conducted at 3 times: immediately before dissemination of course materials, within 24 hours after the mother agreed to participate in the study, and 6 months after initial evaluation. A total of 126 mothers were enrolled in the study: 79 in the experimental group, 25 in the control group, and 22 who withdrew from the study. Written and practical examinations were used to determine proficiency, and composite scores were generated, with a maximum composite score of 12. The composite scores were statistically significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group, with median scores of 10 and 7, respectively (PCPR training. In the experimental group, 76 mothers (96%) felt more confident as caregivers after learning CPR. Before training in both groups, 84 mothers (81%) stated that learning CPR was extremely important, compared with 100 mothers (96%) after training (P=.001). Use of an instructional kit is an effective method of teaching CPR to new mothers. Mothers reported that learning CPR is extremely important and that it increases their confidence as caregivers.

  13. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities.

    Chow, Hsueh-wen; Dong, Yin-Han


    Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Implications provide a developmental design for public

  14. Maternity experiences of mothers with multiple disadvantages in England: A qualitative study.

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie


    Disadvantaged mothers and their babies are at increased risk of poor perinatal outcomes and have less positive experiences of maternity care. To explore the maternity care experiences of mothers with multiple disadvantages. A qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured interviews with 40 mothers with multiple disadvantages, using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: 'A confusing and frightening time', 'Longing to be respected as an individual', 'The importance of choice and control', and 'Needing trust to feel safe'. Mothers brought feelings of powerlessness and low self-esteem to their encounters with maternity professionals, which could be significantly worsened by disrespectful care. They needed support to navigate the complex maternity system. Positive experiences were much more likely where the mother had received continuity of care from a specialist midwife or small team. Mothers with multiple disadvantages value being treated as an individual, making informed choices, and feeling safe, but they may lack the confidence to ask questions or challenge disrespectful treatment. Training and supervision should enable maternity professionals to understand how confusing maternity care can be to very disadvantaged mothers. It should emphasise the need to provide accessible and empowering information and guidance to enable all mothers to make choices and understand the system. Leaders of maternity services need to do more to challenge negative staff attitudes and ensure that that all mothers are treated at all times with kindness, respect and dignity. Specialist midwives can deliver a high quality service to mothers experiencing multiple disadvantages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being.

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  16. It's Time to Stand up for Earth Science

    Schaffer, Dane L.


    This commentary paper focuses upon the loss of respect for Earth Sciences on the part of many school districts across the United States. Too many Earth Science teachers are uncertified to teach Earth Science, or hold certificates to teach the subject merely because they took a test. The Earth Sciences have faced this problem for many years…

  17. Radiation protection with respect for nature, views from Japan

    Fujimoto, K.


    My new proposal was summarised below for the protection of environment based on the understanding that we can exist on earth only in the balance of nature. We must follow the providence of nature and attain the golden mean in nature. For justification and optimisation, any concrete idea has not been provided, but one of the approaches was shown in the present paper. We have to abandon anthropocentrism and change our sense of value and moral standards with the respect for nature. For practice, the dose limit at the boundary of facilities could be derived from the regional difference of dose rates in the world as an acceptable level to nature. The dose rate would be around 1 mGy per year. Release limit for radionuclides could be defined separately to natural and artificial nuclides. For natural radionuclides, normal ambient concentration can be used for the limit. For artificial radionuclides, the limit might be based on the derived dose rate taking into account the accumulation. For intervention, an analogical approach to natural disasters could be applied. When the situation is easy to recover, then it should be restored. In case it is not easy, then the damage should be confined not to spread outside. For potential exposure, two approaches are suggested for prevention and mitigation. Renewal system is proposed for prevention and decentralization for mitigation. A rigid number for the dose limit is shown in the present paper, as well as renewal or relocation for the radiation protection for environment. However, it is not necessary to take them as they are. For the practical application, definitely it requires some modification. Therefore, present suggestions should be taken as some hint for the establishment of radiation protection system for environment. Especially the suggested dose limit of 1 mGy per year should be taken as the lowest limit for the acceptable level to nature. (author)

  18. The Effect of Mother Empowerment Program on Mothers’ Attachment to their Hospitalized Premature Neonates

    Soheila Karbandi


    Full Text Available Background: Birth of a premature neonate is associated with hospital admission and separation from the family. Admission of the neonates intervenes on infant-mother attachment and so adversely affects on the quality of care given by the mother, and subsequently increases the risk of delayed behavioral problems in the children. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of mother empowerment program on the premature infant-mother attachment. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 70 mothers of premature infants, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Omolbanin hospital of Mashhad in 2014, were divided into of intervention and control groups. The Empowerment program was a multi-step treatment program, in which information about the premature infants was provided to mothers through an illustrated booklet with a workbook and audio file in each step. Mothers in the control group received information and routine care according to the hospital guideline. The mother-infant attachment was measured after the intervention using the maternal and neonatal behaviors Avant tool. Data analysis was performed using chi-square and t-student tests by SPSS software version 11.5. Results:The mean scores of maternal attachment behaviors after the intervention in the empowerment and control groups were (56.62±8.06 and (39.51±7.77, respectively; the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P

  19. Marital stress and children's externalizing behavior as predictors of mothers' and fathers' parenting.

    Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L


    Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. Pathways were examined within a longitudinal mediation model testing for moderation by parent gender (N = 276 mothers, N = 229 fathers). Children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood was found to more strongly inversely predict mothers' versus fathers' monitoring in early adolescence. In contrast, marital stress more strongly predicted low monitoring for fathers than for mothers. Regardless of parent gender, marital stress predicted lower levels of parental consistency, and children's externalizing behavior predicted lower levels of parental support. Mothers' monitoring and fathers' support in early adolescence predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. The results are discussed with respect to family transactions relative to parent gender and implications for intervention.


    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  1. Earth and Universe

    Kosygin, Yu A


    Rocks, the age of which according to certain data exceeds considerably the recognized age of the Earth and approximates the age of the Universe, have been detected on the Earth. There is a necessity to coordinate the geological data with cosmological structures.

  2. Hands On Earth Science.

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  3. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  4. Earth System Science Project

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret


    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  5. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    Stacey, Frank D


    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10 12 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10 4 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  6. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B


    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  7. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R


    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  8. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers.

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat


    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  9. Living with the unknown: Posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and their mothers.

    Taskıran, Gülseren; Sürer Adanır, Aslı; Özatalay, Esin


    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat children with various hematologic, oncologic, and metabolic diseases. Although the treatment can be lifesaving, it is also physically and psychologically demanding for both the child and caregivers. In previous studies, BMT is found to be related with anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and psychosocial problems both in children and parents. The aim of this study was to investigate PTSD in pediatric BMT survivors and their mothers compared with the healthy controls. Twenty-seven BMT survivors and their mothers and 28 healthy peers and their mothers were recruited as the study group and as the comparison group, respectively. All children were interviewed using Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) for assessing posttraumatic stress responses. As for mothers, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was used. In healthy children and mothers, instead of BMT, the most important traumatic event reported by them was included. All data were analyzed by a neutral statistician from the Department of Biostatistics of the university. The BMT group, both children and mothers, obtained significantly higher PTSD rates than the control group (66.5% and 17.8%, respectively, in children; 57.6% and 7%, respectively, in mothers). However, there was a weak correlation between survivors' and mothers' posttraumatic stress responses. These findings suggest that BMT is a significant stressor for both children and mothers. Clinicians should be aware of psychiatric symptoms of children who underwent such a life-threatening condition. Combination of medical treatment with psychosocial support is imperative.

  10. [Nutritional and sociodemographic characteristics of nursing mothers: a systematic review].

    Ferreira, Larissa Bueno; Nea, Ingrid Tatiana Oliveira de; Sousa, Taciana Maia de; Santos, Luana Caroline Dos


    A systematic review of nutritional and sociodemographic characteristics of nursing mothers, using the published literature from 2004 to 2014 in the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde and Medline databases. Using the following key words, 561 articles were identified: "Human Milk" and "Milk Banks"; keywords: "Profile," "Nutritional," "Milk Donor," "Nursing Mother" and "Nursing Mothers"; available abstracts; date and language. From these, 84.1% were excluded for not dealing with the established subject, 1.8% for being a review and 7.5% for the unavailability of abstracts for study. Thirty-seven articles were selected, of which 18.9% analyzed the profile of the HM donor. Of the total, 89.2% reported age, the majority between 20 and 30 years of age. The level of schooling was mentioned in 32.4% ranging from elementary school and higher education. With respect to income, a higher prevalence of low socioeconomic status was observed. About the nutritional status, 45.9% of the studies measured the body mass index and 29.4% reported the predominance of excess weight. There were deficiencies, particularly of vitamin A, with frequencies between 9% and 26%. A majority of young adult mothers, varied schooling, low income and nutritional deficiencies were noted, demanding interventions to improve health and increase HM donations.

  11. A new approach to oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling during labour in healthy mothers and neonates.

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Florido, Jesus; Kajarabille, Naroa; Prados, Sonia; de Paco, Catalina; Ocon, Olga; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Ochoa, Julio J


    The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time and simultaneously the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced during the delivery in healthy mothers and their neonates. 56 mothers with normal gestational course and spontaneous delivery were selected. Blood samples were taken from mother (before and after delivery) both from vein and artery of umbilical cord. Lower antioxidant enzymes activities were observed in neonates compared with their mothers and lower oxidative stress in umbilical cord artery with respect to vein. There was an overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the mother, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, and, in addition, PGE2 was also increased. Neonates showed lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and higher values of sTNF-RII and PGE2 in comparison with their mothers. Parturition increases oxidative damage in the mother, although the indicators of oxidative damage were lower in umbilical cord artery with respect to umbilical vein. The overexpression of inflammatory cytokines reveals that fetus suffers its own inflammatory process during parturition.

  12. A New Approach to Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Signaling during Labour in Healthy Mothers and Neonates

    Javier Díaz-Castro


    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time and simultaneously the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced during the delivery in healthy mothers and their neonates. 56 mothers with normal gestational course and spontaneous delivery were selected. Blood samples were taken from mother (before and after delivery both from vein and artery of umbilical cord. Lower antioxidant enzymes activities were observed in neonates compared with their mothers and lower oxidative stress in umbilical cord artery with respect to vein. There was an overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the mother, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, and, in addition, PGE2 was also increased. Neonates showed lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and higher values of sTNF-RII and PGE2 in comparison with their mothers. Parturition increases oxidative damage in the mother, although the indicators of oxidative damage were lower in umbilical cord artery with respect to umbilical vein. The overexpression of inflammatory cytokines reveals that fetus suffers its own inflammatory process during parturition.

  13. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A V; Caire Juvera, G; Roman Perez, R; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M E [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Casanueva, E; Sanesteban, V [Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p<0.001). BMI correlated positively with percentage body fat at 1 mo (r = 0.79, p<0.0001) and 3 mo (r = 0.76, p<0.0001). In Central Mexico, mean maternal energy intake was 19.4 and 23% below the RDA at 1 and 3 mo postpartum respectively. There were no differences in TBW, percentage body fat, BMI energy intake and estimated energy expenditure by activity diary between adolescent and adult women. Milk production rates averaged 573 vs 865 g/d at 1 and 3 mo postpartum in Northwest Mexico and 680 vs 857 g/d in Central Mexico and were not different between areas. Infants' energy intakes in Northwest Mexico at 1 and 3 mo postpartum were not significantly different. Fat intake at 3 mo was significantly lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico (p<0.05). Weight for age and weight for length Z scores were above +0.5 for infants from Northwest region, while for those in Central Area was between 0 and + 0. 5 at 2 and 3 mo. There were no differences (p>0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  14. "It's Somebody Else's Milk": Unraveling the Tension in Mothers of Preterm Infants Who Provide Consent for Pasteurized Donor Human Milk.

    Esquerra-Zwiers, Anita; Rossman, Beverly; Meier, Paula; Engstrom, Janet; Janes, Judy; Patel, Aloka


    Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM), rather than preterm infant formula, is recommended for premature infants when mother's milk is not available. This study explored the maternal decision-making process in providing consent for DHM feedings. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 mothers of premature (mean gestational age = 27 weeks, birth weight = 942 grams) infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in this qualitative, descriptive study. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Although only 1 mother had any previous knowledge of DHM, all mothers provided consent for DHM because they "wanted what is best for my baby." Mothers trusted that DHM was better than formula when their infant's feeding requirements exceeded their own milk supply. However, most mothers described a tension between wanting their infants to receive only "their" milk and DHM being "somebody else's milk." This desire to be the only provider of human milk was more common than concerns about the quality and safety of DHM. The mothers' tension was mediated by trusting the NICU clinicians' recommendations, having adequate time to make an informed decision, observing the positive outcomes of DHM, and feeling empowered that they made the best decision for their infant. The experiences of these mothers reflect the importance of approaching mothers for consent only when DHM is needed, respecting mothers' beliefs and values about DHM, and providing help in mediating any tension with regard to their infants receiving "somebody else's milk." © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Uptake and outcomes of a prevention-of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT program in Zomba district, Malawi

    Gawa Lucy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Malawi is 12.6%, and mother-to-child transmission is a major route of transmission. As PMTCT services have expanded in Malawi in recent years, we sought to determine uptake of services, HIV-relevant infant feeding practices and mother-child health outcomes. Methods A matched-cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants at 18-20 months post-partum in Zomba District, Malawi. 360 HIV-infected and 360 HIV-uninfected mothers were identified through registers. 387 mother-child pairs were included in the study. Results 10% of HIV-infected mothers were on HAART before delivery, 27% by 18-20 months post-partum. sd-NVP was taken by 75% of HIV-infected mothers not on HAART, and given to 66% of infants. 18% of HIV-infected mothers followed all current recommended PMTCT options. HIV-infected mothers breastfed fewer months than HIV-uninfected mothers (12 vs.18, respectively; p p Conclusion This study shows low PMTCT program efficiency and effectiveness under routine program conditions in Malawi. HIV-free infant survival may have been influenced by key factors, including underuse of HAART, underuse of sd-NVP, and suboptimal infant feeding practices. Maternal mortality among HIV-infected women demands attention; improved maternal survival is a means to improve infant survival.

  16. Geo-neutrinos and earth's interior

    Fiorentini, Gianni; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio


    The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and 40 K decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of natural radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition, and on the origins of the Earth. Geo-neutrinos represent a new probe of our planet, which can be exploited as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress on understanding neutrino propagation. We review the status and the prospects of the field

  17. Earth Rotation Dynamics: Review and Prospects

    Chao, Benjamin F.


    Modem space geodetic measurement of Earth rotation variations, particularly by means of the VLBI technique, has over the years allowed studies of Earth rotation dynamics to advance in ever-increasing precision, accuracy, and temporal resolution. A review will be presented on our understanding of the geophysical and climatic causes, or "excitations", for length-of-day change, polar motion, and nutations. These excitations sources come from mass transports that constantly take place in the Earth system comprised of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and the cores. In this sense, together with other space geodetic measurements of time-variable gravity and geocenter motion, Earth rotation variations become a remote-sensing tool for the integral of all mass transports, providing valuable information about the latter on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Future prospects with respect to geophysical studies with even higher accuracy and resolution will be discussed.

  18. The Earth is flat when personally significant experiences with the sphericity of the Earth are absent.

    Carbon, Claus-Christian


    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Earth as art three



    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  20. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R


    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  1. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  2. Rare earth germanates

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.


    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  3. Project Earth Science

    Holt, Geoff


    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  4. Earth formation porosity log

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.


    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  5. Earth before life.

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  6. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    Niu Jinbo; Qi Kaiguo; Fan Hongyi


    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed. (general)

  7. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research.

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee


    Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers' involvement. A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. The snowball method was used to select mothers. Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers' awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. The mothers' awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  8. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?

    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin


    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  9. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  10. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun


    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. The growth and development of children born to adolescent mothers in Taiwan.

    Wu, Wei-Ya; Li, Chi-Rong; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Meng-Chih


    Adolescent pregnancy carries a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. Currently, there are very few longitudinal studies that have investigated the growth of children born to adolescents. This study explores the birth outcomes and determinants in adolescent pregnancies with subjects enrolled from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Using the data of Wave I (6 months old), II (18 months old), and III (36 months old) of TBCS, a national sample of 19,381 pairs of mothers and their children were included for analysis. Out of these subjects, therewere560 pairs of adolescent mothers and children. Through completed field interviews with structured questionnaires, surveys with mothers or other family members, and with references to each child's birth certificate and Passport of Well-baby Care, the differences in birth outcomes, personal, pregnancy, and social profiles of the mothers were analyzed. A total of 560 adolescent mothers (children growth and development. The numbers (proportions) of failure in milestones at 3 years old in gross motor functions, fine motor function, language, and social/personal development of children born to adolescent mothers are 13(2.32), 34(6.07), 10(1.79), and 24(4.29 %), respectively; while there are 392(2.08), 1015(5.39), 308(1.64) and 512(2.72 %) for those born to adult mothers, respectively. The risk factors of failure in children development were identified as "the mother isn't the night-time caregiver" and "family dysfunction". There was no significant difference in development at 3 years old among children born to adolescent and adult mothers.

  12. Earth's variable rotation

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  13. Near Earth Objects

    Wolff, Stefan


    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  14. Earth study from space

    Sidorenko, A. V.


    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  15. Earth's electric field

    Kelley, M.C.


    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  16. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  17. Gambling with the earth

    Muir, H


    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  18. Jupiter and planet Earth


    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  19. Earth retaining structures manual


    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  20. Earliest life on earth

    Golding, Suzanne D


    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  1. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.


    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  2. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers.

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J


    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.


    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  4. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca


    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  5. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  6. Mothers' knowledge of foetal movements monitoring during ...

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge pregnant mothers have on the ... A quantitative research survey design was used to obtain information from pregnant mothers. Simple random probability sampling was used. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  7. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  8. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária


    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  9. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  10. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    Louis, Lucille


    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  11. 75 FR 26875 - Mother's Day, 2010


    ... their careers, or as single parents working to provide for their families. They have carried the torch... daughters and granddaughters. On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to these women who have given so much of.... Nurturing families come in many forms, and children may be raised by two parents, a single mother, two...

  12. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.


    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  13. Academic Mothers Finding Rhyme and Reason

    Pillay, Venitha


    In this paper I argue that the "balancing two lives" approach to motherhood and work has particular limitations for academic mothers. I interrogate the perceived oppositionalities in being mother, traditionally associated with nurturing, love and emotion, and being academic, traditionally associated with reason and logic. My purpose is to show…

  14. 76 FR 27601 - Mother's Day, 2011


    ... and elder care, and education. My budget strengthens the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit to help..., so have the challenges facing women raising families. Many American women are raising children at... extraordinary importance of mothers in our lives. The bond of love and dedication a mother shares with her...

  15. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Wu, C; Schendel, D


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 838 331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced...

  16. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão


    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  17. Mothers' perceptions of community health professional support.

    Maunders, Helena; Giles, David; Douglas, Hazel


    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of the support they received from community health professionals. Every third mother was selected from an NHS Trust's database of women whose health visitors had used the Solihull Approach. Forty-two women were sent information packs and consent forms. Nine mothers who returned consent forms were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results expand on previous research and contribute additional ideas to the existing evidence base. The findings explore the concepts of trust, expertise and understanding within the working partnership. In addition, the results address mothers' need for reliability, and a preference for professionals who understood women's beliefs about what it means to be a 'good mother'. The results and recommendations are pertinent to those community health professionals who work in the area of early childhood intervention, including practitioners who use the Solihull Approach.

  18. Parenting from prison: helping children and mothers.

    Thompson, P J; Harm, N J


    Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children.

  19. Mothers\\\\\\' Knowledge of pediatric pain management in the pediatric ward of Valli-e-asr hospital in 2011

    Zahra Amouzeshi


    Conclusion: The mothers have low knowledge of their pain management in their children's without any considerable relationship to some contextual factors. Planning for educational programmes with respect to managing children's pain is recommended.

  20. Planetarium Inversum -- a space vision for Earth education.

    Lotsch, B


    In a planetarium, the visitor is sitting on Earth and looking into an imaginary space. The Planetarium Inversum is the opposite: visitors are sitting in a space station, looking down on Mother Earth. It is a scientifically-based information show with visitors involvement, its elements being partially virtual (Earth in space has to be projected with highest possible resolution) but also containing real structures, such as the visitors' Earth observatory with adjacent biological systems (plant cultures and other ecological life support components). Its main message concerns the limits and the vulnerability of our home planet, its uniqueness, beauty and above all, its irreplaceableness: Earth does not have an emergency exit. The Earth observatory is part of a ring shaped, rotating space station of the type designed by Wernher von Braun decades ago. Visitors are told that gravity is being substituted by centrifugal force. Both types of life support systems are being demonstrated--self regenerative life based ones and technical ones as a backup (solar electric splitting of water and chemical absorption of respiratory CO2). c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose


    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Propagation Velocity of Solid Earth Tides

    Pathak, S.


    One of the significant considerations in most of the geodetic investigations is to take into account the outcome of Solid Earth tides on the location and its consequent impact on the time series of coordinates. In this research work, the propagation velocity resulting from the Solid Earth tides between the Indian stations is computed. Mean daily coordinates for the stations have been computed by applying static precise point positioning technique for a day. The computed coordinates are used as an input for computing the tidal displacements at the stations by Gravity method along three directions at 1-minute interval for 24 hours. Further the baseline distances are computed between four Indian stations. Computation of the propagation velocity for Solid Earth tides can be done by the virtue of study of the concurrent effect of it in-between the stations of identified baseline distance along with the time consumed by the tides for reaching from one station to another. The propagation velocity helps in distinguishing the impact at any station if the consequence at a known station for a specific time-period is known. Thus, with the knowledge of propagation velocity, the spatial and temporal effects of solid earth tides can be estimated with respect to a known station. As theoretically explained, the tides generated are due to the position of celestial bodies rotating about Earth. So the need of study is to observe the correlation of propagation velocity with the rotation speed of the Earth. The propagation velocity of Solid Earth tides comes out to be in the range of 440-470 m/s. This velocity comes out to be in a good agreement with the Earth's rotation speed.

  3. Infant doses from the transfer of radionuclides in mothers' milk

    Harrison, J.D.; Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.


    Assessments of potential internal exposures of the child following radionuclide intakes by the mother require consideration of transfers during lactation as well as during pregnancy. Current ICRP work on internal dosimetry includes the estimation of radiation doses to newborn infants from radionuclides ingested in mothers' milk. Infant doses will be calculated for maternal intakes by ingestion or inhalation of the radionuclides, radioisotopes of 31 elements, for which fetal dose coefficients have been published. In this paper, modelling approaches are examined, concentrating on models developed for iodine, caesium, polonium, alkaline earth elements and the actinides. Comparisons of model predictions show maximum overall transfer to milk following maternal ingestion during lactation of about 30% of ingested activity for 131 I, 20% for 45 Ca and 137 Cs, 10% for 90 Sr, 1% for 210 Po and low values of less than 0.01% for 239 Pu and 241 Am. The corresponding infant doses from milk consumption are estimated in preliminary calculations to be about two to three times the adult dose for 45 Ca and 131 I, 70-80% of the adult dose for 90 Sr, about 40% for 137 Cs, 20% for 210 Po, and 239 Pu and 241 Am. Infant doses from radionuclides in breast milk are compared with doses to the offspring resulting from in utero exposures during pregnancy. (author)

  4. Young Mothers, First Time Parenthood and Exclusive Breastfeeding ...


    This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below ... Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the ... More research on mothering should examine.

  5. The Sun and Earth

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk


    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  6. Earth and planetary sciences

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.


    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  7. The earth's hydrological cycle

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M


    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  8. Modeling the earth system

    Ojima, D. [ed.


    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  9. The Earth System Model

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol


    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  10. Rare earths and actinides

    Coqblin, B.


    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  11. African American mothers' self-described discipline strategies with young children in 1992 and 2012.

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Christensen, Julie J; Kreher, Donna; Kearney, Margaret H; Kitzman, Harriet J


    In this qualitative descriptive study, 30 young, unmarried, low-income African American mothers in Memphis, TN, were interviewed in 2011-2012 about their discipline strategies with their 12- to 19-month-old children. Using content analyses, their strategies were described and compared with those from a similar sample in 1992. Findings suggest both continuity and change during that 20-year period. More mothers in 2011-2012 described the use of distraction and time out, suggesting a wider variety of strategies than were used in 1992. These findings may help clinicians to better understand disciplinary methods in young low-income African American mothers such as these in Memphis. Approaching mothers in a respectful and culturally sensitive manner will help them focus on effective, developmentally appropriate strategies consistent with their own parenting goals. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural factors and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chien, Li-Yin


    The objectives of this study were to identify cultural factors (including acculturation and breastfeeding cultures in subjects' native countries and those in mainstream Taiwanese society) and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taiwan. This study was a cross-sectional survey performed from October 2007 through January 2008. The study participants were 210 immigrant mothers living in Taipei City. The prevalence of exclusive and partial breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum was 59.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding experience among mothers-in-law and the perceived level of acceptance of breastfeeding in Taiwan were positively associated with breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant women with a higher level of household activity support were less likely to breastfeed. Immigrant mothers in Taiwan usually come from cultures with a higher acceptance level for breastfeeding; however, their breastfeeding practices are more likely to be influenced by the mainstream culture in Taiwan.

  13. Traditional food consumption and nutritional status of Dalit mothers in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India.

    Schmid, M A; Egeland, G M; Salomeyesudas, B; Satheesh, P V; Kuhnlein, H V


    To describe prevalence of malnutrition and their correlates of nutrient and traditional food consumption in rural Dalit mothers. In a cross-sectional study, we used socio-cultural questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and clinical eye examinations during the rainy season in 2003. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls were conducted during both summer and rainy seasons. Dalit mothers with young children were recruited from 37 villages in the Medak District of rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Dalit mothers (n = 220) participated. The prevalence of chronic energy-deficient (CED) mothers (body mass index women and active women were more likely to have CED than those literate and non-active (relative risks (RR) = 1.6 and 1.4, respectively, P Dalit women are predominant problems in this area. Increased consumption of local traditional Dalit food (particularly sorghum, pulses, vegetables and animal source food) should be incorporated as an important component of intervention strategies to improve nutritional status.

  14. Genetic drift. The real tiger mother: from the clinical geneticist's perspective.

    Shur, Natasha


    The Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother by Amy Chua raises questions about motherhood and what is admirable. Chua promotes strict, Old World, uncompromising values stressing academic performance above all, insisting on drilling and practice, and instilling respect for authority. As clinical geneticists, we meet an entirely different type of mother than Chua, the clinical genetics mother who fights illnesses, schools, hospital policies, and insurance companies. She battles not against her child but for her child. With brilliance and resilience, she creates a child-centered world. The stories of four clinical genetics mothers rally us to reject extreme parenting and appreciate the simple joys of childhood. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Earth's Trojan asteroid.

    Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian


    It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years.

  16. How Big is Earth?

    Thurber, Bonnie B.


    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory,, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is

  17. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris; Constable, C. G.


    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks...... yr) to the longest (virtually the age of the Earth) time scales are finally reviewed, underlining the respective roles of the magnetohydodynamics at work in the core, and of the slow dynamic evolution of the planet as a whole....

  18. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H


    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  19. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston


    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  20. Teaching earth science

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.


    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  1. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  2. IR and the Earth

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley


    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  3. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Patricia Vieira Spada


    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  4. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá


    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  5. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L


    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  6. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    Gallagher, D. L.


    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  7. The Plight of Transnational Latina Mothers: Mothering from a Distance

    Rosa Maria Sternberg


    Full Text Available Economic globalization, trade agreements, and revolutionary changes in transportation and communication have fueled a steady increase in international migration. Foreign-born Latinas, driven by a strong desire to escape poverty and to improve life for their children, face difficult decisions as transnational mothers. These women emigrate from their countries of origin, leaving their children behind with relatives. After overcoming the hardships and dangers involved in a clandestine crossing of the U.S.-Mexico border, they continue to suffer the pain of separation from their children and to hope for eventual family reunification. This study focuses on the experiences of eight Latina transnational mothers and calls for reflection and solidarity by nurses and other health care professionals in order to influence the dynamics of social, economic, and political actions to relieve social suffering.La mondialisation, les accords commerciaux et les évolutions révolutionnaires que connaissent les secteurs des transports et des communications ont favorisé l'augmentation régulière de l’immigration internationale. Motivées par la volonté d’échapper à la pauvreté et d’offrir une vie meilleure à leurs enfants, les mères latino-américaines sont confrontées à des décisions difficiles en tant que mères transnationales. Ces femmes émigrent de leur pays d’origine, laissant leurs enfants à leur famille. Après avoir surmonté les épreuves et les dangers inhérents au passage clandestin de la frontière américano-mexicaine, elles continuent à souffrir du fait de la séparation d’avec leurs enfants et vivent dans l’espoir de se retrouver à nouveau en famille. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’expérience de huit mères latino-américaines vivant aux Etats-Unis et appelle les infirmières et autres professionnels de la santé à réfléchir et à faire preuve de solidarité afin d’influencer une dynamique d’actions sociales,

  8. Production of rare earth-silicon-iron alloys

    Mehra, O.K.; Bose, D.K.; Gupta, C.K.


    At Metallurgy Division, BARC, improved procedures for producing rare earth-silicon alloys have been investigated. In these methods, reduction of mixed rare earth oxide by a ferro-silicon and aluminium mixture in combination with CaO-MgO flux/CaO-CaF 2 flux have been tried to prepare an alloy product with a higher rare earth recovery at a higher rare earth content than the present commercial production method. The rare earth recovery using CaO-CaF 2 was 85 per cent while in the case of CaO-MgO flux it was 76 per cent. The corresponding rare earth contents in the alloy correspond to 40 per cent and 55 per cent by weight respectively. (author)

  9. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  10. Bones of the Earth

    Correa, Jose Miguel


    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  11. Our bubbling Earth

    Schuiling, R.D.


    In several places on earth large volumes of gas are seen to escape. These gases are usually dominated by CO2. The emissions are associated with volcanic activity, and are attributed to magma degassing. It will be shown that in the case of Milos this explanation is unacceptable for quantitative

  12. Cosmic rays on earth

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.


    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  13. Earth as art 4



    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  14. Google Earth Science

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.


    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  15. How life shaped Earth.

    Gross, Michael


    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  16. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  17. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Fidler, Chuck


    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  18. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    Philips, William C.


    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  19. The earths innermost core

    Nanda, J.N.


    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  20. Coprecipitation of rare earth elements with hydroxyapatite

    Fujino, Osamu


    The distribution behavior of trace rare earth elements between an aqueous phase and hydroxyapatite crystals was investigated. The apatite prepared by adding phosphate ion extremely slowly to an aqueous solution containing calcium, rare earth elements, ethylenediamine and nitrilotriacetate ion at 80 0 C. Apparently the coprecipitation reaction seems to be anomalous, because the apparent distribution coefficient did not have a constant value through the reaction. But when the true distribution coefficient was calculated by using the thermodynamic data at 80 0 C, it was revealed that rare earth ions were coprecipitated obeying logarithmic distribution law. The true distribution coefficient values of trivalent yttrium, scandium, europium and cerium ions were about 10sup(7.3), 10sup(9.8), 10sup(7.4) and 10sup(6.5) respectively. (author)

  1. Intrauterine insulin resistance in fetuses of overweight mothers.

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jian-Ming; Voss, Courtney; Xiao, Huan-Yu; Sheng, Wei-Yang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lian


    To investigate the relationship between maternal overweight and fetal insulin resistance. Nineteen overweight and 30 lean pregnant women were recruited in the present study. Maternal and fetal insulin resistance were determined by measuring sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in maternal venous or umbilical cord serum, respectively. Maternal age, gestational age, height, pre-gravidity weight, pre-partum weight, as well as fetal gender, birth weight, birth height, and head circumference were collected as clinical data. Fetuses of overweight mothers had larger birth weight (3.58±0.55kg vs 3.32±0.42, adjusted P=0.006) and lower SHBG concentrations (26.64±3.65 vs 34.36±7.84, adjusted P=0.007) than those of lean mothers after values were adjusted for potential cofactors. Fetal SHBG level was negatively correlated with pre-gravidity body mass index (R=-0.392, adjusted P=0.025) and weight gain during pregnancy (R=-0.332, adjusted P=0.026) even with adjustment for potential cofactors. Among the 29 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, the overweight mothers had higher H1AC levels than their lean counterparts (6.47±0.44 vs 5.74±0.52, adjusted P=0.004). Intrauterine insulin resistance is more prominent in fetuses of overweight mothers, an effect that is decreased by weight gain control during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Breastfeeding Mothers with Celiac Disease

    Francesco Valitutti


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone in celiac disease (CD breastfeeding mothers and healthy control mothers, as well as in their offspring, by quantifying these contaminants in breast milk. Study design: Thirty-five breastfeeding women with CD on a gluten-free diet and 30 healthy breastfeeding controls were recruited. Milk sampling was performed three times per day for three consecutive days. Mycotoxin content was investigated by an analytical method using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorometric detection. Results: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was detected in 37% of CD group samples (mean ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.011 ng/mL; range = 0.003–0.340 ng/mL. The control group showed lower mean AFM1 concentration levels in 24% of the analyzed samples (0.009 ± 0.007 ng/mL; range = 0.003–0.067 ng/mL, ANOVA on ranks, p-value < 0.01. Ochratoxin A and zearalenone did not differ in both groups. Conclusion: Breast milk AFM1 contamination for both groups is lower than the European safety threshold. However, the estimated exposures of infants from CD mothers and control mothers was much higher (≃15 times and ≃11 times, respectively than the threshold set by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. Since incongruities exist between JECFA and the European Union standard, a novel regulatory review of the available data on this topic is desirable. Protecting babies from a neglected risk of high AFM1 exposure requires prompt regulatory and food-control policies.

  3. The Earth's Biosphere


    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  4. Analysis of the tennis racket vibrations during forehand drives: Selection of the mother wavelet.

    Blache, Y; Hautier, C; Lefebvre, F; Djordjevic, A; Creveaux, T; Rogowski, I


    The time-frequency analysis of the tennis racket and hand vibrations is of great interest for discomfort and pathology prevention. This study aimed to (i) to assess the stationarity of the vibratory signal of the racket and hand and (ii) to identify the best mother wavelet to perform future time-frequency analysis, (iii) to determine if the stroke spin, racket characteristics and impact zone can influence the selection of the best mother wavelet. A total of 2364 topspin and flat forehand drives were performed by fourteen male competitive tennis players with six different rackets. One tri-axial and one mono-axial accelerometer were taped on the racket throat and dominant hand respectively. The signal stationarity was tested through the wavelet spectrum test. Eighty-nine mother wavelet were tested to select the best mother wavelet based on continuous and discrete transforms. On average only 25±17%, 2±5%, 5±7% and 27±27% of the signal tested respected the hypothesis of stationarity for the three axes of the racket and the hand respectively. Regarding the two methods for the detection of the best mother wavelet, the Daubechy 45 wavelet presented the highest average ranking. No effect of the stroke spin, racket characteristics and impact zone was observed for the selection of the best mother wavelet. It was concluded that alternative approach to Fast Fourier Transform should be used to interpret tennis vibration signals. In the case where wavelet transform is chosen, the Daubechy 45 mother wavelet appeared to be the most suitable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan].

    Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun


    The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.

  6. Mothering and acculturation: experiences during pregnancy and childrearing of Filipina mothers married to Japanese.

    Uayan, Maria Luisa Tumandao; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Murashima, Sachiyo


    This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina mothers married to Japanese during pregnancy and childrearing. Eight focus group interviews (FGI) were conducted among 39 Filipino mothers who are currently residing in Japan to obtain significant information with regard to their pregnancy and childrearing experiences. Content analysis was used to extract relevant themes that will describe the experiences of this group of migrant mothers. The findings revealed three major themes: 1) cultural barriers during pregnancy and childrearing; 2) mothering at the different stages of childrearing; and 3) positive adjustments to a new role in a new environment. The establishment of means of communication with migrant mothers effectively enabling them to understand important information for promoting healthy pregnancy and childrearing is strongly recommended. Provision of school information in the English language and enhancing the resilient character of the Filipina are important strategies in promoting positive pregnancy and childrearing experiences among Filipina migrant mothers.

  7. Electromagnetic behaviour of the earth and planets

    McCarthy, A.J.


    Forecast problems of global warming, rising sea-levels, UV enhancement, and solar disruptions of power grids and satellite communications, have been widely discussed. Added to these calamities is the steady decay of the Earth's magnetic radiation shield against high energy particles. A system of solar-induced aperiodic electromagnetic resonances, referred to here as the Debye resonances, is resurrected as the preferred basis for describing the electromagnetic behaviour of the Earth and planets. Debye's two basic solutions to the spherical vector wave equation provide foundations for electromagnetic modes of the terrestrial and gaseous planets respectively in contrast with the separate electric and magnetic approaches usually taken. For those engaged in radiation protection issues, this paper provides the first published account of how the Sun apparently triggers an Earth magnetic shield against its own harmful radiation. Disturbances from the Sun - which are random in terms of polarity, polarisation, amplitude, and occurrence - are considered here to trigger the Debye modes and generate observed planetary electric and magnetic fields. Snapping or reconnection of solar or interplanetary field lines, acting together with the newly conceived magnetospheric transmission lines of recent literature, is suspected as the excitation mechanism. Virtual replacement of free space by plasma, places the electromagnetic behaviour of the Earth and planets under greatly enhanced control from the Sun. From a radiation protection viewpoint, modal theory based on solar-terrestrial coupling provides a new insight into the origin of the Earth's magnetic radiation shield, greater understanding of which is essential to development of global cosmic radiation protection strategies. Should man-made influences unduly increase conductivities of the Earth's magnetosphere, planet Earth could be left with no magnetic radiation shield whatsoever. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection

  8. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.


    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  9. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Dombrowski, Jill J


    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Transfer of elements into mother's milk

    Wappelhorst, O.; Kuehn, I.; Heidenreich, H.; Markert, B.


    This research project aimed to determine the factors for the transfer of the elements silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), gallium (Ga), lanthanum (La), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), radium (Ra), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (sb), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti) and uranium (U) from food into the mother's milk. This factors will be used as a basic to check and derive activity values for the contamination of food and for radiation protection at working places of suckling women. For this purpose 19 mothers collected samples daily (2-8 weeks), using the duplicate method, of all the food they consumed as well as of their milk. After microwave-assisted digestion the element contents were analysed by mass-spectroscopy with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS). The results of the mothers who participate for more than 5 weeks were used to make a time lapse between the intake and transfer of the elements in the mothers milk visible. (orig.) [de

  11. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    ... mothers traveling to malarious areas should ensure the antimalarial included is compatible with breastfeeding before beginning travel. ... submit" value="Submit" /> Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

  12. Clinics in Mother and Child Health

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...

  13. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers


    Apr 4, 2012 ... and awareness among both health workers and mothers. ... remains the lack of recognition of the need for. VAS. ..... of India where only 12.5% had received VAS (11). .... weekly vitamin A supplementation among women.

  14. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle


    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  15. The relationship between mother?s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam


    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother?s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  16. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A


    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok


    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  18. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...

  19. Children of Working Mothers, March 1974.

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Almost 27 million children in the U.S.--or 42 percent of those under age 18--had mothers working or seeking work in March 1974. About one in four of these children (6.1 million) were below regular school age. Since 1970, the number of children whose mothers were in the labor force has risen sharply by 1.2 million, while the total number of…

  20. What Does ‘Respect for Difference’ Mean?

    Lægaard, Sune


    In his chapter, Laegaard (Chapter 2) focuses on liberal institutions. He questions the solidity of the distinction between ‘respect for difference’ and ‘respect for dignity’, by paying attention to what it means for institutions to respect difference. He concludes that from this perspective, the ...... how multiculturalism remains deeply connected to liberal values, even in its apparently more radical versions....

  1. Attitudes toward working mothers: accommodating the needs of mothers in the work force.

    Albright, A


    More women, including mothers, are part of the work force than ever before. In the workplace, barriers often exist that restrict promotion and advancement of mothers. Mothers often are penalized in attempting to meet the demands of parent and worker roles. Parenting practices have been considered primarily the domain of mothers. However, nurturing may be done effectively by fathers or other motivated adults. Policies of employers must change to accommodate needs of families. Examples of supportive practices may include flexible working hours, parental leave, and on-site child care.

  2. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy


    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  3. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers.

    Jadva, Vasanti; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; MacCallum, Fiona; Golombok, Susan


    This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. Thirty-four women who had given birth to a surrogate child approximately 1 year previously were interviewed by trained researchers, and the data rated using standardized coding criteria. Information was obtained on: (i) reasons for the woman's decision to become a surrogate mother; (ii) her retrospective view of the relationship with the commissioning couple before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and after the birth; (iii) her experiences during and after relinquishing the child; and (iv) how others reacted to her decision to become a surrogate mother. It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. Surrogate mothers do not appear to experience psychological problems as a result of the surrogacy arrangement.

  4. Mother's perceptions of postpartum stress and satisfaction.

    Horowitz, J A; Damato, E G


    To examine mothers' postpartum perceptions of stress and satisfaction. Methodologic triangulation with quantitative and qualitative data in a nonexperimental design. A convenience sample of 95 women was obtained during normally scheduled postpartum appointments at a health maintenance organization. The self-administered questionnaire included the Mothers' Information Tool (MIT), What Being the Parent of a Baby Is Like (WPL-R), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Open-ended MIT items revealed mothers' perceptions of stress and satisfaction. The WPL-R provided maternal satisfaction scores, and the BSI yielded Global Stress Index scores. Content analysis identified the following categories: Roles, Tasks, Resources, and Relationships. Subcategories identified as areas of stress were Work/School, Sleep/Rest, Adjustment/Own Needs, Health/Body Image, Organization of Life, Child Care, Day Care, Housework, Future Challenges, Finances, Housing, Time, Partner, and Family. Subcategories identified as areas of satisfaction were Participating in Relationships, Sharing the Future, Being Proud to Be a Mother, Enjoying a Healthy Baby, and Caring for a Child. Levels of stress and satisfaction of mothers who scored high and low on quantitative measures were compared. The outcomes contribute to the knowledge concerning postpartum women's perceptions of the mothering experience and suggest approaches to nursing assessment and intervention to prevent postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  5. Troponin T and NT ProBNP Levels in Gestational, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mothers and Macrosomic Infants.

    Mert, Mustafa Kurthan; Satar, Mehmet; Özbarlas, Nazan; Yaman, Akgün; Özgünen, Fatma Tuncay; Asker, Hüseyin Selim; Çekinmez, Eren Kale; Tetiker, Tamer


    This study compares NT proBNP and troponin T levels in umbilical cord arterial blood and postnatal echocardiographic findings for infants of gestational and pregestational diabetic mothers and macrosomic infants. Twenty-seven infants of pregestational diabetic mothers, 61 infants of gestational diabetic mothers and 37 macrosomic infants of nondiabetic mothers were prospectively enrolled in this study along with a control group of 58 healthy infants of mothers without any pregestational or gestational disorders as the control group. All enrollees were born after 34 weeks of gestation. For this study, umbilical cord blood was drawn during delivery to determine NT proBNP and troponin T levels. Echocardiography was performed 24-72 h after the delivery. Umbilical cord troponin T and NT proBNP levels were found to be higher in the diabetic and macrosomic groups than in the control group (all of them p gestational infants of diabetic mothers groups (r = 0.564 and r = 0.560, respectively, p gestational diabetic mothers were divided into two groups according to HbA1c levels in the third trimester as good (6.1 %) metabolic control. In the good and suboptimal metabolic control diabetic groups, NT proBNP levels were also positively correlated with interventricular septum thickness (r = 0.536 and r = 0.576, respectively, p mothers and the control group, the myocardial performance index of macrosomic infants was lower than that of the control group (p = 0.017). Cardiac biomarkers (NT proBNP and troponin T) were elevated in infants of diabetic mothers and macrosomic infants. While there was a positive correlation between NT proBNP levels and cardiac structure in infants of pregestational and gestational diabetic mothers, there was no relationship between NT proBNP levels and cardiac function.

  6. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy.

    Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh

    Full Text Available Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study.We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control by mother's age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR, allergic conjunctivitis (AC, and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks.Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15-1.20; 1.27, 1.24-1.31; 1.14, 1.12-1.17, respectively. Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother's residential area.Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care.

  7. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.


    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  8. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.


    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  9. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  10. Stress levels and depressive symptoms in NICU mothers in the early postpartum period.

    Alkozei, Anna; McMahon, Erin; Lahav, Amir


    This study examined whether particular maternal and infant factors can identify mothers at risk for increased stress upon admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eighty-five mothers of preterm infants (25-34 weeks gestation) were assessed using the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS:NICU) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within 3.24 ± 1.58 d postpartum. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which maternal stress is influenced by individual factors. Fifty-two percent of mothers experienced increased stress (PSS:NICU score ≥3) and 38% had significant depressive symptoms (EPDS score ≥10). Stress related to alterations in parental role was the most significant source of stress among NICU mothers. Distance from the hospital and married marital status were significant predictors for stress related to alterations in parental role (p = 0.003) and NICU sights and sounds (p = 0.01), respectively. Higher stress levels were associated with higher depressive scores (p = 0.001). Maternal mental health factors, demographic factors, pregnancy factors and infant characteristics were not associated with increased stress. Elevated stress levels and depressive symptoms are already present in mothers of preterm infants upon NICU admission. Being married or living long distance from the hospital is associated with higher stress. Future work is needed to develop effective interventions for alleviating stress in NICU mothers and preventing its potential development into postnatal depression.

  11. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke


    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  12. Marital adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with eating disorders

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera


    Full Text Available Objective: The association between marital adjustment and psychological disorders has been well described. The aim of this work was to analyse that adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with Eating Disorders (ED and its relationship with some eatingand aesthetic body shape model-related variables. Method: A total of 104 mothers and fathers of ED patients were included in the study. They fulfilled some marital adjustment-, irrational food beliefs- and aesthetic body shape model (CIMEC-related questionnaires. Results: With respect to marital adjustment and areas of CIMEC, no significant correlations between mothers and fathers were found. A significant and positive correlation was found in the case of the irrational food beliefs subscale. Mothers showed higher scores on this subscale than fathers did. In addition, mothers scored higher on concerns of being thin, influence of friends, interpersonal influences, body anxiety, influence of advertisements and global CIMEC. The degree of marital adjustment was in the range obtained in clinical populations. Conclusions: The marital adjustment among parents of ED patients is moderate, similar to the described in clinical populations, worse than the found in non-clinical populations and no specific. The more presence of irrational food beliefs in the case of mothers along with a greater influence of the current aesthetic body shape model and the distress caused by the marital maladjustment could be a negative factor to bear in mind during the therapeutic process in ED, especially when working with parents as co-therapists.

  13. Independent Contributions of Early Positive Parenting and Mother-Son Coercion on Emerging Social Development.

    Akcinar, Berna; Shaw, Daniel S


    In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood. The results were largely confirmed, such that mother-son coercive interaction at 18 months was related to decreases in positive parenting at 24 months. Additionally, mother-son coercive interaction and positive parenting at 24 months were linked to child conduct problems at age 5, which in turn predicted child social skills and peer rejection during middle childhood. In addition to indirect effects through child conduct problems, mother-son coercion continued to be independently related to school-age peer rejection. The findings are discussed with respect to the importance of early coercive interactions in the growth of child social-behavioral development from early to middle childhood.

  14. Relationships between cognitive appraisals of adolescents with OCD and their mothers.

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Balsak, Fuat; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Çelik, Cihat


    Our aim was to investigate cognitive models of OCD via the influence of mothers' cognitive appraisals on children's cognitions and OCD symptoms. Our sample consisted of 21 adolescents with OCD, their mothers and 27 parent-child dyads for control group without OCD. Subjects with OCD and their mothers were administered The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), The Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), The White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), The Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R) and The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). While the BDI (t=2.18, pOCD subjects were significantly higher than the mothers of control subjects, the comparisons for the PI, TAF likelihood and PIOS scores of groups were not significant. Intradyadic correlation revealed significant relationships for PI-Rumination, PI-Checking and WBSI scales between the scores of parent and child in OCD dyads, (respectively, r=0.49, P=0.11; r=0.37, P=0.045; and r=0.47, P=0.014). There was no significant relationship in the control group. Our results partially supported that mothers' cognitive appraisals are associated with the cognitive appraisal of adolescents. A cognitive intradyadic interaction between mother and child might be more likely in the presence of OCD in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-esteem and social respect within the high school.

    Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J


    A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.

  16. Some problems of parametric neutron activation analysis based on the use of radioactive daughters of longer-lived mothers with low mother/daughter half-life ratios

    Cohen, I.M.


    The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed. The mother-daughter relationships: 47 Ca/ 47 Sc; 95 Zr/ 95 Nb; 140 Ba/ 140 La; 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 115 Cd/ 115m In are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47 Ti(n,p) 47 Sc/ 46 Ca(n,γ) 47 Ca(β - ) 47 Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences. (author)

  17. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  18. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia


    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  19. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    More mothers of preterm neonates(27.3%) had GHQ-30 scores which categorised them as having significant emotional distress than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). Similarly more mothers of preterm neonates(15.1%) were more depressed than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). These differences were ...

  20. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Ilgar, Sengul


    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  1. The Impact of Depression on Mothers and Children

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; Diehl, Anne


    Depression in pregnant women and mothers of very young children is a pressing public health issue. Maternal depression is linked to a number of serious difficulties for mothers, their young children, and mother-child relationships. Unrecognized and untreated, it can lead to long-lasting impairment for both mothers and their children. However,…

  2. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.


    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  3. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Abdollah Ghasempour


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  4. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on oxytocin and cortisol blood levels in mothers

    Sabrina Krause


    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should

  5. Differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding and combination feeding mothers.

    Komninou, Sophia; Fallon, Victoria; Halford, Jason Christian Grovenor; Harrold, Joanne Alison


    The majority of research examining the barriers to breastfeeding focuses on the physical challenges faced by mothers rather than the risks of encountering negative emotional and practical feeding experiences. We aimed to quantify the emotional and practical experiences of the overall sample of breastfeeding mothers and identify the differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding mothers and combination feeding mothers, by feeding type and intention. Eight hundred forty-five mothers with infants up to 26 weeks of age and who had initiated breastfeeding were recruited through relevant social media via advertisements providing a link to an online survey. Predictors of emotional experiences included guilt, stigma, satisfaction with feeding method, and the need to defend themselves due to infant feeding choices. Practical predictors included perceived support from health professionals, main sources of infant feeding information, and respect from their everyday environment, workplace, and when breastfeeding in public. Current feeding type and prenatal feeding intention. In the overall sample, 15% of the mothers reported feeling guilty, 38% stigmatized, and 55% felt the need to defend their feeding choice. Binary logit models revealed that guilt and dissatisfaction were directly associated with feeding type, being higher when supplementing with formula. No associations with feeding intention were identified. This study demonstrates a link between current breastfeeding promotion strategies and the emotional state of breastfeeding mothers who supplement with formula to any extent. To minimize the negative impact on maternal well-being, it is important that future recommendations recognize the challenges that exclusive breastfeeding brings and provide a more balanced and realistic target for mothers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers.

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna


    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well

  7. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki


    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Physics of the Earth

    Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

    he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at

  9. Alkaline earth metals

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian


    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  10. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G


    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  11. Earth before life

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  12. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio


    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  13. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.


    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  14. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN


    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  15. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Lang, Kenneth R


    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  16. Characterising Super-Earths

    Valencia D.


    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  17. Afganistan and rare earths

    Emilian M. Dobrescu


    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Earth Radiation Pressure Acceleration on Low-Earth Orbit Satellites

    Vielberg, Kristin; Forootan, Ehsan; Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Börger, Klaus


    The orbits of satellites are influenced by several external forces. The main non-gravitational forces besides thermospheric drag, acting on the surface of satellites, are accelerations due to the Earth and Solar Radiation Pres- sure (SRP and ERP, respectively). The sun radiates visible and infrared light reaching the satellite directly, which causes the SRP. Earth also emits and reflects the sunlight back into space, where it acts on satellites. This is known as ERP acceleration. The influence of ERP increases with decreasing distance to the Earth, and for low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites ERP must be taken into account in orbit and gravity computations. Estimating acceler- ations requires knowledge about energy emitted from the Earth, which can be derived from satellite remote sensing data, and also by considering the shape and surface material of a satellite. In this sensitivity study, we assess ERP accelerations based on different input albedo and emission fields and their modelling for the satellite missions Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). As input fields, monthly 1°x1° products of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant En- ergy System (CERES), L3 are considered. Albedo and emission models are generated as latitude-dependent, as well as in terms of spherical harmonics. The impact of different albedo and emission models as well as the macro model and the altitude of satellites on ERP accelerations will be discussed.

  19. Maternal cytokine profiles during pregnancy predict asthma in children of nonasthmatic mothers.

    Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A; Lohman, I Carla; Spangenberg, Amber; Wright, Anne L; DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata; Halonen, Marilyn


    Little is known about whether maternal immune status during pregnancy influences asthma development in the child. We measured cytokine production in supernatants from mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood immune cells collected during and after pregnancy from the mothers of children enrolled in the Tucson Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort. Physician-diagnosed active asthma in children through age 9 and a history of asthma in their mothers were assessed through questionnaires. Maternal production of each of the cytokines IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 during pregnancy was unrelated to childhood asthma. However, IFN-γ/IL-13 and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratios during pregnancy were associated with decreased in risk of childhood asthma (N=381; OR=0.33; 95%CI=0.17-0.66, p=0.002 and N=368; OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.18-0.71, p=0.003, respectively). The inverse relations of these two ratios with childhood asthma were only evident in nonasthmatic mothers ( N=309; OR=0.18; 95% CI=0.08-0.42, p=0.00007 and N=299; OR=0.17; 95% CI=0.07-0.39, p=0.00003, respectively) and not in asthmatic mother (N=72 and 69, respectively; p for interaction by maternal asthma=0.036 and 0.002, respectively). Paternal cytokine ratios were unrelated to childhood asthma. Maternal cytokine ratios in nonasthmatic mothers were unrelated to the child's skin test reactivity, total IgE, physician-confirmed allergic rhinitis at age 5, or eczema in infancy. To our knowledge this study provides the first evidence that cytokine profiles in pregnant nonasthmatic mothers relate to risk for childhood asthma but not allergy and suggests a process of asthma development that begins in utero and is independent of allergy.

  20. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth


    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  1. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.


    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  2. Study of mother-infant attachment patterns and influence factors in Shanghai.

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping


    In contrast to the considerable volume of international research on infant attachment development, significantly less research has been conducted in China. The present study was designed to identify the patterns of mother-infant attachment in Shanghai and to explore the influence factors. The subjects included 160 healthy infant-mother dyads. Infant attachment and temperament were assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure and Carey's temperament questionnaire, respectively; the mother's personality, maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction were assessed with Eysenck's personality questionnaire, Maternal Behavior Q-sort Manual Version 3.1 and Olson's marital questionnaire, respectively. A self-formulated questionnaire of family environment factors was completed by the infant's mother. Of the 160 infants, 68.2% were rated as securely attached (B) and 31.8% as insecurely attached. Of those infants rated as insecurely attached, 7.5% were characterized as avoidant (A), 21.8% as resistant (C) and 2.5% as disorganized (D). Maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction as well as the approachability dimension of infant temperament, were significantly different between securely attached infants and insecurely attached infants. From a temperament perspective, resistant infants showed higher-level intensity of reaction than avoidant infants. Moreover, multiple caregivers in the family and infant's sleeping with other caregivers at night were more likely to be associated with insecure mother-infant attachment. There exist certain cultural characteristics in mother-infant attachment patterns in Shanghai. The influence factors are related with the high involvement of non-mother caregivers as well as maternal sensitivity, marital satisfaction and infant's temperament characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Abortion denied--outcome of mothers and babies.

    Del Campo, C


    A consistent argument favoring therapeutic abortions has been that mothers who are denied abortions will seek "illegal" help elsewhere, often in less than optimal conditions. Yet, a review of published reports on women who had been denied abortion and were followed up shows that 70.67% of the 6298 women completed their pregnancies and only 13.2% had an abortion elsewhere. Several studies have shown that the incidence of Complications of pregnancy is no greater in mothers denied abortion than in paired controls. The results of a prospective study by Laukaran and Van Den Berg showed a higher incidence of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase in the prevalence of congenital anomalies, and a higher incidence of infection and hemorrhage during the puerperium in women who had been denied abortion. They concluded that maternal attitude and psychosocial stress had little effect on the progress of the pregnancy and labor. Published reports on the psychological effects on the children of women who had been denied abortion are few, mainly because longterm follow-up is required. In 1966 Forssman and Thuwe described the results of their study of 120 children whose mothers had been denied abortion. The children had been followed up until their 21st birthdays. The controls had been carefully paired. The proportion of children who had been placed in foster and children's homes was significantly higher among the "unwanted" children than among the controls (50% versus 18%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of drunken misconduct, crime, or "educational mental subnormality" between the 2 groups, but the incidence rates of delinquency and psychiatric consultation were 10% and 13% higher respectively among the unwanted children than among the controls. There have been virtually no objective studies on the psychologic and social well-being of women who have been denied abortion. The literature

  4. "I Fell off [the Mothering] Track": Barriers to "Effective Mothering" among Prostituted Women

    Dalla, Rochelle


    Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…

  5. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula


    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  6. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie


    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  7. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  8. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  9. Mothering from Prison: Using Narratives in a Mother-Child Support Program

    Trost, Betty Chamness


    Incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women who participated in the Storybook Project of Iowa told passionate stories of how their understanding of mothering had changed. They spoke of how the Storybook Project strengthened their mothering practices and relationships with their children and families. This study was an opportunity for reflection…

  10. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.


    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  11. Diagnostic study about lanthanides (rare earths)

    Ribeiro, G.F.


    The world situation of rare earths (lanthanides) is evaluated, and a comparison of the Brazilian situation in respect to other countries is established, concerning the following aspects: geology of mineral deposits; main sources, uses, reserves and production; their consumption, prices and state-of-art of geological researches and industrial processes for physical and chemical separation / concentration of these elements. (C.L.B.) [pt

  12. Contempt as the absence of appraisal, not recognition, respect.

    Mason, Michelle


    Gervais & Fessler's defense of a sentiment construct for contempt captures features distinguishing the phenomenon from basic emotions and highlights the fact that it comprises a coordinated syndrome of responses. However, their conceptualization of contempt as the absence of respect equivocates. Consequently, a "dignity" culture that prescribes respect does not thereby limit legitimate contempt in the manner the authors claim.

  13. Kant's Conception of Respect and African American Education Rights

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis


    Immanuel Kant envisioned a kind of respect in which one recognizes each human (1) as being not fully comprehensible by any human understanding, (2) as being an end in him- or herself, and (3) as being a potential source of moral law. In this essay, Gregory Lewis Bynum uses this conception of respect as a lens with which to examine African American…

  14. Quantum mechanics with respect to different reference frames

    Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.


    Geometric (Schroedinger) quantization of nonrelativistic mechanics with respect to different reference frames is considered. In classical nonrelativistic mechanics, a reference frame is represented by a connection on a configuration space fibered over a time axis R. Under quantization, it yields a connection on the quantum algebra of Schroedinger operators. The operators of energy with respect to different reference frames are examined

  15. Relocating Respect and Tolerance: A Practice Approach in Empirical Philosophy

    Anker, Trine; Afdal, Geir


    Respect and tolerance are key values in education. They are also among the aims of education and are brought to the foreground in educational policy. We argue that these values are neither philosophically nor politically given aims for which education is a means. Instead, respect and tolerance are enacted and negotiated through educational…

  16. The Problematic Promotion of Abstinence: An Overview of Sex Respect.

    Goodson, Patricia; Edmundson, Elizabeth


    Presents the results of a content evaluation of the abstinence-based sexuality education curriculum, "Sex Respect," focusing on the curriculum's message and presentation. Results indicate Sex Respect omits basic content and includes misinformation, especially in the areas of human sexual response and reproductive health, and needs revision.…

  17. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Hrabovski Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  18. Conduct of breastfeeding among young Tunisian Mothers

    Miniaoui, Rim; Zediri, Manel; Mankai, Amani; Aouidet, Abdallah; Hamoudia, Faouzia


    Full text: Introduction: Breastfeeding is a natural phenomenon that reflects reality and occupies an important space in the life of all human beings. It is the reference for infant feeding since it is the food better tailored to his needs as its capabilities. The decision to make this practice is the responsibility of each parent. However, it is found that although mothers in particular young age properly begin the practice of breastfeeding, they end, for various reasons by early introduction of other foods or even stop breastfeeding few weeks after the delivery. Objectives: We aim from this study to examine the behavior of young mothers in breastfeeding, determine the impact of attitudes of mothers on the nutritional status of infants and encourage policymakers health to establish a line of action to initiate future and young mothers to breastfeed. Methods: This is a prospective study of 50 young mothers coming to consult or to vaccinate their children aged 2 to 23 months at the center of maternal and child of El Zouhour. Results: The analysis of our results showed that 76% of surveyed mothers have a high level of education, half primiparous and 64% are housewives. Concerning the practice of breastfeeding, we found that 42% of surveyed mothers have weaned their children and only 26% of them believe breastfeeding or breast-feed their infants exclusively for the first six months. Moreover, we noted That among children suffering from obesity 2nd degree be 16% of the total population , 87.5% of them were not (or are not) exclusively breastfed for the first six month of life. However, this relationship is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The evolution of knowledge of young mothers has not influenced their practices in breastfeeding. This requires the establishment of a line of action to promote breastfeeding based on the evaluation of implemented national programs in recent years, the update of their content and the improvement of training of personnel of

  19. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers].

    Belli, M A


    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  20. Mothers understand and can do it (MUAC)

    Blackwell, Nikki; Myatt, Mark; Allafort-Duverger, Thierry


    BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children for malnut......BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children...... for malnutrition, without locating the mid-point of the left upper arm by measurement, as currently recommended. METHODS: A non-randomised non-blinded evaluation of mothers' performance when measuring MUAC after minimal training, compared with trained Community Health Workers (CHW) following current MUAC protocols....... The study was conducted in 2 villages in Mirriah, Zinder region, Niger where mothers classified one of their children (n = 103) aged 6-59 months (the current age range for admission into community malnutrition programs) using the MUAC tape. RESULTS: Mothers' had a sensitivity and specificity...

  1. New mothers' views of weight and exercise.

    Groth, Susan W; David, Tamala


    To describe the attitudes and preferences of ethnically diverse new mothers on weight and exercise. Exploratory, qualitative study. Forty-nine ethnically diverse women were interviewed during the first year following childbirth regarding beliefs about weight, choices of exercise, walking for exercise, perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of exercise. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Weight was a significant concern for women, although the importance varied by race. New mothers reported that they would like to weigh less, and they endorsed walking for exercise. Common barriers to exercise were children and time constraints; health problems were also seen as a barrier to walking as a form of exercise. Scheduling the walk and having a walking partner were factors that women said would facilitate walking for physical activity during the first year after childbirth. Because new mothers perceive walking as a good form of exercise, nurses can use this information to help them plan a daily walking schedule to aid in weight loss and control postpartum. Nurses should also encourage new mothers to look for a walking partner, especially another new mother or a friend, to help them continue their physical activity during the first year after childbirth.

  2. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri


    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  3. The mother - child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.


    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food

  4. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission outcomes in the private ...

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission outcomes in the private sector in central Durban. ... Median viral loads and CD4 counts were 11 391 copies/ml and 426 cells/μl, respectively. Eighty-six women ... Article Metrics ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Grief, Anger, Social Action: Experiences of the Windsor Chapter, Mothers against Drunk Driving (MADD).

    Kroeker, B. J.; And Others


    The experiences of the Windsor, Ontario, Canada, chapter of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), in its development and progress through the grief-anger-social action continuum, are described. This article also portrays a model for problem resolution which emphasizes incorporating the respective strengths and efficiencies of self-help groups and…

  6. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  7. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  8. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia


    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in the Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) at 12 and 13 months of age, respectively. Observed and reported supportive ...

  9. R-E-S-P-E-C-T: The Relationship Between Being Respected and Quality of Life of Disabled People

    Carli Friedman


    Full Text Available The United Nations exclaims "all human beings have the right to be treated with dignity and respect" (Annan, 2005, p. 34. Yet, disabled people have long been denied respect in the United States and have been subjected to disability oppression and ableism. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between respect and disability, particularly respect's impact on the quality of life of disabled people. We had two research questions: (1. what factors predict disabled people being respected? and, (2. how does being respected impact the quality of life of disabled people? To explore these questions, we used secondary Personal Outcome Measures® data from approximately 1,500 disabled people; we analyzed this data to examine relationships between disabled people's interpretations of feeling and being respected, and their quality of life. Our findings revealed being respected had a significant impact on every area of ones' quality of life. Problematically, this also included areas which should be considered non-negotiable fundamental human and civil rights, that should not depend on if, and how, people respect disabled people. While the attitudes underlying the disrespect of disabled people are harmful and problematic, human and civil rights should be inalienable – ones' access to exercise their rights, to safety, to health, and to many other domains should not depend on others' attitudes about, and treatment toward, you.

  10. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates.

    Boskovic, Colette


    Longstanding and important applications make use of the chemical and physical properties of both rare earth metals and polyoxometalates of early transition metals. The catalytic, optical, and magnetic features of rare earth metal ions are well-known, as are the reversible multielectron redox and photoredox capabilities of polyoxomolybdates and polyoxotungstates. The combination of rare earth ions and polyoxometalates in discrete molecules and coordination polymers is of interest for the unique combination of chemical and physical properties that can arise. This Account surveys our efforts to synthesize and investigate compounds with rare earth ions and polyoxometalates (RE-POMs), sometimes with carboxylate-based organic coligands. Our general synthetic approach is "bottom-up", which affords well-defined nanoscale molecules, typically in crystalline form and amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction for structure determination. Our particular focus is on elucidation of the physical properties conferred by the different structural components with a view to ultimately being able to tune these properties chemically. For this purpose, we employ a variety of spectroscopic, magnetochemical, electrochemical, and scattering techniques in concert with theoretical modeling and computation. Studies of RE-POM single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have utilized magnetic susceptibility, inelastic neutron scattering, and ab initio calculations. These investigations have allowed characterization of the crystal field splitting of the rare earth(III) ions that is responsible for the SMM properties of slow magnetic relaxation and magnetization quantum tunneling. Such SMMs are promising for applications in quantum computing and molecular spintronics. Photophysical measurements of a family of hybrid RE-POMs with organic ligands have afforded insights into sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) emission through both organic and polyoxometalate chromophores in the same molecule. Detailed

  11. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    Robin, C. M.


    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  12. Bones of the Earth

    Jose Miguel Correa


    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  13. The Solid Earth

    Fowler, C. M. R.


    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  14. Between Earth and Sky

    Carter, Adrian


    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...... of form, material and function, motivated by social values. To this essentially regional response, Utzon combines a fascination for the architectural legacies of foreign cultures. These influences include the architecture of the ancient Mayan civilisation, as well as the Islamic world, China and Japan...

  15. Climate in Earth history

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.


    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  16. Earth's ozone layer

    Lasa, J.


    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Kinetics studies of solvent extraction of rare earths into DEHPA

    Lim, T.M.; Tran, T.


    The kinetics of rare earth solvent extraction into di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid have been studied using radiotracers ( 141 Ce, 152 Eu, 153 Gd, 160 Tb and 88 Y) in a modified Lewis cell. The experimental procedure involved continuous monitoring of both aqueous and organic phases using an automated γ- counting system. Using this method, highly reproducible results were obtained without chemical analysis or disturbance of the system. The initial rate extraction was first order with respect to individual rare earth concentration. At low acidities ([H+] < 0.01 M), the extraction rates of rare earths were equal and independent of pH. However, at high acidities, the extraction rate was strongly dependent on pH and varied between the rare earths. Similarly, differences in the extraction rate of individual rare earths were apparent at low DEHPA concentration. (authors)

  18. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers.

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E


    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  19. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit


    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... in its benefit. It unfolds within the room for action as experienced by the individual due to action obstacles and action potentials. Methods: In a case-control study, mothers of 111 overweight children (MOC) were compared with mothers of 149 nonoverweight children (MNC). They underwent a semistructured...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p


    Yulia F. Lakhvich


    Full Text Available To become a mother … To be a mother … What does it mean for a woman? And what else changes her life so irreversibly, allows to see the world in a different way and discovers new, earlier unknown features? Probably, nothing does. However, there is also a question how a woman bearing a child and carrying out motherhood responsibilities and a woman who has not given life to a child, but carrying out the same responsibilities, goes through the process of motherhood. It is one of the questions that was studied in a comparative research of the adaptation process in the Belarusian adoptive and biological families in case of a child appearing in the family. The study involved 64 adoptive and 62 biological mothers.

  1. Transport of compounds from mother to foetus

    Bowen, B.M.; Garnett, E.S.; Perrier, D.G.; Prestwich, W.


    This study reviews the literature and investigates the transport of selected radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus and the distribution of these radiopharmaceuticals in both animals and man. This search emphasizes the placental transport of the drugs from the mother to the foetus and the development of pharmacokinetic models that could describe this transport. An outline of the distribution and/or transport of several radio-pharmaceuticals is presented followed by a description of the factors that regulate the transport of the radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus. Pharmacokinetic models were designed on the available information in the open literature. The limitation of the literature is discussed and suggestions for future experimental investigation are made

  2. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Anne Driscoll


    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  3. SETIA Health Education Set Enhances Knowledge, Attitude, and Parenting Self-Efficacy Score in Postpartum Adolescent Mothers.

    Setiawati, Nina; Setyowati; Budiati, Tri

    The lack of readiness in assuming the role of a mother causes many adolescent mothers to decide not to breastfeed their babies. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the SETIA health education set on adolescent mothers' knowledge, attitude, and parenting self-efficacy score. This quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test with control group study was conducted on 66 adolescent mothers, 33 participants in each group. Data collecting used knowledge and attitude questionnaires and the Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES). This study revealed that there was a significant difference before and after intervention in knowledge, attitude, and PSE score on postpartum adolescent mothers (p = .045; p = .013; p = .001 respectively). There was an increase in knowledge ≥ 20%, attitude ≥10%, parental self-efficacy ≥ 10%, and a difference between control and intervention group (p = .001 with 95% CI: 3.587-44.876, p = .001 with 95% CI: 4.954-56.397, p = .001 respectively). Logistic regression analysis found that postpartum adolescent mothers who receive SETIA are 12.687 times more likely to have better knowledge after being controlled for mother's age and education and 0.248 times more likely to have a higher PSES score after being controlled for mother's age, education, and husband's work status than their counterpart. This study recommends the use of the SETIA health education set to provide postpartum education to adolescent mothers.

  4. Help for breastfeeding mothers. Support groups.


    Many people including some health workers and physicians believe bottle feeding is just as good as breast feeding, even though bottle feeding poses some dangers to infants. Further, health workers in hospital often are too busy to counsel new mothers in breast feeding or are simply not trained to do so. Moreover, young women often live in areas away from their family and friends thus not living close to women with whom they are familiar and who could guide them in mastering breast feeding skills. So new mothers who want to breast feed have no support, lack confidence, and/or feel they cannot do so because they work or have other responsibilities. Support groups for new breast feeding mothers can provide them with the needed confidence to breast feed by allowing them to discuss concerns with other new mothers and an experienced leader and to learn the advantages of breast feeding, e.g., a breast fed infant is never constipated. A confident experienced woman in breast feeding is best suited to start a support group in a community. She needs to promote the group by talking to health workers and physicians and advertising at maternity hospitals, women's organizations, and health centers. Once the support group has become successful, several mothers can undergo training to start and lead new support groups. If no national breast feeding promotion organization exists to offer advice on starting a support group, the article provides addresses of international organizations. At support group meetings, mothers learn how to breast feed, how to express and store breast milk, breast feed inconspicuously in public, how their bodies work, and about child growth and development. Support group members from the Philippines, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia, and singapore share their experiences.

  5. "When Meeting 'Khun' Teacher, Each Time We Should Pay Respect": Standardizing Respect in a Northern Thai Classroom

    Howard, Kathryn M.


    This paper examines how Northern Thai (Muang) children are socialized into the discourses and practices of respect in school, a process that indexically links Standard Thai to images of polite and respectful Thai citizenship. Focusing on the socialization of politeness particles, the paper examines how cultural models of conduct are taken up,…

  6. What deserves our respect? Reexamination of respect for autonomy in the context of the management of chronic conditions.

    Enzo, Aya; Okita, Taketoshi; Asai, Atsushi


    The global increase in patients with chronic conditions has led to increased interest in ethical issues regarding such conditions. A basic biomedical principle-respect for autonomy-is being reexamined more critically in its clinical implications. New accounts of this basic principle are being proposed. While new accounts of respect for autonomy do underpin the design of many public programs and policies worldwide, addressing both chronic disease management and health promotion, the risk of applying such new accounts to clinical setting remain understudied. However, the application of new accounts of respect for autonomy to clinical settings could support disrespectful attitudes toward or undue interference with patients with chronic conditions. Reconsidering autonomy and respect using Kantian accounts, this paper proposes respect for persons as an alternative basic bioethical principle to respect for autonomy. Unlike the principle of respect for persons in the Belmont Report, our principle involves respecting any patient's decisions, behaviors, emotions, or life-style regardless of his or her "autonomous" capabilities. Thus, attitudes toward patients should be no different irrespective of the assessment of their decisional or executive capabilities.

  7. Lipschitz estimates for convex functions with respect to vector fields

    Valentino Magnani


    Full Text Available We present Lipschitz continuity estimates for a class of convex functions with respect to Hörmander vector fields. These results have been recently obtained in collaboration with M. Scienza, [22].

  8. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi


    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?

    Hughes, R.J.


    We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs

  10. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael


    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  11. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid


    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  12. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas


    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  13. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Hossein Ebrahimi


     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P


    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case st...

  15. Mothers as informal science class teachers

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  16. Destiny's Earth Observation Window


    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  17. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.


    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  18. Is dying the earth?

    Morales Garzon, Gustavo


    December 21 of 1968, on board the capsule Apollo 8, three astronauts, James A. Lovell, Frank Borman and William Anders, went toward what would be the first orbital flight around the moon. That experience like Lovell said, it makes us realize the insignificant that we are in comparison with the vastness of the universe. With the revolution lovelockiane, the life doesn't already consist on a group of organisms only adapted to its atmosphere by a certain action for external laws. The terrestrial environment, instead of being a physical world regulated by own autonomous laws, is part of an evolutionary system that contains the life and that it should to the phenomena vital part of its rules, its mechanisms and components. The alive beings connected to each other and to the atmosphere they manufacture and they maintain of continuous their atmosphere forming an everything at planetary level, according to Ricard Guerrero (1988). The theory of the earth then, he says, it has found their owner Darwin in James lovelock. The document treats topics like the science concept that it is the life, the earth and the contemporary environment

  19. Protecting Mother Earth: Hartman Seeks to Instill His Passion in Science Students

    Dea, Sarah


    Students at Fort Berthold Community College (FBCC) have spent their entire lives hearing about the environmental issues facing the Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara). Located on the high plains of northwestern North Dakota, the area contains rich coal and oil resources, the development of which can damage air and water quality.…

  20. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study.

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa


    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    Chavis, Llena


    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.

  2. School, Earth and Imagination

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina


    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity


    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N


    Full Text Available The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of futu re lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and relations within f amily as a structure have an impact on the child. Relations within family and experiences will be determinants of the relations with others. In particular, the tie formed in the earlier years between mother and child will have an effect on the personality creation and social relations in the period of adolescence and adulthood. Successful relations of the child and unconditioned love and trust that will be built with his mother is known to be the basis of their future life. In order that a mother could get in a healthy relation with her child, it is necessary that she should have an attitude of self - confidence, respectful, sensible to his problems, collaborative, sharing the feelings and views her children and accepting them. Mothers having an insisting atti tude not to accept their views and excluding them and not looking for a logic in their views cannot build a healthy relation. Children growing up with a healthy mother – child relation will become independent individuals with a self - esteem. The basis of a healthy mother – child relation depends on an infancy period starting with the process of pregnancy and going on with physical contact and nutrition after birth. Mother’s feeding of her baby, her care and preparation for life creates love and feeling of tr ust at child. When the child becomes an adult, he will guide his life with these two basic feelings. Mother should be a person giving her love to him, supporting the child

  4. Gender bias in mothers' expectations about infant crawling.

    Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S


    Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity.

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy


    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among Hong Kong mothers: a prospective study.

    Tarrant, Marie; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wu, Kendra M; Lee, Irene L Y; Wong, Emmy M Y; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Dodgson, Joan E


    Breastfeeding provides optimal and complete nutrition for newborn babies. Although new mothers in Hong Kong are increasingly choosing to breastfeed their babies, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low and duration remains short. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and weaning practices of Hong Kong mothers over the infant's first year of life to determine the factors associated with early cessation. A cohort of 1417 mother-infant pairs was recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong in the immediate post-partum period and followed prospectively for 12 months or until weaned. We used descriptive statistics to describe breastfeeding and weaning practices and multiple logistic regression to investigate the relationship between maternal characteristics and breastfeeding cessation. At 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months only 63%, 37.3%, 26.9%, and 12.5% of the infants respectively, were still receiving any breast milk; approximately one-half of breastfeeding mothers were exclusively breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with a longer duration of residence in Hong Kong, and those returning to work postpartum were more likely to wean before 1 month. Mothers with higher education, previous breastfeeding experience, who were breastfed themselves and those who were planning to exclusively breastfeed and whose husbands preferred breastfeeding were more likely to continue breastfeeding beyond 1 month. The introduction of infant formula before 1 month and returning to work postpartum were predictive of weaning before 3 months. Breastfeeding promotion programs have been successful in achieving high rates of breastfeeding initiation but the focus must now shift to helping new mothers exclusively breastfeed and sustain breastfeeding for longer.

  7. Congenital Heart Diseases in the Newborns of Diabetic Mothers: an Echocardiographic Study

    S Rahimpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the discovery of insulin and current improvement in diabetics care, congenital malformations in diabetics are still more frequent than in the general population. The aim of this study was to identify congenital heart dieases (CHD in the newborns of diabetic mothers (IDMS. Methods: In our prospective study, color doppler echocardiography was performed in 75 consecutive full- term newborns of diabetic mothers by GE Vivid3 echocardiographic device. Newborns were classified into two subgroups according to the type of the mothers’ diabetes: pre-gestational and gestational. They were also those were classified into three subgroups according to their birth weight: appropriate, large and small for gestational age. Data analysis was made by Fisher exact test and Chi-Square test. Results: Forty nine (65% and thirty six (35% of subjects were infants of gestational (IGDM and pre-gestational diabetic mothers (IPDM, respectively. Fifty five Newborns (73% were apropriate, fourteen (19% were large and six (8% were small for gestational age. The most common echocardiographic findings included: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA: 54.7%, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP: 24%, ventricular septal defect (VSD: 4%, atrial septal defect (ASD: 2.7%, transposition of great arteries (TGA: 1.3% and coarctation of the Aorta (COA: 1.3%. Overall incidence of congenital heart diseases was 9.3 after exclusion of PDA and HCMP cases. The incidence of congenital heart diseases was higher in macrosomic than nonmacrosomic infants of diabetic mothers (P<0.001. Congenital heart diseases were more common in infants of pre-gestational than gestational diabetic mothers (P=0.004. Conclusion: Our results showed that diabetic mothers are at increased risk of giving birth to a newborn with congenital heart disease, and transthoracic echocardiography is recommended for all infants of diabetic mothers.

  8. Reflective functioning, physiological reactivity, and overcontrol in mothers: Links with school-aged children's reflective functioning.

    Borelli, Jessica L; Hong, Kajung; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Smiley, Patricia A


    Theorists argue that parental reflective functioning (PRF) is activated in response to emotions, potentially supporting parenting sensitivity even when arousal is high. That is, when parents become emotionally reactive when interacting with their children, those who can use PRF to understand their children's mental states should be able to parent sensitively, which, in turn, should promote children's ability to understand their own mental states. We test this theory by examining whether, in the face of physiological reactivity, mothers' PRF inhibits one form of parenting insensitivity, overcontrol (OC), and whether this process in turn predicts children's RF. A diverse sample of school-age children (N = 106, Mage = 10.27 years) completed a standardized failure paradigm while their mothers were asked to passively observe. Following the stressor, mothers and children independently completed interviews regarding the task, which were later coded for RF with respect to children's mental states. Mothers provided saliva samples before and after the stressor, and after the interview, which were later assayed for cortisol reactivity; maternal behavior during the stressor task was coded for OC. Among mothers with low levels of RF, greater increases in cortisol were associated with more displays of OC, whereas among mothers with high PRF, greater cortisol reactivity was associated with fewer OC behaviors. For low PRF mothers, higher reactivity and OC predicted lower children's PRF for their own experiences. The findings provide initial evidence for a protective function of PRF, and may point toward the importance of promoting PRF in intervention programs to reduce parental OC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Mothers' Strategies in Handling the Prematurely Born Infant: a Qualitative Study

    Afsaneh Arzani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Family, especially mother, is faced with numerous challenges by experiencing a premature birth. Since knowing about mother‟s efforts regarding prematurely born infant helps us in our comprehensive understanding of the impact of this incident on the family system and its performance. The present study was carried out to explore the mothers' strategies regarding prematurely born infant. Methods: In a conventional qualitative content analysis, data was collected through purposive sampling by semi-structured deep interviews with 18 mothers who had prematurely born infant during 2012-2013 in the teaching hospitals of the north and northwest of Iran. All the interviews were recorded, typed, and finally analyzed. Results: Data analysis resulted in the extraction of categories of "asking for help, elevating capacity and reducing personal responsibilities and commitments". These categories were revealed in mothers respectively by the different sub-categories of "religious appeal and relying on beliefs, seeking information from the treatment and caring team, participating in infant‟s care, companionship and support of family and friends”, “focusing on positive thinking and imagination, patience and strength " and "ignoring some routine affairs and reducing role-related activities and duties". Conclusion: Considering the uniqueness of the mother's role in responding to the needs of infants, healthcare system should consider mothers as real target in the intervention strategies in order to promote health and quality of life, so maybe this way, the burden of care and management of critical situations caused by a premature birth on the mother can be reduced.

  10. Mothers' preferences regarding new combination vaccines for their children in Japan, 2014.

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide


    A number of new vaccines to prevent childhood diseases have been introduced globally over the last few decades. Only four combination vaccines are currently available in Japan, DTaP/sIPV, DTaP, DT, and MR, leading to complex infant vaccine scheduling. This study aims to investigate mothers' preferences with respect to combination vaccines for their children, should new combination vaccines become available that have not yet been launched in Japan or that will be developed in the future. We conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of 1,243 mothers who had at least one child between 2 months and 3 y of age. Mothers were recruited from an online survey panel of registered users. Their preferences were elicited using discrete choice experiments, the analyzed main effects model, and interactions using a mixed logit model. Mothers showed a preference for vaccines that prevented multiple diseases, had fewer injections per doctor visit, lower price, and lower risk of adverse events. Respondents valued a reduced risk of adverse events the most among all attributes in this study. The estimated monetary value of the willingness to pay for a 1% reduction in the risk of adverse events was ¥ 92,557 ($ 907). Therefore, if new combination vaccines are introduced, the risk of adverse events after vaccination is an especially important factor for mothers. While the safety of the vaccines themselves is required, health professionals should also inform mothers about the benefits and risks of vaccination, to allay mothers' concerns about vaccine safety.

  11. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro


    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Forum | Accelerating respect @ CERN | 5 May | Council Chamber


    Forum for discussion: Accelerating respect @ CERN - What does this mean in our daily working lives?   Tuesday, 5 May at 2 p.m. Council Chamber Join our forum for discussion on the topic of “Respect in the workplace” where Alan Richter will be leading a discussion on the relationship between respect and trust, including some recent research on trust, and exploring the role of unconscious bias, how respect is differently interpreted across cultures, and the connection between respect, listening, and the appreciative inquiry process. Alan Richter is the president of QED Consulting, a 26-year-old company based in New York. He has consulted to organisations in the areas of leadership, values, culture and change and is a recognised pioneer in global diversity and international ethics. He has worked with CERN, NASA, the UN and many global companies and leading universities around the world. He has a Ph.D. in Philosophy from London University, and a Master’s degree fro...

  13. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a cohort of primiparous periurban peruvian mothers.

    Matias, Susana L; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Dewey, Kathryn G


    The authors aimed to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among 117 Peruvian mothers planning to breastfeed exclusively. Data were collected on days 0 and 3, and months 1, 3, and 6. Exclusive breastfeeding status was evaluated with a 24-hour recall of infant diet. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 74%, 72%, and 35% at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. At 3 months, lower maternal education, greater breastfeeding frequency (day 3), greater breast pain (day 3), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use (3 months) were associated with EBF, after adjusting for EBF intentions. At 6 months, greater infant birth weight and mother-not employed were associated with EBF, after controlling for EBF intentions. More educated and working mothers, and infants with lower birth weight should be targeted in interventions to promote EBF in urban Peru. Research is also warranted to explore the factors linking depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use and breast pain with EBF duration.

  14. The Fukushima Nuclear Accident Affected Mothers' Depression but Not Maternal Confidence.

    Goto, Aya; Bromet, Evelyn J; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya


    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident caused widespread radiation contamination. Mothers of young children were at risk of negative emotional and mental health consequences. Using data from 2 independent prefecture-wide surveys of pregnant women, we examined the associations of disaster-related stressors with both maternal self-confidence and depressive symptoms. Two postal surveys were conducted targeting women who registered their pregnancies in Fukushima Prefecture (n = 6686 in 2012 and n = 6423 in 2013). The proportions of mothers with lower self-confidence in child rearing and with depressive symptoms were 53% and 25% in 2012 and 55% and 24% in 2013, respectively. After adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, evacuation and concern about radiation were significantly associated with depressive symptoms but not lower maternal confidence, although these 2 outcomes were significantly associated. Mothers in Fukushima showed resilience in parenting, whereas their experiences and concerns in the aftermath of nuclear disaster were associated with depressive symptoms.

  15. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Township Mothers in South Africa Over 5 Years.

    Davis, Emily C; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weichle, Thomas W; Rezai, Roxana; Tomlinson, Mark


    Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In South Africa, alcohol abuse is hypothesized to correlate with women's HIV status, mental health, and partner relationships over time. All pregnant women in 12 urban, low-income, Cape Town neighborhoods were interviewed at baseline, post-birth, and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months following delivery with retention rates from 82.5 to 94%. Women were assessed for any alcohol use, problematic drinking, depression, intimate partner violence, and HIV status. Prior to pregnancy discovery and 5 years after giving birth, alcohol use was 25.8 and 24.7%, respectively. Most women decreased their alcohol use during pregnancy. Twenty-one percent reported alcohol use on two or more assessments, and only 15% of the mothers drinking alcohol at 5 years were also drinking at baseline. Mothers with depression had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to mothers who were not depressed only at baseline and 6 months post-birth. Mothers who experienced IPV had more than twice the likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to non-IPV mothers at all assessments. HIV positive mothers were more likely to drink alcohol compared to mothers without HIV prior to pregnancy discovery and at 5 years post-birth. These longitudinal trends in alcohol use among young women in South Africa represent a large economic, social, and health burden and must be addressed in a comprehensive manner.

  16. [Association between mothers' quality of life and infants' nutritional status].

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Carraro, Deborah Filippini; Cuervo, Maria Rita Macedo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Spiandorello, Wilson Paloschi; Pizzato, Alessandra Campani


    Determine associations between the quality of life of mothers and the nutritional status of children. case-control study involving 152 mothers of children aged zero to five years, living in the coverage area of a basic health unit in the city of Porto Alegre. The calculation of sample size was estimated as 152 mothers - 76 mothers with children at nutritional risk/malnutrition (cases) and 76 mothers with eutrophic children (controls). Information was collected regarding the quality of life of mothers, measured by the instrument of the World Health Organization, and the association between maternal quality of life and nutritional status of children was examined. In relation to the psychiatric realm, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 5.4 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. In the environmental field, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 2.9 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. Regarding educational level, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 4.2 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. Mothers' low quality of life was associated with an infant in nutritional risk/malnutrition and may be a risk factor for the nutritional status of children.

  17. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    Svensmark, Henrik


    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  18. Mothers after Gestational Diabetes in Australia (MAGDA)

    O’Reilly, Sharleen L.; Dunbar, James A.; Versace, Vincent


    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based lifestyle modification program in mothers with prior GDM within their first postnatal year. Methods and Findings: In this study, 573 women...

  19. The Digital Biliteracies of Arab Immigrant Mothers

    Al-Salmi, Laila Z.; Smith, Patrick H.


    Few studies have explored how the literacies of immigrant parents are influenced by participation in their children's emerging biliteracy. This study addressed this lacuna using a qualitative case study design to investigate the biliteracy development of Arab immigrant mothers in the U.S. Southwest. We used the framework of digital biliteracy to…

  20. The Reparative Motive in Surrogate Mothers.

    Kanefield, Linda


    Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…

  1. Lacanian Reading of Marsha Norman's Night, Mother

    Khadijeh Taherifard


    Full Text Available This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelma, represents the Imaginary Order. The notion of Death Drive and its omnipresence in Jessie’s psyche is discussed and emphasized. Thelma functions as the Other for Jessie, while her father functions as the Mother, a reversal of gender roles in the Lacanian reading. Moreover, the relationship between some of the concepts are explained. It will be explicated how the play can be brought in line with a feminist reading of Lacan by reversing the stereotypical gender roles and subsequently getting close to post-feminist authors.

  2. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  3. Mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of childhood ...

    Efforts have focused on the health worker, health system and logistics with little attention being paid to maternal factors like knowledge, perception, beliefs and practice. Objectives: To assess mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of routine and campaign immunization in Enugu. Methods: A structured questionnaire ...

  4. Health and Social Needs of Young Mothers.

    Dumas, S Amanda; Terrell, Ivy W; Gustafson, Maggie

    Teen parenting rates are disproportionately high among minority youth in the Southern United States. We explored barriers and unmet needs relating to medical and social support as perceived by these teen mothers, and elicited suggestions for improving their healthcare through the medical home. We conducted four focus groups of 18- to 24-year-old mothers in New Orleans with questions designed to prompt discussions on young motherhood and healthcare. All 18 participants identified as African American, became mothers when <20, and their children were <5 at the time of the study. Two researchers independently analyzed focus group transcripts and coded them thematically, revealing various unmet social and health needs. Seven main themes emerged, which revealed a concerning lack of mental healthcare, few with consistent medical homes, inadequate contraceptive knowledge and access, and a desire for parenting education and support groups. Suggestions for improving care largely centered around logistical and material support, such as extended clinic hours, transportation, and baby supplies. Findings suggest a need for improved medical knowledge, healthcare access, and social support for teen mothers. This may be provided through a multidisciplinary medical home model, such as a Teen-Tot clinic, where the unique challenges of adolescent parenting are continuously considered.

  5. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling.

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay


    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  6. Dyslexia: A Mother's Role

    Washburn, Erin K.


    Children and adolescents with dyslexia are at greater risk for academic failure and socioemotional problems than their non-dyslexic peers. However, researchers have suggested that individuals with dyslexia can benefit from a strong support system. Further, researchers have noted that mothers are integral to their child's support system. However,…

  7. Respiratory function in children of asthmatic mothers

    Marco A. Valadares


    Conclusions: The frequency of spirometry alterations in children of asthmatic mothers was high; the restrictive pattern was more often observed that the obstructive. There was a higher incidence of obstructive test results in those who presented clinical symptoms of asthma, with a higher frequency of clinical diagnosis of asthma than that found in the literature.

  8. White piedra in a mother and daughter.

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B


    White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.

  9. Mothering: The View from Psychological Research.

    Gerson, Mary-Joan; And Others


    Summarizes research on various aspects of mothering, including the decision to have children, child rearing in the early years and maternal employment, and late parenting with adult children. Urges an ecological perspective toward parenting and various publicly and privately-supported child care facilities and arrangements. (CJM)

  10. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  11. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    Alasia Datonye

    range 19 years to 54 years with mean of 31.4±5.7SD. .... unemployed, 41 (27.2%) were traders, 7 (4.6%) were fashion designers and 7 (4.6%) were undergraduates. Fifty eight. (38.4%) mothers had one child each, 38 (25.2%) had two children ...

  12. Mother Love: Diabetes is Not Your Destiny


    This podcast featuring Mother Love, co-host of dLifeTV, motivational speaker, and humorist, promotes healthy ways to control diabetes.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 3/11/2008.

  13. Mothers and the process of social stratification

    Korupp, S.E.


    The question posed is how the mother's education and occupation influence children's educational and occupational status. The chapter follows the chronological sequence of the classical model of status attainment (Blau & Duncan 1967). The specific questions are: (a) how large is the influence

  14. How Much Do Mothers Love Their Children?

    Cameron, Paul

    A total of 225 mothers, ages 19 to 64, were asked how they felt about their children (N=309): (1) upon knowledge of pregnancy, (2) at the quickening, (3) at birth, and (4) at the time of the interview. Results contradict some of the rationale behind the current liberalized abortion arguments by showing that initially unwanted children are loved as…

  15. Mother's Happiness with Cognitive - Executive Functions and Facial Emotional Recognition in School Children with Down Syndrome.

    Malmir, Maryam; Seifenaraghi, Maryam; Farhud, Dariush D; Afrooz, G Ali; Khanahmadi, Mohammad


    According to the mother's key roles in bringing up emotional and cognitive abilities of mentally retarded children and respect to positive psychology in recent decades, this research is administered to assess the relation between mother's happiness level with cognitive- executive functions (i.e. attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition ability as two factors in learning and adjustment skills in mentally retarded children with Down syndrome. This study was an applied research and data were analyzed by Pearson correlation procedure. Population is included all school children with Down syndrome (9-12 yr) that come from Tehran, Iran. Overall, 30 children were selected as an in access sample. After selection and agreement of parents, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the student's IQ, and then mothers were invited to fill out the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Cognitive-executive functions were evaluated by tests as followed: Continues Performance Test (CPT), N-Back, Stroop test (day and night version) and Tower of London. Ekman emotion facial expression test was also accomplished for assessing facial emotional recognition in children with Down syndrome, individually. Mother's happiness level had a positive relation with cognitive-executive functions (attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition in her children with Down syndrome, significantly. Parents' happiness (especially mothers) is a powerful predictor for cognitive and emotional abilities of their children.

  16. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Mentally Retarded, Blind, Deaf and Physically Disabled Children

    Mohammad Kazem Atefvahid


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parents of children with disabilities are poorer physical and mental health and greater stress experience. This study was conducted to evaluate Parenting stress in mothers of mentally retarded, blind, deaf and physically disabled children.Materials and Methods: This study was causal-comparative. The study population included 310 mothers of exceptional children (mothers of children with mental retardation, blind, deaf and physical-motor disabilities 7 to 12 years of age enrolled in primary schools in the academic year 90-1389 exceptional Tehran. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used. The data obtained from questionnaires parenting stress using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were analyzed.Results: The results showed that parenting stress in mothers of blind with mentally retarded, deaf with mentally retarded, physically with blind and deaf children are significantly different. As well as, there was significant difference between the mean score of blind, physical disorders, mentally retarded and deaf groups in terms of distraction- hyperactivity subscale.Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental retardation, physical disorders, blind and deaf have most parenting stress respectively.

  17. Perceived Maternal Role Competence among the Mothers Attending Immunization Clinics of Dharan, Nepal.

    Shrooti, Shah; Mangala, Shrestha; Nirmala, Pokharel; Devkumari, Shrestha; Dharanidhar, Baral


    Being a mother is considered by many women as their most important role in life. Women's perceptions of their abilities to manage the demands of parenting and the parenting skills they posses are reflected by perceived maternal role competence. The present study was carried out to assess the perceived maternal role competence and its associated factors among mothers. A descriptive cross-sectional research study was carried out on 290 mothers of infant in four immunization clinics of Dharan, Nepal. Data were collected using a standardized predesigned, pretested questionnaire (Parent sense of competence scale, Rosenberg's self esteem scale, Maternity social support scale). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The mean score of the perceived maternal role competence obtained by mothers was 64.34±7.90 and those of knowledge/skill and valuing/comfort subscale were 31±6.01 and 33±3.75, respectively. There was a significant association between perceived maternal role competence and factors as the age of the mother (Pself esteem (r=0.379, Pself esteem. The factors associated with perceived maternal role competence were age, education, occupation, per capita income, self esteem, social support, and the number of support persons.

  18. Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution.

    Rossnerova, Andrea; Spatova, Milada; Pastorkova, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Veleminsky, Milos; Balascak, Ivan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J


    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic damage in human lymphocytes measured using automated image analysis of micronuclei (MN) in a group of 178 mothers and their newborns from two locations in the Czech Republic. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter comparison with Ceske Budejovice: 1.9 ± 0.5ng/m³ vs. 3.2 ± 0.2ng/m³ (pmothers was 31 years (range, 18-49 years). The frequencies of MN per 1000 binucleated cells were 8.35 ± 3.06 vs. 6.47 ± 2.35 (pmothers from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively, and 2.17 ± 1.32 vs. 3.82 ± 2.43 (pmothers and the impact of the mothers' and fathers' ages were analyzed in our study. The results suggest that the different sensitivity of the study groups to various mixtures of carcinogenic pollutants could be affected by significant differences in lifestyle factors. Possible higher genetic damage was analyzed in newborns of smoking mothers, and the birth weight of this group was 7.4% lower (pcomparison with the newborns of nonsmoking mothers. No impact of the age of the mothers or fathers on MN frequency in the newborns was observed. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of a Supportive Educational Program on Self-Efficacy of Mothers with Epileptic Children

    Sepideh Gholami


    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of de-institutionalisation and the move to community management of epilepsia, mothers play an increasing role in the management of the illness. Mothers often complain of being misinformed and ill equipped to aid in the treatment. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a Supportive Educational Program on self-efficacy of mothers with epileptic children. Method: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on two groups of 50 mothers with epileptic children admitted to Ghaem Hospital in the city of Mashhad in 2014. Maternal self-efficacy was measured before and 6 weeks after intervention through Steffen’s Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy as the research instrument. The Supportive Educational Program was implemented for the experimental group during five 60-minute sessions with an interval of 4 days. The control group received the routine care. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 11.5. Results: The mean age of mothers in the experimental and control groups were 32.8±6.9 and 32.8±6.8 years, respectively. The findings of the independent t-test revealed significant differences between the two control (47.4±15.06 and experimental (66.5±11.5 groups following the intervention (p

  20. Rare earth superlattices

    McMorrow, D.F.


    A review is given of recent experiments on the magnetism of rare earth superlattices. Early experiments in this field were concerned mainly with systems formed by combining a magnetic and a non-magnetic element in a superlattice structure. From results gathered on a variety of systems it has been established that the propagation of magnetic order through the non-magnetic spacer can be understood mostly on the basis of an RKKY-like model, where the strength and range of the coupling depends on the details of the conduction electron susceptibility of the spacer. Recent experiments on more complex systems indicate that this model does not provide a complete description. Examples include superlattices where the constituents can either be both magnetic, adopt different crystal structures (Fermi surfaces), or where one of the constituents has a non-magnetic singlet ground state. The results from such systems are presented and discussed in the context of the currently accepted model. (au)

  1. Earth's Magnetic Field

    This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...... research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and space observations, and on state-of-the-art empirical models and physics-based simulations. Thus, it provides an in-depth overview over recent achievements, current limitations and challenges, and future opportunities in the field of geomagnetism and space sciences....

  2. Rare earth (3) pivalates

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Zoan An' Tu; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; Troyanov, S.I.; Rykov, A.N.; Korenev, Yu.M.


    Depending on synthesis conditions rare earth pivalates can be obtained in the form of either adducts NPiv·HPiv or hydrates MPiv 3 ·mH 2 O. Adducts are the most stable form of pivalates. Heating of adducts result in formation of corresponding MPiv 3 . MPiv 3 ·nHPiv compounds are characterized by IR-spectroscopy and thermal analysis data. Behaviour of MPiv 3 was studied in the regime of vacuum sublemation. Using mass spectroscopy of NdPiv 3 it was shown that gaseous phase above MPiv 3 had complex composition and contained ligomer fragments. X-ray structure analysis of [NdPiv 3 ·3HPiv] was conducted

  3. One Day on Earth


    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See for details on how to participate.

  4. Earth's radiation belts

    Moslehi Fard, M.


    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  5. Earth's early biosphere

    Des Marais, D. J.


    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  6. The earth and the moon

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T


    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  7. Theory of Earth

    Anderson, D. L.


    Earth is an isolated, cooling planet that obeys the 2nd law. Interior dynamics is driven from the top, by cold sinking slabs. High-resolution broad-band seismology and geodesy has confirmed that mantle flow is characterized by narrow downwellings and ~20 broad slowly rising updrafts. The low-velocity zone (LVZ) consists of a hot melange of sheared peridotite intruded with aligned melt-rich lamellae that are tapped by intraplate volcanoes. The high temperature is a simple consequence of the thermal overshoot common in large bodies of convecting fluids. The transition zone consists of ancient eclogite layers that are displaced upwards by slabs to become broad passive, and cool, ridge feeding updrafts of ambient mantle. The physics that is overlooked in canonical models of mantle dynamics and geochemistry includes; the 2nd law, convective overshoots, subadiabaticity, wave-melt interactions, Archimedes' principle, and kinetics (rapid transitions allow stress-waves to interact with melting and phase changes, creating LVZs; sluggish transitions in cold slabs keep eclogite in the TZ where it warms up by extracting heat from mantle below 650 km, creating the appearance of slab penetration). Canonical chemical geodynamic models are the exact opposite of physics and thermodynamic based models and of the real Earth. A model that results from inverting the assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions (hot origin, secular cooling, no external power sources, cooling internal boundaries, broad passive upwellings, adiabaticity and whole-mantle convection not imposed, layering and self-organization allowed) results in a thick refractory-yet-fertile surface layer, with ancient xenoliths and cratons at the top and a hot overshoot at the base, and a thin mobile D" layer that is an unlikely plume generation zone. Accounting for the physics that is overlooked, or violated (2nd law), in canonical models, plus modern seismology, undermines the assumptions and conclusions of these

  8. Sleeping problems in mothers and fathers of patients suffering from congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Paddeu, Erika Maria; Giganti, Fiorenza; Piumelli, Raffaele; De Masi, Salvatore; Filippi, Luca; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Donzelli, Gianpaolo


    Advanced medical technology has resulted in an increased survival rate of children suffering from congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. After hospitalization, these technology-dependent patients require special home care for assuring ventilator support and the monitoring of vital parameters mainly during sleep. The daily challenges associated with caring for these children can place primary caregivers under significant stress, especially at night. Our study aimed at investigating how this condition affects mothers and fathers by producing poor sleep quality, high-level diurnal sleepiness, anxiety, and depression. The study included parents of 23 subjects with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and 23 healthy subjects. All parents filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A comparison between the two groups showed that parents of patients had poorer sleep quality, greater sleepiness, and higher BDI-II scores compared to that of parents of healthy subjects (respectively, PSQI score 6.5 vs 3.8, ESS score 6.2 vs 4.3, BDI-II score 8.4 vs 5.7). Specifically, mothers of patients showed poorer sleep quality and higher BDI-II scores compared to that of mothers of controls (respectively, PSQI score 7.5 vs 3.8, BDI-II score 9.3 vs 5.9), whereas fathers of patients showed greater levels of sleepiness with respect to fathers of healthy children (respectively, ESS score 6.8 vs 4.0). These differences emerged in parents of younger children. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome impacts the family with different consequences for mothers and fathers. Indeed, while the patients' sleep is safeguarded, sleeping problems may occur in primary caregivers often associated with other psychological disorders. Specifically, this disease affects sleep quality and mood in the mothers and sleepiness levels in the fathers.

  9. Properties of Commercial PVC Films with Respect to Electron Dosimetry

    Miller, Arne; Liqing, Xie

    The properties of three commercially available polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film supplies and one made without additives were tested with respect to their application as routine dose monitors at electron accelerators. Dose fractionation was found to increase the response and the post-irradiation heat...

  10. Consumer Behavior in respect of milk in The Netherlands

    J.G. Termorshuizen (Koos); M.T.G. Meulenberg; B. Wierenga (Berend)


    textabstractIn this paper, consumer behaviour in the Netherlands in respect of milk is investigated using a model based on the EKB model, a so-called integrated model of consumer behaviour. The objectives of the study are: to gain insight into the factors that influence buying and consumption

  11. Working together to build a respectful workplace: transforming OR culture.

    Costello, Judy; Clarke, Cathy; Gravely, Gillian; D'Agostino-Rose, Dina; Puopolo, Rose


    Respect is important in the creation of a positive perioperative work environment and effective OR teams. Low scores for respect in the OR on an employee opinion survey and responses on a more customized survey that examined issues associated with respect prompted leaders at the University Health Network to undertake a multiyear organizational strategy to address respect and quality of worklife initiatives. An interprofessional quality of worklife task force convened to create an action plan to address the outcomes of the surveys. The work of the task force included developing and implementing a code of conduct team charter for the OR, empowering leaders to better manage conflict through education and coaching, creating a collaborative, consistent approach to conflict resolution, and designing an education strategy for staff members to enhance communication and conflict resolution. Results of recent employee opinion surveys have reflected positive outcomes. Efforts to sustain the effects of the project include quarterly recognition awards and ongoing education focused on wellness and communication skills. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Administrative Jurisdiction in NMa decisions with respect to Energy Jurisdiction

    Algera, W.T.


    In 2010 decisions were made in 14 energy issues with respect to decisions of the Netherlands Competition Authority NMa. All the decisions were done by Court of Appeal for trade and industry. The decisions touch upon a broad spectrum of subjects and comprise several procedures. They are discussed and commented in this thematic annual analysis. [nl

  13. Availability and traditional practice with respect to fodder trees and ...

    The paper reports a study that provided important information from farmers of the floodplain area of Bangladesh for setting research and development priorities with respect to indigenous and exotic fodder trees. Indigenous knowledge of fodder trees from the floodplain area may be an important tool in planning nutrition for ...

  14. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  15. Respecting Preferences : Gender Justice and the Normative Hierarchy View

    J. Kloeg (Julien)


    textabstractTheorists of justice have to steer between two rocks. On the one hand, there is the intuition that an individual’s morally permitted preferences should be respected: it is not justifiable to intervene with them. On the other hand, such preferences are the result of formation processes,

  16. WWER 440 integrity assessment with respect to PTS events

    Hrazsky, M.; Mikua, M.; Hermansky, P.


    The present state of art in WWER 440 RPV integrity assessment with respect to PTS events utilized in Slovakia is reviewed briefly in this paper. Recent results of some PTS's (very severe) analyses, shortly described in our paper, have confirmed the necessity of elaboration of new more sophisticated procedures again. Such methodology should be based on prepared IAEA Guidance. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  17. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel


    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  18. Respectful maternity care in Ethiopian public health facilities

    Sheferaw, Ephrem D.; Bazant, Eva; Gibson, Hannah; Fenta, Hone B.; Ayalew, Firew; Belay, Tsigereda B.; Worku, Maria M.; Kebebu, Aelaf E.; Woldie, Sintayehu A.; Kim, Young-Mi; van den Akker, T.; Stekelenburg, Jelle


    Background: Disrespect and abuse of women during institutional childbirth services is one of the deterrents to utilization of maternity care services in Ethiopia and other low- and middle-income countries. This paper describes the prevalence of respectful maternity care (RMC) and mistreatment of

  19. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  20. Promoting Respect as a Human Value in a Public School

    Corzo, Josefina Quintero; Castañeda, Yeisson Soto


    This is a case study report arising from a series of daily observations of the students' behavior made in a primary public school located near to the capital city, Manizales-Colombia, where it was possible to notice the difficulties students had in order to coexist due to the lack of respect with their classmates, in group activities or actually…

  1. Integration with respect to the Euler characteristic and its applications

    Gusein-Zade, Sabir M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The notion of integration with respect to the Euler characteristic and its generalizations are discussed: integration over the infinite-dimensional spaces of arcs and functions, motivic integration. The author describes applications of these notions to the computation of monodromy zeta functions, Poincare series of multi-index filtrations, generating series of classes of certain moduli spaces, and so on. Bibliography: 70 titles.

  2. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment behaviors in mothers of premature infants: a descriptive study in Thai mothers.

    Tilokskulchai, Fongcum; Phatthanasiriwethin, Sopida; Vichitsukon, Kannikar; Serisathien, Yaowalak


    Prematurity and the associated maternal-infant separation after birth can affect the attachment process. The role of nurses in facilitating the process of attachment should be based on an understanding of these behaviors. This descriptive study explored the attachment behaviors demonstrated by mothers during their first visit with their premature infant in the neonatal care unit. The results revealed that all mothers demonstrated most attachment behaviors (ie, inspection, facial expression, touching, verbal expression, and eye-to-eye contact) except holding during their first visit. However, some mothers spent little time with their infant. The findings suggest that nurses should encourage mothers to interact with their infants in order to enhance maternal-infant attachment.

  4. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  5. Wee Care: Reaching Teenage Mothers and Changing Their Lives.

    Rosenwald, Priscilla R.; Porter, Gwen


    Describes an intervention program for pregnant teenagers and teen mothers. Topics include program development and implementation, staffing, and content. Also discussed are adjustments that a mother must make in order to break the chain of poverty and welfare. (RJC)

  6. Labor and Population Program. Job Continuity Among New Mothers


    .... By protecting the right of new mothers to return to their previous jobs, maternity-leave statutes seek to help women benefit more from on-the-job training and to reduce the wage gap between mothers...

  7. Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in a rural population in south eastern Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Medical Research ... Despite its numerous advantages, most lactating mothers are not practicing it.

  8. Determinants of breastfeeding patterns among mothers in Anambra ...

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is still rare among nursing mothers. ... A prospective cohort study was conducted in three comprehensive health centres ... valuable benefits to the infants as well as to mothers and the nation.

  9. The mother-daughter love affair across the generations.

    Klockars, L; Sirola, R


    The relationship between mother and daughter is the basis for all love relationships throughout life. Through the eyes and hands of the mother, the intimate and caring nature of love is transmitted from generation to generation. Mother-daughter love is also the beginning of heterosexual love and of sensual pleasure. However, sexuality separates and alienates mother and daughter. As a consequence, the daughter's identification with the mother becomes the most important transmitter of love. We review psychoanalytic studies of the development and fate of the mother-daughter love relationship, with particular attention to the change of the daughter's early love for the mother to identification with the mother and falling in love with a man, and to the significance of sexuality in this developmental process.

  10. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    Flury, Jakob


    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  11. [Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother's perineal healing].

    Hur, Myung Haeng; Han, Sun-Hee


    This study was designed to verify the effect of aromatherapy on a postpartum mother's perineal healing. The research design was a clinical trial. The methods of aromatherapy were applied sitz bath or soap application using essential oils with Lavender, Myrrh, Neroli, Rose, Grapefruit, Mandarin, Orange, and Roman Chamomile. The subjects of this experiment were postpartum mothers who delivered vaginally with an episiotomy. They were allocated to one of three groups; the aroma-sitz bath group, aroma-soap application group or control group. To evaluate the effect of aromatherapy, the perineal healing status was measured using the REEDA scale and smears of episiotomy wound were obtained. The data were analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA, ANCOVA, chi2-test, and multiple response analysis via SPSS program. The REEDA scale was significantly low in the experimental group at postpartum 5th and 7th days (P=.009, P=.003), respectively. Most were observed 'few'(5-10 bacteria per field) bacteria in the smears of episiotomy wound. The one bacteria was identified in the 50.8% of subjects in pretest and two bacteria in the 60.3% in posttest. Most frequently identified bacteria were Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. In conclusion, these findings indicate that postpartum aromatherapy for perineal care could be effective in healing the perineum perineal care could be effective in healing the perineum.

  12. Neuronal apoptosis in the neonates born to preeclamptic mothers.

    Cosar, Hese; Ozer, Erdener; Topel, Hande; Kahramaner, Zelal; Turkoglu, Ebru; Erdemir, Aydin; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Bagriyanik, Alper; Ozer, Esra Arun


    Preeclampsia may result in uteroplacental insufficiency and chronic intrauterine fetal distress. The aim of this study is to address this issue investigating neuronal apoptosis in an experimental model of preeclampsia and to evaluate the neurological outcome of the perinatal asphyxia in the neonates born to preeclamptic mother. Two out of four pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (preeclamptic group) were given water containing 1.8% NaCl on gestation day 15 and 22 in order to establish the model of preeclampsia whereas other two (non-preeclamptic group) received normal diet. A model of perinatal asphyxia was established on the postnatal 7th day to one preeclamptic and one non-preeclamptic dam. Overall 23 pups born to overall four dams were decapitated to assess neuronal apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The number of apoptotic neuronal cells was significantly higher in the preeclampsia groups in comparison with the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively). It was also significantly higher in the asphyctic/non-preeclamptic group than the count in the control group (p = 0.01). There was also significant difference between both asphyctic groups (p = 0.003). We conclude that preeclampsia causes small babies for the gestational age and cerebral hypoplasia. Both preeclampsia and perinatal asphyxia can cause increased neuronal apoptosis in the neonatal brains. However, the prognosis for neurological outcome is much worse when the perinatal asphyxia occurs in newborns born to preeclamptic mothers.

  13. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo


    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  14. Analysis of Motherly Love in Edgar Allan Poe's “to My Mother

    Rusdi, Putra


    Project analisisMotherly Love in Edgar Allan Poe's “To My Mother” mengkaji unsur intrinsik dan konsep motherly love dalam puisi To My Motherkarya Edgar Allan Poe. Penulis menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode pengumpulan data dan informasi tentang objek penelitian melalui buku dan internet. Penulis menggunakan pendekatan psikologi sastra dengan teori cinta karya Erich Fromm untuk mengetahui cinta yang diberikan ibu kepada anak. Dari hasil analisis, penulis menemukan konsep cinta yang dibe...

  15. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study.

    Khine Wut Yee Kyaw

    Full Text Available Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU.A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months.Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2% were HIV-positive. Pregnant women's and exposed-babies' LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38-8.96] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART. Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI: 5.40 (1.66-17.53, 5.91(1.68-20.84, 2.27 (1.22-4.22 and 2.33 (1.16-4.69 respectively].Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies' LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes in this setting. Lessons learned from this program could be used to

  16. China's rare-earth industry

    Tse, Pui-Kwan


    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  17. Rare earths 1998 market update

    Tourre, J.M.


    The rare earth industry has always been a world of rapid change with the emergence of new markets, new ores and new players, as well as the disappearance of old applications. Rare earth based products are used in a great diversity of applications such as hard disk drives, CD drives, batteries, capacitors, pigments, ceramics, polishing powders, fuel cells, flints, catalyst converter, fluid cracking catalysts, etc. South East Asia holds the largest share of the known reserve of rare earth ores and is one of the major markets for rare earth compounds; in the last ten years, China has become the largest producer of rare earth intermediates as well as an important exporter of separated rare earth elements. Today, China has approximately 150 factories producing rare earth compounds, most of which are experiencing financial difficulties due to the lack of knowledge of true market needs, lack of control of their distribution channels and production over-capacity. Recently the Chinese rare earth producers have recognized the situation and efforts are underway to rationalize rare earth production. Japan has dominated many of the major application markets, and is by far the largest market for metal and alloy products. This will remain the case for the next five years; however, new countries are emerging as significant users of rare earth products such as Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. During the last ten years rare earth producers adjusted to several radical changes that affected the raw materials, the application mix and the price structure. New producers have emerged, especially from China; some have subsequently stopped their activities while others have focused their efforts in a specific market segment

  18. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother

    Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar; Đorđević Momčilo


    Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers tha...

  19. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L


    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in families with incarcerated mothers: a pilot investigation.

    Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn


    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.

  1. Tomorrow's world starts with mothers.

    Mahler, H


    In the Third World millions of malnourished, overworked women and girls are excluded from the circles of power, and they are out of touch with the other half of humanity approaching 5 billion. In the villages of South Asia they face poverty, constant toil, and continual pregnancies. The plight of those women is an scathing indictment on how these societies value their female citizens. There can be no long-term development anywhere on this planet unless women are fully involved in the design of the societies. To be involved they must be healthy, respected citizens. The centrality members is not clearly enough understood or recognized. Maternal mortality is too often the end-result of a life diminished by discrimination from the moment of birth to early marriage. If women are to be healthy they must have increased access to education, training, credit, health care, and legal protection. The poorer women are, the more vulnerable they are to exploitation from unfair labor practices, prostitution, and physical violence. In Peru, 70% of all crimes reported comprise women beaten by their partners. In India, police recorded 1,786 dowry deaths in 1987, but a women's action group estimates the figure is over 1000 in Gujarat state alone. Women must be brought into the mainstream of our societies. One way of doing so is to use the model of the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women adopted by the UN General Assembly 10 years ago that gives legal guidelines to enhance women's rights and status.

  2. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante


    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  3. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

    Lin Wei-Ting


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.


    Chapman, Jennifer K; Hart, Sybil L


    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of the transition to second-time motherhood, and advance methodology for supporting mothers during this transition. Fifty-seven pregnant mothers and their firstborn children (M age = 30.3 months) participated in a laboratory procedure in which the mother exposed her child to a brief episode of differential treatment. The episode was designed to simulate an expected experience of caregiving that would occur after the birth of a second child. During a postnatal visit (M=5.72 weeks following childbirth), mothers provided written feedback on their perceptions of the transition and the contribution of the laboratory experience to that transition. Qualitative content analysis revealed that mothers approached the birth of a second child with apprehension. Intrapersonal themes revealed that participation in the procedure shaped mothers' understanding of their expanded maternal roles by enhancing their sense of preparedness and confidence in their abilities to support their children. Interpersonal themes revealed that participation helped mothers appreciate the magnitude of the challenge that their children would face and gave mothers reason to believe that their children would adjust successfully. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution toward developing methodology for helping mothers prepare for the addition of a second child. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    is understood as something we should presume everyone possesses, it provides a strong basis for equal respect among people from diverse cultures. A Kantian conception of autonomy can justify the right to freedom of expression while it at the same time requires that we in the exercise of freedom of expression......Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more...... complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disrespect for diversity only when it is understood as a character ideal that must be promoted as an end in itself. If it by contrast...

  6. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Gillon, R


    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  7. Teaching about Respect and Tolerance with Presentations on Cultural Values

    Hamdi Serin


    Full Text Available Teaching students from diverse backgrounds requires more than sufficient. Very often battles occur among students due to not understanding each other’s values. This study presents experience of a teacher who teaches students from diverse religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. As disrespect, misunderstanding and intolerance were common in the class, it was difficult for the teacher to advance respect among the students for diversity. In order to encourage the students to embrace diversity, the teacher made them introduce their cultures through presentations in the classroom. Although at the beginning the students continued to tease each other by making fun of each other’s cultural values, after some time it was discovered that they were entering the classroom with a real respect and tolerance for diversity.

  8. Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata


    Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

  9. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa


    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  10. Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the ...

    Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the National Policy on Education In Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... the implementation of the mother-tongue/language policy; curriculum materials were not supplied in schools for mother-tongue instruction; specialized teachers were ...

  11. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from ...

  12. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce


    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  13. Do Mothers Accept Grandmothers' Advice When Disciplining Their Children?

    Passman, Richard H.; Tomlin, Angela M.

    Research has not investigated ways in which grandparents indirectly influence grandchildren through interactions with the parents. This study was conducted to investigate factors affecting mothers' willingness to accept suggestions from their own mothers about disciplining their child. The study also examined whether mothers' disciplinary actions…

  14. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Petts, Richard J.


    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  15. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald


    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  16. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  17. The Maternal Gift: Mothers' Investment in Their Daughters' Higher Education

    Cooper, Linda


    This article explores the degree to which mothers participate in decisions surrounding their daughters' university choices in the English higher education sector, based on a gendered PhD study involving mother and adult daughter pairings in southern England. Examples are given of how extended middle-class mothering practices are enabling their…

  18. Mother, Father, and Infant as an Interactive System.

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    This study investigates three types of reciprocal interactions among members of the family unit (father, mother and infant): father-infant interaction affecting child's development, father-infant interaction affecting mother's behavior, and husband-wife interaction affecting mother's behavior. Data from a sample of 39 healthy first-born infants…

  19. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.


    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  20. Feeding infants whose mothers are HIV-positive


    The way a HIV+ mother feeds her baby affects the child's risk of: • Becoming ... mothers with HIV is exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. .... Thaczuk D. & Safreed-Harmon K. ART use in mothers with low CD4 cell counts reduces breastfeeding transmission ... This article is based on information in chapters. 6 and 7 of ...