WorldWideScience

Sample records for resources regulate productivity

  1. Uranium mining and production: A legal perspective on regulating an important resource

    Thiele, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The importance of uranium can be examined from several perspectives. First, natural uranium is a strategic energy resource because it is a key ingredient for the generation of nuclear power and, therefore, it can affect the energy security of a state. Second, natural uranium is also a raw material in relative abundance throughout the world, which can, through certain steps, be transformed into nuclear explosive devices. Thus, there is both an interest in the trade of uranium resources and a need for their regulatory control. The importance of uranium to the worldwide civilian nuclear industry means that its extraction and processing - the so-called 'front end' of the nuclear fuel cycle - is of regulatory interest. Like 'ordinary' metal mining, which is generally regulated within a country, uranium mining must also be considered from the more particular perspective of regulation and control, as part of the international nuclear law regime that is applied to the entire nuclear fuel cycle. The present overview of the regulatory role in overseeing and controlling uranium mining and production will outline the regulation of this resource from an international level, both from early days to the present day. Uranium mining is not regulated internationally; rather, it is a state responsibility. However, developments at the international level have, over time, led to better national regulation. One can note several changes in the approach to the uranium industry since the time that uranium was first mined on a significant scale, so that today the mining and trade of uranium is a well-established and regulated industry much less marked by secrecy and Cold War sentiment. At the same time, it is informed by international standards and conventions, proliferation concerns and a modern regard for environmental protection and the health and safety of workers and the public. (author)

  2. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  3. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  4. Natural products, an important resource for discovery of multitarget drugs and functional food for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Li, Jian; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Sijian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qian; Ma, Yanmin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is one of the critical pathologic events in the development of metabolic syndromes (MSs). Therefore, regulation of imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is important in drug development for MS treatment. In this review, we discuss the major targets that regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, involving hepatic glucose uptake, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, and summarize their changes in MSs. Recent literature suggests the necessity of multitarget drugs in the management of MS disorder for regulation of imbalanced glucose homeostasis in both experimental models and MS patients. Here, we highlight the potential bioactive compounds from natural products with medicinal or health care values, and focus on polypharmacologic and multitarget natural products with effects on various signaling pathways in hepatic glucose metabolism. This review shows the advantage and feasibility of discovering multicompound-multitarget drugs from natural products, and providing a new perspective of ways on drug and functional food development for MSs.

  5. Uranium resources, demand and production

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1985-05-01

    Estimations of the demand and production of principal uranium resource categories are presented. The estimations based on data analysis made by a joint 'NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources' and the corresponding results are published by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' Known as 'Red Book'. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Price regulation and international resource supply

    Siebert, H

    1982-03-01

    Price regulation is an instrument between two diverging aims: The demand for low resource prices motivated by the principle of equal distribution in our day, and the desire for economical management of resources as a responsibility we have to future generations. The present publication investigates how price regulation influences intertemporal supply of resources. For the assumed cases constant resource price, constant admissible increase in resource price, expected release of resource price and deregulation of a price held constant for a period of time mathematical models are developmed.

  7. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    ) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...... showing that quotas are preferred in a number of situations qualify the pro fee message dominating prior studies....

  8. POTENTIAL FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT RESOURCE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MOTORS THROUGH AN EXTENSION OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR PRODUCT GROUP REGULATION UNDER THE EU ECODESIGN DIRECTIVE

    Machacek, Erika; Dalhammar, Carl

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the EU Ecodesign Directive can promote resource efficiency through relevant ecodesign requirements. This paper examines the potential for rare earth element (REE) resource efficiency improvements in the event the current regulation for electric motors under the Ecodesign Directive is to be extended to comprise REE-based permanent magnet motors. The research is based on literature studies, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with representatives from industr...

  9. Uranium resources, production and demand

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  10. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    1990-01-01

    The thirteenth edition of the report looks at recent developments and their impact on the short term (i.e. to the year 2005) and presents a longer term (to 2030) analysis of supply possibilities in the context of a range of requirement scenarios. It presents results of a 1989 review of uranium supply and demand in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies Areas. It contains updated information on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for over 40 countries including a few CPEs, covering the period 1987 and 1988

  11. Uranium resources, production and demand 1993

    1994-10-01

    This book is the Japanese edition of 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand, 1993' published by OECD/NEA-IAEA in 1994. It contains data on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for about 50 countries. (K.I.)

  12. World resources of oil products

    Bonnaterre, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author outlines that the issue of density of an oil product raises the question of the validity of a counting approach based on volumes. As oil industries produce always less heavy products and always more light products, this means that always less oil is needed to produce a gallon or a litre of fuel out of a refinery. The author comments the evolution of crude oil extraction. In a second part, he outlines that hydrocarbon productions become always more complex with respect to their origin. Thus, during gas extraction, humid gases are recovered which contain an important part of hydrocarbons similar to light oil. These aspects and the development of shale gas exploitation will make the USA the first oil producer in the world whereas they still have to import heavy oil to feed their refineries. He discusses the level of reserves and production costs with respect to the product type or its extraction location. He discusses the evolution of the estimates of world ultimately recoverable resources (synthesis processes excluded). He comments the level of condensate extraction ratio of the main shale gas fields in the USA and outlines the cost of natural gas imports for France. He outlines the importance of GTL (gas to liquid) processes, the increasing importance of bio-fuels (notably isobutanol biosynthesis and terpene biosynthesis). In the third part, the author states that the barrel price should keep on increasing and, in the fourth part, proposes a list of issues which will impact the future of the oil market

  13. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  14. Uranium Resources, production and demand

    1988-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply and demand have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report URANIUM RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, commonly referred to as the RED BOOK, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest Red Book, published in 1988, was based on data collected mainly in early 1987. Most of the data for 1987 were therefore provisional. The STATISTICAL UPDATE 1988 provides updated 1987 data collected in 1988 and provisional data for 1988. The publication, which covers OECD Countries and gives Secretariat estimates for the rest of the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies (WOCA), is being issued every second year, between publications of more complete Red Books

  15. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    1986-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report Uranium resources, production and demand, commonly referred to as the red book, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest red book, published in 1986, was based on data collected mainly in early 1985. Most of the data for 1985 were therefore provisional. The statistical update 1986 provides updated 1985 data collected in 1986 and provisional data for 1986. This is the first time such an annual update of key Red Book statistical data has been prepared. This year it covers only OECD countries with a secretariat estimate for the rest of Woca

  16. A General Water Resources Regulation Software System in China

    LEI, X.

    2017-12-01

    To avoid iterative development of core modules in water resource normal regulation and emergency regulation and improve the capability of maintenance and optimization upgrading of regulation models and business logics, a general water resources regulation software framework was developed based on the collection and analysis of common demands for water resources regulation and emergency management. It can provide a customizable, secondary developed and extensible software framework for the three-level platform "MWR-Basin-Province". Meanwhile, this general software system can realize business collaboration and information sharing of water resources regulation schemes among the three-level platforms, so as to improve the decision-making ability of national water resources regulation. There are four main modules involved in the general software system: 1) A complete set of general water resources regulation modules allows secondary developer to custom-develop water resources regulation decision-making systems; 2) A complete set of model base and model computing software released in the form of Cloud services; 3) A complete set of tools to build the concept map and model system of basin water resources regulation, as well as a model management system to calibrate and configure model parameters; 4) A database which satisfies business functions and functional requirements of general water resources regulation software can finally provide technical support for building basin or regional water resources regulation models.

  17. Fission Product Library and Resource

    Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Padgett, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Fission product yields can be extracted from an irradiated sample by performing gamma ray spectroscopy on the whole sample post irradiation. There are several pitfalls to avoid when trying to determine a specific isotope's fission product yield.

  18. Uranium 2003 resources, production and demand

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2004-01-01

    Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand paints a detailed statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan. Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020.

  19. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  20. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  1. World uranium resources, production and demand

    Lindholm, I.

    1988-01-01

    Reasonably assured resources of uranium in WOCA (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area) countries recoverable at less than US $80/kg U increased by about 9% between 1983 and 1985 and currently stand at 1.5 million tonnes. Uranium also exists in significant quantities in higher cost resources or in less known resources. However, the annual exploration expenditure is less than 20% that of the 1979 level. Uranium production in WOCA countries was higher than consumption during the period 1965 to 1984 and considerable stocks were accumulated. However, the production figures for 1985 were estimated to be slightly less than those of consumption. Production from centres now on stand-by or new centres will probably be necessary around 1990. Analysis of the longer term production possibilities indicates that uranium supplies will probably not be constrained by an ultimate resource adequacy. Constraints, if any, are more likely to be of political nature. (author). 11 figs, 1 tab

  2. Uranium 2003: resources, production and demand

    2004-01-01

    The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. This edition, the 20., presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1 January 2003 based on official information received from 43 countries. Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand paints a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan. Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020. The long lead times required to bring resources into production underscore the importance of making timely decisions to pursue production capability well in advance of any supply shortfall. (author)

  3. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  4. Resource Misallocation and Rice Productivity in Thailand

    Siwapong Dheera - Aumpon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thailand’s manufacturing sector is characterised by considerable resource misallocation compared with this sector in other countries, and the problem may extend to its agricultural sector as well. Using detailed household-level data on rice production from the 2013 Agricultural Census, this paper examines resource misallocation across farms in Thailand and its effect on the country’s aggregate productivity in rice farming. I find that the marginal products of land and capital were largely dispersed, which is an indication of significant resource misallocation. I further estimate that reallocation of resources could increase aggregate output and productivity by approximately a factor of 1.67. This potential gain is not small, but it is smaller than that predicted in other studies for the Thai manufacturing sector and the Malawian agricultural sector, a result suggesting that the Thai rice farming sector is relatively less plagued by resource misallocation. Other developing countries may encounter similar degrees of misallocation in their agricultural sectors. I also find that an effective reallocation policy cannot involve simply reducing the landholdings of large landholders but rather supports highproductivity farmers to have more land and capital.

  5. URANIUM 1991 resources, production and demand

    1992-01-01

    The uranium supply aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle have undergone considerable change during the last few years. Nuclear power generating capacity can continue to expand only if there is confidence in the final supply of uranium. This report presents governmental compilations of uranium resource and production data, as established in 1991. It also presents short-term projections of the nuclear industry future natural uranium requirements and reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production throughout the world. 10 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs., 6 appendices

  6. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Uranium 2005 Resources, Production and Demand

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris. Nuclear Energy Agency

    2006-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  8. Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2014-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

  9. Labour productivity and resource use efficiency amongst ...

    The study examined labour productivity and resource efficiency amongst smallholder cocoa farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A purposive random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 60 cocoa farmers from three agricultural zones in the State. The analytical techniques used involve inferential statistics like means, ...

  10. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  11. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  12. Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand

    Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every two years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. Published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the 'Red Book', the 25. edition, released in September 2014, contains 45 national reports covering uranium producing and consuming countries and those with plans to do so. The uranium resource figures presented in the 25. edition of the Red Book are a snapshot of the situation as of 1 January 2013. Resource figures are dynamic and related to commodity prices. Despite less favourable market conditions, continued high levels of investment and associated exploration efforts have resulted in the identification of additional resources of economic interest, just as in past periods of intense exploration activity. Total identified resources (reasonably assured and inferred) as of 1 January 2013 amounted to 5 902 900 tonnes of uranium metal (tU) in the 3 O 8 ) category, an increase of 10.8% compared to 1 January 2011. In the highest cost category ( 3 O 8 ) which was reintroduced in 2009, total identified resources amounted to 7 635 200 tU, an increase of 7.6% compared to the total reported in 2011. The majority of the increases are a result of re-evaluations of previously identified resources and additions to known deposits, particularly in Australia, Canada, the People's Republic of China, the Czech Republic, Greenland, Kazakhstan and South Africa. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures in 2012 totalled USD 1.92 billion, a 21% increase over updated 2010 figures, despite declining market prices. Production in 2012 increased by 7.4% from 2011 to 58 816 tU and is expected to increase to over 59 500 tU in 2013. This recent growth is principally the result of increased production in Kazakhstan, which remains the world

  13. Uranium 2011 resources, production and demand

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countri...

  14. World uranium: resources, production and demand

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recently announced the publication of a new edition of its report on Uranium resources, production and demand which has been published periodically since 1965, jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency. In addition to bringing uranium resources and production estimates up-to-date, the new edition offers a more comprehensive treatment of exploration activity and uranium availability, and includes a greater number of countries within the scope of the survey. Information on uranium demand has also been revised, in the light of more recent forecasts of the growth of nuclear power. Finally, a comparison is made between uranium availability and requirements, and the implications of this comparison analysed. The main findings and conclusions of the report are summarized here. (author)

  15. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  16. Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry - the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors - is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  17. The uranium resources and production of Namibia

    Palfi, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The promulgation of the Minerals (Prospecting and Mining) Act, 1992, on 1 April 1994 and the simultaneous repeal of restrictive South African legislation on reporting uranium exploration and production results, allowed the Namibian Government for the first time to present information for publication of the report ''Uranium 1995 - Resource, Production and Demand'', by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the IAEA. Namibia, one of the youngest independent nations in Africa, has a large number of uranium occurrences and deposits in several geological environments. The total estimated uranium resource amounts to about 299 thousand tonnes recoverable uranium at a cost of less than US$ 130/kg U, within the known conventional resources category. The most prominent geological type of these is the unique, granite-related uranium occurrences located in the central part of the Namib Desert. Permo-Triassic age Karoo sandstone-hosted uranium deposits were subject to only limited exploration due to the down-turn of uranium prices in the latter part of 1980s, despite they very encouraging exploration results. As only limited Karoo sandstone-covered areas were tested there is still great potential for further discoveries. The planned output of Roessing Uranium Mine at 40,000 tonnes of ore per day which results in an annual production of 4536 tonnes of uranium oxide, was achieved in 1979. In case of improved uranium market conditions, Namibia is in a strong position to increase uranium production and open up new production centres to strengthen the country's position as an important uranium producer in the world. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  18. The Organization of Regulated Production

    Jansen, Jos; Jeon, Doh-Shin; Menicucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the choice between vertical separation (VS) and vertical integration (VI) when two regulated firms produce complementary inputs with correlated costs and are protected by ex post break-even constraints. First, in the absence of collusion the regulator prefers VI (VS) for negative...

  19. Resources, supplier investment, product launch advantages, and first product performance

    Song, L.Z.; Song, Michael; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Successfully launching its first product is critical to a new venture's continued success, yet the new venture has relatively few financial or human resources to support its marketing or R&D activities. It is thus important for the new venture to attract funding from external investors such as

  20. Resources, supplier investment, product launch advantages and first product performance

    Song, Lisa Z.; Song, Michael; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Successfully launching its first product is critical to a new venture's continued success, yet the new venture has relatively few financial or human resources to support its marketing or R&D activities. It is thus important for the new venture to attract funding from external investors such as

  1. Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  2. Uranium 1990 resources, production and demand

    1990-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply and demand have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report URANIUM RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, commonly referred to as the RED BOOK, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest Red Book, published in 1990, was based on data collected mainly in early 1989. Most of the data for 1989 were therefore provisional. The STATISTICAL UPDATE 1990 provides updated 1989 data collected in 1990 and provisional for 1990 [fr

  3. Uranium 2007 resources, production and demand

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2008-01-01

    Based on official information received from 40 countries, Uranium 2007 provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. It finds that with rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment.

  4. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  5. Uranium 2001: resources, production and demand

    2002-01-01

    The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. Its contents are based on official information received from 45 countries, supplemented by unofficial information for two others. This edition, the 19., presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2001 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and, for the first time, includes a report on Tajikistan. This edition also features international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020. (authors)

  6. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  7. miReg: a resource for microRNA regulation

    Barh Debmalya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs are important cellular components that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Various upstream components regulate miR expression and any deregulation causes disease conditions. Therefore, understanding of miR regulatory network both at upstream and downstream level is crucial and a resource on this aspect will be helpful. Currently available miR databases are mostly related to downstream targets, sequences, or diseases. But as of now, no database is available that provides a complete picture of miR regulation in a specific condition.

  8. Distributed resources and re-regulated electricity markets

    Ackermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly defines distributed resources (DR) and discusses the current status of DR. The main focus is on discussing the value DR can provide to re-regulated electricity markets. DR can, under certain circumstances, help to significantly reduce the main problem of re-regulation, i.e. market power. Distributed generation and demand-side resources may, even if only small quantities in terms of size of the entire market are utilised, be able to help to significantly reduce market power. This results in a significantly more efficient market. To achieve such benefits, however, DR must be in operation during times when market power issues are likely to arise. To a certain extent this is the case as demand-side resources are usually independent of established generation companies. In addition, many business cases for DG require DG to actually operate to capture the second revenue. (author)

  9. Uranium 1999. Resources, production and demand

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the world uranium market has been characterised by an imbalance between demand and supply and persistently depressed uranium prices. World uranium production currently satisfies between 55 and 60 per cent of the total reactor-related requirements, while the rest of the demand is met by secondary sources including the conversion of excess defence material and stockpiles, primarily from Eastern Europe. Although the future availability of these secondary sources remains unclear, projected low-cost production capability is expected to satisfy a considerable part of demand through to 2015. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand over the next 15 years. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost world reference on uranium. It is based on official information from 49 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1999. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and world-wide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply. (authors)

  10. Uranium 2007: resources, production and demand

    2008-01-01

    With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention. In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of under investment. The ''Red Book'', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This 22. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1. January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (author)

  11. Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand

    2016-01-01

    Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear power facilities, necessary for the generation of significant amounts of base-load low-carbon electricity for decades to come. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium in recent years, driven by uncertainties concerning evolutions in the use of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and to some questions being raised about future uranium supply. This 26. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provides analyses and information from 49 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. The present edition provides the most recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and presents data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (authors)

  12. Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (authors)

  13. Uranium 2007: resources, production and demand

    2008-01-01

    With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention. In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of under investment. The ''Red Book'', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This second edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of first January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (author)

  14. Human resource development for uranium production cycle

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fission energy is a viable option for meeting the ever increasing demand for electricity and high quality process heat in a safe, secured and sustainable manner with minimum carbon foot print and degradation of the environment. The growth of nuclear power has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia, mostly in China and India. Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates are also in the process of launching nuclear power program. Natural uranium is the basic raw material for U-235 and Pu-239, the fuels for all operating and upcoming nuclear power reactors. The present generation of nuclear power reactors are mostly light water cooled and moderated reactor (LWR) and to a limited extent pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The LWRs and PHWRs use low enriched uranium (LEU with around 5% U-235) and natural uranium as fuel in the form of high density UO_2 pellets. The uranium production cycle starts with uranium exploration and is followed by mining and milling to produce uranium ore concentrate, commonly known as yellow cake, and ends with mine and mill reclamation and remediation. Natural uranium and its daughter products, radium and radon, are radioactive and health hazardous to varying degrees. Hence, radiological safety is of paramount importance to uranium production cycle and there is a need to review and share best practices in this area. Human Resource Development (HRD) is yet another challenge as most of the experts in this area have retired and have not been replaced by younger generation because of the continuing lull in the uranium market. Besides, uranium geology, exploration, mining and milling do not form a part of the undergraduate or post graduate curriculum in most countries. Hence, the Technical Co-operation activities of the IAEA are required to be augmented and more country specific and regional training and workshop should be conducted at different universities with the involvement of international experts

  15. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  16. Related regulation of quality control of industrial products

    1983-04-01

    This book introduce related regulation of quality control of industrial products, which includes regulations of industrial products quality control, enforcement ordinance of industrial products quality control, enforcement regulation of quality control of industrial products, designated items with industrial production quality indication, industrial production quality test, and industrial production quality test organization and management tips of factory quality by grade.

  17. Regulation of intraluteal production of prostaglandins

    Ottobre Joseph S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is clear evidence for intraluteal production of prostaglandins (PGs in numerous species and under a variety of experimental conditions. In general, secretion of PGs appears to be elevated in the early corpus luteum (CL and during the period of luteolysis. Regulation of intraluteal PG production is regulated by a variety of factors. An autoamplification pathway in which PGF-2alpha stimulates intraluteal production of PGF-2alpha has been identified in a number of species. The mechanisms underlying this autoamplification pathway appear to differ by species with expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 and activity of phospholipase A2 acting as important physiological control points. In addition, a number of other responses that are induced by PGF-2alpha (decreased luteal progesterone, increased endothelin-1, increased cytokines also have been found to increase intraluteal PGF-2alpha production. Thus, regulation of intraluteal PG production may serve to initiate or amplify physiological signals to the CL and may be important in specific aspects of luteal physiology particularly during luteal regression.

  18. Resources Use Efficiency In Food Crop Production In Ekiti State ...

    Marginal value productivity of resources were computed and compared with the acquisition/prices of these resources. Result of regression analysis indicates that farm size, fertilizer and purchased inputs were significant inputs that accounted for variation in the output of food crops. The Marginal Value Product (MVP) of all ...

  19. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  20. Regulation of natural health products in Canada.

    Smith, Alysyn; Jogalekar, Sumedha; Gibson, Adam

    2014-12-02

    In Canada, all natural health products (NHPs) are regulated by Health Canada (HC) under the Food and Drugs Act and the Natural Health Product Regulations. All authorized products undergo pre-market assessment for safety, efficacy and quality and the degree of pre-market oversight varies depending on the risk of the product. In Canada, over 70,000 products have been authorized for sale and over 2000 sites have been licensed to produce NHPs. In the management of NHPs on the Canadian market, HC employs a number of active and collaborative methods to address the most common issues such as contamination, adulteration and deceptive or misleading advertising practices. HC is currently evolving its approaches to NHPs to recognize them as part of the larger group of health products available without a prescription. As such, the regulatory responsibility for all over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including non-prescription drugs and NHPs, has been transferred to a single federal division. As a result of this transition a number of benefits are being realized with respect to government efficiency, clarity for industry, support for new innovations and consolidated government interactions with the Canadian market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  2. RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN ...

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... A stratified sampling technique was employed to select 58 respondents. ... there is still opportunity to increase their production to attain optimal economic efficiency. The ... metric tons and an average productivity of 1.4 metric tons /ha. Developing ... The educated population are gainfully employed in some.

  3. Situation Aware Assessment of Regulating Power Need and Resource

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    power plants, but have the capability to provide a number of ancillary services. It is envisioned that wind power may at times provide a certain share of system stabilization, but it must also be seen that this contribution is limited to only a part of the required functions and that it fluctuates...... with the available wind. The approach proposed in this paper uses a functional classification to sort out the control requirements of a power system with a high share of fluctuating renewable and distributed energy sources and aims to combine it with a structured quantitative assessment.......Distributed generation and renewable energy sources are both, new disturbance and new regulation resource. Which it is, depends to a large extend on the facilitation of control capabilities, that for example modern wind turbines can provide. Most renewable energy sources are quite unlike classical...

  4. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    Chuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users’ enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Research and application of knowledge resources network for product innovation.

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Market Opportunities for Cellulose Products From Combined Renewable Resources

    Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.

  7. Human Resource Development for Uranium Production Cycle

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Concluding Remarks & Suggestions: • HRD will be one of the major challenges in the expanding nuclear power program in countries like China and India. • China and India get uranium raw material from domestic mines and international market. In addition, China has overseas uranium property. India is also exploring the possibility of overseas Joint Venture and uranium properties. For uranium production cycle there is a need for trained geologist, mining engineers, chemical and mechanical engineers. • There is a need for introducing specialization course on “uranium production cycle” at post graduate levels in government and private universities. Overseas Utilities and private firms in India engaged in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities may like to sponsor MTech students with assurance of employment after the successful completion of the course. • The IAEA may consider to extend Technical Assistance to universities in HRD in nuclear power and fuel cycle in general and uranium production cycle in particular - IAEA workshops, with participation of international experts, on uranium geology, mining, milling and safety and best practices in uranium production cycle will be of great help. • The IAEA – UPSAT could play an important role in HRD in uranium production cycle

  8. Biogas Production Resources in Lithuania and Prospects of their Utilisation

    Vrubliauskas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The biogas production resources in Lithuania and their structure have been ascertained. The total technical potential of biogas production has been calculated to make 639 million m 3 per year (4080 GWh). The biogas production feasibilities in the country have been estimated. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Brynard, H.J.; Ainslie, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  10. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Brynard, H J; Ainslie, L C [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  11. Property rights, productivity and common property resources

    Markussen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2003/04 Cambodia Household Socioeconomic Survey to investigate the effects of property rights to land. Plots held with a paper documenting ownership in rural Cambodia are found to have higher productivity and land values than other plots, while property rights have...

  12. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  13. Medicinal Product Regulation: Portugal׳s Framework.

    Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Bastos, Paulo D; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Roque, Fátima

    2016-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED). From the most recently available data, an update of requests and approvals concerning marketing authorizations, variations, pricing, and reimbursements is provided. Data were sourced from the INFARMED website, Infomed (database of medicinal products for human use), and periodic reports issued by national authorities. Organic laws, acts, and law decrees published in the government gazette (Diário da República) are cited and reproduced as required. In 2015 Portugal ranked fifth in the European System of Medicines Evaluation in terms of the number of completed procedures as a reference member state. Approximately 80% of all approved drug applications in Portugal in 2015 were for generic drugs, mostly pertaining to the nervous system. In Portugal, INFARMED monitors drug quality, safety profile, and efficacy in all stages of the drug life cycle, ensuring patients' safety. The Portuguese market for medicinal products for human use has been appreciably changed by the advent of generic drugs. There is an increased trend for new request applications for biological and biotechnological substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resource Use Productivity Among Small-Scale Farmers In Yola ...

    The findings of the study revealed that characteristics of the farmers such as age, level of education, farm size, sources of farm labour and of farm finance do not have significant relationship with resource use productivity. However, net annual income from farming was found to have a significant relationship with resource ...

  15. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008

    2008-01-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity

  16. Resource regulation by a twig-girdling beetle has implications for desertification

    1. Resource regulation by insects is the phenomenon by which herbivory enhances resources for the progeny of the herbivore. This report provides an example of resource regulation with implications for desertification in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America. 2. Female Oncideres rhodosticta beetles...

  17. Patterns and Features of Global Uranium Resources and Production

    Wang, Feifei; Song, Zisheng; Cheng, Xianghu; Huanhuan, MA

    2017-11-01

    With the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the development of clean and low-carbon energy has become the consensus of the world. Nuclear power is one energy that can be vigorously developed today and in the future. Its sustainable development depends on a sufficient supply of uranium resources. It is of great practical significance to understand the distribution pattern of uranium resources and production. Based on the latest international authoritative reports and data, this paper analysed the distribution of uranium resources, the distribution of resources and production in the world, and the developing tendency in future years. The results show that the distribution of uranium resources is uneven in the world, and the discrepancies between different type deposits is very large. Among them, sandstone-type uranium deposits will become the main type owing to their advantages of wide distribution, minor environmental damage, mature mining technology and high economic benefit.

  18. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  19. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  20. Estimating uranium resources and production. A guide to future supply

    Taylor, D.M.; Haeussermann, W.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power can only continue to grow if sufficient fuel, uranium, is available. Concern has been expressed that, in the not too distant future, the supply of uranium may be inadequate to meet reactor development. This will not be the case. Uranium production capability, actual and planned, is the main indicator of short- and medium-term supply. However, for the longer term, uranium resource estimates and projections of the possible rate of production from the resource base are important. Once an estimate has been made of the resources contained in a deposit, several factors influence the decision to produce the uranium and also the rates at which the uranium can be produced. The effect of these factors, which include uranium market trends and ever increasing lead times from discovery to production, must be taken into account when making projections of future production capability and before comparing these with forecasts of future uranium requirements. The uranium resource base has developed over the last two decades mainly in response to dramatically changing projections of natural uranium requirements. A study of this development and the changes in production, together with the most recent data, shows that in the short- and medium-term, production from already discovered resources should be sufficient to cover any likely reactor requirements. Studies such as those undertaken during the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project, and others which project future discovery rates and production, are supported by past experience in resource development in showing that uranium supply could continue to meet demand until well into the next century. The uranium supply potential has lessened the need for the early large-scale global introduction of the breeder reactor

  1. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...

  2. Future directions and cycles for electricity production from geothermal resources

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 25% more power may be produced using binary-flashing geothermal cycles. - Highlights: • Power from geothermal power plants is continuously available and “dispatchable.” • The next generation of geothermal will include more binary plants. • Lower temperature geothermal resources will be utilized in the future. • Dry rock resources may produce a high fraction of electricity in several countries. - Abstract: Geothermal power production is economically competitive and capable to produce a high percentage of the electric power demand in several countries. The currently operating geothermal power plants utilize water from an aquifer at relatively higher temperatures and produce power using dry steam, flashing or binary cycles. A glance at the map of the global geothermal resources proves that there is a multitude of sites, where the aquifer temperature is lower. There are also many geothermal resources where a high geothermal gradient exists in the absence of an aquifer. It becomes apparent that the next generation of geothermal power plants will utilize more of the lower-temperature aquifer resources or the dry resources. For such power plants to be economically competitive, modified or new cycles with higher efficiencies must be used. This paper presents two methods to increase the efficiency of the currently used geothermal cycles. The first uses a binary-flashing system to reduce the overall entropy production, thus, producing more electric power from the resource. The second describes a heat extraction system to be used with dry hot-rock resources.

  3. Predator persistence through variability of resource productivity in Tritrophic systems

    Soudijn, Floor Helena; de Roos, Andre M.

    2017-01-01

    The trophic structure of species communities depends on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Primary productivity varies strongly through time, challenging the persistence of species at higher trophic levels. Yet resource variability has mostly been studied in systems with only one or two...... trophic levels. We test the effect of variability in resource productivity in a tritrophic model system including a resource, a size-structured consumer, and a size-specific predator. The model complies with fundamental principles of mass conservation and the body-size dependence of individual......-level energetics and predator-prey interactions. Surprisingly, we find that resource variability may promote predator persistence. The positive effect of variability on the predator arises through periods with starvation mortality of juvenile prey, which reduces the intraspecific competition in the prey population...

  4. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  5. Resource Use Efficiency Analysis for Potato Production in Nepal

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important staple foods supporting food security and livelihood to millions of marginalized and poor farmers in Nepal. Generally the smallholders’ farmers, especially those located in remote villages are inadequately informed about technical knowledge, inputs and efficient use of resources causing poor production and low productivity. Thus, the present survey aimed to examine the efficiency of resources used in potato production in Baglung District, one of the remote hilly place located in Central Himalaya. The total of 120 potato growing households was selected using simple random sampling technique from the two potato pocket in 2016. The regression coefficients of each inputs using Cobb-Douglas production function were estimated using Stata software. Our results showed that major inputs such as labor, bullock, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and intercultural operations were overused and need to decrease in terms of cost by 109, 177, 51 and 185%, respectively for its optimum allocation. Similarly, seed was found underused and need to increase its cost by 70% for optimum allocation. We concluded that inadequate training, exposure, knowledge gap and extension service to farmers in study sites were the reasons that farmers were using their resources inefficiently. It is recommended that the farmers involved in potato farming in the surveyed sites should be provided with additional proper technical knowledge for optimizing the use of resources which would help to increase the production and return from potato production.

  6. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Australia's uranium resources and production in the world context

    McKay, A.; Lambert, I.; Miezitis, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Australia has 654 000 tonnes uranium (U) in Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) recoverable at ≤US$40/kg U, which is the largest of all national resource estimates reported in this category. Australia also has the world's largest resources in RAR recoverable at ≤US$80/kg U, with 29% of world resources in this category. Other countries that have large resources in this category include Kazakhstan (19%), Canada (14%), South Africa (10%), Brazil (7%), Namibia (6%), Russian Federation (6%), and United States (5%). In 2000, the main developments in Australia's uranium mining industry were that production reached a record level of 8937 t U 3 O 8 (7579 t U), and commercial operations commenced at the new in situ leach operation at Beverley during November. Australia's total production for 2000 was 27% higher than for 1999. Uranium oxide was produced at the Olympic Dam (4500 t U 3 O 8 ), Ranger (4437 t U 3 O 8 ) and Beverley operations, although production from Beverley for the year was not reported. Australia's share of the world's annual uranium production has increased steadily from about 10.8% (3,712 tonnes U) in 1995 to 21.9% in 2000. Throughout this period Australia has maintained its position as the world's second-largest producer of uranium, behind Canada

  8. Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production

    1984-06-01

    NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

  9. Resource-based optimization of electric power production (in Iran)

    Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    This paper is about electric power production optimization and chiefly discusses on the types of resources available in Iran. The modeling has been based on the marginal cost of different energy resources and types of technologies used. the computed costs are the basic standards for optimization of the production system of energy. the costs associated with environmental pollution and also pollution control are considered. the present paper also studied gas fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, renewable and co-generation of heat and power. The results are discussed and reported at the last of the paper

  10. On ad valorem taxation of nonrenewable resource production

    Rowse, John

    1997-01-01

    Taxing a nonrenewable resource typically shifts production through time, compresses the economically recoverable resource base and shrinks social welfare. But by how much? In this paper a computational model of natural gas use, representing numerous demand and supply features believed important for shaping efficient intertemporal allocations, is utilized to answer this question under different ad valorem royalty taxes on wellhead production. Proportionate social welfare losses from fixed royalties up to 30% are found to be small and the excess burden stands at less than 6.5% for a 30% royalty. This result replicates findings of several earlier studies and points to a general conclusion

  11. Self-regulation and selective exposure: the impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing.

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.

  12. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  13. Improving productivity and firm performance with enterprise resource planning

    Beheshti, Hooshang M.; Beheshti, Cyrus M.

    2010-11-01

    Productivity is generally considered to be the efficient utilisation of organisational resources and is measured in terms of the efficiency of a worker, company or nation. Focusing on efficiency alone, however, can be harmful to the organisation's long-term success and competitiveness. The full benefits of productivity improvement measures are realised when productivity is examined from two perspectives: operational efficiency (output/input) of an individual worker or a business unit as well as performance (effectiveness) with regard to end user or customer satisfaction. Over the years, corporations have adopted new technology to integrate business activities in order to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency in their operations. In recent years, many firms have invested in enterprise resource planning (ERP) in order to integrate all business activities into a uniform system. The implementation of ERP enables the firm to reduce the transaction costs of the business and improve its productivity, customer satisfaction and profitability.

  14. Allocation of financial resource to enhance educational productivity ...

    This study examines the allocation of financial resource to the education industry and how it enhances productivity and students' outcomes of the secondary schools' students in the Unity Colleges in Ogun state. It adopted ex-post factor research design and purposeful sample and sampling technique for the study. Scholars' ...

  15. Productivity and resource use in cotton and wheat relay intercropping

    Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Grain yield; lint yield; phenological delay; light use; nitrogen use; resource use efficiency; modelling; profitability; water productivity. From the early 1980s onwards, farmers in the Yellow River cotton producing region intercropped cotton and winter wheat; currently on more than 60% of

  16. Resource Use Efficiency in Rice Production in Jere Local ...

    The study was carried-out on resource use efficiency in rice production in Jere Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Five (5) wards were purposely selected out of the twelve (12) wards to reflect areas where rice is mainly grown. A total of 100 respondents were ...

  17. Resource-Use Efficiency in Rice Production Under Small Scale ...

    This was attested by the high ratios (greater than unity) of MVP/MFC of all the variables. For optimum resource allocation to fertilizer, labour and land about 85.7%, 83.3% and 69% increase in MVP is required respectively. The estimated elasticity of production summed up to 0.815 meaning decreasing return to scale.

  18. Predator persistence through variability of resource productivity in Tritrophic systems

    Soudijn, Floor Helena; de Roos, Andre M.

    2017-01-01

    The trophic structure of species communities depends on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Primary productivity varies strongly through time, challenging the persistence of species at higher trophic levels. Yet resource variability has mostly been studied in systems with only one or two ...

  19. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  20. New information on world uranium resource, production, supply and demand

    Zhang Jianguo; Meng Jin

    2006-01-01

    New information on world uranium resource, production, supply and demand is introduced. Up to now, explored uranium resources at production cost < USD 40/kg U has 2523257 t uranium; production cost < USD 80/kg U has 5911514 t uranium; production cost < USD130/kg U has 11280488 t uranium; and cost range unassigned has 3102000 t uranium. At moment, the demand uranium of each year is about 67000 t U. After 2020, world uranium demand will rise well above 100000 t per annum with sharp revival of nuclear power plants. With three kinds of economic growth the cumulative requirement of the uranium in low demand case, middle demand case and high demand case from 2000 to 2050 is 3390000, 5394100 and 7577300 t respectively. In the world market uranium price rises from 20 years lowest 18.2 USD/kg U to 75.4 USD/kg U. In 2003, global uranium product is about 35385 t U, and 2004, global uranium product is about 40475 t U. In 2004's world uranium production underground mining, open pit, in situ, by product, and combination account for 39%, 27%, 19%, 11% and 4% respectively. (authors)

  1. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  2. Assessment of material and technical resources of crop production technologies

    V. M. Beylis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explains the general principles of influence of the material and technical resources (MTR on performance and efficiency of the main technological operations in crop production. Various technologies from the point of view of MTR expenses were estimated. The general tendencies in development of crop production technologies were revealed. The distribution of costs of materials and equipment to perform a variety of agricultural activities was determined. Cost indicators should be a guide in the search of innovative technological processes and working elements of agricultural machins. The greatest values of expenses of work, fuel, metal, and also, money where found. The concepts allowing to provide costs production reduction were formulated. To achieve the maximum productivity with the minimum expenses, the perspective calculations shoul be based on «progressive» agrotechnologies. When determining progressive agrotechnology it is necessary on reasonable grounds to approach indicators of crop productivity in various agrozones and regions of the country. For an assessment of efficiency of MTR by crop production and ensuring decrease in resource intensity of agricultural products by search and use of essentially new technologies for energy saving when performing agricultural operations, an integrated percentage indicator of comparison of progressive technologies with the applied ones was developed. MTR at application of new progressive crop production technologies by integrated percentage index were estimated. This indicator can be used for definition of efficiency of MTR. Application of the offered technique will promote an effective assessment of MTR, decrease in resource intensity by search and developments of essentially new technologies of performance of operations in crop production.

  3. Hungry granulocyte: its fate and regulation of production

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The granulocyte, a phagocytic anti-1 bacterial defense cell, is discussed. Its production, the kinetics of its proliferation, the regulation of its production, and its loss from the blood are reviewed

  4. Uranium Exploration, Resources and Production in South Africa 2009

    Ainslie, L.C., E-mail: lee.ainslie@necsa.co.za [South African Nuclear Energy Agency (Necsa), Pretoria (South Africa)

    2014-05-15

    The paper gives a brief history of uranium mining in South Africa. The types of uranium deposits in South Africa are described and their distribution given. The majority of uranium is hosted as a by-product in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin with lesser amounts in tabular sandstone and coal hosted deposits. The exploration activities of companies operating in South Africa are discussed and the reserves and resources identified are presented. A substantial increase in reserves has been recorded over the last two years because of intensive investigation of known deposits. Only a marginal increase in total resources was reported because of a lack of “greenfield” exploration. Production is far down from the levels achieved in the 1970s and 1980s. The surge in the uranium market resulted in a number of companies investigating their production options. The recent decline in the market has slowed down some of these activities and forced the closure of an operating mine. However a new mine has come into production and feasibility studies are being carried out on other deposits. The recently promulgated Nuclear Energy Policy for the Republic of South Africa defines Necsa’s role in nuclear fuel cycle and the uranium mining industry emphasizing security of supply. South African uranium resources will be able to supply all local needs for the foreseeable future. (author)

  5. Federal approaches to the regulation of noncigarette tobacco products.

    Freiberg, Michael J A

    2012-11-01

    Under a grant funded by ClearWay Minnesota(SM) and in partnership with nationally recognized experts in tobacco product regulation, the Public Health Law Center investigated how laws at every level apply, or fail to apply, to noncigarette tobacco products--also called "other tobacco products." During the years 2010-2011, standard legal research techniques were used to identify and compile relevant statutes, regulations, decisions, pleadings, proposals, and related materials. Sources included standard commercial legal databases such as LexisNexis and Westlaw, online sources for pending rules and legislation, and direct contact with courts for legal pleadings and unpublished decisions. These legal authorities related to many aspects of the regulation, including price, flavorants, youth access, marketing restrictions, and product design of other tobacco products. Five of these products were used as case studies: dissolvable tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, little cigars, snus, and water pipes. Research during the years 2010-2011 revealed that the federal regulation of other tobacco products lags behind the regulation of more "traditional" tobacco products, such as cigarettes and moist snuff. Federal regulatory options to expand regulation of these products were identified. The article highlights several federal policy interventions that would address gaps in the regulation of other tobacco products. The FDA must determine whether these interventions will benefit public health and, if so, to what extent--the legal criteria for intervention under the federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical review of uranium resources and production capability to 2020

    1998-08-01

    This report was prepared to assess the changing uranium supply and demand situation as well as the adequacy of uranium resources and the production capability to supply uranium concentrate to meet reactor demand through 2020. Uranium production has been meeting only 50 to 60 percent of the world requirements with the balance met from sale of excess inventory offered on the market at low prices. It is generally agreed by most specialists that the end of the excess inventory is approaching. With inventory no longer able to meet the production shortfall it is necessary to significantly expand uranium production to fill an increasing share of demand. Non-production supplies of uranium, such as the blending of highly enriched uranium (HEU) warheads to produce low enriched reactor fuel and reprocessing of spent fuel, are also expected to grow in importance as a fuel source. This analysis addresses three major concerns as follows: adequacy of resources to meet projected demand; adequacy of production capability to produce the uranium; and market prices to sustain production to fill demand. This analysis indicates uranium mine production to be the primary supply providing about 76 to 78 percent of cumulative needs through 2020. Alternative sources supplying the balance, in order of relative importance are: (1) low enriched uranium (LEU) blended from 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium (HEU) Russian weapons, plus initial US Department of Energy (US DOE) stockpile sales (11 to 13%); (2) reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (6%) and; (3) utility and Russian stockpiles. Further this report gives uranium production profiles by countries: CIS producers (Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) and other producers (Australia, Canada, China, Gabon, Mongolia, Namibia, Niger, South Africa, United States of America)

  7. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  8. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  9. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds commonly used in industries are chemically synthesized. However, biosurfactants have been paid increasing attention to replace the synthetic surfactants owing to their advantages such as biodegradability and low toxicity. Nowadays, the use of biosurfactant has been limited due to the high production cost. Nevertheless, biosurfactants can be produced with high yield by some microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas sp. These microorganisms can use the various renewal resources, especially agroindustrial wastes, as the potential carbon sources. This leads to the greater possibility for economical biosurfactant production and reduced pollution caused by those wastes.

  10. Developing products and services for a deregulated market while regulated

    Haites, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Products and services developed for a deregulated electric power industry were discussed. The wide-ranging discussion covered products created by unbundling existing services, new products and services related to energy use, products created by expansion into communications services, and the pricing of products and services. In addition to products and services, the discussion also covered strategies for a deregulated market and the challenges of raising equity capital in a regulated environment

  11. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    Al-Kasim, Farouk; Søreide, Tina; Williams, Aled

    2013-01-01

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ► We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ► We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ► We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ► Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ► More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  12. Instrument choice when regulators are concerned about resource extinction

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Russell, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we undertake a systematic investigation of instrument choice when preventing a population collapse rather than maximizing industry profit is the overriding concern. Contrary to what seems to be the general consensus we find that landing fees do provide more effective insurance again...... the regulators total catch goals are set according to economic or precautionary principles....

  13. Otolaryngology Residency Program Research Resources and Scholarly Productivity.

    Villwock, Jennifer A; Hamill, Chelsea S; Nicholas, Brian D; Ryan, Jesse T

    2017-06-01

    Objective To delineate research resources available to otolaryngology residents and their impact on scholarly productivity. Study Design Survey of current otolaryngology program directors. Setting Otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods An anonymous web-based survey was sent to 98 allopathic otolaryngology training program directors. Fisher exact tests and nonparametric correlations were used to determine statistically significant differences among various strata of programs. Results Thirty-nine percent (n = 38) of queried programs responded. Fourteen (37%) programs had 11 to 15 full-time, academic faculty associated with the residency program. Twenty (53%) programs have a dedicated research coordinator. Basic science lab space and financial resources for statistical work were present at 22 programs (58%). Funding is uniformly provided for presentation of research at conferences; a minority of programs (13%) only funded podium presentations. Twenty-four (63%) have resident research requirements beyond the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate of preparing a "manuscript suitable for publication" prior to graduation. Twenty-five (67%) programs have residents with 2 to 3 active research projects at any given time. None of the investigated resources were significantly associated with increased scholarly output. There was no uniformity to research curricula. Conclusions Otolaryngology residency programs value research, evidenced by financial support provided and requirements beyond the ACGME minimum. Additional resources were not statistically related to an increase in resident research productivity, although they may contribute positively to the overall research experience during training. Potential future areas to examine include research curricula best practices, how to develop meaningful mentorship and resource allocation that inspires continued research interest, and intellectual stimulation.

  14. World uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities

    Hanly, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Series publication entitled “World Uranium Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities” (WUERPRA) will soon be published by the IAEA. The objective of the publication is to provide a comprehensive compilation of historic uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities based primarily on information from the 1966 to 2009 editions of the publication “Uranium Resources, Production and Demand”, a joint publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development commonly known as the ‘Red Book’. This has been supplemented by historic information from other reliable sources. The publications also include, where enough information was available, descriptions of the relative potential for discovery of new uranium resources on a per country basis. To recover complete historic information it is frequently necessary to refer to earlier editions of the Red Book, many of which may not be readily available. This publication aims to provide one comprehensive source for much of this type of information which will reduce the effort required to prepare future editions of the Red Book, as well as make the historic Red Book information, together with select related information from other sources, more readily available to all users with an interest in uranium. WUERPRA comprises 6 volumes containing 164 country reports, each organized by region; Volume 1: Africa (53 countries); Volume 2: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (25 countries); Volume 3: Southeastern Asia, Pacific, East Asia (18 countries); Volume 4: Western Europe (22 countries); Volume 5: Middle East, Central and Southern Asia (19 countries), and; Volume 6: North America, Central America and South America (27 countries). The report also contains information on countries that have not reported to the Red Book. The poster will summarize select major highlights from each volume

  15. Residual biomass resources for energy production. Extended abstract

    Prevot, G.

    2010-06-01

    This report covers the whole problematic of energy production from biomass residues in France except the production of biofuels. It is made of two parts. The first one gives an overview of the availability of residual biomass resources, The concept of residue (or waste) is placed in its economic and regulatory context (the major part of the resource cannot be considered as waste without any further potential use). The conditions of availability of the resource for each market segment are identified. The second part describes the conditions for the use of 5 different conversion options of these residues into energy. The logistics constraints for the procurement of the fuel and the intermediate operations to prepare it are briefly summarised. The objective was the identification of key issues in all relevant aspects, without giving too much emphasis to one of them at the expense of another one in order to avoid duplicating the frequent cases of facilities that do not meet environmental and economic targets because the designers of the system have not paid enough attention to a parameter of the system. (author)

  16. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question

  17. Assessing the Value of Regulation Resources Based on Their Time Response Characteristics

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian; Nguyen, Tony B.

    2008-06-01

    Fast responsive regulation resources are potentially more valuable as a power system regulation resource (more efficient) because they allow applying controls at the exact moment and in the exact amount as needed. Faster control is desirable because it facilitates more reliable compliance with the NERC Control Performance Standards at relatively lesser regulation capacity procurements. The current California ISO practices and markets do not provide a differentiation among the regulation resources based on their speed of response (with the exception of some minimum ramping capabilities). Some demand response technologies, including some generation and energy storage resources, can provide quicker control actions. California ISO practices and markets could be updated to welcome more fast regulation resources into the California ISO service area. The project work reported in this work was pursuing the following objectives: • Develop methodology to assess the relative value of generation resources used for regulation and load following California ISO functions • This assessment should be done based on physical characteristics including the ability to quickly change their output following California ISO signals • Evaluate what power is worth on different time scales • Analyze the benefits of new regulation resources to provide effective compliance with the mandatory NERC Control Performance Standards • Evaluate impacts of the newly proposed BAAL and FRR standards on the potential value of fast regulation and distributed regulation resources • Develop a scope for the follow-up projects to pave a road for the new efficient types of balancing resources in California. The work included the following studies: • Analysis of California ISO regulating units characteristics • California ISO automatic generation system (AGC) analysis • California ISO regulation procurement and market analysis • Fast regulation efficiency analysis • Projection of the

  18. Production Experiences with the Cray-Enabled TORQUE Resource Manager

    Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Beer, David [Adaptive Computing

    2013-01-01

    High performance computing resources utilize batch systems to manage the user workload. Cray systems are uniquely different from typical clusters due to Cray s Application Level Placement Scheduler (ALPS). ALPS manages binary transfer, job launch and monitoring, and error handling. Batch systems require special support to integrate with ALPS using an XML protocol called BASIL. Previous versions of Adaptive Computing s TORQUE and Moab batch suite integrated with ALPS from within Moab, using PERL scripts to interface with BASIL. This would occasionally lead to problems when all the components would become unsynchronized. Version 4.1 of the TORQUE Resource Manager introduced new features that allow it to directly integrate with ALPS using BASIL. This paper describes production experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the new TORQUE software versions, as well as ongoing and future work to improve TORQUE.

  19. PROVIDING RELIABILITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Anna MAZUR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available People are the most valuable asset of an organization and the results of a company mostly depends on them. The human factor can also be a weak link in the company and cause of the high risk for many of the processes. Reliability of the human factor in the process of the manufacturing process will depend on many factors. The authors include aspects of human error, safety culture, knowledge, communication skills, teamwork and leadership role in the developed model of reliability of human resources in the management of the production process. Based on the case study and the results of research and observation of the author present risk areas defined in a specific manufacturing process and the results of evaluation of the reliability of human resources in the process.

  20. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in

  1. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in

  2. Growth regulators and essential oil production

    Prins, Cláudia L; Vieira, Ivo J. C; Freitas, Silvério P

    2010-01-01

    The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could resu...

  3. Autonomic regulation of hepatic glucose production.

    Bisschop, Peter H; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-01-01

    Glucose produced by the liver is a major energy source for the brain. Considering its critical dependence on glucose, it seems only natural that the brain is capable of monitoring and controlling glucose homeostasis. In addition to neuroendocrine pathways, the brain uses the autonomic nervous system to communicate with peripheral organs. Within the brain, the hypothalamus is the key region to integrate signals on energy status, including signals from lipid, glucose, and hormone sensing cells, with afferent neural signals from the internal and external milieu. In turn, the hypothalamus regulates metabolism in peripheral organs, including the liver, not only via the anterior pituitary gland but also via multiple neuropeptidergic pathways in the hypothalamus that have been identified as regulators of hepatic glucose metabolism. These pathways comprise preautonomic neurons projecting to nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord, which relay signals from the hypothalamus to the liver via the autonomic nervous system. The neuroendocrine and neuronal outputs of the hypothalamus are not separate entities. They appear to act as a single integrated regulatory system, far more subtle, and complex than when each is viewed in isolation. Consequently, hypothalamic regulation should be viewed as a summation of both neuroendocrine and neural influences. As a result, our endocrine-based understanding of diseases such as diabetes and obesity should be expanded by integration of neural inputs into our concept of the pathophysiological process. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  4. Australian uranium resources and production in a world context

    Cleary, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to discuss Australian uranium resources and production from the perspective of ERA, the world's third-largest uranium producer, and one of only three producing uranium mining companies in Australia. ERA is a long-term supplier of uranium concentrates for the nuclear power generation industry overseas, a key part of clean global energy supply. ERA's Ranger plant was designed to produce 3,000t U 3 Og/yr, with expansion of the plant hi the early 90s to a 5,700t U 3 O 8 /yr capacity. Australia continues to have the worlds' largest reserves of uranium recoverable at costs of US$40 kg or less, but lags behind Canada in primary production of uranium. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the gap between resources and production, with examples from the company's own experience. Political, social and environmental factors have played a big role in the development of the uranium industry - ERA has been in the forefront of these issues as it pursues sustainable development practices

  5. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources; Norsk ressurspolitikk: Utvinningstempoet for norske petroleumsressurser

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway`s largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Ego depletion and self-regulation failure: a resource model of self-control.

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2003-02-01

    Effective self-regulation is an important key to successful functioning in many spheres, and failed self-regulation may be centrally conducive to substance abuse and addiction. The program of research summarized here indicates that self-regulation operates as a limited resource, akin to strength or energy, especially insofar as it becomes depleted after use-leaving the depleted self subsequently vulnerable to impulsive and undercontrolled behaviors (including increased consumption of alcohol). The self's resources, which are also used for decision-making and active responding, can be replenished by rest and positive emotions.

  7. New developments in uranium exploration, resources, production and demand

    1992-06-01

    In view of the economic importance, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have had a long standing interest in uranium exploration, resources, production and demand. It was the objective of this Technical Committee Meeting to bring together specialists in the field and to collect information on new developments, especially from countries which in the past considered uranium a strategic commodity and the related information as confidential or even secret. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 29 papers in this volume. Refs, figs, tabs, charts and maps

  8. South African uranium resource and production capability estimates

    Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; Toens, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    South Africa, along with Canada and the United States, submitted forecasts of uranium capacities and capabilites to the year 2025 for the 1979 'Red Book' edition. This report deals with the methodologies used in arriving at the South African forecasts. As the future production trends of the South African uranium producers cannot be confidently defined, chiefly because uranium is extracted as a by-product of the gold mining industry and is thus highly sensitive to market fluctuations for both uranium and gold, the Evaluation Group of the Atomic Energy Board has carried out numerous forecast exercises using current and historical norms and assuming various degrees of 'adverse', 'normal' and 'most favourable' conditions. The two exercises, which were submitted for the 'Red Book', are shown in the Appendices. This paper has been prepared for presentation to the Working Group on Methodologies for Forecasting Uranium Availability of the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources [af

  9. Unconventional resource's production under desorption-induced effects

    S. Sina Hosseini Boosari

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a numerical model to study the effect of changes in porosity, permeability and compaction on four major U.S. shale formations considering their Langmuir isotherm desorption behavior. These resources include; Marcellus, New Albany, Barnett and Haynesville Shales. First, we introduced a model that is a physical transport of single-phase gas flow in shale porous rock. Later, the governing equations are implemented into a one-dimensional numerical model and solved using a fully implicit solution method. It is found that the natural gas production is substantially affected by desorption-induced porosity/permeability changes and geomechancis. This paper provides valuable insights into accurate modeling of unconventional reservoirs that is more significant when an even small correction to the future production prediction can enormously contribute to the U.S. economy.

  10. Uranium. Resources, production, and market - 2009 Red Book

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The ''Red Book'' has been compiled since the mid-1960s as a joint OECD/NEA and IAEA publication. The analysis presents an overview of present uranium supply and demand with perspectives reaching as far as 2035. Data from 35 countries were accumulated about exploration, resources, production, and prices. The 23 rd edition contains the most recent basic evaluations of the world uranium market, providing a profile of nuclear fuel supply. Forecasts of nuclear generating capacity and uranium requirement for reactor use up until 2035 are presented along with a discussion of uranium supplies and aspects of demand beyond that time frame. Worldwide expenditures for the exploration of uranium resources in 2008 totaled more than US $1.6 billion, which is a 133% increase over expenses in 2006. Most of the important producer countries reported rising expenses for exploration as well as for commissioning new production centers. The total ''identified'' (=reasonably assured and inferred) reserves as of January 1, 2009 in the 3 O 8 ) category decreased slightly to 5,404,000 t U while a clear increase to 6,306,300 t U was seen in the re-introduced ''high cost'' category ( 3 O 8 ). Uranium production in 2008 amounted to 43,880 t U, which is an increase of 6% over 2007 (41,244 t U), and of 11% over 2006 (39,617 t U). In 2008, worldwide uranium production (43,880 t U) covered roughly 74% of the worldwide requirement for use in reactors (59,065 t U). The balance was met out of secondary sources. (orig.)

  11. Literature as cultural resource for outlining new touristic products

    Pilar Martino Alba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The German poet writer, born in Prague, Rainer Maria Rilke, was an authentic homo viator throughout his life, always in search of propitious creative spaces. His long stays in Paris, his many journeys to Italy since his childhood, and his occasional residence in Spain to see in person the landscapes painted by El Greco, have left in his poetic and narrative work an imprint and a patina that, as readers and travelers, we can continue both through the pages and the urban and landscape environments written by Rilke. These literary routes constitute, at the same time, a relevant cultural resource for the creation of new tourist products supported in his poetic tracks. Consequently, in our article we defend the idea that the tourist manager, with a deep humanistic education, will be more imaginative and creative when launching new tourist products based on the resources offered by the perception of literary authors in their travels. We have focused our attention especially on the impressions and literary inspirations of the countries of southern Europe by a Central European author whose literary success is still alive ninety years after his death.

  12. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  13. Competitiveness regulation of dairy products production in the Crimea

    Domozhilkina Zh. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article outlines the results of studying the major problems concerning supporting competitiveness and quality of dairy products in the Crimea. The researchers compared the level of competitiveness of the dairy enterprise ltd. «Бег» with other brands of milk and suggested measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of competitiveness management of dairy products in this region.

  14. Trends in the production of scientific data analysis resources.

    Hennessey, Jason; Georgescu, Constantin; Wren, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    As the amount of scientific data grows, peer-reviewed Scientific Data Analysis Resources (SDARs) such as published software programs, databases and web servers have had a strong impact on the productivity of scientific research. SDARs are typically linked to using an Internet URL, which have been shown to decay in a time-dependent fashion. What is less clear is whether or not SDAR-producing group size or prior experience in SDAR production correlates with SDAR persistence or whether certain institutions or regions account for a disproportionate number of peer-reviewed resources. We first quantified the current availability of over 26,000 unique URLs published in MEDLINE abstracts/titles over the past 20 years, then extracted authorship, institutional and ZIP code data. We estimated which URLs were SDARs by using keyword proximity analysis. We identified 23,820 non-archival URLs produced between 1996 and 2013, out of which 11,977 were classified as SDARs. Production of SDARs as measured with the Gini coefficient is more widely distributed among institutions (.62) and ZIP codes (.65) than scientific research in general, which tends to be disproportionately clustered within elite institutions (.91) and ZIPs (.96). An estimated one percent of institutions produced 68% of published research whereas the top 1% only accounted for 16% of SDARs. Some labs produced many SDARs (maximum detected = 64), but 74% of SDAR-producing authors have only published one SDAR. Interestingly, decayed SDARs have significantly fewer average authors (4.33 +/- 3.06), than available SDARs (4.88 +/- 3.59) (p production is less dependent upon institutional location and resources, and SDAR online persistence does not seem to be a function of infrastructure or expertise. Yet, SDAR team size correlates positively with SDAR accessibility, suggesting a possible sociological factor involved. While a detectable URL entry error rate of 3.4% is relatively low, it raises the question of whether or not this

  15. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  16. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR)

    Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    2016-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data...

  18. PVD and gas production: consider local resource access requirements

    Delafosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the natural gas industry worldwide teaches us that its development has sprung mainly from two sources: favorable contingent conditions, such as in the United States, where the discovery of large gas fields coincided favorably with technological progress and the already existing city gas distribution networks, as also happened in Italy and France; and political prodding, as in the Eastern European countries, in Japan, and certain countries of Western Europe too. Today, while natural gas is winning over more and more consumers and the infrastructures now exist, the rise in consumption is being held back by supply-related constraints, and namely the problem of adjusting to the rise in gas prices in the United States, and the distancing of the resources from Europe. In this context, the development of new gas markets in the developing countries could contribute to the continuous growth of the world natural gas industry. The resources do exist, and the possibility of generating electricity with them opens the way to creating or developing this industry in some twenty developing countries, to begin with, and a greater number later. For these countries, this perspective is highly enticing, economically; but development is slow, partly due to the fact that the specific requirements of gas production projects are not satisfied. The contractual and tax structure governing their implementation does not reflect the fact that, in contrast to the petroleum industry, the producer does not have access to a true market, and he is in fact only one of the wheels in an integrated production mechanism bent specifically on putting electrical power on the market. It is easy to see the difficulties that arise from such a situation, since the indispensable steps in the process, performed successively by producer, transporter, and electric company, use two interfaces with fields of business that are in close bilateral dependency. This leads to upstream inefficiency in

  19. Electricity production perspective regarding resource recovery center (RRC) in Malaysia

    Masoud Aghajani Mir; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Rawshan Ara Begum; Sanaz Saheri

    2010-01-01

    Waste disposal is a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change because of large emissions of greenhouse gases. So, using waste material as a resource instead of land filling, the greenhouse gas emissions from landfills are reduced. Also, Waste material can be used for waste incineration with energy recovery, thus decreasing the greenhouse gas emission from energy utilization by changing from fossil fuels to a partly renewable fuel. The production of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF) involves the mechanical processing of household waste using screens, shredders and separators to recover recyclable materials and to produce a combustible product Regarding Resource Recovery Center/Waste to Energy (RRC/WtE) Facility in Malaysia that located in Semenyih. This System involves the removal of inert and compost able materials followed by pulverization to produce a feedstock which be incinerated in power stations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and forecasting of the number of these facilities that Kuala Lumpur will need regarding to potential of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and Refuse Derive Fuel that will be produce from that in future. This plant is able to produce average 7.5 MWh electricity from 700 ton MSW or 200 ton RDF per day that approximately is used 1.8 MWh per day inside the pant and it can sell around 5.7 MWh daily. Kuala Lumpur will generate around 7713 ton MSW per day and it is able to produce 2466 ton RDF per day. Regarding to potential of MSW and RDF generation by 2020 in Kuala Lumpur it will need around 11 plants to treatment of MSW that this number of plants is able to produce around 62.8 MWh electricity per day. (author)

  20. A short overview of measures for securing water resources for irrigated crop production

    Jensen, Christian Richardt; Ørum, Jens Erik; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the main user of limited fresh water resources in the world. Optimisation of agricultural water resources and their use can be obtained by both agronomical and political incentives. Important options are: reduction of the loss of irrigation water in conveyance before it reaches...... of the 'virtual water' principles so that water-rich regions secure food supply to dry regions; reduction in waste of food, feed and biofuel from post-harvest to the end consumer; changing of food composition to less water-consuming products; regulating amount of irrigation water by rationing, subsidies or water...... pricing to support water-saving measures such as use of drip, irrigation scheduling and DI. The potential for water saving for different measures is discussed and estimated. Reduction in waste of food and loss of irrigation water from conveyance source to farm both has a great potential for water saving...

  1. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  2. Secondary resources processing in production of nuclear grade yellow cake

    Sivasubramanian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Recovering uranium in a cost competitive manner from sources other than the uranium ore is considered necessary from the point of view of meeting the strategic as well as the nuclear power programme need of the country. Globally, uranium is produced from ores which have more than 10 times uranium content compared to those available in India. Secondary sources of uranium are mostly defined by recycled uranium, from spent fuel of nuclear reactors, re-enriched depleted uranium tails, ex-military weapons grade uranium and stock piles for civilian use. Uranium production from secondary sources in India is largely dependent on processing of monazite, and to a smaller extent it is recovered from waste metallurgical slags generated by BARC and other private industries engaged in extracting niobium tantalum from the ores. The paper gives over view of the commercially successful processes of producing uranium from monazite and other secondary sources along with the details of setting up demonstration units for recovering uranium from wet phosphoric acid. The research and development work carried out to improve the cost economics of uranium production from monazite is also discussed as the total reported quantity of uranium associated with the monazite resources of the country is estimated at 30,000 tons of uranium metal (at the end of X Plan) compared to 75,000 ton of uranium in its primary ores

  3. Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (authors)

  4. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    Nestmann, Earle R.; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  5. Regulating interface science healthcare products: myths and uncertainties.

    Bravery, Christopher A

    2010-12-06

    Whenever new technology emerges it brings with it concerns and uncertainties about whether or how it will need to be regulated, particularly when it is applied to human healthcare. Drawing on the recent history in the European Union (EU) of the regulation of cell-based medicinal products, and in particular tissue-engineered products, this paper explores the myths that persist around their regulation and speculates on whether the existing regulatory landscape in the EU is flexible enough to incorporate nanotechnology and other new technologies into healthcare products. By untangling these myths a number of clear conclusions are revealed that, when considered in the context of risk-benefit, make it clear that what hinders the uptake of new technology is not regulatory process but basic science.

  6. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    2010-01-01

    ...., and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 33 U.S.C. 1321 et seq., are codified at... Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.20...

  7. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  8. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  9. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  10. Climate change and regulation of hepatotoxin production in Cyanobacteria.

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Wannicke, Nicola

    2014-04-01

    Harmful, bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) are occurring with increasing regularity in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The most commonly occurring cyanobacterial toxins are the hepatotoxic microcystin and nodularin. These cyclic hepta- and pentapeptides are synthesised nonribosomally by the gene products of the toxin gene clusters mcy and nda, respectively. Understanding of the regulation of hepatotoxin production is incomplete, although there is strong evidence supporting the roles of iron, light, higher nitrate availability and inorganic carbon in modulating microcystin levels. The majority of these studies have focused on the unicellular freshwater, microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, with little attention being paid to terrestrial or marine toxin producers. This review intends to investigate the regulation of microcystin and nodularin production in unicellular and filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria against the background of changing climate conditions. Special focus is given to diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, for example Nodularia spumigena, capable of regulating their nitrogen levels by actively fixing dinitrogen. By combining data from significant studies, an overall scheme of the regulation of toxin production is presented, focussing specifically on nodularin production in diazotrophs against the background of increasing carbon dioxide concentrations and temperatures envisaged under current climate change models. Furthermore, the risk of sustaining and spreading CyanoHABs in the future ocean is evaluated. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Legislative regulation of production and turnover of products for people with different diseases].

    Pritul'skaia, N V; Motuzka, Iu N; Antiushko, D L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results of analysis of existing regulatory documents and approaches to the legislative regulation of production and turnover of special dietary products for people with specific diseases in EU, Ukraine and Russian Federation. According to the EU legislation, production and turnover of food products for nutritional support of people during specific diseases and the rehabilitation period are regulated by the Commission Directive 1999/21/EC, 2009/39/ES, by Regulation Commission (EU) No 953/2009 and documents of Codex Committee. Special food products for people with specific diseases in Ukrainian legislation are classified as nutrition products for special dietary use and are regulated by the following Laws of Ukraine "On the safety and quality of food", "On ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population", "On Consumer Rights Protection", "On advertising" and by other non-legislative acts. According to the current legislation of the Russian Federation, the products for people with specific diseases are classified as healthy dietary food products. The basis of the legal framework are federal laws "On the quality and safety of food", "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of the populations", "On technical regulations and technical regulations of the Customs Union "On Food Safety" and "On the safety of certain types of specialized food products, including healthy dietary food products and therapeutic dietary food products". There is no common approach to the legal regulation of production and turnover of products for people with specific diseases in the world. The proposals for further harmonization of regulatory control in this area have been developed.

  12. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients.

  13. Resource sharing in libraries concepts, products, technologies, and trends

    Breeding, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Supplementing your local collection through resource sharing is a smart way to ensure your library has the resources to satisfy the needs of your users. Marshall Breeding's new Library Technology Report explores technologies and strategies for sharing resources, helping you streamline workflows and improve resource-sharing services by covering key strategies like interlibrary loan, consortial borrowing, document delivery, and shared collections. You'll also learn about such trends and services as:OCLC WorldCat Resource Sharing, and other systems that facilitate cooperative, reciprocal lendingS

  14. Regulation of primary productivity rate in the equatorial Pacific

    Barber, R.T.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the Chl-specific rate of primary productivity (P B ) as a function of subsurface nutrient concentration at >300 equatorial stations provides an answer to the question: What processes regulate primary productivity rate in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters of the equatorial Pacific? In the western Pacific where there is a gradient in 60-m [NO 3 ] from 0 to ∼12 μM, the productivity rate is a linear function of nutrient concentration; in the eastern Pacific where the gradient is from 12 to 28 μM, the productivity rate is independent of nutrient concentration and limited to ∼36 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 , or a mean euphotic zone C-specific growth rate (μ) of 0.47 d -1 . However, rates downstream of the Galapagos Islands are not limited; they are 46.4 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 and μ = 0.57 d -1 , very close to the predicted nutrient-regulated rates in the absence of other limitation. This pattern of rate regulation can be accounted for by a combination of eolian Fe, subsurface nutrients, and sedimentary Fe derived from the Galapagos platform. In the low-nutrient western Pacific the eolian supply of Fe is adequate to allow productivity rate to be set by subsurface nutrient concentration. In the nutrient-rich easter equatorial region eolian Fe is inadequate to support productivity rates proportional to the higher nutrient concentrations, so in this region eolian Fe is rate limiting. Around the Galapagos Islands productivity rates reach levels consistent with nutrient concentrations; sedimentary Fe from the Galapagos platform seems adequate to support increased nutrient-regulated productivity rates in this region

  15. Production from new uranium mines a Cogema resources Saskatchewan perspective

    Pollock, B.

    2001-01-01

    The province of Saskatchewan is best known for the large flat tracts of land in the south that are primarily used for agricultural purposes. Less well known is the fact that the northern part of the province hosts the richest uranium mines in the world. In fact, to use a petroleum analogy, Saskatchewan has been referred to as the 'Saudi Arabia' of the uranium producing countries. The mining industry in Saskatchewan is a flourishing, high technology industry and supplies approximately one-third of the annual world primary production of uranium. The purpose of this paper is to examine the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan and why this province stands alone as the dominant uranium producer in the world and will maintain that position into the foreseeable future. As well, an overview of the significant role played by COGEMA Resources in developing the Saskatchewan uranium industry will be undertaken. This company whose roots date back almost 40 years in the province, now holds significant interests in all four of the mines currently producing uranium. With investments of over one billion dollars (U.S.) in this province, COGEMA has established itself as a long-term player in the Saskatchewan Uranium Industry. (author)

  16. Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources.

    Motz, H; Geiseler, J

    2001-01-01

    already accepted as a CEN standard and are used for a continuous quality control. Usually the suitability of steel slags is stated by fulfilling the requirements of national and/or international standards and regulations. Based on these standards and regulations in Germany in 1998 about 97% of the produced steel slags have been used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. as surface layer, road base and sub base for high trafficked roads), ways, earthworks, and armourstones for hydraulic structures. Consistent to the successful long-term experience not only products of steel slags but also products of blast furnace slags have been eliminated from the European Waste Catalogue and the European Shipment of Waste Regulation of the European Community, as well as from the lists of OECD for transfrontier movements by the decision of the OECD-Council from 21 September, 1995.

  17. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  18. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  19. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  20. Impact of Environmental Regulation and Technical Progress on Industrial Carbon Productivity: An Approach Based on Proxy Measure

    Huan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to 2014, in order to examine the impact of environmental regulation and technical progress on carbon productivity. Methods applied include panel fixed effect model, panel random effect model and two stage least squares with instrumental variables (IV-2SLS. The effect of environmental regulation and technical progress has industrial heterogeneity. The paper subdivides industrial sectors into capital and technology intensive, resource intensive and labor intensive sectors according to factor intensiveness. The estimation results of the subgroups have uncovered that for capital and technology intensive and resource intensive sectors, environmental regulation has a more significant impact than technical progress; while for labor intensive sectors, innovation more significantly influences carbon productivity. In addition, foreign direct investment (FDI and industrialization level facilitate improving carbon productivity for the full sample. By contrast, industrial structure inhibits the overall industrial carbon productivity. The industry-specific results indicate that for capital and technology intensive sectors, optimizing of the industrial structure can improve carbon productivity; for resource intensive sectors, FDI and energy consumption structure should be emphasized more; for labor intensive sectors, industrialization levels help enhance carbon productivity. Finally the industrial sector-specific policy suggestions are proposed.

  1. Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its...... technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based...... wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery...

  2. Enhancing well-being at work: The role of emotion regulation skills as personal resources.

    Buruck, Gabriele; Dörfel, Denise; Kugler, Joachim; Brom, Sarah Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with negative emotions is a crucial work demand, particularly for employees in health care. Job resources (e.g., autonomy, social support, or reward) but also personal resources (such as emotion regulation strategies) might reduce job stress and support well-being. Following this, the present study focused on strengthening emotion regulation as 1 way of dealing with high job demands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized emotion regulation training (Affect Regulation Training [ART]; Berking, 2010) to improve emotion regulation skills and well-being of employees in elderly health care. Therefore, 96 elderly care workers filled out an established questionnaire of emotion regulation skills as well as a measure of well-being at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. The findings show that the ART fosters emotion regulation skills. In particularly, acceptance, tolerance, and modification of negative emotions was enhanced in the training groups in comparison to a control-group. Modification, meaning the ability to actively change emotions, improved even more over the follow-up-period. Simultaneously, well-being of participants increased over all measurement time points in the ART-group compared with the control-group. Additionally, the improvement in emotion regulation skills from pre to posttreatment was related to well-being at follow-up. In summary, our results support the ART as an effective intervention for dealing with negative emotions and to enhance well-being among employees in elderly care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A CRE1- regulated cluster is responsible for light dependent production of dihydrotrichotetronin in Trichoderma reesei.

    Alberto Alonso Monroy

    Full Text Available Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors. We found that this cluster is involved in production of trichodimerol and that the two polyketide synthases of the cluster are essential for biosynthesis of dihydrotrichotetronine (syn. bislongiquinolide or bisorbibutenolide. Additionally, an indirect influence on production of the peptaibol antibiotic paracelsin was observed. The two polyketide synthetase genes as well as the monooxygenase gene of the cluster were found to be connected at the level of transcription in a positive feedback cycle in darkness, but negative feedback in light, indicating a cellular sensing and response mechanism for the products of these enzymes. The transcription factor TR_102497/YPR2 residing within the cluster regulates the cluster genes in a light dependent manner. Additionally, an interrelationship of this cluster with regulation of cellulase gene expression was detected. Hence the regulatory connection between primary and secondary metabolism appears more widespread than previously assumed, indicating a sophisticated distribution of resources either to degradation of substrate (feed or to antagonism of competitors (fight, which is influenced by light.

  4. Regulation of adrenomedullin and nitric oxide production by periodontal bacteria.

    Hussain, Q A; McKay, I J; Gonzales-Marin, C; Allaker, R P

    2015-10-01

    In periodontitis the host response to bacterial challenge includes activity of the multifunctional molecules adrenomedullin (AM) and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of periodontal bacteria in regulating the production of these molecules from cultured cells. Regulation of AM and NO production from oral keratinocytes when challenged with culture supernatants from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Veillonella atypica, Streptococcus salivarius and Candida albicans was examined. AM and NO were measured in cell culture supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the nitrate/nitrite (NO metabolites) Griess assay respectively. Cellular production of AM and inducible NO synthase was also analysed in target cells by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. The inter-relationship of AM and NO production were further investigated with macrophages. A. actinomycetemcomitans and C. rectus induced maximal levels of both AM and NO after 6 and 48 h respectively from oral keratinocytes. AM production in macrophages was upregulated in response to the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione and partially blocked by the inducible NO synthase inhibitor, N(ω) -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Likewise, NO production was increased upon exposure to AM, while the AM receptor antagonist AM 22-52 reduced the release of NO. Pathogens associated with aggressive periodontitis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and C. rectus, were more effective than those associated with chronic periodontitis, P. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia, and commensals, S. salivarius and V. atypica, as regards the upregulation of AM and NO production from oral keratinocytes. Interaction between these molecules was also demonstrated with macrophages. Understanding the coordinated regulation of AM and NO production in response to periodontal bacteria may identify

  5. Future development of global regulations of Chinese herbal products.

    Fan, Tai-Ping; Deal, Greer; Koo, Hoi-Lun; Rees, Daryl; Sun, He; Chen, Shaw; Dou, Jin-Hui; Makarov, Valery G; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Kim, Yeong Shik; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chang, Yuan Shiun; Jia, William; Dias, Alberto; Wong, Vivian Chi-Woon; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-04-10

    GP-TCM is the first EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. One of the key deliverables of the Work Package 7 in GP-TCM was to investigate information of the existing requirements for registration of TCM products listed by global regulatory bodies. The paper aims to collate data and draw comparison of these regulations. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the problems involved in registering TCM products in different regions worldwide. A collaborative network task force was established during the early stage of the GP-TCM project and operated through exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The task force involved coordinators, academics who are actively involved with R&D of Chinese herbal medicines, experts on monographic standards of Chinese materia medica, representatives from regulatory agencies, experts from industries in marketing Chinese medicines/herbal medicines and natural products. The co-ordinators took turns to chair teleconferences, led discussions on specific issues at AGM discussion sessions, at joint workshops with other work-packages such as WP1 (quality issues), WP3 (toxicology issues) and WP6 (clinical trial issues). Collectively the authors were responsible for collating discussion outcomes and updating written information. A global overview of regulations on herbal registration has been compiled during the three years of the consortium. The regulatory requirements for registration of herbal products in the EU and China were compared, and this is extended to other regions/countries: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. A wide variation of the regulations for the categories of herbal products exists: food (functional food, novel foods, dietary food for special medical purpose, foods for particular nutritional use, food supplement); cosmetic, traditional herbal medicine products; herbal

  6. Access to Productive Resources: The Catalyst to Rural Women's ...

    However, rural women in post-apartheid South Africa are experiencing hardships in laying hold of such resources. The pertinent questions the article seeks to interrogate are: who should determine the resource needs of rural women? Are the one size fit all programmes ideal for alleviating rural women's poverty. This article ...

  7. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in the same socio-political space - is an important conceptual point of departure of this study. Each of the three case study sections contains specific conclusions pertaining to the issues involved. The last chapter of the book (chapter 11) is primarily a refle...

  8. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) regulations: industry compliance motivations.

    Laeeque, Hina; Boon, Heather; Kachan, Natasha; Cohen, Jillian Clare; D'Cruz, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintaining a competitive market advantage. In contrast, SMEs are motivated to comply due to the deterrent fear of legal prosecution and a sense of duty.

  9. Methodological approach to assessment of organizational resources of the productive activity

    Alexander Miller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to solve the problem connected with development of theoretical and methodological provisions of formation of the assessment procedure of organizational resources of the productive activity. Theoretical results of our research are: improvement of the concept of development of organizational resources of the productive activity; identifying the impact of organizational resources on the productive activity; justification of the basic principles of formation of the assessment system of efficiency of the organizational resources' use. We proposed a unified methodological approach allowing to combine the complexity of assessment of both quantity of core resources of the productive activity and organizational resources, which significantly develops traditional systems of the productive activity management based on identifying quantitative parameters of the subsystems, their assessment, comparison and analysis. We also substantiated our opinion on assessment of organizational resources' values. It is focused on the development of the productive activity and allows to use the developed tools of the methodological approach for forecast assessment of the impact of the quantity of core resources, used in the productive activity, and organizational resources of the productive activity on the economic results of the enterprise.

  10. Resource-Use Efficiency in Rice Production Under Small Scale ...

    acer

    specific objectives of the study were to determine resource use efficiency, describe ... economic level. ... this key variable with a view to stepping ... focused on small-scale irrigation systems for ... farmers were assumed to be operating under.

  11. Pregnancy and lactation advice: How does Australian Product Information compare with established information resources?

    Brown, Emma; Hotham, Elizabeth; Hotham, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Product information is a popular medicines information resource; however, there is some evidence that its pregnancy and lactation information is overconservative, which can lead to inadequate treatment of pregnant and lactating women. A thorough analysis of pregnancy and lactation information within Australian Product Information and Consumer Medicines Information was performed. The statements within these resources were compared with established clinical resources: Australian Medicines Handbook, Therapeutic Guidelines, South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines, Organization of Teratology Information Specialists, LactMed, Motherisk and the Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicines Guide published by the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne. Product Information was found to be the most cautious resource, with 44.5% of pregnancy recommendations and 69% of lactation recommendations reviewed being more conservative than other resources. Product Information is an imperfect and often overconservative reference for pregnant and lactating women. Health professionals are urged to review established clinical resources to inform decision making.

  12. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults

    Opitz, Philipp C.; Lee, Ihno A.; Gross, James J.; Urry, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability—indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory—was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  13. Fluid Cognitive Ability is a Resource for Successful Emotion Regulation in Older and Younger Adults

    Philipp C. Opitz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER framework suggests that (1 emotion regulation (ER strategies require resources and that (2 higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR, a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity, expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity, and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger. As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability – indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory – was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation.

  14. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: considerations for sustainability

    Carl C. Trettin; Devendra Amatya; Mark Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and...

  15. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  16. Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD). A model for networking, cooperation, resource sharing, information exchange and regulation harmonization

    2007-01-01

    The focus of the talk will be to introduce the participants to the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD) and their proven methods for networking, information exchange, regulation development and standardization, and radiation protection guidance on emerging technologies. The presentation will describe how radiation control programs and staff from all 50 states in the US work collaboratively to ensure adequate radiation protection standards are uniformly applied throughout the country by pooling of resources and networking between all the states and the federal government, as well as with international members and partners. The products of CRCPD, such as the Suggested State Regulations along with other relevant informational documents, will be discussed along with how participants can access these products for use in their respective countries. CRCPD and its members represent a comprehensive radiation regulatory structure, covering all radiation sources and activities, (radioactive materials, licensing, registration, radioactive waste, x-ray, accelerators, emergency response, environmental monitoring, radon, and security). Networks are in place for all radiation issues. At the completion of this presentation, the participants will better understand a proven method to develop and implement a cooperative partnership with other countries. They will also gain knowledge on how to access CRCPD products that can be tailored for their own use and how to request technical assistance from membership. (author)

  17. Voracious transformation of a common natural resource into productive capital

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze a power struggle where competing factions have private financial assets and deplete a common stock of natural resources with no private property rights. I obtain a feedback Nash equilibrium to the dynamic common-pool problem and obtain political variants of the Hotelling depletion rule and

  18. Resource efficiency and cleaner production:Measurable advantages

    Raphulu, N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RECP can be defined as a systematic and integrated approach to managing energy, water, environmental and financial resources as well as eliminating or minimising waste and emissions to the environment on a sustainable and cost-effective basis...

  19. Forty years of uranium resources, production and demand in perspective

    Price, R.; Barthel, F.; Blaise, J.R.; McMurray, J.

    2006-01-01

    The NEA has been collecting and analysing data on uranium for forty years. The data and experience provide a number of answers to the questions being asked today, as many countries begin to look at nuclear energy with renewed interest. In terms of uranium resources, the lessons of the past give confidence that uranium supply will remain adequate to meet demand. (authors)

  20. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously.

  1. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  2. A Resource Sharing Mechanism for Sustainable Production in the Garment Industry

    Ke Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mass customization, the traditional garment production model needs to be optimized to have a more sustainable structure. To meet demand for flexibility, low-cost, and high-efficiency, an innovative resource sharing mechanism was proposed in this paper to form a new sustainable type of garment production. Different from the individual production in traditional models, the new mechanism involves resources being shared among various manufacturers. The tradeoff between positive and negative effects of the proposed mechanism is a key issue for sustainable production. In the present study, an overall sustainable index, integrating four production performance indicators, was defined on the basis of an Analytical Network Process to assess various production scenarios. According to the discrete-event simulation results of the different scenarios, we found that garment manufacturers could obtain comprehensive improvements in sustainable production by implementing the proposed resource sharing mechanism under the threshold of an increasing production failure rate.

  3. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  4. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  5. An empirical study on human resource competencies and its relationship with productivity

    Hasan Darvish

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact of human resource competencies on productivity. The proposed study considers different issues such as different competencies associated with human resources, how we can persuade and strengthen such competencies in organizations and whether human resource competencies impact organizational productivity or not. There are one main hypothesis six minor hypotheses in this study. The proposed study uses descriptive and regression technique to perform the study. The population of this study includes all managers who work for an Iranian petroleum company. This result of this survey shows that that human resource competencies impact organizational productivity. In addition, all dimensions of human resource competencies had significant relationship on organizational productivity.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ishikane, Shin; Kawabe, Shinya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in various tissues, mainly in the adrenal glands and gonads. Because these lipid-soluble steroid hormones immediately diffuse through the cells in which they are produced, their secretion directly reflects the activity of the genes related to their production. Progesterone is important not only for luteinization and maintenance of pregnancy, but also as a substrate for most other steroids. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) are well-known proteins essential for progesterone production. In addition to them, glutathione S-transferase A1-1 and A3-3 are shown to exert Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization activity to produce progesterone in a cooperative fashion with 3β-HSD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1, ferredoxin 1, and ferredoxin reductase also play a role in steroidogenesis as accessory factors. Members of the nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family (steroidogenic factor 1 and liver receptor homolog 1) play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The NR5A family activates these genes by binding to NR5A responsive elements present within their promoter regions, as well as to the elements far from their promoters. In addition, various NR5A-interacting proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (DAX-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are involved in the transcription of NR5A target genes and regulate the transcription either positively or negatively under both basal and tropic hormone-stimulated conditions. In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

  7. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  8. Resource Use Efficiency in Rice Production in Jere Local ...

    acer

    Descriptive statistics and production function were used as analytical tools. The result ..... women's active participation in agriculture. The result also .... Poverty Reduction. Through the ... and the Efficiencies of India Farm Using. Panel Data ...

  9. Redefining prosperity : resource productivity, economic growth and sustainable development

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2003-01-01

    This report seeks to stimulate debate on how we define prosperity and addresses the inadequacies of standard definitions of Gross Domestic Product and economic growth as yardsticks for well-being. Publisher PDF

  10. Crosstalk between Rac1-mediated actin regulation and ROS production.

    Acevedo, Alejandro; González-Billault, Christian

    2018-02-20

    The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX. How Rac1-mediated signaling ends up promoting actin-related events, NOX-derived ROS, or both is poorly understood. Rac1 regulators, including scaffold proteins, are known to exert tight control over its functions. Hence, evidence of Rac1 regulatory events leading to both actin remodeling and NOX-mediated ROS generation are discussed. Moreover, cellular functions linked to physiological and pathological conditions that exhibit crosstalk between Rac1 outcomes are analyzed, while plausible roles in neuronal functions (and dysfunctions) are highlighted. Together, discussed evidence shed light on cellular mechanisms which requires Rac1 to direct either actin- and/or ROS-related events, helping to understand crucial roles of Rac1 dual functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  12. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption

    Yoon Sik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psycho-stimulant in the world. The effects of caffeine on the body have been extensively studied; however, its effect on the structure of the brain has not been investigated to date. Results In the present study we found that the long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly; this was observed in 40% of the study rats. In the caffeine-treated rats with ventriculomegaly, there was increased production of CSF, associated with the increased expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF. In contrast to the chronic effects, acute treatment with caffeine decreased the production of CSF, suggesting 'effect inversion' associated with caffeine, which was mediated by increased expression of the A1 adenosine receptor, in the choroid plexus of rats chronically treated with caffeine. The involvement of the A1 adenosine receptor in the effect inversion of caffeine was further supported by the induction of ventriculomegaly and Na+, K+-ATPase, in A1 agonist-treated rats. Conclusion The results of this study show that long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly, which is mediated in part by increased production of CSF. Moreover, we also showed that adenosine receptor signaling can regulate the production of CSF by controlling the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and CBF.

  13. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of diversity on soil respiration. We hypothesized that plant diversity could affect soil respiration in two ways. On the one hand, more diverse plant communities have been shown to promote plant productivity, which could increase soil respiration. On the other hand, the nutrient concentration in the biomass produced has been shown to decrease with diversity, which could counteract the production-induced increase in soil respiration. Our results clearly show that soil respiration increased with species richness. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was not due to differences in species composition. In general, soil respiration in mixtures was higher than would be expected from the monocultures. Path analysis revealed that species richness predominantly regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity. No evidence supporting the hypothesized negative effect of lower N concentration on soil respiration was found. We conclude that shifts in productivity are the main mechanism by which changes in plant diversity may affect soil respiration.

  14. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  15. Spatial distribution of limited resources and local density regulation in juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    Finstad, Anders G; Einum, Sigurd; Ugedal, Ola; Forseth, Torbjørn

    2009-01-01

    1. Spatial heterogeneity of resources may influence competition among individuals and thus have a fundamental role in shaping population dynamics and carrying capacity. In the present study, we identify shelter opportunities as a limiting resource for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Experimental and field studies are combined in order to demonstrate how the spatial distribution of shelters may influence population dynamics on both within and among population scales. 2. In closed experimental streams, fish performance scaled negatively with decreasing shelter availability and increasing densities. In contrast, the fish in open stream channels dispersed according to shelter availability and performance of fish remaining in the streams did not depend on initial density or shelters. 3. The field study confirmed that spatial variation in densities of 1-year-old juveniles was governed both by initial recruit density and shelter availability. Strength of density-dependent population regulation, measured as carrying capacity, increased with decreasing number of shelters. 4. Nine rivers were surveyed for spatial variation in shelter availability and increased shelter heterogeneity tended to decrease maximum observed population size (measured using catch statistics of adult salmon as a proxy). 5. Our studies highlight the importance of small-scale within-population spatial structure in population dynamics and demonstrate that not only the absolute amount of limiting resources but also their spatial arrangement can be an important factor influencing population carrying capacity.

  16. A Novel Method for Live Debugging of Production Web Applications by Dynamic Resource Replacement

    Khalid Al-Tahat; Khaled Zuhair Mahmoud; Ahmad Al-Mughrabi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology for enabling debugging and tracing of production web applications without affecting its normal flow and functionality. This method of debugging enables developers and maintenance engineers to replace a set of existing resources such as images, server side scripts, cascading style sheets with another set of resources per web session. The new resources will only be active in the debug session and other sessions will not be affected. T...

  17. livestock production systems for increased yield on resources

    ciples of business management to research and education programming is ... planning for livestock production research and education ... cultivated with the maximum potential of arable land being ... (3) Approximately 85/, of the land area receives ... trate feeds has had a great impact on the beef cattle in- ..... (45 days A.I.,.

  18. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio...

  19. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources

    Widyarani, W.; Sari, Yessie W.; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent

  20. Production of hydrogen from renewable resources and its effectiveness

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 16 (2012), s. 11563-11578 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen production * biological processes * conventional methods Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  1. Human Resource Development and the Productivity of the Civil ...

    opportunity of acquiring the relevant skills and knowledge required to perform tasks effectively and these has a direct and immediate impact on productivity. It was recommended that government should expose its employees to regular training workshops and refresher courses as well as award scholarships to intelligent ...

  2. More than a filter: Feature-based attention regulates the distribution of visual working memory resources.

    Dube, Blaire; Emrich, Stephen M; Al-Aidroos, Naseem

    2017-10-01

    Across 2 experiments we revisited the filter account of how feature-based attention regulates visual working memory (VWM). Originally drawing from discrete-capacity ("slot") models, the filter account proposes that attention operates like the "bouncer in the brain," preventing distracting information from being encoded so that VWM resources are reserved for relevant information. Given recent challenges to the assumptions of discrete-capacity models, we investigated whether feature-based attention plays a broader role in regulating memory. Both experiments used partial report tasks in which participants memorized the colors of circle and square stimuli, and we provided a feature-based goal by manipulating the likelihood that 1 shape would be probed over the other across a range of probabilities. By decomposing participants' responses using mixture and variable-precision models, we estimated the contributions of guesses, nontarget responses, and imprecise memory representations to their errors. Consistent with the filter account, participants were less likely to guess when the probed memory item matched the feature-based goal. Interestingly, this effect varied with goal strength, even across high probabilities where goal-matching information should always be prioritized, demonstrating strategic control over filter strength. Beyond this effect of attention on which stimuli were encoded, we also observed effects on how they were encoded: Estimates of both memory precision and nontarget errors varied continuously with feature-based attention. The results offer support for an extension to the filter account, where feature-based attention dynamically regulates the distribution of resources within working memory so that the most relevant items are encoded with the greatest precision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Job resources and recovery experiences to face difficulties in emotion regulations at work: a diary study among nurses

    Blanco-Donoso, L.M.; Garrosa, E.; Demerouti, E.; Moreno-Jiménez, B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the role of daily difficulties in emotion regulation at work in nurse’s daily well-being and how certain job resources and recovery experiences influence this relationship. We hypothesized that daily difficulties to regulate emotions at work would be significantly and

  4. Multi-partner alliance teams for product innovation : The role of human resource management fit

    Estrada Vaquero, Isabel; Martin-Cruz, Natalia; Perez-Santana, Pilar

    Teams working in multi-partner R&D alliances need a climate that fosters learning, creativity, and innovation to succeed in the joint development of new products. The strategic human resource management (HRM) literature recognizes that aligning human resources practices and those with the corporate

  5. Product services for a resource-efficient and circular economy - A review

    Tukker, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Product Service Systems (PSS) have been heralded as one of the most effective instruments for moving society towards a resource-efficient, circular economy and creating a much-needed 'resource revolution'. This paper reviews the literature on PSS in the last decade and compares the

  6. Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers.

    Cowan, Dallas M; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Woods, Tyler A; Kovochich, Michael; Hill, Denise S; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-02-01

    Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the ∼2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy resources, CO2 production and energy conservation

    O'Callaghan, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    World fossil fuel reserves, historical and current rates of consumption are reviewed and estimates of indigeneous lives in geographical regions are made. Rates of production and accumulations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are calculated and correlations made with measured global mean temperatures and concomitant sea-level rises. It is concluded that, if present rates of global fossil-fuel consumptions continue unabated, the world's fossil-fuel store will be depleted by the year 2050. This would be accompanied by a substantial rise in global mean temperature. The effects of various protocols for the reductions of emissions are examined. It is concluded that there is no alternative than to cease the production and release into the atmosphere of the more damaging man-made greenhouse gases as soon as is practicably possible and to seek a sustained reduction in the rates of combustion of fossil fuels world-wide via energy management and conservation. (author)

  8. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.

  9. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  10. Critical review of uranium resources and production capability to 2020

    Underhill, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    Even with a modest forecast of nuclear power growth for the next 25 years, it is expected that the world uranium requirements will increase. This analysis indicates uranium mine production will continue to be the primary supply of requirements through 2020. Secondary supplies, such as low enriched uranium blended from highly enriched uranium, reprocessing of spent fuel would have to make-up the remaining balance, although the contribution of US and Russian strategic stockpiles is not well known at this time. (author)

  11. Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from...

  12. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  13. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR

    Anna Brinch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  14. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR).

    Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2016-02-16

    The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  15. Retextualization as a didactic resource for text production

    Cristiane de Paula Bouzada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the conception of retextualization as a production of a new text from one or more base texts, we report in this article a writing activity in which public high school students retextualized the genre chronicle into other oral and written genres. The activity allowed students to work on linguistic, textual and discursive strategies from the base text and to project them into a new situation of interaction. The results suggest that it is a responsibility of formal education to create conditions for students to understand and take ownership of textual genres to become competent Portuguese Language users.

  16. Performance-Based Regulation In A High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    Newton Lowry, Mark [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Woolf, Tim [Synapse Energy Economics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-07

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) of utilities has emerged as an important ratemaking option in the last 25 years. It has been implemented in numerous jurisdictions across the United States and is common in many other advanced industrialized countries. PBR’s appeal lies chiefly in its ability to strengthen utility performance incentives relative to traditional cost-of-service regulation (COSR). Some forms of PBR can streamline regulation and provide utilities with greater operating flexibility. Ideally, the benefits of better performance are shared by the utility and its customers. The shortcomings of traditional COSR in providing electric utilities with incentives that are aligned with certain regulatory goals are becoming increasingly clear. In particular, COSR can provide strong incentives to increase electricity sales and utility rate base. Further, some parties express concern that traditional COSR does not provide utilities with appropriate financial incentives to address evolving industry challenges such as changing customer demands for electricity services, increased levels of distributed energy resources (DERs), and growing pressure to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, attention to potential new regulatory models to support the “utility of the future” has renewed interest in PBR. This report describes key elements of PBR and explains some of the advantages and disadvantages of various PBR options. We present pertinent issues from the perspectives of utilities and customers. In practice, these different perspectives are not diametrically opposed. Nonetheless, this framework is useful for illustrating how various aspects of PBR may be viewed by those key groups. Regulators have a unique perspective, in that they must balance consumer, utility, and other interests with the goal of achieving a result that is in the overall public interest.

  17. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  18. IMMUNE REGULATING ES-PRODUCTS IN PARASITIC NEMATODES

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter

    work elucidates the effect of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed...... fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in minimizing the immune reaction of rainbow trout against invading nematodes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase lipase, valine and cysteine...... arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. Based on the notion that A. simplex ES-proteins may have an immune-depressive effect, it could also...

  19. TIM-1 signaling in B cells regulates antibody production

    Ma, Juan; Usui, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Harada, Norihiro; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko; Akiba, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TIM-1 is highly expressed on anti-IgM + anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. → Anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and Ig production on activated B cell in vitro. → TIM-1 signaling regulates Ab production by response to TI-2 and TD antigens in vivo. -- Abstract: Members of the T cell Ig and mucin (TIM) family have recently been implicated in the control of T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we found TIM-1 expression on anti-IgM- or anti-CD40-stimulated splenic B cells, which was further up-regulated by the combination of anti-IgM and anti-CD40 Abs. On the other hand, TIM-1 ligand was constitutively expressed on B cells and inducible on anti-CD3 + anti-CD28-stimulated CD4 + T cells. In vitro stimulation of activated B cells by anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and expression of a plasma cell marker syndecan-1 (CD138). We further examined the effect of TIM-1 signaling on antibody production in vitro and in vivo. Higher levels of IgG2b and IgG3 secretion were detected in the culture supernatants of the anti-TIM-1-stimulated B cells as compared with the control IgG-stimulated B cells. When immunized with T-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, TNP-specific IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 Abs were slightly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice. When immunized with T-dependent antigen OVA, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE Abs were significantly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice as compared with the control IgG-treated mice. These results suggest that TIM-1 signaling in B cells augments antibody production by enhancing B cell proliferation and differentiation.

  20. TIM-1 signaling in B cells regulates antibody production

    Ma, Juan [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Usui, Yoshihiko [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan); Takeda, Kazuyoshi [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Norihiro [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Research Institute for Diseases of Old Ages, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Akiba, Hisaya, E-mail: hisaya@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    Highlights: {yields} TIM-1 is highly expressed on anti-IgM + anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. {yields} Anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and Ig production on activated B cell in vitro. {yields} TIM-1 signaling regulates Ab production by response to TI-2 and TD antigens in vivo. -- Abstract: Members of the T cell Ig and mucin (TIM) family have recently been implicated in the control of T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we found TIM-1 expression on anti-IgM- or anti-CD40-stimulated splenic B cells, which was further up-regulated by the combination of anti-IgM and anti-CD40 Abs. On the other hand, TIM-1 ligand was constitutively expressed on B cells and inducible on anti-CD3{sup +} anti-CD28-stimulated CD4{sup +} T cells. In vitro stimulation of activated B cells by anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and expression of a plasma cell marker syndecan-1 (CD138). We further examined the effect of TIM-1 signaling on antibody production in vitro and in vivo. Higher levels of IgG2b and IgG3 secretion were detected in the culture supernatants of the anti-TIM-1-stimulated B cells as compared with the control IgG-stimulated B cells. When immunized with T-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, TNP-specific IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 Abs were slightly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice. When immunized with T-dependent antigen OVA, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE Abs were significantly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice as compared with the control IgG-treated mice. These results suggest that TIM-1 signaling in B cells augments antibody production by enhancing B cell proliferation and differentiation.

  1. Resource-saving policy in the context of technological updating of ferroalloy production

    Yelena Anatolyevna Pozdnyakova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the need for technological modernization of ferroalloy production which should be based on energy- and resource-saving technologies. Lean-technology is considered as a tool for effective management of material costs organization. A search algorithm for ways to improve the manufacturing process of a company, with which usage the author suggests a number of areas that require optimization, was developed. Measures aimed at solving the problems of resource-saving at JSC "Klyuchevsky Ferroalloy Plant" were proposed: introduction of resource saving technologies, suggesting involvement in the production of non-liquid products and the use of process waste and upgrading of individual processes. As a result of the proposed activities, tangible results have been achieved: reducing production costs, saving raw materials, reducing storage costs and release of additional areas, decrease of production losses.

  2. Chromatin landscaping in algae reveals novel regulation pathway for biofuels production

    Ngan, Chew Yee; Wong, Chee-Hong; Choi, Cindy; Pratap, Abhishek; Han, James; Wei, Chia-Lin

    2013-02-19

    The diminishing reserve of fossil fuels calls for the development of biofuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable resources, including photosynthetic organisms, generating clean energy. Microalgae is one of the potential feedstock for biofuels production. It grows easily even in waste water, and poses no competition to agricultural crops for arable land. However, little is known about the algae lipid biosynthetic regulatory mechanisms. Most studies relied on the homology to other plant model organisms, in particular Arabidopsis or through low coverage expression analysis to identify key enzymes. This limits the discovery of new components in the biosynthetic pathways, particularly the genetic regulators and effort to maximize the production efficiency of algal biofuels. Here we report an unprecedented and de novo approach to dissect the algal lipid pathways through disclosing the temporal regulations of chromatin states during lipid biosynthesis. We have generated genome wide chromatin maps in chlamydomonas genome using ChIP-seq targeting 7 histone modifications and RNA polymerase II in a time-series manner throughout conditions activating lipid biosynthesis. To our surprise, the combinatory profiles of histone codes uncovered new regulatory mechanism in gene expression in algae. Coupled with matched RNA-seq data, chromatin changes revealed potential novel regulators and candidate genes involved in the activation of lipid accumulations. Genetic perturbation on these candidate regulators further demonstrated the potential to manipulate the regulatory cascade for lipid synthesis efficiency. Exploring epigenetic landscape in microalgae shown here provides powerful tools needed in improving biofuel production and new technology platform for renewable energy generation, global carbon management, and environmental survey.

  3. The hydrogen resource. Productive, technical and economic analysis

    De Fronzo, G.

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen as an energetic vector meets with a lot of obstacles that don't depend on available raw material, but on hydrogen combination with other elements. It is necessary, therefore, to separate hydrogen picking out the available different technologies to have different pure hydrogen of variable quantities. Besides, its diffusion as fuel is limited because of the great production cost compared to fuels sprung from petroleum. Hydrogen used on a large scale could have advantages on the environment and occupation, but there are economic and politic obstacles to limit its diffusion. Future of economic system, based on hydrogen as the main energetic vector, will depend on the programme that national and international qualified governing bodies will be able to do [it

  4. Production Resource Management in the Industrialised House-Building Supply Chain

    Martin Lennartsson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrialised house-building suppliers must learn to see how the lack of resource management disrupt the synchronisation of their production processes both upstream (e.g. capability to forecast material consumption and downstream (e.g. order delivery Just-in-Time. In contrast to focus on workflow as is more common in construction, Systematic Production Analysis (SPA is a tool capable of providing a more robust production process in terms of better resource characterisation and predictability. A roadmap model, composed of six steps, has been developed for simple introduction of SPA. The model is a straightforward way of classifying the production system in terms of impacting resource and parameters attributing to production loss (scrap or downtime. The applicability of SPA is analysed through a pilot case study at a patio door manufacturer. Two main response parameters emerged related to scrap; surface and dimension errors of the work piece material (wood. An objective function was formulated to reduce the scrap without increasing the total cost of the work piece material. It was suggested that the case company evaluates Engineering Wood Products (EWP leading to a more robust production process (less scrap, but in turn increasing the initial cost of the work piece material. Other potential measures are purchasing new processing tools, investing in new machinery or educating workers which all, directly or indirectly, lead to reduced scrap. Consequently, proper management of production resources will improve their predictability and in turn improve production control.

  5. Analysis of the potential for hydrogen production in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, from wind resources

    Rodriguez, C.R.; Santa Cruz, R.; Aisa, S. [Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Monsenor Pablo Cabrera s/n calle, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Riso, M.; Jimenez Yob, G.; Ottogalli, R. [Subsecretaria de Infraestructuras y Programas, Ministerio de Obras y Servicios Publicos del Gobierno de la Provincia de Cordoba, Av. Poeta Lugones 12, 2do. Piso, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jeandrevin, G. [Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, Avenida Fuerza Aerea km 6 1/2, 5022 Cordoba (Argentina); Leiva, E.P.M. [INFIQC, Unidad de Matematica y Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre s/n, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources in the province of Cordoba, second consumer of fossil fuels for transportation in Argentina, is analyzed. Three aspects of the problem are considered: the evaluation of the hydrogen resource from wind power, the analysis of the production costs via electrolysis and the annual requirements of wind energy to generate hydrogen to fuel the vehicular transport of the province. Different scenarios were considered, including pure hydrogen as well as the so-called CNG plus, where hydrogen is mixed with compressed natural gas in a 20% V/V dilution of the former. The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources is analyzed for each department of the province, excluding those regions not suited for wind farms. The analysis takes into account the efficiency of the electrolyzer and the capacity factor of the wind power system. It is concluded that the automotive transportation could be supplied by hydrogen stemming from wind resources via electrolysis. (author)

  6. Impact of Environmental Regulation on Productivity: Case Studies of Three Industries in Japan

    Chalermthanakom, Adisak; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Although fi rms bear the cost of compliance, strict but fl exible environmental regulation may benefi t them by spurring the innovation process. However, the relationship between environmental regulation and productivity is unclear. We calculate productivity growth by using data envelopment analysis; we then conduct regression analysis, using panel data on productivity growth by environmental regulation stringency. A one-year lag of environmental regulation stringency is included in the model...

  7. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities

  8. Regulating the Access to Genetic Resources in Brazil: Suggestions for a New Scenario

    Nilo Luiz Saccaro-Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the use of genetic resources, social justice and biodiversity conservation has proved to be one of the main matters in current environmental issues. Brazil exercises a leadership role in international debates about genetic resources and is a pioneer in the creation of a specific internal regulation. This, however, has been strongly criticized by the stakeholders, as well as the lack of incentive for biodiversity research in this country. This paper discusses some of the main conflicting points and how a new scenario of control and promotion can overcome them, based on the regulatory experience since the creation of the current regulatory framework and national indicators available in research with Brazilian species. The suggestions are based on three pillars: a new relationship between government and bioprospectors, guided by encouraging legal activities; a diffuse distribution of benefits, with simple rules, being able to capture some profit from bioprospecting; and a synergy between the existence of traditional/indigenous communities and biodiversity maintenance.

  9. Verification of product design using regulation knowledge base and Web services

    Kim, Ik June [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Chul; Mun Du Hwan [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Chul [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin Sang [PartDB Co., Ltd., Daejeom (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae Ho [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Since product regulations contain important rules or codes that manufacturers must follow, automatic verification of product design with the regulations related to a product is necessary. For this, this study presents a new method for the verification of product design using regulation knowledge base and Web services. Regulation knowledge base consisting of product ontology and rules was built with a hybrid technique combining ontology and programming languages. Web service for design verification was developed ensuring the flexible extension of knowledge base. By virtue of two technical features, design verification is served to various products while the change of system architecture is minimized.

  10. Verification of product design using regulation knowledge base and Web services

    Kim, Ik June; Lee, Jae Chul; Mun Du Hwan; Kim, Byung Chul; Hwang, Jin Sang; Lim, Chae Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since product regulations contain important rules or codes that manufacturers must follow, automatic verification of product design with the regulations related to a product is necessary. For this, this study presents a new method for the verification of product design using regulation knowledge base and Web services. Regulation knowledge base consisting of product ontology and rules was built with a hybrid technique combining ontology and programming languages. Web service for design verification was developed ensuring the flexible extension of knowledge base. By virtue of two technical features, design verification is served to various products while the change of system architecture is minimized.

  11. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod) 3 is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous 13 C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the 1 H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants

  12. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  13. The U.S. Shale Oil and Gas Resource - a Multi-Scale Analysis of Productivity

    O'sullivan, F.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, the large-scale production of natural gas, and more recently oil, from U.S. shale formations has had a transformative impact on the energy industry. The emergence of shale oil and gas as recoverable resources has altered perceptions regarding both the future abundance and cost of hydrocarbons, and has shifted the balance of global energy geopolitics. However, despite the excitement, shale is a resource in its nascency, and many challenges surrounding its exploitation remain. One of the most significant of these is the dramatic variation in resource productivity across multiple length scales, which is a feature of all of today's shale plays. This paper will describe the results of work that has looked to characterize the spatial and temporal variations in the productivity of the contemporary shale resource. Analysis will be presented that shows there is a strong stochastic element to observed shale well productivity in all the major plays. It will be shown that the nature of this stochasticity is consistent regardless of specific play being considered. A characterization of this stochasticity will be proposed. As a parallel to the discussion of productivity, the paper will also address the issue of "learning" in shale development. It will be shown that "creaming" trends are observable and that although "absolute" well productivity levels have increased, "specific" productivity levels (i.e. considering well and stimulation size) have actually falling markedly in many plays. The paper will also show that among individual operators' well ensembles, normalized well-to-well performance distributions are almost identical, and have remained consistent year-to-year. This result suggests little if any systematic learning regarding the effective management of well-to-well performance variability has taken place. The paper will conclude with an articulation of how the productivity characteristics of the shale resource are impacting on the resources

  14. Production and Resource Scheduling in Mass Customization with Dependent Setup Consideration

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bocewicz, G.; Do, Ngoc Anh Dung

    2014-01-01

    will contribute to the success of mass customization. This paper addresses the problem of production and resource scheduling for a production system with dependent setup and internal transportation such as AGVs in a mass customization environment. A constraint-programming-based methodology is developed to satisfy...

  15. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  16. What Drives Publishing Productivity for Pretenure Marketing Faculty: Insights Using the Lens of Resource Advantage Theory

    Runyan, Rodney C.; Finnegan, Carol; Gonzalez-Padron, Tracy; Line, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    The promotion, tenure, and salary of marketing faculty have been topics of intense interest recently. What has received less interest are the drivers of publishing productivity, especially for new, pretenure faculty. We use resource advantage (RA) theory to examine the drivers of pretenure faculty productivity, specifically in the top marketing…

  17. Efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish ...

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the empirical analysis of efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish farmers in Kaduna, Nigeria. The simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting 60 catfish farmers drawn from the sampling frame ...

  18. The Urgency of the Regulation of Certification as an Attempt to Optimize the Human Resources in Developing Indonesia’s Sharia Insurance

    lastuti abubakar Gani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives - The development of Islamic insurance in Indonesia contributed to economic growth in 2014. The principle of mutual cooperation and tabarru contract is a characteristic of Islamic insurance. The Opportunity to increase the role of Islamic insurance as an economic entity is done by utilizing various aspects of human resource readiness. Human Resource are required to have a comprehensive understanding of Islamic insurance in order to create compliance with Islamic principles for product and services offered.It can provide legal protection against the Takaful participants. Issues to be examined is how the readiness of the relevant regulatory certification and how Regulatory model certification appropriate human resources in order to develop Islamic insurance in Indonesia.              Methods -The method used is a normative juridical that through the efforts of an inventory of rules and descriptive analytical. To obtain the appropriate regulatory models, a legal comparison method is employed.Results - Based on the research results, the regulation of certification is required and should include the human resources, starting from a selling agent to the management as a decision maker. This regulation will push the entire human resources involved in the Islamic insurance industry to has the capacity and capability in providing services to the public, and to ensure and guarantee that the services offered comply with Islamic principles. Association of Islamic Insurance Indonesia was initiated concerning certification provisions, but has not been followed by a strong regulations readiness as a legal basis.Conclusion -Therefore we need a comprehensive regulation and it must be issued by Indonesian Financial Services Authority.

  19. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    Xiwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.

  20. MitoRes: a resource of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and their products in Metazoa.

    Catalano, Domenico; Licciulli, Flavio; Turi, Antonio; Grillo, Giorgio; Saccone, Cecilia; D'Elia, Domenica

    2006-01-24

    Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles that have a central role in energy production and in other metabolic pathways of all eukaryotic respiring cells. In the last few years, with more and more genomes being sequenced, a huge amount of data has been generated providing an unprecedented opportunity to use the comparative analysis approach in studies of evolution and functional genomics with the aim of shedding light on molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. In this context, the problem of the optimal extraction of representative datasets of genomic and proteomic data assumes a crucial importance. Specialised resources for nuclear-encoded mitochondria-related proteins already exist; however, no mitochondrial database is currently available with the same features of MitoRes, which is an update of the MitoNuc database extensively modified in its structure, data sources and graphical interface. It contains data on nuclear-encoded mitochondria-related products for any metazoan species for which this type of data is available and also provides comprehensive sequence datasets (gene, transcript and protein) as well as useful tools for their extraction and export. MitoRes http://www2.ba.itb.cnr.it/MitoRes/ consolidates information from publicly external sources and automatically annotates them into a relational database. Additionally, it also clusters proteins on the basis of their sequence similarity and interconnects them with genomic data. The search engine and sequence management tools allow the query/retrieval of the database content and the extraction and export of sequences (gene, transcript, protein) and related sub-sequences (intron, exon, UTR, CDS, signal peptide and gene flanking regions) ready to be used for in silico analysis. The tool we describe here has been developed to support lab scientists and bioinformaticians alike in the characterization of molecular features and evolution of mitochondrial targeting sequences. The

  1. An assessment of UK bioenergy production, resource availability, biomass gasification and life cycle impacts

    Adams, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Energy use and the environment are inextricably linked and form a key role in concerns over sustainability. All methods of energy production involve resource uncertainties and environmental impacts. A clear example of this is the use of fossil fuels which present three main problems, being: finite resources; significant contribution to environmental pollution; and reliance on imports. Hence there is a clear need to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy. Bioenergy has the potential to both...

  2. The remuneration system and productivity of human resources in the company

    CRHONKOVÁ, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this graduation theses named "The remuneration system of human resources in the company" is to evaluate the current system of remuneration and productivity of human sources in a company, that I chose and design a process that would lead to improvement in human resources achievments. In the practical part is charecterized the chosen company, in detail described its system of remuneration and structure of employees. On the basis of the observed data there are designed some chan...

  3. ECONOMIC AND INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM OF MONITORING THE PRODUCTION RESOURCES OF THE NEW GENERATION

    Silka Dmitriy Nikolaevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of production resources is a large-scale and complicated measure, the results of which are necessary for the state and for private entrepreneurs. There are many approaches to conducting such a monitoring, which firstly base on the information request from the suppliers of the resources by governmental bodies. The authors offer a new approach to data collection, which takes into account the technical achievements of the Russian economy. The main instrument of this approach is geoinformation technologies.

  4. Means of regulating combustible materials and products in external walls

    Mikkola Esko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents proposals for defining means of regulating the use of combustible materials and products in external walls. Required protections are based on the quantities of fire loads and their contribution to fire development. The study is based on life safety and protection of property priorities taking into account reaction to fire classes related to different types of fire loads and fire compartmentation requirements of the adjacent spaces of concern. The proposals include the following main principles in relation to fire-separation requirements: In case of internal fire exposure the protective structure for combustible building parts needs to meet at least half of the fire-separating requirement for the compartment of concern. In case of external fire exposure the protection time requirement can be 15 minutes less than for the internal protection. The proposals are applicable for residential buildings and offices. In case of buildings with longer evacuation times more stringent requirement levels may be considered. For verification of protection performance of fire loads it is proposed to use existing standardized test methods (fire protection ability (K classes and fire-separating function (EI classes validated methods of calculation and/or large scale fire testing.

  5. Harvest Regulation for Multi-Resource Management, Old and New Approaches (Old and New

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current Mexican forest management is the product of a history that dates back to 1926. Earlier approaches were directly or indirectly aimed at attaining the normal forest model. Around 1980, multi-resource and environmental impact considerations were mandated for all private timber operations. Timber-oriented silviculture was deemed insufficient to take proper care of non-timber values in the forest. Concerns about water quality, biodiversity, and natural conservation were the motives for promoting voluntary best management practices, in 2012 and afterwards. In this research, two traditional Mexican forest management schemes, Sicodesi and Plan Costa, enhanced with best management practices, are compared to Mapa, a management method specifically designed to manage landscape attributes. Results from two successive forest inventories 10 and 13 years apart show that Sicodesi and Plan Costa, even when modified to comply with best management practices, failed to maintain proper stewardship of non-timber values. Mapa, however, employed multiple means to drive forest dynamics to fulfill multi-resource objectives, constrained by self-financing and competitive profitability. These capabilities in Mapa enabled some degree of control over non-timber values, but many more important processes occur beyond the property boundary, and beyond the planning scope considered in Mapa and all other forest planning methods.

  6. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: An experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    David eMartínez-Iñigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as

  7. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion.

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal

  8. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing

    Thomas Danielsen, E.; E. Møller, Morten; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis...... and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition...... and developmental programs. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an autophagosomal cholesterol mobilization mechanism and show that activation of this system rescues Niemann-Pick type C1 deficiency that causes a disorder characterized by cholesterol accumulation. These cholesterol-trafficking mechanisms...

  9. INTRODUCTION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PACKING FROM SECONDARY MATERIAL RESOURCES OF FOOD PRODUCTIONS

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For increase of profitability of the food enterprises, decrease in an ecological trace from technogenic activity of the food industry the concept of development of low-waste and waste-free productions considered on the example of technology of receiving a biodegradable packing material from secondary material resources of food productions is offered: beer pellet, beet press, spirit bards, Pancake week press and bone glue. The technology of receiving biodegradable material from secondary material resources of food productions includes itself the following main stages: dehydration, crushing, mixing, leveling, formation, glazing. Advantage of the offered product consists of: - low cost of packing due to use of secondary material resources and full naturalness (now the raw materials for biodegradable packing specially are grown up on technical fields with use of GMO; - full decomposition in nature less than in 6 months according to GOST R 54533-2011 (EN 13432:2000 "Resource-saving. Packing. Requirements, criteria and the scheme of utilization of packing by means of a composting and biological decomposition"; - presence at the compost received at decomposition, the elements promoting increase of fertility of the soil. Application of technology allows reach at the same time three effects of a positive orientation: economic, ecological and social.

  10. Using resources for scientific-driven pharmacovigilance: from many product safety documents to one product safety master file.

    Furlan, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    Current regulations require a description of the overall safety profile or the specific risks of a drug in multiple documents such as the Periodic and Development Safety Update Reports, Risk Management Plans (RMPs) and Signal Detection Reports. In a resource-constrained world, the need for preparing multiple documents reporting the same information results in shifting the focus from a thorough scientific and medical evaluation of the available data to maintaining compliance with regulatory timelines. Since the aim of drug safety is to understand and characterize product issues to take adequate risk minimization measures rather than to comply with bureaucratic requirements, there is the need to avoid redundancy. In order to identify core drug safety activities that need to be undertaken to protect patient safety and reduce the number of documents reporting the results of these activities, the author has reviewed the main topics included in the drug safety guidelines and templates. The topics and sources that need to be taken into account in the main regulatory documents have been found to greatly overlap and, in the future, as a result of the new Periodic Safety Update Report structure and requirements, in the author's opinion this overlap is likely to further increase. Many of the identified inter-document differences seemed to be substantially formal. The Development Safety Update Report, for example, requires separate presentation of the safety issues emerging from different sources followed by an overall evaluation of each safety issue. The RMP, instead, requires a detailed description of the safety issues without separate presentation of the evidence derived from each source. To some extent, however, the individual documents require an in-depth analysis of different aspects; the RMP, for example, requires an epidemiological description of the indication for which the drug is used and its risks. At the time of writing this article, this is not specifically

  11. Biosurfactants' Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

    Satpute, Surekha K.; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2017-03-01

    A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the countries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels) via innovative and efficient technologies provided by industrial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant's production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  12. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning and…

  13. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    Olson, Lars J.; Roy, Santanu

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the 'δ-productivity' requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs

  14. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    Olson, Lars J. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the `{delta}-productivity` requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs.

  15. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  16. CA Air Resource Board's Off-Road Diesel Equipment Regulation 2017 DOORS Reporting.

    Jadhav, Pradnya [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/CA (SNL/CA) operates 14 diesel vehicles subject to the Off-Road Diesel Equipment Regulation; all the vehicles are classified as low-use vehicles. Annually, SNL/CA must report to the CA Air Resources Board (ARB) the hour-meter readings on our Off-Road Low-Use Diesel Equipment. This is to verify to the CA ARB that our equipment is being operated less than 200 hr/yr and therefore is considered “low-use” and not subject to the strict emissions standards for off-road diesel equipment. The reporting is done using DOORS, the CA ARB’s on-line reporting tool. The hour meter data for CY2017 has already been submitted using DOORS. The final step in the annual reporting process, which needs to be done by DOE, is to submit the Responsible Official Affirmation of Reporting (ROAR), which affirms that the information reported using DOORS is accurate. The ROAR is to be signed by a “Responsible Official” and can be submitted as a hardcopy ROAR or an electronic ROAR (e-ROAR) by March 1st, 2018. CA ARB’s preferred mechanism of ROAR submission is by using the e-ROAR.

  17. Clinical research in dermatology: resources and activities associated with a higher scientific productivity.

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Descalzo, Miguel A; García-Doval, Ignacio

    2018-03-06

    Clinical research papers and their derived metrics can be useful to assess the scientific production of medical and research centers. Diverse factors are probably associated to differences in scientific production. But there are scarce studies analyzing them. Resources are limited and have to be distributed efficiently. The objective of this study is to explore what resources and activities are potentially associated with a higher scientific productivity. A bibliometric study was performed to obtain information about scientific productivity. Papers included had to meet criteria to be considered clinical research in dermatology, additionally had to be published between the years 2005-2014, had to be included in Pubmed or Embase and had to include a Spanish center of dermatology as the correspondence address. Information about research resources and activities of the year 2015 was gathered by means of an online survey sent to the authors identified in the bibliometric study. The search strategy returned 8617 papers and only 1104 of them (12.81%) met the inclusion criteria. 63 out of 113 centers responded to the survey (55.75%). Factors associated with a higher scientific productivity were: the size of the resident program, the amount of time specifically dedicated to research, a lower clinical workload, and the number of clinical trials performed in the last year. We have demonstrated that some factors are associated with a higher scientific productivity. Residency program, more research staff, clinical workload redistribution and research motivation/initiatives are key strategies that could improve scientific productivity of a center.

  18. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  19. An integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale

    Okada, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Yokozawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural production utilizes regional resources (e.g. river water and ground water) as well as local resources (e.g. temperature, rainfall, solar energy). Future climate changes and increasing demand due to population increases and economic developments would intensively affect the availability of water resources for agricultural production. While many studies assessed the impacts of climate change on agriculture, there are few studies that dynamically account for changes in water resources and crop production. This study proposes an integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale. Also, the irrigation management to subseasonal variability in weather and crop response varies for each region and each crop. To deal with such variations, we used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify regional-specific parameters associated with crop growth and irrigation water estimations. We coupled a large-scale crop model (Sakurai et al. 2012), with a global water resources model, H08 (Hanasaki et al. 2008). The integrated model was consisting of five sub-models for the following processes: land surface, crop growth, river routing, reservoir operation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The land surface sub-model was based on a watershed hydrology model, SWAT (Neitsch et al. 2009). Surface and subsurface runoffs simulated by the land surface sub-model were input to the river routing sub-model of the H08 model. A part of regional water resources available for agriculture, simulated by the H08 model, was input as irrigation water to the land surface sub-model. The timing and amount of irrigation water was simulated at a daily step. The integrated model reproduced the observed streamflow in an individual watershed. Additionally, the model accurately reproduced the trends and interannual variations of crop yields. To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated model, we compared two types of impact assessment of

  20. Pollen source and resource limitation to fruit production in the rare species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is a rare, central Asian desert species which shows lower fruit set and seed set (<16%) than most hermaphroditic species. We hypothesized that fruit production was limited by pollen and resources. To evaluate potential fruit abortion due to pollen limitation, su...

  1. Reduced detrital resources limit Pycnopsyche gentilis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) production and growth

    Susan L. Eggert; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Leaf inputs in temperate forest streams may limit caddisfly production because leaf detritus serves both as a food and case-material resource. We estimated Pycnopsyche gentilis produdion in a stream experimentally decoupled fmm its riparian habitat and a reference stream for 8 y in the southern Appalachians. We also examined laboratory survivorship,...

  2. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending theexisting model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, weevaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling

  3. Efficiency of resource-use in Cassava production in Edo state, Nigeria

    This study employed the use of the Maximum Likelihood Estimation Technique in estimating the efficiency of resource-use in cassava production in Edo State. Data used for the study were sourced through the cost-route method of data collection, based on a stratified random sampling technique. The average farm size of ...

  4. Elasticities of resource- use in fish production: a case study of Oyo ...

    This paper examined the elasticities of resource use in fish production in Oyo agricultural zone, Oyo state. The data used is from a primary source. The instruments of data collection were structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to sample 120 fish farmers. However ...

  5. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  6. Supporting product development with a practical tool for applying the strategy of resource circulation

    Toxopeus, Marten E.; van den Hout, N.B.; van Diepen, B.G.D.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Bey, Niki; Ryberg, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Laurent, Alexis; Leclrec, Alexandra; Niero, Monia; Dong, Yan; Olsen, Stig I.

    In their pursuit of a transition towards a circular economy, manufacturers are challenged to implement abstract principles of circularity in product development. Therefore, this paper mentions strategies to enhance resource-effectivity by design. The specific industry case of Remeha, a manufacturer

  7. On resource use in food production systems : the value of livestock as 'rest-stream upgrading system'

    Nonhebel, S

    2004-01-01

    A large part of the world's natural resources is used for the production of food for the world's population. The production of meat in particular is assumed to put a large claim on resources. On the other hand, livestock is often fed with residues from the food industry, so meat production can be

  8. Production dynamics of fine roots in beech forests: possible mechanism of resource allocation between above- and below-ground production

    Nakahata, R.; Osawa, A.; Naramoto, M.; Mizunaga, H.; Sato, M.

    2017-12-01

    The masting phenomenon that seed production has large annual variation with spatial synchrony appears generally in beeches. Therefore, net primary production and carbon allocation mechanism in beech forests may differ among several years in relation to annual variation of seed production. On the other hand, fine roots play key roles in carbon dynamics and nutrient and water acquisition of an ecosystem. Evaluation of fine root dynamics is essential to understand long-term dynamics of production in forest ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of mast seeding on resource allocation should be clarified in such beech forests. The aim of this study is to clarify possible relationships between the patterns of above- and below-ground production in relation to the masting events using observation data of litter fall and fine root dynamics. We applied the litter trap method and a minirhizotron method in a cool-temperate natural forest dominated by beech (Fagus crenata Blume). Ten litter traps were set from 2008 to 2016, then annual leaf and seed production were estimated. Four minirhizotron tubes were buried in Aug. 2008 and soil profiles were scanned monthly until Nov. 2016 during the periods of no snow covering. The scanned soil profiles were analyzed for calculating fine root production using the WinRHIZO Tron software. In the present study site, rich production of mast seeding occurred biennially and fine root production showed various seasonal patterns. There was no significant correlation between seed production and annual fine root production in the same year. However, seed production had a positive correlation with fine root production in autumn in the previous year and indicated a negative correlation with that in autumn in the current year. These results indicate that higher fine root production has led to increased nutrient acquisition, which resulted in rich seed production in the next year. It is also suppressed after the masting events due to shortage in

  9. Evaluation of Statistical Methods for Modeling Historical Resource Production and Forecasting

    Nanzad, Bolorchimeg

    This master's thesis project consists of two parts. Part I of the project compares modeling of historical resource production and forecasting of future production trends using the logit/probit transform advocated by Rutledge (2011) with conventional Hubbert curve fitting, using global coal production as a case study. The conventional Hubbert/Gaussian method fits a curve to historical production data whereas a logit/probit transform uses a linear fit to a subset of transformed production data. Within the errors and limitations inherent in this type of statistical modeling, these methods provide comparable results. That is, despite that apparent goodness-of-fit achievable using the Logit/Probit methodology, neither approach provides a significant advantage over the other in either explaining the observed data or in making future projections. For mature production regions, those that have already substantially passed peak production, results obtained by either method are closely comparable and reasonable, and estimates of ultimately recoverable resources obtained by either method are consistent with geologically estimated reserves. In contrast, for immature regions, estimates of ultimately recoverable resources generated by either of these alternative methods are unstable and thus, need to be used with caution. Although the logit/probit transform generates high quality-of-fit correspondence with historical production data, this approach provides no new information compared to conventional Gaussian or Hubbert-type models and may have the effect of masking the noise and/or instability in the data and the derived fits. In particular, production forecasts for immature or marginally mature production systems based on either method need to be regarded with considerable caution. Part II of the project investigates the utility of a novel alternative method for multicyclic Hubbert modeling tentatively termed "cycle-jumping" wherein overlap of multiple cycles is limited. The

  10. Uranium from Coal Ash: Resource Assessment and Outlook on Production Capacities

    Monnet, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Uranium production from coal-ash is technically feasible: in some situations, it could reach commercial development, in such case, fast lead time will be a plus. Technically accessible resources are significant (1.1 to 4.5 MtU). Yet most of those are low grade. Potential reserves don’t exceed 200 ktU (cut-off grade = 200 ppm). • By-product uranium production => constrained production capacities; • Realistic production potential < 700 tU/year; • ~ 1% of current needs. → Coal ash will not be a significant source of uranium for the 21st century – even if production constrains are released (increase in coal consumption

  11. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...... is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications....

  12. The Optimal Regulation of Product Quality under Monopoly

    Hans Zenger

    2006-01-01

    This paper characterizes the optimal quality regulation of a monopolist when quality is observable. In contrast to Sheshinski (1976) it is shown that a minimum quality standard may be desirable even if it induces the firm to reduce output.

  13. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  14. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  15. 10 CFR 431.402 - Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH... regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products. Beginning on the effective date of such standard, an energy conservation standard set forth in this Part for a commercial HVAC & WH product supersedes any State or local...

  16. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chinese Food Product Resources

    SUN Zhi-guo; WANG Shu-ting; XIONG Wan-zhen; HUANG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    The geographical Indications intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage are the general focus of attention of the world today. In the Chinese food product resources, there are 44 kinds of national geographical indication products, 41 national geographical indication trademarks, 9 kinds of national and 212 kinds of provincial-level intangible cultural heritage. This article introduces the geographical indication protection and geographical indication trademark registration of the Chinese food products, the protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional craftsmanship; discusses the countermeasures for the protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage; finally puts forth several recommendations.

  17. Video Productions as Learning Resources in Students’ Knowledge Building in the Ubiquitous Society

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch; Ørngreen, Rikke

    productions developed by the students themselves. This is investigated from a theoretical as well as an empirical perspective, building on the authors’ experiences from researching and teaching dealing with production of video in learning situations, with different learning objectives and didactic designs...... in mind. The paper will present an overview of the state-of-the art of research on using video productions as learning resources, followed by discussions of our own research results and practices. From the overview and the discussions concepts are defined and research questions formed, based...... on a multimodal perspective on teaching and educational design. We conclude by arguing where and why there is a need for more knowledge....

  18. Production and Utilization of Hemicelluloses from Renewable Resources for Sustainable Advanced Products

    Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    Vast amounts of by-products are generated every year from agricultural crop production and hence great quantities of polysaccharides remain underutilized. The polysaccharides from agricultural by-products can be separated and used in the form of new materials. This thesis is devoted...... to the possibility of using hemicelluloses for special polysaccharide film applications in the packaging sector, starting from hemicellulose isolations from a side product of agricultural processes, hemicellulose characterization and assessing material properties and the potential use of hemicellulose films in later.......35, while the waterextracted material had an Ara/Xyl ratio of 0.54. In order to analyse the monosaccharide composition of the isolated hemicelluloses, a method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of acetylated methyl glycosides was developed. The derivatives of the monosaccharides...

  19. Resource optimised reconfigurable modular parallel pipelined stochastic approximation-based self-tuning regulator architecture with reduced latency

    Varghese Mathew Vaidyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Present self-tuning regulator architectures based on recursive least-square estimation are computationally expensive and require large amount of resources and time in generating the first control signal due to computational bottlenecks imposed by the calculations involved in estimation stage, different stages of matrix multiplications and the number of intermediate variables at each iteration and precludes its use in applications that have fast required response times and those which run on embedded computing platforms with low-power or low-cost requirements with constraints on resource usage. A salient feature of this study is that a new modular parallel pipelined stochastic approximation-based self-tuning regulator architecture which reduces the time required to generate the first control signal, reduces resource usage and reduces the number of intermediate variables is proposed. Fast matrix multiplication, pipelining and high-speed arithmetic function implementations were used for improving the performance. Results of implementation demonstrate that the proposed architecture has an improvement in control signal generation time by 38% and reduction in resource usage by 41% in terms of multipliers and 44.4% in terms of adders compared with the best existing related work, opening up new possibilities for the application of online embedded self-tuning regulators.

  20. The Emotional Resources Group: Provisional outcome data for a pilot six-session emotion regulation programme for secondary care.

    Bacon, Thomas; Doughty, Caitriona; Summers, Andrew; Wiffen, Benjamin; Stanley, Zoe; McAlpine, Susan

    2018-06-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a new, six-session emotion regulation group intervention designed for the secondary care setting: The Emotional Resources Group (ERG). In this pilot study, participants were recruited by referral from secondary care mental health services. Forty-seven individuals participated in the study. Participants who attended the ERG were compared on measures of emotion regulation, well-being, and self-efficacy, pre- and post-intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated highly statistically significant improvements in measures of emotion regulation, well-being, and self-efficacy, accompanied by large effect sizes. In addition, improvements in emotion regulation produced good rates of both reliable and clinically significant change. The ERG may be an effective, brief intervention to improve emotion regulation in the secondary care setting, worthy of further evaluation. Clinical implications Emotion regulation may be an appropriate treatment target to improve well-being and self-efficacy in a transdiagnostic population. The ERG may be effective as a brief emotion regulation intervention for secondary care mental health settings. Outcomes of the ERG appear to be equivalent to other more intensive group-based emotion regulation interventions. The ERG's tailored design may be responsible for positive outcomes. Limitations There was a small sample size. There was no control group. There was no follow-up data. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Sustainable recycling of automotive products in China: Technology and regulation

    Chen, Ming

    2006-08-01

    The Chinese economy is growing rapidly, but accompanyingsuch growth are issues of environmental protection and social inequity which must be addressed. With the Automobile Industry Development Policy and the Motor Vehicle Product Recovery Technology Policy, an automobile products recoverability target has been established and will be incorporated into an automobile products authentication management system in China. By 2010, for all end-of-life automobile products, reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85% by average weight per vehicle, and the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium is prohibited. This paper will address the sustainable recycling of Chinese automobile products within the period of 2006 2010.

  2. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  3. Sustainable Tourism and Use of Local Resources As Touristic Products: The Case Of Beysehir

    Erkan Akgoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is developing using its all resources particularly local touristic resources efficiently. However, as tourism sector could contribute the maintenance of the resources which it uses as touristic product, it also could cause their getting harm or destroyed as well. Tourism is developing using its all sources particularly local touristic sources efficiently. But, tourism sector would cause source’s getting harm or disappearing which it has used as touristic product as well as its contribution to maintenance of them.  Thus the most recently stated concept regarding tourism is the sustainable tourism concept.               In this study, which is conducted for this purpose, sustainable tourism in Beysehir, which has important specifications with its unique natural beauties, rich history and cultural assets, is researched. For this reason, important tourism assets of the region is determined at the beginning and general information related to these is given. Survey questions regarding the topic is prepared after this information. Datum which is obtained from the prepared survey questions are saved in the electronic media and evaluated by the proper software. According to these results, usage of local resources as touristic product and its relation to sustainable tourism is discussed.

  4. Regulation of sporicides under the European Biocidal Products Directive.

    Low, A

    2011-03-01

    Disinfectants (including sporicides) used in the healthcare setting fall within the scope of the European Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC). The active substances used in these products will be evaluated as part of an EU wide review programme, to determine whether they can be used in biocidal products without undue risks to humans, animals and the environment, and that these products will be effective. Following the review of an active substance, biocidal products containing the active substance will become subject to regulatory controls in all EU Member States. This paper discusses how the Directive operates, both through the review programme and the authorisation of biocidal products at the Member State level, together with the requirements to provide data on the efficacy of both the active substances and end-use biocidal products. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fumaric acid production using renewable resources from biodiesel and cane sugar production processes.

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Papapostolou, Harris; Alexandri, Maria; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise M G; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2018-04-13

    The microbial production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582 has been evaluated using soybean cake from biodiesel production processes and very high polarity (VHP) sugar from sugarcane mills. Soybean cake was converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate via a two-stage bioprocess involving crude enzyme production via solid state fermentations (SSF) of either Aspergillus oryzae or R. arrhizus cultivated on soybean cake followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean cake. The soybean cake hydrolysate produced using crude enzymes derived via SSF of R. arrhizus was supplemented with VHP sugar and evaluated using different initial free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/L) in fed-batch cultures for fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentration (27.3 g/L) and yield (0.7 g/g of total consumed sugars) were achieved when the initial FAN concentration was 200 mg/L. The combination of VHP sugar with soybean cake hydrolysate derived from crude enzymes produced by SSF of A. oryzae at 200 mg/L initial FAN concentration led to the production of 40 g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.86 g/g of total consumed sugars. The utilization of sugarcane molasses led to low fumaric acid production by R. arrhizus, probably due to the presence of various minerals and phenolic compounds. The promising results achieved through the valorization of VHP sugar and soybean cake suggest that a focused study on molasses pretreatment could lead to enhanced fumaric acid production.

  6. Are uranium resources sufficient to face the expected revival of nuclear electricity production in the world?

    Seyve, C.

    2007-11-01

    This article proposes a table containing assessments of uranium resources in 2005 in different countries, and comments the evolution of uranium prices between 1968 and 2008. It discusses whether it would be possible to cope with a dramatic increase of uranium prices, whether it would be already possible to save uranium with the same level of electricity production, whether there is still some uranium resources to be discovered, whether we could rely on non conventional uranium sources (phosphates, sea water), and the role of future reactors

  7. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  8. MODERN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PRODUCTION OF JSC «MINSK TRAKTOR PLANT»

    F. A. Domotenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the main world tendencies of development of the production technology of sandy cores and value of this production in complex technology of manufacture of castings are considered. It is established that the most rational way of production technically and economically is manufacture of wafer sandy cores using the Cold-box-amin technology. Scientific, technical, technological and economic aspects of modernization of foundry production of JSC MTZ with complete transition to production of sandy cores on the resource-saving Cold-box-amin technology are provided. The main distinctive feature of this reequipment – all planned works are based on the domestic technological developments and the equipment created in the cooperation by specialists of JSC BELNIILIT and JSC MTZ. Within GNTP essential support to the provided works was given by the state.

  9. Should Anthroposophic Medicinal Products Be Regulated in Europe?

    Michaux, Geneviève

    2017-03-01

    European Commission’s reports suggest that the European Union should address the status of anthroposophic products, i.e. products that are developed, manufactured and prescribed in accordance with the holistic approach on which anthroposophic medicine is based. Anthroposophic products cannot be placed as such on the European market because they cannot meet the marketing authorisation or even registration requirements set out by European or national pharmaceutical law. Yet, the 95-year European tradition and good safety profile of anthroposophic products justify giving them an easier access to market. Such access can result from specific rules on anthroposophic products, but can be more efficiently achieved by encouraging the Member States to better apply the existing rules on marketing authorisation procedures or on registration of homeopathic and traditional herbal medicinal products, or by including anthroposophic substances, manufacturing methods or uses in monographs.

  10. Measuring the impact of computer resource quality on the software development process and product

    Mcgarry, Frank; Valett, Jon; Hall, Dana

    1985-01-01

    The availability and quality of computer resources during the software development process was speculated to have measurable, significant impact on the efficiency of the development process and the quality of the resulting product. Environment components such as the types of tools, machine responsiveness, and quantity of direct access storage may play a major role in the effort to produce the product and in its subsequent quality as measured by factors such as reliability and ease of maintenance. During the past six years, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has conducted experiments with software projects in an attempt to better understand the impact of software development methodologies, environments, and general technologies on the software process and product. Data was extracted and examined from nearly 50 software development projects. All were related to support of satellite flight dynamics ground-based computations. The relationship between computer resources and the software development process and product as exemplified by the subject NASA data was examined. Based upon the results, a number of computer resource-related implications are provided.

  11. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  12. Uranium resources production and demand: a forty years evaluation 'Red book retrospective'

    2007-01-01

    Uranium Resources, Production and Demand, also familiarly known as the ''Red Book'' is a biennial publication produced jointly by the NEA and the IAEA under the auspices of the joint NEA/IAEA Uranium Group. The first edition was published in 1965. The red book retrospective was undertaken to collect, analyse and publish all of the key information collected in the 20 editions of the Red Book published between 1965 and 2004. The red book gives a full historical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resources, reactor-related requirements, inventories and price. It provides in depth information relating to the histories of the major uranium producing countries. Thus for the first time a comprehensive look at annual and cumulative production and demand of uranium since the inception of the atomic age is possible. Expert analysis provide fresh insights into important aspects of the industry including the cost of discovery, resources to production ratios and the time to reach production after discovery. (A.L.B.)

  13. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  14. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  15. In vitro production of growth regulators and phosphatase activity by ...

    The result showed that the population levels of phosphobacteria were higher in the rhizosphere soil of groundnut plant. Further, all the strains of phosphobacteria were able to produce phytohormones and phosphatase enzyme under in vitro conditions. Keywords: In vitro, phosphobacteria, growth regulators ...

  16. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Uphoff Norman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  17. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008; Charbon: ressources, reserves et production - Panorama 2008

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity.

  18. Resource pulses in desert river habitats: productivity-biodiversity hotspots, or mirages?

    Free, Carissa L; Baxter, Greg S; Dickman, Christopher R; Leung, Luke K P

    2013-01-01

    Resource pulses in the world's hot deserts are driven largely by rainfall and are highly variable in both time and space. However, run-on areas and drainage lines in arid regions receive more water more often than adjacent habitats, and frequently sustain relatively high levels of primary productivity. These landscape features therefore may support higher biotic diversity than other habitats, and potentially act as refuges for desert vertebrates and other biota during droughts. We used the ephemeral Field River in the Simpson Desert, central Australia, as a case study to quantify how resources and habitat characteristics vary spatially and temporally along the riparian corridor. Levels of moisture and nutrients were greater in the clay-dominated soils of the riverine corridor than in the surrounding sand dunes, as were cover values of trees, annual grasses, other annual plants and litter; these resources and habitat features were also greater near the main catchment area than in the distal reaches where the river channel runs out into extensive dune fields. These observations confirm that the riverine corridor is more productive than the surrounding desert, and support the idea that it may act as a refuge or as a channel for the ingress of peri-desert species. However, the work also demonstrates that species diversity of invertebrates and plants is not higher within the river corridor; rather, it is driven by rainfall and the accompanying increase in annual plants following a rain event. Further research is required to identify the biota that depend upon these resource pulses.

  19. Optimizing new components of PanDA for ATLAS production on HPC resources

    Maeno, Tadashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade. It uses pilots to retrieve jobs from the PanDA server and execute them on worker nodes. While PanDA has been mostly used on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) resources for production operations, R&D work has been ongoing on cloud and HPC resources for many years. These efforts have led to the significant usage of large scale HPC resources in the past couple of years. In this talk we will describe the changes to the pilot which enabled the use of HPC sites by PanDA, specifically the Titan supercomputer at Oakridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, it was decided in 2016 to start a fresh redesign of the Pilot with a more modern approach to better serve present and future needs from ATLAS and other collaborations that are interested in using the PanDA System. Another new project for development of a resource oriented service, PanDA Harvester, was also launched in 2016. The...

  20. The significance of regulation and land use patterns on natural gas resource estimates in the Marcellus shale

    Blohm, Andrew; Peichel, Jeremy; Smith, Caroline; Kougentakis, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Recent advancements in natural gas extraction (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) have significantly increased natural gas reserves in the United States. Estimates of the technically recoverable natural gas (TRR) in the Marcellus range between 141 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 489 TCF. However, TRR estimation does not incorporate existing policies, regulations, or land use. We find that approximately 48% of the Marcellus in New York and Pennsylvania is inaccessible given land use patterns and current policy. In New York, approximately 83% of the Marcellus is inaccessible; while in Pennsylvania about 32% of the Marcellus is off limits to drilling. The New York portion of the Marcellus is estimated to have a TRR of between 19.9 TCF and 68.9 TCF. We estimate that 79% of the resource is inaccessible, which results in an accessible resource estimate of between 4.2 TCF and 14.4 TCF. In Pennsylvania, the shale gas TRR is estimated at 86.6–300 TCF. However, we estimate that 31% of the resource is inaccessible, which results in an accessible resource estimate of between 60.0 TCF and 208 TCF. - Highlights: ► Existing natural gas reserve estimation techniques ignore land use, regulations, and policies. ► The impact of land use and regulation on the recoverable natural gas resource is significant. ► 48% of the Marcellus Shale in New York and Pennsylvania is inaccessible to drilling. ► In New York, approximately 83% of the Marcellus is inaccessible. ► In Pennsylvania about 32% of the Marcellus is off limits to drilling.

  1. Material flow analysis for resource management towards resilient palm oil production

    Kamahara, H.; Faisal, M.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste generated from palm oil mill can be considered not only as the feedstock of renewable energy but also as the nutrient-rich resources to produce organic fertilizer. This study explored the appropriate resource management towards resilient palm oil production by applying material flow analysis. This study was conducted based on two palm oil mills in Lampung, Indonesia. The results showed that the empty fruit bunch (EFB) has the largest potential in terms of amount and energy among the biomass waste. The results also showed that the palm oil mills themselves had already self-managed their energy consumption thatwas obtained from palm kernel shell and palm press fiber. Finally, this study recommended the several utilization options of EFB for improvement of soil sustainability to contribute towards resilient palm oil production.

  2. LnqR, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator, positively regulates lacticin Q production in Lactococcus lactis QU 5.

    Iwatani, Shun; Ishibashi, Naoki; Flores, Floirendo P; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Lacticin Q is an unmodified leaderless bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis QU 5. It has been revealed that the production and self-immunity of lacticin Q are facilitated by a gene cluster lnqQBCDEF The gene for a putative TetR-family transcriptional regulator, termed lnqR, was found nearby the lnqQBCDEF cluster, but its involvement in lacticin Q biosynthesis remained unknown. In this study, we created an LnqR-overexpressing QU 5 recombinant by using lactococcal constitutive promoter P32 The recombinant QU 5 showed enhanced production of and self-immunity to lacticin Q. RT-PCR analysis has revealed that an overexpression of LnqR increases the amounts of lnqQBCDEF transcripts, and these six genes are transcribed as an operon in a single transcriptional unit. Interestingly, LnqR expression and thus lacticin Q production by L. lactis QU 5 was found temperature dependent, while LnzR, an LnqR-homologue, in L. lactis QU 14 was expressed in a similar but not identical manner to LnqR, resulting in dissimilar bacteriocin productivities by these strains. This report demonstrates LnqR as the first TetR-family transcriptional regulator involved in LAB bacteriocin biosynthesis and that, as an exceptional case of TetR-family regulators, LnqR positively regulates the transcription of these biosynthetic genes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Developments in uranium resources, production, demand and the environment. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    2005-01-01

    Globalization has led to growing importance of the uranium production industries of the world's developing countries. Uranium supply from these countries could be increasingly important in satisfying worldwide reactor requirements over time. Along with the increasing contribution to worldwide uranium supply, the environmental impact of uranium production in developing countries has come under increasing scrutiny from the nuclear power industry, the end-users of this supply, and from communities impacted by uranium mining and processing. The papers presented at the meeting on 'Developments in Uranium Resources, Production, Demand and the Environment' provide an important overview of uranium production operations and of their environmental consequences in developing countries, as well as offering insight into future production plans and potential. Along with their increasing contribution to worldwide uranium supply, the environmental impact of uranium production in developing countries has come under increasing scrutiny from the nuclear power industry, the end users of this supply, and by communities impacted by uranium mining and processing. Therefore, the environmental consequences of uranium production were included in the meeting agenda as noted in the meeting title, 'Developments in uranium resources, production, demand and the environment'. Accordingly, the papers presented at this meeting are about evenly divided between discussions of known and potential uranium resources and uranium production technology and the environmental impact of uranium mining and processing, its related remediation technology and its costs. Though emphasis is placed on uranium programmes in developing countries, an overview of COGEMA's worldwide activities is also presented. This presentation provides insight into the strategies of arguably the Western world's most integrated and diversified uranium company, including the geographic diversity of its exploration and production

  4. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOOD ADDITIVES FROM PUMPKIN PROCESSING SECONDARY RESOURCES

    Kupin G. A.; Kornen N. N.; Matvienko A. N.; Shahray T. A.; Pershakova T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents data characterizing the composition of macro and micronutrients from secondary resources of pumpkin processing – pumpkin pomace. We have found that extracts of pumpkin are valuable raw materials for the production of food additives, as they contain proteins, dietary fiber, including pectin and protopectin, minerals, as well as such biologically active substances as vitamin C, β- carotene and P-active substances using nuclear magnetic relaxation, it is shown that pretreatm...

  5. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production, regulation and transportation of bacillibactin in bacillus subtilis

    Raza, W.; Hussain, Q.; Shen, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis produces a catecholate type siderophore 'Bacillibactin'. This review focuses on the non-ribosomal synthesis, transport and regulation of bacillibactin. Bacillibactin biosynthetic operon contains five genes (dhbACEBF). The uptake of bacillibactin requires the FeuABC transporter, inner-membrane permease, FepDG and YusV ATPase and an esterase encoding gene, besA and while export required YmfE major facilitator super-family (MFS)-type transporter. Fur is the major iron-controlled transcriptional regulator in B. subtilis, which acts as an iron-dependent repressor of the dhb operon in vivo while an iron-independent repressor in vitro. Knowledge of the Fur regulon will be useful in interpreting other global analysis of transcriptional responses. (author)

  7. Hanford regulated laundry: inventory control and production improvement study

    Hostick, C. J.; Imhoff, C. H.; Levine, L. O.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to assist the Hanford regulated laundry facility in reducing processing costs and in improving facility performance. Specific problem areas addressed were: no method for determining optimum manpower requirements, resulting in excessive amounts of employee overtime; no buffer inventory available to offset demand peaks, resulting in additional employee overtime and unmet demand; lack of adequate inventory control, resulting in unnecessary inventory costs; and no detailed analysis of the impact of 100% monitoring.

  8. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  9. Impact of the severity of vasomotor symptoms on health status, resource use, and productivity.

    Whiteley, Jennifer; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Bushmakin, Andrew; Kopenhafer, Lewis; Dibonaventura, Marco; Racketa, Jill

    2013-05-01

    The current study characterizes health-related quality of life, work productivity, and resource use among postmenopausal women by severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Participants were selected from the 2010 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Women aged 40 to 75 years who did not report a history of menstrual bleeding or spotting for 1 year were eligible for analysis (N = 3,267). Cohorts of women with no VMS (n = 1,740), mild VMS (n = 931), moderate VMS (n = 462), and severe VMS (n = 134) were compared after controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures were assessed using linear models and included health status, work productivity within the past 7 days, and healthcare resource use within the past 6 months. The mean age of women experiencing severe VMS was 57.92 years. After demographic and health characteristics had been controlled for, women experiencing severe and moderate VMS reported significantly lower mean health status scores compared with women with no symptoms (P women with severe, moderate, or mild symptoms than among women with no symptoms (P women experiencing VMS, women with severe and moderate symptoms had adjusted presenteeism of 24.28% and 14.3%, versus 4.33% in women with mild symptoms (P women with mild symptoms (P women, a greater severity of VMS is significantly associated with lower levels of health status and work productivity, and greater healthcare resource use.

  10. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  11. Examples of NRC research products used in regulation

    Anderson, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    The key to effective research is a close relationship between information needs and research results. This can only be achieved by close cooperation between the researchers and the regulators. At the NRC, this relationship has matured over the years until now the researchers participate in definition of the information needs and the regulators help define the research programs. The more formal means of ensuring a close match between needs and results include joint research groups, oversight working groups, and a system of Research Information Letters (RILs). On an informal basis there are many day to day discussions and meetings on the various programs which ensure effective program guidance and early identification of significant findings. This paper describes both the formal and informal researcher/regulation interface and discusses some examples of how specific research programs are utilized in the regulatory process. Specific programs described are the pressurized thermal shock program, the seismic margins program and the Category 1 structures program. Other examples cited are the aging and life extension programs

  12. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  13. Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes?

    Dorris, Derek C

    2009-11-01

    Ego-depletion (depletion of self-regulatory strength) can impair conscious efforts at self-regulation. Research into nonconscious self-regulation has demonstrated that preconscious automaticity and implementation intentions can automatically carry out regulatory tasks during times of ego-depletion. However, preconscious automaticity can only emerge during well-practiced tasks while implementation intentions can only support tasks that have been explicitly planned. Thus, when it comes to supporting the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour during times of ego-depletion these processes should be ineffective. However, it is argued here that because the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour can incidentally prime the underlying mental representations those primed representations can be postconsciously re-activated to support that behaviour during times of ego-depletion. Postconscious self-regulation might, therefore, support a type of self-regulatory behaviour that has, thus far, not been associated with any form of support.

  14. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  16. Self-Regulated Assignment Attack Strategy: Evaluating the Effects of a Classroom-Level Intervention on Student Management of Curricular Activities in a Resource Context

    Ness, Bryan M.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a classroom-based strategy instruction package grounded in self-regulated learning. The Self-Regulated Assignment Attack Strategy (SAAS) targeted self-regulation of assignment management and related academic-behavioral variables for 6th grade students in resource support classrooms. SAAS was…

  17. The Joint NEA/IAEA Uranium Group -- its role in assessing world uranium resources, production, demand and environmental activities and issues

    Barthel, F.H.; Vera, I.

    2002-01-01

    In 1965 a 20-page report entitled World Uranium and Thorium Resources was published by the OECD-European Nuclear Energy Agency. Today, 35 years later, the report is jointly prepared by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency and the IAEA and published by the OECD. The report: Uranium Resources, Production and Demand also known as the Red Book is in its 18th edition. It is the only official publication on world uranium statistics and provides information from 45 or more countries. One aim of the Red Book is to obtain a uniform, worldwide acceptable classification of uranium resources. The Red Book provides statistics and analyses for resources, exploration, production, demand, secondary sources, surplus defence material and the supply and demand relationship. The sales records indicate that it is used as reference material for various purposes including public and private libraries, energy companies, uranium production companies, national and international organisation, universities and other research and business institutions. In 1996 a study was started which led to the 1999 report: Environmental Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling, a companion to the Red Book. This complementary report provides information on the site characterization, dismantling and decommissioning, waste management, water remediation, long term monitoring policies and regulations for 29 countries. A second report entitled 'Environmental Remediation of Uranium Production Facilities' is being prepared. (author)

  18. Lack of patients? A hypothesis for understanding discrepancies between hospital resources and productivity.

    Bratlid, Dag

    2006-04-02

    Despite a substantial increase in hospital resources, increased hospital admissions and out-patient visits, long waiting lists have been a significant problem in Norwegian health care. A detailed analysis of the development in resource allocation and productivity at St. Olavs University Hospital in central Norway was therefore undertaken. Resource allocation and patient volume was analysed during the period 1995 to 2001. Data were analysed both for emergency and elective admissions as well as outpatient visits specified into new referrals and follow-up consultations. Full time employee equivalents for doctors and nurses increased by 36.6% and 25.9%, respectively, and all employees by 28.1%. However, admitted patients, outpatient consultations and surgical procedures only increased by 10%, 15% and 8.3%, respectively. Thus, the productivity for each hospital employee, defined as operations pr. surgeon, outpatient consultations pr. doctor etc. was significantly reduced. A striking finding was that although the number of outpatient consultations increased, the number of new referrals actually went down and the whole increase in activity at the outpatient clinics could be explained by a substantial increase in follow-up consultations. This trend was more evident in the surgical departments, where some departments actually showed a reduction in total outpatient consultations. In view of the slow increase in hospital activity in spite of a significant increase in resources, it can be speculated that patient volume might be a limiting factor for hospital activity. The health market (patient population) might not be big enough in relation to the investments in increased production capacity (equipment and manpower).

  19. Becoming a law to regulate the production and use of chemicals: the problems of technical regulation

    О. С. Бабенко

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The system of legal regulation of the management of chemicals in Ukraine, although it has become a development, but is very imperfect. The main problems concerning technical legislation, the resolution of which will improve the systems of standardization and certification focused on European practice.

  20. Renewable resource regulation and uncertain prices: The role of financial structure and bankruptcy

    Damania, Richard; Bulte, Erwin H.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the interaction between regulatory policies and the financial structure of a fishery and show that firms with debts may respond differently to regulations than firms that have not accumulated debts. There are conditions where more stringent regulation is counterproductive, providing a perverse incentive to increase harvesting effort. We show that optimal regulation depends on the sector's financial structure, and demonstrate that there are cases when intervention is counterproductive, or too costly to implement. There are also cases where successful regulatory intervention can only be implemented when accompanied by a sufficiently large subsidy. (author)

  1. Resource partitioning within major bottom fish species in a highly productive upwelling ecosystem

    Abdellaoui, Souad; El Halouani, Hassan; Tai, Imane; Masski, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    The Saharan Bank (21-26°N) is a wide subtropical continental shelf and a highly productive upwelling ecosystem. The bottom communities are dominated by octopus and sparid fish, which are the main targets of bottom-trawl fishing fleets. To investigate resource partitioning within the bottom fish community, adult fish from 14 of the most abundant species were investigated for stomach content analysis. Samples were collected during two periods: October 2003 and May 2007. The diet of the analysed species showed more variation between periods than between size classes, suggesting that temporal or spatial variability in prey availability appears to play a significant role in their diet. Multivariate analysis and subsequent clustering led to a grouping of the species within five trophic guilds. Two species were fish feeders, and the others mainly fed on benthic invertebrates, where epibenthic crustaceans, lamellibranchs and fish were the most important groups in defining trophic guilds. We found that the studied species had a high rate of overlapping spatial distributions and overlapping trophic niches. In this highly productive upwelling ecosystem, where food resources may not be a limiting factor, inter-specific competition did not appear to be an important factor in structuring bottom fish communities. For the species that showed differences in the proportions of prey categories in comparison with other ecosystems, the rise of the proportion of epibenthic crustaceans in their diet was a common feature; a possible consequence of the benthic productivity of this highly productive upwelling ecosystem.

  2. Workplace productivity, employment issues, and resource utilization in patients with bipolar I disorder.

    McMorris, Barbara J; Downs, Kristen E; Panish, Jessica M; Dirani, Riad

    2010-03-01

    To collect workplace productivity and healthcare utilization data from subjects with bipolar I disorder and compare the results with those from normative subjects. A cross sectional survey was administered to patients and recruiting physicians. Data collected included employment status, Endicott Workplace Productivity Scale (EWPS) results, healthcare resource utilization, and quality-of-life. In comparison with normative subjects, bipolar I subjects reported lower levels of work productivity (measured by the EWPS). Bipolar I subjects also reported more frequent outpatient visits and more prescribed pharmaceuticals. Bipolar I subjects were more likely to miss work, have worked reduced hours due to medical or mental health issues, receive disability payments, been involved in a crime, be uninsured or covered by Medicare, or have been fired or laid off. The study groups were age- and gender-matched to reduce the impact of selection bias associated with a non-randomized study design. Other potential limitations affecting the results of the study include recall bias and possibly an impact of different data collection methods (e.g. Internet versus telephone). Bipolar I disorder is associated with a negative effect on work productivity and resource utilization and is an appropriate disease management target for employers and healthcare decision makers.

  3. Consumer and Commercial Products, Group IV: Control Techniques Guidelines in Lieu of Regulations

    EPA has determined that control techniques guidelines (CTGs) will be substantially as effective as regulations in reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in ozone nonattainment areas for certain consumer and commercial product categories.

  4. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources. A case study with SuperMuc and Hydra

    Duckeck, Guenter; Walker, Rodney [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Kennedy, John; Mazzaferro, Luca [RZG Garching (Germany); Kluth, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The possible usage of Supercomputer systems or HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. The corresponding need for simulated data might potentially exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This contribution presents the results of two projects undertaken by LMU/LRZ and MPP/RZG to use the supercomputer facilities SuperMuc (LRZ) and Hydra (RZG). Both are Linux based supercomputers in the 100 k CPU-core category. The integration of such HPC resources into the ATLAS production system poses many challenges. Firstly, established techniques and features of standard WLCG operation are prohibited or much restricted on HPC systems, e.g. Grid middleware, software installation, outside connectivity, etc. Secondly, efficient use of available resources requires massive multi-core jobs, back-fill submission and check-pointing. We discuss the customization of these components and the strategies for HPC usage as well as possibilities for future directions.

  5. Uranium production - needs and 'in the ground' resources, situation in 2007 and perspectives

    Capus, G.

    2007-01-01

    Under the combined effect of energies price increase and of the worldwide growing fear of global warming effects, nuclear power is again entering a favorable era. The questions of how much and how long it might bring a significant contribution to global power supplies must be addressed. In particular, it is worth considering uranium production capability and its long term perspective, in accordance to the currently available knowledge about uranium resources. Also, the issue of world resources geographic distribution should be analyzed from a security of supply viewpoint. The careful analysis of all available information leads us to the following conclusive remarks. The current tension on uranium market prices is by no mean a signal of 'in the ground' resources depletion. It is just the temporary consequence of a too long depressed market. There are enough identified and foreseen uranium resources to quietly start a huge power plant fleet increase (a doubling or tripling the current installed capacity by 2030). Ultimately, several types within the generation 4 reactors allow us to envisage a very far extended use of currently available fissile and fertile nuclear material, along with a significant expansion of fission based nuclear power. (author)

  6. Resource Use in the Production and Consumption System—The MIPS Approach

    Christa Liedtke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept Material Input per Service Unit (MIPS was developed 20 years ago as a measure for the overall natural resource use of products and services. The material intensity analysis is used to calculate the material footprint of any economic activities in production and consumption. Environmental assessment has developed extensive databases for life cycle inventories, which can additionally be adopted for material intensity analysis. Based on practical experience in measuring material footprints on the micro level, this paper presents the current state of research and methodology development: it shows the international discussions on the importance of accounting methodologies to measure progress in resource efficiency. The MIPS approach is presented and its micro level application for assessing value chains, supporting business management, and operationalizing sustainability strategies is discussed. Linkages to output-oriented Life Cycle Assessment as well as to Material Flow Analysis (MFA at the macro level are pointed out. Finally we come to the conclusion that the MIPS approach provides relevant knowledge on resource and energy input at the micro level for fact-based decision-making in science, policy, business, and consumption.

  7. Hydro-economic modeling of the role of forests on water resources production in Andalusia, Spain

    Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Álvarez-Palomino, Alejandro; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of more refined information tools is a pre-requisite for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. Among these tools, hydro-economic models are favoured because they allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure and economic aspects into a coherent, scientifically-informed framework. We present a case study that assesses physically the water resources of forest lands of the Andalusia region in Spain and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of the forest surface water yield. We show how, based on available hydrologic and economic data, we can develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is part of the larger RECAMAN project, which aims at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income an capital generated by the forest land, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). Only a comprehensive integrated tool such as the one built within the RECAMAN project may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  8. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    Mann, R.A.; Munir, M.; Haqqani, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  9. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  10. Human resource development contributes to the creation of outstanding regenerative medicine products

    Fusako Nishigaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine is currently the focus of global attention. Countries all around the world are actively working to create new regenerative treatment modalities through pioneering research and novel technologies. This is wonderful news for patients who could not be treated with existing medical options. New venture businesses and companies are being established in regenerative medicine and their rapid industrialization is anticipated. However, to ensure high-quality products, human resources qualified in research and development and the manufacturing of these products are essential. The Forum for Innovative Regenerative Medicine (FIRM conducted a questionnaire of its industry members to examine the training and hiring of people in research and development, product creation, manufacturing, and more. Regenerative medicine is a brand new field; thus, many different businesses will need to cooperate together. People with a broad range of technical skills, abilities, and knowledge will be in demand, with various levels of expertise, from basic to advanced.

  11. Nano-Immobilized Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Renewable and Sustainable Resources

    Keon Hee Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cost of biodiesel production relies on feedstock cost. Edible oil is unfavorable as a biodiesel feedstock because of its expensive price. Thus, non-edible crop oil, waste oil, and microalgae oil have been considered as alternative resources. Non-edible crop oil and waste cooking oil are more suitable for enzymatic transesterification because they include a large amount of free fatty acids. Recently, enzymes have been integrated with nanomaterials as immobilization carriers. Nanomaterials can increase biocatalytic efficiency. The development of a nano-immobilized enzyme is one of the key factors for cost-effective biodiesel production. This paper presents the technology development of nanomaterials, including nanoparticles (magnetic and non-magnetic, carbon nanotubes, and nanofibers, and their application to the nano-immobilization of biocatalysts. The current status of biodiesel production using a variety of nano-immobilized lipase is also discussed.

  12. Reticulophagy and Ribophagy: Regulated Degradation of Protein Production Factories

    Eduardo Cebollero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During autophagy, cytosol, protein aggregates, and organelles are sequestered into double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome/vacuole for breakdown and recycling of their basic components. In all eukaryotes this pathway is important for adaptation to stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation, as well as to regulate intracellular homeostasis by adjusting organelle number and clearing damaged structures. For a long time, starvation-induced autophagy has been viewed as a nonselective transport pathway; however, recent studies have revealed that autophagy is able to selectively engulf specific structures, ranging from proteins to entire organelles. In this paper, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms and physiological implications of two selective types of autophagy: ribophagy, the specific degradation of ribosomes, and reticulophagy, the selective elimination of portions of the ER.

  13. Regulation as a political contest: the probability of conservation of a renewable resource

    Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2017-01-01

    How do the levels of extreme positions of various interest groups influence the conservation policies in the context of a renewable resource conservation contest? To answer this question, a model is provided where conservation policy is determined as a contest between two opposing interest groups......: one in favor of conservation and another in favor of non-conservation. The levels of extreme positions for the conservationalists are determined by their demands about the severity of the conservation strategy that needs to be implemented. For the non-conservation group, the level of extreme position...... is determined by how large the current harvest of the resource should be. The main driver of the model is that resource conservation is realized only if the conservation group wins the contest, which again depends on the relative gain the two contenders receive when winning the contest. The paper derives...

  14. Foreign investment regulation and firm productivity: Granular evidence from Indonesia

    Genthner, Robert; Kis-Katos, Krisztina

    2018-01-01

    Based on a yearly census of Indonesian manufacturing firms for 2000-2014, we investigate the effects of a sector-specific investment policy reform on firm productivity. Hereby we exploit a protectionist foreign direct investment reform (the so-called negative investment list) that designated certain sectors at the five-digit level to become closed or only conditionally open to foreign investors. The list was first released in 2000 and has been repeatedly revised by the Indonesian authorities ...

  15. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  16. Robo signaling regulates the production of cranial neural crest cells.

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Tan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    Slit/Robo signaling plays an important role in the guidance of developing neurons in developing embryos. However, it remains obscure whether and how Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the production of cranial neural crest cells. In this study, we examined Robo1 deficient mice to reveal developmental defects of mouse cranial frontal and parietal bones, which are derivatives of cranial neural crest cells. Therefore, we determined the production of HNK1 + cranial neural crest cells in early chick embryo development after knock-down (KD) of Robo1 expression. Detection of markers for pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, PAX7 and AP-2α, showed that production of both was affected by Robo1 KD. In addition, we found that the transcription factor slug is responsible for the aberrant delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells induced by Robo1 KD, which also led to elevated expression of E- and N-Cadherin. N-Cadherin expression was enhanced when blocking FGF signaling with dominant-negative FGFR1 in half of the neural tube. Taken together, we show that Slit/Robo signaling influences the delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells, which is required for cranial bone development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Iranian staff nurses' views of their productivity and human resource factors improving and impeding it: a qualitative study

    Salsali Mahvash

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses, as the largest human resource element of health care systems, have a major role in providing ongoing, high-quality care to patients. Productivity is a significant indicator of professional development within any professional group, including nurses. The human resource element has been identified as the most important factor affecting productivity. This research aimed to explore nurses' perceptions and experiences of productivity and human resource factors improving or impeding it. Method A qualitative approach was used to obtain rich data; open, semi-structured interviews were also conducted. The sampling was based on the maximum variant approach; data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Results Participants indicated that human resources issues are the most important factor in promoting or impeding their productivity. They suggested that the factors influencing effectiveness of human resource elements include: systematic evaluation of staff numbers; a sound selection process based on verifiable criteria; provision of an adequate staffing level throughout the year; full involvement of the ward sister in the process of admitting patients; and sound communication within the care team. Paying attention to these factors creates a suitable background for improved productivity and decreases negative impacts of human resource shortages, whereas ignoring or interfering with them would result in lowering of nurses' productivity. Conclusion Participants maintained that satisfactory human resources can improve nurses' productivity and the quality of care they provide; thereby fulfilling the core objective of the health care system.

  18. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  19. Evolution and development of laws, regulations, criteria and human resources to ensure the safe decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Thailand

    Keinmeesuke, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Research Reactor, TRR-1 (renamed TRR-1/M1 after core replacement) in Thailand has been operated for more than 43 years. This ageing reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Laws and Regulations have been continually developed to assure the safe operation of nuclear facilities, particularly of the research reactor, and to ensure the safe decommissioning of the reactor after its operational life. However, the Thai nuclear legislation is still not applicable to a number of areas. Office of Atoms for Peace is working toward development of a new consolidated Act. In addition, the licensing steps for modification and decommissioning are added to the new Ministerial Regulation and to the new guidance documents on the licensing process for research reactors. Regulations, guidance and criteria for approval of decommissioning are being developed using the IAEA Safety Standards Series as the main basis for drafting. Human resource development is considered as one of the key important factor to ensure safe decommissioning of the installation. Staffing and training of the operating organization and the regulatory body personnel have been addressed to ensure the achievement of competency level. Simple methods and technologies are the best means for implementation while learning from experience of others will help and support us in our attempt to be the 'second First'. IAEA advice and assistance on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in countries with limited resources is desirable. (author)

  20. Resource Pulses in Desert River Habitats: Productivity-Biodiversity Hotspots, or Mirages?

    Free, Carissa L.; Baxter, Greg S.; Dickman, Christopher R.; Leung, Luke K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Resource pulses in the world's hot deserts are driven largely by rainfall and are highly variable in both time and space. However, run-on areas and drainage lines in arid regions receive more water more often than adjacent habitats, and frequently sustain relatively high levels of primary productivity. These landscape features therefore may support higher biotic diversity than other habitats, and potentially act as refuges for desert vertebrates and other biota during droughts. We used the ephemeral Field River in the Simpson Desert, central Australia, as a case study to quantify how resources and habitat characteristics vary spatially and temporally along the riparian corridor. Levels of moisture and nutrients were greater in the clay-dominated soils of the riverine corridor than in the surrounding sand dunes, as were cover values of trees, annual grasses, other annual plants and litter; these resources and habitat features were also greater near the main catchment area than in the distal reaches where the river channel runs out into extensive dune fields. These observations confirm that the riverine corridor is more productive than the surrounding desert, and support the idea that it may act as a refuge or as a channel for the ingress of peri-desert species. However, the work also demonstrates that species diversity of invertebrates and plants is not higher within the river corridor; rather, it is driven by rainfall and the accompanying increase in annual plants following a rain event. Further research is required to identify the biota that depend upon these resource pulses. PMID:24124446

  1. 75 FR 1271 - Technical Revisions to the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Regulations on Income and Resources

    2010-01-11

    ... extend the home exclusion to beneficiaries who, because of domestic abuse, leave a home that had... Domestic Abuse An SSI applicant's or beneficiary's home and associated land are excluded from resources by... abuse leaves the home and resides elsewhere. Currently, a victim fleeing from domestic abuse may return...

  2. The institutional regulation of the sustainability of water resources within mining contexts: accountability and plurality

    Sosa Landeo, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent literature on water and mining and uses illustrations from a large gold mine, Yanacocha, operating in Peru, to assess the effectiveness of institutional mechanisms for safeguarding the sustainability of water resources (and water-based ecosystems) in mining regions. The

  3. Health resource allocation and productive efficiency of Chinese county hospitals: data from 1993 to 2005.

    Gai, Ruoyan Y; Zhou, Chengchao C; Xu, Lingzhong Z; Zhu, Min; Wang, Xingzhou Z; Li, Shixue X; Zheng, Wengui G; Song, Peipei P; Yang, Xuelai L; Fang, Liyi Y; Zhen, Yancheng C; Tang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    This study aims to assess trends in the productive efficiency of China's county hospitals during the economic transition using data from 1993 to 2005. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework was used to calculate the efficiency score of county hospitals in all 31 provinces. A C²R model and a BC² model were devised to respectively calculate overall and scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency at the hospital's current scale. Models included four inputs (number of medical staff; number of beds; value of fixed capital; and hospital expenditures) and three outputs (outpatient and emergency visits, number of inpatients, and hospital revenue) in total. As the results, geographical disparities in health resource allocation and county hospital productivity were noted. From 1993 to 2005, the number of county hospitals increased and their inputs, e.g. fixed capital in particular, grew rapidly. However, the amount of both outpatient and inpatient services declined somewhat especially in the middle and the western regions. The overall efficiency at the national level decreased slightly. County hospitals in the eastern region tended to have better overall, scale, and technical efficiency in comparison to the middle and the western regions. In conclusion, county hospitals are inefficient due to their enlarged scale and the reduced amount of health care services they provide. This issue should be addressed especially in the middle and the western regions, where health resources are far more limited and yet wasted. The effects of ongoing health sector reform on the productivity of county hospitals must be monitored and evaluated.

  4. Fire Weather Products for Public and Emergency Use: Extending Professional Resources to the Public

    Rogers, M. A.; Schranz, S.; Kriederman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Large wildfires require significant resources to combat, including dedicated meteorological support to provide accurate and timely forecasts to assist incident commanders in making decisions for logistical and tactical firefighting operations. Smaller fires often require the same capabilities for understanding fire and the fire weather environment, but access to needed resources and tools is often limited due to technical, training, or education limitations. Providing fire weather information and training to incident commanders for smaller wildfires should prove to enhance firefighting capabilities and improve safety for both firefighters and for the public as well. One of the premier tools used to support fire weather forecasting for the largest wildfires is the FX-Net product, a thin-client version of the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System used by NWS incident meteorologists (IMETs) deployed to large wildfires. We present results from an ongoing project to extend the sophisticated products available from FX-Net to more accessible and mobile software platforms, such as Google Earth. The project involves input from IMETs and fire commanders to identify the key parameters used in fighting wildfires, and involves a large training component for fire responders to utilize simplified products to improve understanding of fire weather in the context of firefighting operations.

  5. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  6. Schisandra lignans production regulated by different bioreactor type.

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-04-10

    Schisandra chinensis (Chinese magnolia vine) is a rich source of therapeutically relevant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans with anticancer, immunostimulant and hepatoprotective activities. In this work, shoot cultures of S. chinensis were grown in different types of bioreactors with the aim to select a system suitable for the large scale in vitro production of schisandra lignans. The cultures were maintained in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Five bioreactors differing with respect to cultivation mode were tested: two liquid-phase systems (baloon-type bioreactor and bubble-column bioreactor with biomass immobilization), the gas-phase spray bioreactor and two commercially available temporary immersion systems: RITA ® and Plantform. The experiments were run for 30 and 60 days in batch mode. The harvested shoots were evaluated for growth and lignan content determined by LC-DAD and LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Of the tested bioreactors, temporary immersion systems provided the best results with respect to biomass production and lignan accumulation: RITA ® bioreactor yielded 17.86g/l (dry weight) during 60 day growth period whereas shoots grown for 30 days in Plantform bioreactor contained the highest amount of lignans (546.98mg/100g dry weight), with schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and gomisin A as the major constituents (118.59, 77.66 and 67.86mg/100g dry weight, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Adrenal Aldosterone Production by Serine Protease Prostasin

    Takehiro Ko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine protease prostasin has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the activation of the epithelial sodium channel. Systemic administration of adenovirus carrying human prostasin gene in rats resulted in an increase in plasma prostasin and aldosterone levels. However, the mechanism by which the elevation of prostasin levels in the systemic circulation stimulated the plasma aldosterone levels remains unknown. Therefore, we examined if prostasin increases the aldosterone synthesis in a human adrenocortical cell line (H295R cells. Luciferase assay using CYP11B2 promoter revealed that prostasin significantly increased the transcriptional activity of CYP11B2. Prostasin significantly increased both CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone production in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, treatment with camostat mesilate, a potent prostasin inhibitor, had no effect on the aldosterone synthesis by prostasin and also a protease-dead mutant of prostasin significantly stimulated the aldosterone production. A T-type/L-type calcium channel blocker and a protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor significantly reduced the aldosterone synthesis by prostasin. Our findings suggest a stimulatory effect of prostasin on the aldosterone synthesis by adrenal gland through the nonproteolytic action and indicate a new role of prostasin in the systemic circulation.

  8. The Economic Development of Natural Resources: Fracking and Self-Regulation in the Market for Land

    Paul J. Kubik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to apply some of the lessons learned during the period of industrialization in 19th century Europe to the study of the effects and appropriate regulation of the contemporary process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the natural gas industry. An attempt is made to support the conclusion that the harmful side effects associated with the creation of self-regulating markets for land, labor and money during the 19th century is paralleled today by the self-regulating character of the process of hydraulic fracturing. As a result, the negative consequences associated with industrialization are been visited again on present day market economies.

  9. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  10. Self-regulation resources and physical activity participation among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Miquelon, Paule; Boudreau, François

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity plays a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to understand why so few adults with type 2 diabetes regularly engage in physical activity. The role of self-regulation in the context of health-related behavior adherence, especially in terms of physical activity engagement and adherence, has largely been reviewed based on the strength energy model. Building on this line of research, the aim of this theoretical work was to highlight how self-regulation and ego depletion can influence the lower rate of physical activity participation among adults with type 2 diabetes, compared to adults from the general population.

  11. The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations.

    Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-04-01

    How electronic cigarettes and similar products (e-cigarettes) are defined affects how they are regulated, particularly whether existing laws for cigarettes apply, including sales and marketing, youth access, smoke-free and taxation laws. We examined the text of 46 bills that define e-cigarettes enacted in 40 states and characterised how e-cigarettes and similar products were defined. States enact laws creating new product categories for e-cigarettes separate from the 'tobacco product' category (eg, 'alternative nicotine product,' 'vapour product,' 'electronic nicotine device'), with four states explicitly excluding e-cigarettes from 'tobacco products.' Twenty-eight states do not include e-cigarettes in their definitions of 'tobacco products' or 'smoking,' eight include e-cigarettes as 'tobacco products,' three include e-cigarettes in 'smoking.' Sixteen states' definitions of e-cigarettes require nicotine, and five states pre-empt more stringent local laws. Tobacco and e-cigarette industry representatives tried to shape laws that benefit their interests. Definitions separating e-cigarettes from other tobacco products are common. Similar to past 'Trojan horse' policies, e-cigarette policies that initially appear to restrict sales (eg, limit youth access) may actually undermine regulation if they establish local pre-emption or create definitions that divide e-cigarettes from other tobacco products. Comparable issues are raised by the European Union Tobacco Products Directive and e-cigarette regulations in other countries. Policymakers should carefully draft legislation with definitions of e-cigarettes that broadly define the products, do not require nicotine or tobacco, do not pre-empt stronger regulations and explicitly include e-cigarettes in smoke-free and taxation laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Encountering Challenges with the EU Regulation on Advance Therapy Medical Products.

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-12-01

    This article aims at analysing how well the Advanced Therapy Medical Product Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 (ATMP Regulation) meets the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMES), academia and public tissue establishments developing advanced therapy medical products (ATMPS). Benefits and shortcomings of the ATMP Regulation are identified, and possible amendments are proposed to accelerate the translation of research into advanced therapies and to facilitate the commercialisation of ATMPS whilst ensuring safety. It was set up as a lex specialis to ensure the free movement of ATMPS within the EU in order to facilitate their access to the internal market and to foster the competitiveness of European pharmaceutical companies, while guaranteeing the highest level protection of public health. Since the adoption of the ATMP Regulation in late 2008, only 5 ATMPS have been granted marketing authorisations thus far. Hence, there is a need to analyse whether the ATMP Regulation meets its objectives.

  13. Endothelin Regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Production of Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Ga-Yeon Son

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a very common oral inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of supporting connective and osseous tissues of the teeth. Although the exact etiology is still unclear, Gram-negative bacteria, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival pockets are thought to be one of the major etiologic agents of periodontitis. Endothelin (ET is a family of three 21-amino acid peptides, ET-1, -2, and -3, that activate G protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB. Endothelin is involved in the occurrence and progression of various inflammatory diseases. Previous reports have shown that ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB are expressed in the periodontal tissues and, that ET-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid are increased in periodontitis patients. Moreover, P. gingivalis infection has been shown to induce the production of ET-1 along with other inflammatory cytokines. Despite these studies, however, the functional significance of endothelin in periodontitis is still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ET-1 action in periodontitis using human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs. ET-1 and ETA, but not ETB, were abundantly expressed in HGECs. Stimulation of HGECs with P. gingivalis or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide increased the expression of ET-1 and ETA suggesting the activation of the endothelin signaling pathway. Production of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6, was significantly enhanced by exogenous ET-1 treatment, and this effect depended on the mitogen-activated protein kinases via intracellular Ca2+ increase, which resulted from the activation of the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway. The inhibition of the endothelin receptor-mediated signaling pathway with the dual receptor inhibitor, bosentan, partially ameliorated alveolar bone loss and immune cell infiltration. These results suggest that endothelin plays an important role in P. gingivalis

  14. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  15. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  16. 77 FR 21433 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    2012-04-10

    ... superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA will prohibit activities that would disturb the seabed, such... or capped are arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, PAHs and PCBs. The metal contaminants were... installed in the designated regulated navigation area, pursuant to the remediation efforts of the U.S...

  17. Access Denied: Should Youth Access to the Internet Be Regulated? A Resource Guide for Teachers.

    Parrini, Michelle

    Much of the current public discussion in the United States about the Internet and speech rights focuses on the array of materials (particularly sexually explicit materials) that are available on the Internet, the effect of exposure to them on youth development, and whether the material should be regulated. In exploring questions about youth access…

  18. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-01-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications

  19. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  20. 75 FR 391 - Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product...

    2010-01-05

    ...] Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product Life... on Risk Management through the Product Life Cycle.'' This public workshop is intended to provide... discussed at the workshop: (1) Standards and guidance, (2) risk management in design, (3) risk management in...

  1. CdtR Regulates TcdA and TcdB Production in Clostridium difficile.

    Shelley A Lyon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a global health burden and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea worldwide, causing severe gastrointestinal disease and death. Three well characterised toxins are encoded by this bacterium in two genetic loci, specifically, TcdB (toxin B and TcdA (toxin A in the Pathogenicity Locus (PaLoc and binary toxin (CDT in the genomically distinct CDT locus (CdtLoc. Toxin production is controlled by regulators specific to each locus. The orphan response regulator, CdtR, encoded within the CdtLoc, up-regulates CDT production. Until now there has been no suggestion that CdtR influences TcdA and TcdB production since it is not carried by all PaLoc-containing strains and CdtLoc is not linked genetically to PaLoc. Here we show that, in addition to CDT, CdtR regulates TcdA and TcdB production but that this effect is strain dependent. Of clinical relevance, CdtR increased the production of TcdA, TcdB and CDT in two epidemic ribotype 027 human strains, modulating their virulence in a mouse infection model. Strains traditionally from animal lineages, notably ribotype 078 strains, are increasingly being isolated from humans and their genetic and phenotypic analysis is critical for future studies on this important pathogen. Here we show that CdtR-mediated toxin regulation did not occur in other strain backgrounds, including a ribotype 078 animal strain. The finding that toxin gene regulation is strain dependent highlights the regulatory diversity between C. difficile isolates and the importance of studying virulence regulation in diverse lineages and clinically relevant strains. Our work provides the first evidence that TcdA, TcdB and CDT production is linked by a common regulatory mechanism and that CdtR may act as a global regulator of virulence in epidemic 027 strains.

  2. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  3. A review of state regulations that exceed those of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    Coutant, C.C.; Heckman, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report identifies and provides information on state hazardous waste management programs and regulations in states where the US Department of Energy (DOE) has facilities. The objective is to describe for the DOE defense program and its contractors how state requirements are more stringent than the federal regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). DOE defense programs are located in 13 of the 50 states. Most of these states have regulations that are essentially equivalent to the federal RCRA requirements as they existed prior to the 1984 amendments, but their regulations are, in most instances, more stringment than the federal requirements. Differences are both substantive and procedural, and they are summarized and tabulated herein. All but three of these 13 states have been granted Final Authorization from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to operate their own hazardous waste management program in accord with the federal RCRA program prior to the 1984 amendments; two of the three others have some stage of Interim Authorization. EPA currently administers all of the provisions of the 1984 amendments, including requirements for corrective action under Sect. 3004(u). Two states, Colorado and Tennessee, have been granted revisions to their Final Authorizations delegating responsibility for the hazardous wastes. Responsible state agencies (with appropriate telephone numbers) are indicated, as are the relevant laws and current regulatory statutes

  4. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  5. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  6. Perspectives on Resource Recovery from Bio-Based Production Processes: From Concept to Implementation

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable compounds from waste streams of bio-based production processes is in line with the circular economy paradigm, and is achievable by implementing “simple-to-use” and well-established process separation technologies. Such solutions are acceptable from industrial, economic...... and environmental points of view, implying relatively easy future implementation on pilot- and full-scale levels in the bio-based industry. Reviewing such technologies is therefore the focus here. Considerations about technology readiness level (TRL) and Net Present Value (NPV) are included in the review, since TRL...... and NPV contribute significantly to the techno-economic evaluation of future and promising process solutions. Based on the present review, a qualitative guideline for resource recovery from bio-based production processes is proposed. Finally, future approaches and perspectives toward identification...

  7. Recent advances in bio-based multi-products of agricultural Jerusalem artichoke resources.

    Qiu, Yibin; Lei, Peng; Zhang, Yatao; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhan, Yijing; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2018-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke is a perennial plant that belongs to the sunflower family. As a non-grain crop, Jerusalem artichoke possesses a number of desirable characteristics that make it a valuable feedstock for biorefinery, such as inulin content, rapid growth, strong adaptability, and high yields. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to renewable Jerusalem artichoke-based biomass resources and recent advances in bio-based product conversion. Furthermore, we discuss the latest in the development of inulinase-producing microorganisms and enhanced inulin hydrolysis capacity of microbes by genetic engineering, which lead to a more cost-effective Jerusalem artichoke biorefinery. The review is aimed at promoting Jerusalem artichoke industry and new prospects for higher value-added production.

  8. Productivity in using school's resources: A case study of secondary school in Dumai, Riau Indonesia

    Rozamuri, Arif Murti; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Definition of good school's differs for every individual. The performance of the school's has always been an interesting discussion topic. This situation requires parents to be more selective for choosing the best school's for their child, especially in the efficient management of resources. This study evaluated changes in total productivity, technology, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency among 12 school of Dumai City in Riau Indonesia using DEA Malmquist Index. The inputs include number of teacher's, number of students, and number of classrooms while output is the number of students that passed the national examination. The results show that average efficiency of secondary school in Dumai City from 2011 to 2013 recorded good changes in terms of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. However, technological and total factor productivity change do not show a positive change.

  9. [Research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization].

    Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shu-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zeng, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-01

    The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  11. Analysis of available wind resources and their suitability for hydrogen production in the Sacramento area

    Bartholomy, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the technical, economic, environmental and regulatory barriers to the production of hydrogen from local wind resources in Sacramento, CA. Both central and distributed hydrogen generation are compared. The technical analysis uses 6 years of hourly wind data from Solano County to define the diurnal and seasonal wind resource. The impacts of a fluctuating power source on the electrolyzer are examined as well as the grid or hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure constraints for implementation. An economic analysis comparing the price of hydrogen produced from the local wind resource is done with sensitivity analyses for capital and operating costs of both wind turbines and electrolyzers. In addition, the economic analysis includes considerations of increased demand for wind electricity by California utilities attempting to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standards. The environmental analysis compares the emissions reductions of CO 2 and criteria pollutants for different energy usage scenarios. These include comparing electricity and transportation emissions rates to optimize the use of wind energy and natural gas, as well as comparison of SULEV hybrid vehicles with FCV's and H 2 ICE's. Finally, an examination of the existing regulatory structure and policies that could prevent or encourage the use of wind to produce hydrogen in Sacramento is also included. (author)

  12. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  13. Food Safety Regulation and Firm Productivity: Evidence from the French Food Industry

    Requillart, Vincent; Nauges, Celine; Simioni, Michel; Bontemps, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess whether food safety regulations imposed by the European Union in the 2000s may have induced a slow-down in the productivity of firms in the food processing sector. The impact of regulations on costs and productivity has seldom been studied. This article contributes to the literature by measuring productivity change using a panel of French food processing firms for the years 1996 to 2006. To do so, we develop an original iterative testing procedure b...

  14. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  15. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labor productivity to work engagement : The mediating role of job demands and resources

    van de Voorde, F.C.; Veld, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the strategic HRM literature with key aspects of the job demands-resources (JDR) model, we propose in this study that empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity influence work engagement of employees by shaping task-related resources and demands. A total of 311 employees nested

  16. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity to work engagement: the mediating role of job demands and resources

    van de Voorde, Karina; Veld, M.F.A.; van Veldhoven, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the strategic HRM literature with key aspects of the job demands-resources (JDR) model, we propose in this study that empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity influence work engagement of employees by shaping task-related resources and demands. A total of 311 employees nested

  17. Modeling Oil Exploration and Production: Resource-Constrained and Agent-Based Approaches

    Jakobsson, Kristofer

    2010-05-01

    Energy is essential to the functioning of society, and oil is the single largest commercial energy source. Some analysts have concluded that the peak in oil production is soon about to happen on the global scale, while others disagree. Such incompatible views can persist because the issue of 'peak oil' cuts through the established scientific disciplines. The question is: what characterizes the modeling approaches that are available today, and how can they be further developed to improve a trans-disciplinary understanding of oil depletion? The objective of this thesis is to present long-term scenarios of oil production (Paper I) using a resource-constrained model; and an agent-based model of the oil exploration process (Paper II). It is also an objective to assess the strengths, limitations, and future development potentials of resource-constrained modeling, analytical economic modeling, and agent-based modeling. Resource-constrained models are only suitable when the time frame is measured in decades, but they can give a rough indication of which production scenarios are reasonable given the size of the resource. However, the models are comprehensible, transparent and the only feasible long-term forecasting tools at present. It is certainly possible to distinguish between reasonable scenarios, based on historically observed parameter values, and unreasonable scenarios with parameter values obtained through flawed analogy. The economic subfield of optimal depletion theory is founded on the notion of rational economic agents, and there is a causal relation between decisions made at the micro-level and the macro-result. In terms of future improvements, however, the analytical form considerably restricts the versatility of the approach. Agent-based modeling makes it feasible to combine economically motivated agents with a physical environment. An example relating to oil exploration is given in Paper II, where it is shown that the exploratory activities of individual

  18. Resource distributions among habitats determine solitary bee offspring production in a mosaic landscape.

    Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2007-04-01

    Within mosaic landscapes, many organisms depend on attributes of the environment that operate over scales ranging from a single habitat patch to the entire landscape. One such attribute is resource distribution. Organisms' reliance on resources from within a local patch vs. those found among habitats throughout the landscape will depend on local habitat quality, patch quality, and landscape composition. The ability of individuals to move among complementary habitat types to obtain various resources may be a critical mechanism underlying the dynamics of animal populations and ultimately the level of biodiversity at different spatial scales. We examined the effects that local habitat type and landscape composition had on offspring production and survival of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria in an agri-natural landscape in California (U.S.A.). Female bees were placed on farms that did not use pesticides (organic farms), on farms that did use pesticides (conventional farms), or in seminatural riparian habitats. We identified pollens collected by bees nesting in different habitat types and matched these to pollens of flowering plants from throughout the landscape. These data enabled us to determine the importance of different plant species and habitat types in providing food for offspring, and how this importance changed with landscape and local nesting-site characteristics. We found that increasing isolation from natural habitat significantly decreased offspring production and survival for bees nesting at conventional farms, had weaker effects on bees in patches of seminatural habitat, and had little impact on those at organic farm sites. Pollen sampled from nests showed that females nesting in both farm and seminatural habitats relied on pollen from principally native plant species growing in seminatural habitat. Thus connectivity among habitats was critical for offspring production. Females nesting on organic farms were buffered to isolation effects by switching to

  19. Lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants considering degradation of geothermal resource productivity

    Budisulistyo, Denny; Wong, Choon Seng; Krumdieck, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new lifetime strategy for binary plants considering thermal resource degradations. • The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as indicators. • The results indicate that the design based on point 2 has the best revenue. • Improving plant performance by parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. - Abstract: This work proposes a lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants which takes into account heat resource degradation. A model of the resource temperature and mass flow rate decline over a 30 year plant life is developed from a survey of data. The standard approach to optimise a basic subcritical cycle of n-pentane working fluid and select component sizes is used for the resource characteristics in years 1, 7, 15 and 30. The performances of the four plants designed for the different resource conditions are then simulated over the plant life to obtain the best lifetime design. The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as the measures of merit. The production history of a real geothermal well in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is used as a case study for the lifetime design strategy. The results indicate that the operational parameters (such as mass flow rate of n-pentane, inlet turbine pressure and air mass flow rate) and plant performance (net power output) decrease over the whole plant life. The best lifetime plant design was at year 7 with partly degraded conditions. This condition has the highest net present value at USD 6,894,615 and energy return on investment at 4.15. Detailed thermo-economic analysis was carried out with the aim of improving the plant performance to overcome the resource degradation in two ways: operational parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. The results shows that mass flow rates of n-pentane and air cooling should be adjusted to maintain the performance over the plant life. The plant design can also be adapted by installing a recuperator

  20. IAEA Activities on Uranium Resources and Production, and Databases for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Ganguly, C.; Slezak, J. [Divison of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    In recent years rising expectation for nuclear power has led to a significant increase in the demand for uranium and in turn dramatic increases in uranium exploration, mining and ore processing activities worldwide. Several new countries, often with limited experience, have also embarked on these activities. The ultimate goal of the uranium raw material industry is to provide an adequate supply of uranium that can be delivered to the market place at a competitive price by environmentally sound, mining and milling practices. The IAEA’s programme on uranium raw material encompass all aspects of uranium geology and deposits, exploration, resources, supply and demand, uranium mining and ore processing, environmental issues in the uranium production cycle and databases for the uranium fuel cycle. Radiological safety and environmental protection are major challenges in uranium mines and mills and their remediation. The IAEA has revived its programme for the Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT) to assist Member States to improve operational and safety performances at uranium mines and mill sites. The present paper summarizes the ongoing activities of IAEA on uranium raw material, highlighting the status of global uranium resources, their supply and demand, the IAEA database on world uranium deposit (UDEPO) and nuclear fuel cycle information system (NFCIS), recent IAEA Technical Meetings (TM) and related ongoing Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. (author)

  1. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of resource potential for China’s unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth

    Wang, Jianliang; Mohr, Steve; Feng, Lianyong; Liu, Huihui; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China’s total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China’s lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed. - Highlights: • A comprehensive investigation on China’s unconventional gas resources is presented. • China’s unconventional gas production is forecast under different scenarios. • Unconventional gas production will increase rapidly in high scenario. • Achieving the projected production in high scenario faces many challenges. • The increase of China’s unconventional gas production cannot solve its gas shortage.

  4. Carboxymethyl-cellulase from Erwina chrysanthemi. I. Production and regulation of extracellular carboxymethyl-cellulase

    Boyer, M.H.; Chambost, J.P.; Magnan, M.; Cattaneo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3665 growing aerobically in a mineral salts medium containing various carbon sources constitutively secreted low levels of carboxymethyl-cellulase activity. Increased production of this activity was triggered by conditions which reduced the growth rate. The results obtained with continuous culture suggested that this production was controlled by a mechanism similar to catabolite repression. However, other factors might be implicated in the regulation of cellulase production.

  5. Analysis of Human Resource Competency as Effort to Increase SMEs Economic Sector Productivity with Gender as Differentiating Variable

    Wibawa, Dian Prihardini

    2018-01-01

    Competence is a very important factor in increasing work productivity. A qualified workforce will have a positive impact on improving business productivity. Thus, the level of corporate profitability also increased. Human resource improvement strategy is an excellent strategy apart from other factors such as technology improves. Increased strategy through human resource competence can be done with the improvement of ability, attitude, knowledge, and expertise. The purpose of this research is ...

  6. Duodenal mucosal protein kinase C-δ regulates glucose production in rats.

    Kokorovic, Andrea; Cheung, Grace W C; Breen, Danna M; Chari, Madhu; Lam, Carol K L; Lam, Tony K T

    2011-11-01

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes in liver and brain alters hepatic glucose metabolism, but little is known about their role in glucose regulation in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated whether activation of PKC-δ in the duodenum is sufficient and necessary for duodenal nutrient sensing and regulates hepatic glucose production through a neuronal network in rats. In rats, we inhibited duodenal PKC and evaluated whether nutrient-sensing mechanisms, activated by refeeding, have disruptions in glucose regulation. We then performed gain- and loss-of-function pharmacologic and molecular experiments to target duodenal PKC-δ; we evaluated the impact on glucose production regulation during the pancreatic clamping, while basal levels of insulin were maintained. PKC-δ was detected in the mucosal layer of the duodenum; intraduodenal infusion of PKC inhibitors disrupted glucose homeostasis during refeeding, indicating that duodenal activation of PKC-δ is necessary and sufficient to regulate glucose homeostasis. Intraduodenal infusion of the PKC activator 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) specifically activated duodenal mucosal PKC-δ and a gut-brain-liver neuronal pathway to reduce glucose production. Molecular and pharmacologic inhibition of duodenal mucosal PKC-δ negated the ability of duodenal OAG and lipids to reduce glucose production. In the duodenal mucosa, PKC-δ regulates glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DEVELOPING AN INDEX FOR FOREST PRODUCTIVITY MAPPING - A CASE STUDY FOR MARITIME PINE PRODUCTION REGULATION IN PORTUGAL

    Susana Mestre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Productivity is very dependent on the environmental and biotic factors present at the site where the forest species of interest is present. Forest site productivity is usually assessed using empirical models applied to inventory data providing discrete predictions. While the use of GIS-based models enables building a site productivity distribution map. Therefore, the aim of this study was to derive a productivity index using multivariate statistics and coupled GIS-geostatistics to obtain a forest productivity map. To that end, a study area vastly covered by naturally regenerated forests of maritime pine in central Portugal was used. First, a productivity index (PI was built based on Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA by incorporating a classical site index for the species and region (Sh25 - height index model and GIS-derived environmental variables (slope and aspect. After, the PI map was obtained by multi-Gaussian kriging and used as a GIS layer to evaluate maritime pine areas by productivity class (e.g., low, intermediate and high. In the end, the area control method was applied to assess the size and the number of compartments to establish by productivity class. The management compartments of equal productivity were digitized as GIS layer and organized in a temporal progression of stands’ age regularly available for cutting each year during a 50-year schedule. The methodological approach developed in this study proved that can be used to build forest productivity maps which are crucial tools to support forest production regulation.

  8. To be kind or not to be kind: The moderating role of self-compassion in the relationship between general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation.

    Martin, Rebecca D; Kennett, Deborah J

    2017-11-22

    We investigated whether the relationship between students' general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation changes as a function of self-compassion. A predominantly female sample of 196 undergraduates completed inventories assessing these and other measures. The significant moderating effect of self-compassion revealed that the positive relationship between general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation was stronger for participants scoring low in self-compassion than high in self-compassion. For those low in self-compassion, scoring low in general resourcefulness was associated with the lowest academic self-regulation, whereas scoring high in general resourcefulness was associated with the greatest academic self-regulation. The positive relationship between general and academic self-regulation was attenuated for participants high in self-compassion, with predicted scores for academic self-regulation falling in between the two values described for the low self-compassion function. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the potential value of incorporating self-compassion training alongside programs aimed at increasing general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation.

  9. Productivity and environmental regulations. A long run analysis of the Swedish industry

    Braennlund, Runar

    2008-01-15

    The aim with this study is to evaluate the potential effects on productivity development in the Swedish manufacturing industry due to changes in environmental regulations over a long time period. The issue is closely related to the so called Porter hypothesis, i.e. whether environmental regulations (of the right kind) that usually is associated with costs triggers mechanisms that enhances efficiency and productivity that finally outweighs the initial cost increase. To test our hypothesis we use historical data spanning over the period 1913-1999 for the Swedish manufacturing sector. The model used is a two stage model were the total factor productivity is calculated in the first stage, and is then used in a second stage as the dependent variable in a regression analysis where one of the independent variables is a measure of regulatory intensity. The results show that the productivity growth has varied considerably over time. The least productive period was the second world war period, whereas the period with the highest productivity growth was the period after the second world war until 1970. Development of emissions follows essentially the same path as productivity growth until 1970. After 1970, however, there is a decoupling in the sense that emissions are decreasing, both in absolute level and as emissions per unit of value added. A rather robust conclusion is that there is no evident relationship between environmental regulations and productivity growth. One explanation is that regulations and productivity actually is unrelated. Another potential explanation is that the regulatory measure used does not capture perceived regulations in a correct way

  10. Water ethics - a substitute for over-regulation of a scarce resource

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    is problematic and no easy solutions are in sight, but attention and awareness are essential. The ethical community has been expanded from a human dimension to include an ecological dimension, which aggravates the dilemma. There have been too many surprises in water quality development, due to unforeseen......” and more recently by “economical instruments”. Water ethics is an important, but frequently ignored element in regulation. Equity in availability and applicability of water is the important ethical issue at all levels, from local community to the global scale. The distribution of rights and duties...

  11. Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations

    Vuković Ilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

  12. Self-regulation : women's key to unlocking the resources in the self-domain

    Dubbelt, L.; Demerouti, E.; Rispens, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined in organizational contexts in which women have a minority position whether women's daily in-role performance benefits from spent time on personal interests that provide motivation, energy, and intention necessary to remain motivated and productive at work (i.e., self-work

  13. Guidebook on the development of regulations for uranium deposit development and production

    1996-02-01

    The main purpose of this guidebook is to discuss the various factors and questions that need to be considered by Government organizations in formulating and implementing a regulatory regime to control uranium resource projects. It also provides examples of regulatory requirements in countries where such regulations have evolved into more mature stages. It provides useful policy and technical guidance and directs the user to where greater detail can be found in the existing literature

  14. Introducing "biophysical redundancy": the global status and past evolution of unused water, land and productivity resources for food production

    Fader, Marianela

    2017-04-01

    Countries have different resilience to sudden and long-term changes in food demand and supply. An important part of this resilience is the degree of biophysical redundancy, defined as the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. The presentation will show the results of a recently published paper1 on the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Results indicate that in 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  15. [Collections of human biological resources for research purposes: from regulations to the need of a guide of good collection practices].

    Le Roux, N; de Montgolfier, S; di Donato, J-H; Boccon-Gibod, L; Teillac, P; Hervé, C; Berthon, P

    2003-12-01

    In France, collections of human biological resources are regulated by the "Bioethics Law", currently in revision. Hence, we analyse the regulatory and ethical issues of these practices in the context of scientific research. The ultimate aim of such collections is to improve biological and medical knowledge. We think that the French regulatory system is quite complicated and non-explicit for "collection holders". The multiplicity of legal texts concerning this activity has made their application difficult, especially in the absence of application decrees. The project amending the actual law has clarified the legal status of collections but it did not shed light on the status of human body detached parts. Furthermore, the text is still very far from the international bioethical recommendations, and does not reflect the actual collection's implementation. The establishment of a guideline of Good Collection Practices, based on clear principles, should help to simplify the situation, especially when it is imbedded in the regulation and linked to control procedures. It would allow a balance between collective interests and the protection of individuals, taking into account of the international highly competitive scientific and economical constraints. The major issue is to preserve and to perpetuate the existing and future collections because of their precious value as an important tool for biomedical knowledge. The efficiency of a regulation depends on its legibility and accessibility, two requirements that seem to determine the acceptance of the regulatory tool and its application allowing subsequently to reach fairness in proceedings.

  16. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  17. The feed-back regulation of erythropoietin production in healthy humans

    Klausen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed oxygen-dependent feed-back loop regulation of EPO (erythropoietin) production is mainly supported by data from studies in animals and cell cultures. The feed-back loop and its dependence on oxygen was therefore challenged by studies in healthy humans: Exposure of humans to different levels of acute and continued altitude hypobaria provided evidence for an oxygen dependence of the EPO response. This response is consistent with the proposed feed-back loop regulation of EPO production; Exposure to continued altitude hypobaria demonstrated that the decline in human EPO production is initiated before an EPO-induced erythopoiesis is detectable, and that this decline is related to a concomitant decrease in the haemoglobin-oxygen affinity. Contrary to the feed-back loop, this time-relation indicate that the feed-back regulation of EPO production during continued hypobaric hypoxia is exerted primarily through a decrease in the haemoglobin-oxygen affinity, rather than by the effects of an EPO-stimulated erythropoiesis; Increased circulating levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 was found in healthy humans during four days of altitude exposure as compared with sea level. The other proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, and TNF alpha remained unchanged, and the increased serum IL-6 did not induce production of c-reactive protein; Comparable circadian variations in human EPO production were shown in sedentary subjects, athletes, and healthy but hypoxaemic subjects. Human EPO production could not be triggered by one hour of high-intensity exercise, whereas longitudinal changes in exercise showed a trend of relation between human EPO production, serum concentration of free testosterone, and indices of body composition. These results have demonstrated and endogenous, probably hormonal, and oxygen-independent regulation of human EPO production, which is at variance with the oxygen dependent feed-back loop regulation of EPO production. Conclusively, the present

  18. DMPD: The atrial natriuretic peptide regulates the production of inflammatorymediators in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 11890659 The atrial natriuretic peptide regulates the production of inflammatorymed...tml) (.csml) Show The atrial natriuretic peptide regulates the production of inflammatorymediators in macrop...hages. PubmedID 11890659 Title The atrial natriuretic peptide regulates the produ

  19. Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.

    Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prodigiosin Production by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 Using Renewable-Resources as a Low Cost Substrate

    Galba M. Campos Takaki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of Serratia marcescens UCP1459 isolated from a semi-arid soil produced the natural red pigment prodigiosin, characterized by an uncommon pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. Prodigiosin is a promising drug due to its reported antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activities. The objective of this work was to indentify a suitable medium to simultaneously enhance S. marcescens growth and pigment production using renewable resources obtained from industrial wastes. S. marcescens produced the highest level of prodigiosin (49.5 g/L at 48 h of cultivation using 6% “manipueira” (cassava wastewater supplemented with mannitol (2% at pH 7 and 28 °C. Carbohydrates in “manipueira” and mannitol play a role in the enhanced cell growth and prodigiosin production. The purified pigment extracted from the biomass was analyzed by mass spectrophotometry and showed the expected molecular weight of 324 Da corresponding to prodigiosin. In conclusion, we have successfully designed a new, economically feasible medium supporting enhanced S. marcescens growth and a high yield production of prodigiosin.

  1. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  2. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    Ciandrini, Luca; Dauloudet, Olivier; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Neri, Izaak; Walter, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  3. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  4. Knowledge Co-production Strategies for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Making

    Gober, P.

    2016-12-01

    The limited impact of scientific information on policy making and climate adaptation in North America has raised awareness of the need for new modeling strategies and knowledge transfer processes. This paper outlines the rationale for a new paradigm in water resources modeling and management, using examples from the USA and Canada. Principles include anticipatory modeling, complex system dynamics, decision making under uncertainty, visualization, capacity to represent and manipulate critical trade-offs, stakeholder engagement, local knowledge, context-specific activities, social learning, vulnerability analysis, iterative and collaborative modeling, and the concept of a boundary organization. In this framework, scientists and stakeholders are partners in the production and dissemination of knowledge for decision making, and local knowledge is fused with scientific observation and methodology. Discussion draws from experience in building long-term collaborative boundary organizations in Phoenix, Arizona in the USA and the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Canada. Examples of boundary spanning activities include the use of visualization, the concept of a decision theater, infrastructure to support social learning, social networks, and reciprocity, simulation modeling to explore "what if" scenarios of the future, surveys to elicit how water problems are framed by scientists and stakeholders, and humanistic activities (theatrical performances, art exhibitions, etc.) to draw attention to local water issues. The social processes surrounding model development and dissemination are at least as important as modeling assumptions, procedures, and results in determining whether scientific knowledge will be used effectively for water resources decision making.

  5. Plant genetic resources for the sustainability of agro-industrial production

    Bacchetta, L.; Del Fiore, A.; Di Giovanni, B.; Padovani, M.L.; Santi, C.; Troiani, V.; Tronci, C.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving, characterization and conservation of agro-biodiversity ' are the European Union's priority objectives in the context of the strategies to preserve the genetic resources deemed essential for sustainable development, for the support of the community and to encourage a balanced economic growth. A holistic, integrated strategy can create the most propitious conditions to retrieve, maintain, and use in a sustainable way and according to models of circular economy and continuous innovation, the potential of plant systems (also by-products and wastes) for the development of new sectors of economic and social interest through innovative processes with a low environmental impact, according with the European strategy to 2020 which gives priority to the development of the bio-economy. [it

  6. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Hackett, R.L.; Pilon, J.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends and reports the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Michigan in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects. All board foot data in the report have been converted to International 1/4 inch scale by applying a multiplier of 1.08 to all saw-log volume reported in Scribner Decimal C scale by sawmills, a multiplier of 1.04 to all veneer log volume reported in Scribner Decimal C scale by veneer mills, a multiplier of 1.38 to all saw-log volume reported in Doyle scale by sawmills, and a multiplier of 1.14 to all veneer log volume reported in Doyle scale by veneer mills

  7. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment in Resource-Based Areas of China-An Empirical Research Based on the Mediating Effect Model.

    Cao, Wenbin; Wang, Hui; Ying, Huihui

    2017-12-19

    While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale of employment directly, but it will also have indirect effects by stimulating upgrades in the industrial structure and in technological innovation. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on employment, using a mediating model based on the data from five typical resource-based provinces in China from 2000 to 2015. The estimation is performed based on the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. The results show that the implementation of environmental regulation in resource-based areas has both a direct effect and a mediating effect on employment. These findings provide policy implications for these resource-based areas to promote the coordinating development between the environment and employment.

  8. Productive diversification in natural resource abundant countries : limitations, policies and the experience of Argentina in the 2000s

    L.A. Serino (Leandro)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe debate on the pattern of specialization in natural resource abundant countries has re-emerged as demand for raw materials and food products from the rapidly growing East Asian countries, speculation in financial markets, and changes in production techniques augmented the

  9. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  10. Management of agroforestry systems for enhancing resource use efficiency and crop productivity

    2008-11-01

    Agroforestry is a low-input system which combines trees with crops in various combinations or sequences. It is an alternative to intensive cropping systems, which rely on large inputs of manufactured fertilizers and other external inputs to sustain production. Agroforestry also has the potential to reduce risk through diversification of a variety of products, including food, fuelwood and animal fodder. Other perceived benefits include enhanced nutrient and water use efficiencies, reduced nutrient leaching to groundwater and improved soil physical and biological properties. The use of leguminous or actinorhizal trees may further enhance these benefits because of their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Depending on the type of agroforestry system and the management practices employed, a substantial portion of this fixed nitrogen can be transferred to companion crops and to the soil. In considering the overall productivity of agroforestry systems, it is essential to investigate the competition or complementarity in the capture and partitioning of resources between tree and crop components. This is especially true for nutrients and water, usually the two most limiting factors influencing crop growth. The focus of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to evaluate the efficacy of various agroforestry systems used in Member States in terms of crop productivity, resource use efficiency and improvements in soil properties. The use of isotopes and nuclear techniques was essential for understanding the dynamics of nutrients and water in agroforestry systems. The contribution of nitrogen from fertilizers and leguminous trees to soil and crops was studied using both direct and indirect 15 N labelling techniques. The cycling of carbon from trees or crops to soil was studied using natural variations in the 13 C signatures of the soils and the different species. The soil moisture neutron probe in conjunction with tensionics was used to monitor soil water status and

  11. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of lactate and succinate from renewable resources.

    Tsuge, Yota; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Recent increasing attention to environmental issues and the shortage of oil resources have spurred political and industrial interest in the development of environmental friendly and cost-effective processes for the production of bio-based chemicals from renewable resources. Thus, microbial production of commercially important chemicals is viewed as a desirable way to replace current petrochemical production. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, is one of the most important industrial microorganisms as a platform for the production of various amino acids. Recent research has explored the use of C. glutamicum as a potential cell factory for producing organic acids such as lactate and succinate, both of which are commercially important bulk chemicals. Here, we summarize current understanding in this field and recent metabolic engineering efforts to develop C. glutamicum strains that efficiently produce L- and D-lactate, and succinate from renewable resources.

  12. State regulation of the biotechnology (GM agricultural products: analysis of different approaches in the world

    Irina Vladimirovna Yakovleva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although GM crops are cultivated on 175 million hectares in 27 countries, the regulation of agricultural biotechnology is in its becoming. In the future, many countries, of course, will lead to market biotech products, and the main focus will be biosafety issues for humans and the environment. Some countries have special regulatory mechanisms, others do not have the original national regulatory system, but their actions are under the provisions of international treaties for the production and handling of GM products. What are the main components of a strict but not stifling regulatory system? What are the disadvantages of existing systems? The article presents an overview of the state regulation systems of biotech agricultural products in the US, the EU, Argentina, South Africa and Brazil.

  13. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  14. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP regulations: industry perceptions and compliance factors

    Boon Heather

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natural health products, such as vitamins, minerals, and herbs, by Canadians has been increasing with time. As a result of consumer concern about the quality of these products, the Canadian Department of Health created the Natural Health Products (NHP Regulations. The new Canadian regulations raise questions about whether and how the NHP industry will be able to comply and what impact they will have on market structure. The objectives of this study were to explore who in the interview sample is complying with Canada's new NHP Regulations (i.e., submitted product licensing applications on time; and explore the factors that affect regulatory compliance. Methods Twenty key informant interviews were conducted with employees of the NHP industry. The structured interviews focused on the level of satisfaction with the Regulations and perceptions of compliance and non-compliance. Interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were independently coded, using qualitative content analysis. Team meetings were held after every three to four interviews to discuss emerging themes. Results The major finding of this study is that most (17 out of 20 companies interviewed were beginning to comply with the new regulatory regime. The factors that contribute to likelihood of regulatory compliance were: perceptions and knowledge of the regulations and business size. Conclusion The Canadian case can be instructive for other countries seeking to implement regulatory standards for natural health products. An unintended consequence of the Canadian NHP regulations may be the exit of smaller firms, leading to industry consolidation.

  15. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    Phan, Binh M.Q.; Duong, Long T.; Nguyen, Viet D.; Tran, Trong B.; Nguyen, My H.H.; Nguyen, Luong H.; Nguyen, Duc A.; Luu, Loc C.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  16. Low Latency DESDynI Data Products for Disaster Response, Resource Management and Other Applications

    Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.; Lou, Yunling

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor technology targeted at the L-band SAR instrument onboard the planned DESDynI mission to enable formation of SAR images onboard opening possibilities for near-real-time data products to augment full data streams. Several image processing and/or interpretation techniques are being explored as possible direct-broadcast products for use by agencies in need of low-latency data, responsible for disaster mitigation and assessment, resource management, agricultural development, shipping, etc. Data collected through UAVSAR (L-band) serves as surrogate to the future DESDynI instrument. We have explored surface water extent as a tool for flooding response, and disturbance images on polarimetric backscatter of repeat pass imagery potentially useful for structural collapse (earthquake), mud/land/debris-slides etc. We have also explored building vegetation and snow/ice classifiers, via support vector machines utilizing quad-pol backscatter, cross-pol phase, and a number of derivatives (radar vegetation index, dielectric estimates, etc.). We share our qualitative and quantitative results thus far.

  17. Investment choice and perceived mating intentions regulated by external resource cues and internal fluctuation in blood glucose levels.

    Rao, Li-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Tian; Li, Shu

    2014-01-01

    We examined resource allocation priorities in the framework of an updated Maslow hierarchy of fundamental human needs. In Experiment 1, the participants in the food abundance priming condition viewing photos of high-calorie food allocated more money to savings than to spending. However, the participants preferred spending to savings under the condition of mating availability priming with romantic photographs. In Experiment 2, before and after drinking either water or a sugary beverage, fasting participants rated photos of a conversation between a man and a woman. Water drinking lowered the rating scores of mating intentions as well as blood glucose (BG) levels. The sugary drink buffered this decline in sexual perceptivity. Overall, the change in BG levels was positively associated with changes in the ratings of mating intentions but was not associated with other likelihood ratings. These results suggest that both external cues of food and mating resources and internal BG fluctuation regulate the cognitive priority of physiological needs vs. mate acquisition and retention.

  18. Investment Choice and Perceived Mating Intentions Regulated by External Resource Cues and Internal Fluctuation in Blood Glucose Levels

    Li-Lin eRao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined resource allocation priorities in the framework of an updated Maslow hierarchy of fundamental human needs. In Experiment 1, the participants in the food abundance priming condition viewing photos of high-calorie food allocated more money to savings than to spending. However, the participants preferred spending to savings under the condition of mating availability priming with romantic photographs. In Experiment 2, before and after drinking either water or a sugary beverage, fasting participants rated photos of a conversation between a man and a woman. Water drinking lowered the rating scores of mating intentions as well as blood glucose (BG levels. The sugary drink buffered this decline in sexual perceptivity. Overall, the change in BG levels was positively associated with changes in the ratings of mating intentions but was not associated with other likelihood ratings. These results suggest that both external cues of food and mating resources and internal BG fluctuation regulate the cognitive priority of physiological needs versus mate acquisition and retention.

  19. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    Khan, A.R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Bhatnagar, P.R.; Gautam, U.S.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2002-06-01

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  20. Tools Related to the Federal Tobacco Products Regulations: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    2010-09-16

    PSA to announce a new mobile text message program that will help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 9/16/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  1. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production

    ESHMATOV FOZIL KHIDIROVICH; MAKSUMOVA DILRABO KUCHKAROVNA; DODAEVA LAYLO KUCHKAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  3. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  4. Regulation

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  5. Postgraduate education and research in Brazil: regulation and reconfiguration processes of academic work formation and production

    João Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text analyses some of the processes of formation and production regulation and reconfiguration of the scholarly work in Brazil. Initially we examine the context and meaning of knowledge production in times of flexible accumulation, as well as the current landscape of Postgraduate education in the country. We seek to understand how public policies in the area, particularly the actions of evaluation and promotion, and the new modus operandi of the Postgraduate study and research organization have been reconfiguring the work production of teaching and students within the programs, especially in education. Above all, we seek to highlight the role of promotion and evaluation agencies, increasingly committed to a vision of expansion that drives the production of knowledge associated with demands of economic-productivity, rather than a consistent formative project that would result in a significant advancement in the production and dissemination of knowledge in the different areas.

  6. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. SET protein up-regulated testosterone production in the cultured preantral follicles

    Xu Boqun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We found previously that the expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries. Evidences suggested that SET protein was essential for regulating both the promoter activity of CYP17A1 and the biological activity of P450c17. In this study, we explored whether SET regulated androgen production in preantral follicles. Methods The mouse preantral follicles were cultured in vitro. Testosterone secretion and expression of steroidogenic enzymes were observed in the preantral follicles treated in vitro by SET overexpression and knockdown. Results Testosterone levels in the media of the AdCMV-SET infected follicles significantly increased, and the CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 expression also significantly increased (P P  Conclusions SET played a positive role in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis by enhancing the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1 and HSD3B2, which maybe contribute to the hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  8. dbSMR: a novel resource of genome-wide SNPs affecting microRNA mediated regulation

    Hariharan Manoj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate several biological processes through post-transcriptional gene silencing. The efficiency of binding of miRNAs to target transcripts depends on the sequence as well as intramolecular structure of the transcript. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs can contribute to alterations in the structure of regions flanking them, thereby influencing the accessibility for miRNA binding. Description The entire human genome was analyzed for SNPs in and around predicted miRNA target sites. Polymorphisms within 200 nucleotides that could alter the intramolecular structure at the target site, thereby altering regulation were annotated. Collated information was ported in a MySQL database with a user-friendly interface accessible through the URL: http://miracle.igib.res.in/dbSMR. Conclusion The database has a user-friendly interface where the information can be queried using either the gene name, microRNA name, polymorphism ID or transcript ID. Combination queries using 'AND' or 'OR' is also possible along with specifying the degree of change of intramolecular bonding with and without the polymorphism. Such a resource would enable researchers address questions like the role of regulatory SNPs in the 3' UTRs and population specific regulatory modulations in the context of microRNA targets.

  9. Monitoring of transcriptional regulation in Pichia pastoris under protein production conditions

    Bhattacharyya Anamitra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become evident that host cells react to recombinant protein production with a variety of metabolic and intrinsic stresses such as the unfolded protein response (UPR pathway. Additionally, environmental conditions such as growth temperature may have a strong impact on cell physiology and specific productivity. However, there is little information about the molecular reactions of the host cells on a genomic level, especially in context to recombinant protein secretion. For the first time, we monitored transcriptional regulation of a subset of marker genes in the common production host Pichia pastoris to gain insights into the general physiological status of the cells under protein production conditions, with the main focus on secretion stress related genes. Results Overexpression of the UPR activating transcription factor Hac1p was employed to identify UPR target genes in P. pastoris and the responses were compared to those known for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the folding/secretion related genes showed similar regulation patterns in both yeasts, whereas genes associated with the general stress response were differentially regulated. Secretion of an antibody Fab fragment led to induction of UPR target genes in P. pastoris, however not to the same magnitude as Hac1p overproduction. Overexpression of S. cerevisiae protein disulfide isomerase (PDI1 enhances Fab secretion rates 1.9 fold, but did not relief UPR stress. Reduction of cultivation temperature from 25°C to 20°C led to a 1.4-fold increase of specific product secretion rate in chemostat cultivations, although the transcriptional levels of the product genes (Fab light and heavy chain were significantly reduced at the lower temperature. A subset of folding related genes appeared to be down-regulated at the reduced temperature, whereas transcription of components of the ER associated degradation and the secretory transport was enhanced. Conclusion Monitoring of

  10. Water Resources Implications of Cellulosic Biofuel Production at a Regional Scale

    Christopher, S. F.; Schoenholtz, S. H.; Nettles, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent increases in oil prices, a strong national interest in greater energy independence, and a concern for the role of fossil fuels in global climate change, have led to a dramatic expansion in use of alternative renewable energy sources in the U.S. The U.S. government has mandated production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, of which 16 billion gallons are required to be cellulosic biofuels. Production of cellulosic biomass offers a promising alternative to corn-based systems because large-scale production of corn-based ethanol often requires irrigation and is associated with increased erosion, excess sediment export, and enhanced leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although cultivation of switchgrass using standard agricultural practices is one option being considered for production of cellulosic biomass, intercropping cellulosic biofuel crops within managed forests could provide feedstock without primary land use change or the water quality impacts associated with annual crops. Catchlight Energy LLC is examining the feasibility and sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern U.S. Ongoing research is determining efficient operational techniques and information needed to evaluate effects of these practices on water resources in small watershed-scale (~25 ha) studies. Three sets of four to five sub-watersheds are fully instrumented and currently collecting calibration data in North Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi. These watershed studies will provide detailed information to understand processes and guide management decisions. However, environmental implications of cellulosic systems need to be examined at a regional scale. We used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based hydrologic model, to examine water quantity effects of various land use change scenarios ranging from switchgrass intercropping a small percentage of managed pine forest land to conversion of all managed

  11. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns

  12. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  13. Assessing The Ecosystem Service Freshwater Production From An Integrated Water Resources Management Perspective. Case Study: The Tormes Water Resources System (Spain)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2014-05-01

    The Ecosystem Services are defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life. A strongly related concept is the Integrated Water Resources Management. It is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. From these definitions, it is clear that in order to cover so many water management and ecosystems related aspects the use of integrative models is increasingly necessary. In this study, we propose to link a hydrologic model and a water allocation model in order to assess the Freshwater Production as an Ecosystem Service in anthropised river basins. First, the hydrological model allows determining the volume of water generated by each sub-catchment; that is, the biophysical quantification of the service. This result shows the relevance of each sub-catchment as a source of freshwater and how this could change if the land uses are modified. On the other hand, the water management model allocates the available water resources among the different water uses. Then, it is possible to provide an economic value to the water resources through the use of demand curves, or other economic concepts. With this second model, we are able to obtain the economical quantification of the Ecosystem Service. Besides, the influence of water management and infrastructures on the service provision can be analysed. The methodology is applied to the Tormes Water Resources System, in Spain. The software used are EVALHID and SIMGES, for hydrological and management aspects, respectively. Both models are included in the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL for water resources planning and management. A scenario approach is presented to illustrate the potential of the methodology, including the current

  14. Regulated production of free radicals by the mitochondrial electron transport chain: Cardiac ischemic preconditioning.

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Pamela A; Szweda, Luke I; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2009-11-30

    Excessive production of free radicals by mitochondria is associated with, and likely contributes to, the progression of numerous pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the production of free radicals by the mitochondria may have important biological functions under normal or stressed conditions by activating or modulating redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. This raises the intriguing possibility that regulated mitochondrial free radical production occurs via mechanisms that are distinct from pathologies associated with oxidative damage. Indeed, the capacity of mitochondria to produce free radicals in a limited manner may play a role in ischemic preconditioning, the phenomenon whereby short bouts of ischemia protect from subsequent prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning can thus serve as an important model system for defining regulatory mechanisms that allow for transient, signal-inducing, production of free radicals by mitochondria. Defining how these mechanism(s) occur will provide insight into therapeutic approaches that minimize oxidative damage without altering normal cellular redox biology. The aim of this review is to present and discuss evidence for the regulated production of superoxide by the electron transport chain within the ischemic preconditioning paradigm of redox regulation.

  15. Management practices in Australasian ethical investment products: a role for regulation?

    Haigh, Matthew; Guthrie, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper adds to the literatures on socially responsible investment (SRI), investment management, regulation of financial services and social accounting by providing a comprehensive survey of investment methods used in SRI products and regulated social reporting in financial services. Australian...... a four-year period: 2004-2007. These aspects were further examined in 18 case studies. Over the period, diversity and intensity of construction methods had increased both within and between investment managers. The non-standard nature of management consultation used in SRI products, marketing needs...... debates and other public reports. Portfolio construction styles of 86 SRI products managed by 63 financial institutions in Australia and New Zealand were chosen for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify associations between styles, construction methods and assessment techniques over...

  16. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  17. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www.......solibam.eu) projectfunded by the European commission under the Seventh Framework Programme.We apply an approach where we include efficiency in resource use to produce food energy joules soldwhile distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources as well as on-site, local andnon-local resources. Result...... shows that the large farm (75 ha) had an input of renewable resources of 32%while the small (6 ha) had a renewable fraction of 26%. The latter is based on assuming that the firewoodused is 50% renewable. If this percentage is increased to 100% then both farms have a renewable fractionof resource use...

  18. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  19. Agrice 2003. Activity report - New industrial resources, from agriculture to bio-products

    2003-01-01

    Renewable raw materials derived from agricultural crops are used to manufacture bio-products in energy, chemicals and materials industries. Renewable feedstocks address a double need. On the one hand, they offer alternatives to fossil resources, and on the other hand, they are a response to today's environmental challenges: mitigation of the greenhouse affect, reduction of air, soil and water pollution, innocuousness and biodegradability of products. A new chemistry must be created. Large-scale and ongoing research work must be committed to this goal. The research effort implies active coordination of all the various actors involved - multidisciplinary research teams, agro-industrial enterprises, user industries (petrochemicals, chemicals, materials), and specific agricultural branches. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE - Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy - was established by public authorities and eight partners in France in 1994. The AGRICE consortium was renewed for six years in 2001, with a broader membership base. AGRICE now includes the following partners: - the research arms of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), and the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), - professional organisations representing producers of oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), - corporate members ATOFINA, AUTOBAR PACKAGING France, BAYER CROP SCIENCE, CERESTAR France, LIMAGRAIN Agro-Industrie, RHODIA, TOTAL FINA ELF, - the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and the Environment, - the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), - the French Agency for Innovation (ANVAR). ADEME is responsible for managing AGRICE. The consortium is involved in major international undertakings, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity, structure and Operations

  20. Engineering of an Lrp family regulator SACE_Lrp improves erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Yunfu; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Min; Wu, Panpan; Wang, Yansheng; Li, Changrun; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Hang; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Buchang

    2017-01-01

    Leucine-responsive regulatory proteins (Lrps) are a group of transcriptional regulators that regulate diverse cellular processes in bacteria and archaea. However, the regulatory role of Lrps in antibiotic biosynthesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that SACE_5388, an Lrp family regulator named as SACE_Lrp, is an efficient regulator for transporting and catabolizing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), playing an important role in regulating erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. SACE_Lrp directly controlled the expression of the divergently transcribed SACE_5387-5386 operon putatively encoding a BCAA ABC transporter by interacting with the intergenic region between SACE_Lrp and SACE_5387 (SACE_Lrp-5387-int), and indirectly controlled the expression of ilvE putatively encoding an aminotransferase catabolizing BCAAs. BCAA catabolism is one source of the precursors for erythromycin biosynthesis. Lysine and arginine promoted the dissociation of SACE_Lrp from SACE_Lrp -5387-int, whereas histidine increased their binding. Gene disruption of SACE_Lrp (ΔSACE_Lrp) in S. erythraea A226 resulted in a 25% increase in erythromycin production, while overexpression of SACE_5387-5386 in A226 enhanced erythromycin production by 36%. Deletion of SACE_Lrp (WBΔSACE_Lrp) in the industrial strain S. erythraea WB enhanced erythromycin production by 19%, and overexpression of SACE_5387-5386 in WBΔSACE_Lrp (WBΔSACE_Lrp/5387-5386) increased erythromycin production by 41% compared to WB. Additionally, supplement of 10mM valine to WBΔSACE_Lrp/5387-5386 culture further increased total erythromycin production up to 48%. In a 5-L fermenter, the erythromycin accumulation in the engineered strain WBΔSACE_Lrp/5387-5386 with 10mM extra valine in the industrial culture media reached 5001mg/L, a 41% increase over 3503mg/L of WB. These insights into the molecular regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis by SACE_Lrp in S. erythraea are instrumental in increasing

  1. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good.

  2. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    Kokusho, Ryuhei; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  3. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    Kokusho, Ryuhei, E-mail: kokusho@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu, E-mail: katsuma@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2016-11-15

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  4. Uranium, resources, production and demand including other nuclear fuel cycle data

    1975-12-01

    The uranium reserves exploitable at a cost below 15 dollars/lb U 3 O 8 , are 210,000 tonnes. While present uranium production capacities amount to 26,000 tonnes uranium per year, plans have been announced which would increase this capacity to 44,000 tonnes by 1978. Given an appropriate economic climate, annual capacities of 60,000 tonnes and 87,000 tonnes could be attained by 1980 and 1985, respectively, based on presently known reserves. However, in order to maintain or increase such a capacity beyond 1985, substantial additional resources would have to be identified. Present annual demand for natural uranium amounts to 18,000 tonnes and is expected to establish itself at 50,000 tonnes by 1980 and double this figure by 1985. Influences to increase this demand in the medium term could come from shortages in other fuel cycle capacities, i.e. enrichment (higher tails assays) and reprocessing (no uranium and plutonium recycle). However, the analysis of the near term uranium supply and demand situation does not necessarily indicate a prolongation of the current tight uranium market. Concerning the longer term, the experts believe that the steep increase in uranium demand foreseen in the eighties, according to present reactor programmes, with doubling times of the order of 6 to 7 years, will pose formidable problems for the uranium industry. For example, in order to provide reserves sufficient to support the required production rates, annual additions to reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years. Efforts to expand world-wide exploration levels to meet this challenge would be facilitated if a co-ordinated approach were adopted by the nuclear industry as a whole

  5. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  6. Basic Substances under EU Pesticide Regulation: An Opportunity for Organic Production?

    Patrice A. Marchand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some of the active substances allowed in organic production are now approved as basic sub- stances under the EU plant protection products regulation. Previously, all organic farming permitted active substances were approved as conventional plant protection products. In accordance with the criteria of Article 23 of the EU regulation (EC No 1107/2009, basic substances are granted without maximum residue limits and have a good prospect for being included in Annex II of organic farming Regulation (EC 889/2008. In fact, most of them are already permitted in organic farming. At this stage, it seems desirable to organize applications in order to avoid duplications and to clarify strategy across Europe. This organization should be planned in order to identify corresponding knowledge and data from field experiments, and to further constitute the most crucial issues related to organic production. A work of this nature was initially supported by IFOAM-EU for lecithin, calcium hydroxide and Quassia extract. The Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB was previously engaged in a large-scale approval plan motivated by the continuous demand for the regularization of compounds/substances already in use and has a mandate for testing and approving new compatible substances. Thus, the horsetail extract (Equisetum arvense was the first approved basic substance and ITAB has obtained 11 of the 15 basic substances approved at the EU level.

  7. Bringing smart pills to market: FDA regulation of ingestible drug/device combination products.

    Avery, Matthew; Liu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a pill that, after you swallow it, can track its position in your body. Or imagine a pill that can transmit a message to a doctor to tell him that you have taken your bitter medicine. Pills like this already exist. These so-called smart pills are an emerging type of medical therapy. However, this nascent technology has yet to reach the market and developers of these novel therapies face significant regulatory challenges. This article predicts how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate smart pills and shows how the current regulatory regime is inadequate. The article then proposes modifying the current regulatory regime to encourage development of smart pills and other innovative combination products by: (1) regulating combination products based on their "novel mode of action" rather than their "primary mode of action," (2) creating a marketing approval pathway specifically for combination products, and (3) eliminating regulations that require sponsors to get marketing approval from multiple centers within FDA and providing regulatory guidance specifically for ingestible drug/device combination products.

  8. Mangotoxin production of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is regulated by MgoA.

    Carrión, Víctor J; van der Voort, Menno; Arrebola, Eva; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; de Vicente, Antonio; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-02-21

    The antimetabolite mangotoxin is a key factor in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains which cause apical necrosis of mango trees. Previous studies showed that mangotoxin biosynthesis is governed by the mbo operon. Random mutagenesis led to the identification of two other gene clusters that affect mangotoxin biosynthesis. These are the gacS/gacA genes and mgo operon which harbors the four genes mgoBCAD. The current study shows that disruption of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene mgoA resulted in loss of mangotoxin production and reduced virulence on tomato leaves. Transcriptional analyses by qPCR and promoter reporter fusions revealed that mbo expression is regulated by both gacS/gacA and mgo genes. Also, expression of the mgo operon was shown to be regulated by gacS/gacA. Heterologous expression under the native promoter of the mbo operon resulted in mangotoxin production in non-producing P. syringae strains, but not in other Pseudomonas species. Also introduction of the mbo and mgo operons in nonproducing P. protegens Pf-5 did not confer mangotoxin production but did enhance transcription of the mbo promoter. From the data obtained in this study, we conclude that both mbo and mgo operons are under the control of the gacS/gacA two-component system and that the MgoA product acts as a positive regulator of mangotoxin biosynthesis.

  9. Pyrolysis of plastic waste for liquid fuel production as prospective energy resource

    Sharuddin, S. D. A.; Abnisa, F.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Aroua, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide plastic generation expanded over years because of the variety applications of plastics in numerous sectors that caused the accumulation of plastic waste in the landfill. The growing of plastics demand definitely affected the petroleum resources availability as non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. A few options that have been considered for plastic waste management were recycling and energy recovery technique. Nevertheless, several obstacles of recycling technique such as the needs of sorting process that was labour intensive and water pollution that lessened the process sustainability. As a result, the plastic waste conversion into energy was developed through innovation advancement and extensive research. Since plastics were part of petroleum, the oil produced through the pyrolysis process was said to have high calorific value that could be used as an alternative fuel. This paper reviewed the thermal and catalytic degradation of plastics through pyrolysis process and the key factors that affected the final end product, for instance, oil, gaseous and char. Additionally, the liquid fuel properties and a discussion on several perspectives regarding the optimization of the liquid oil yield for every plastic were also included in this paper.

  10. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production and Associated Resource Decoupling: 2010-2050.

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E

    2018-02-06

    Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) methodology has previously been developed to assess the intensity of anthropogenic extraction of biomass resources. However, there is limited analysis concerning future trends of HANPP. Here we present four scenarios for global biomass demand and HANPP harv (the most key component of HANPP) from 2010 to 2050 by incorporating data on expanded historical drivers and disaggregated biomass demand (food, wood material, and fuelwood). The results show that the biomass demand has the lowest value in the equitability world scenario (an egalitarian vision) and the highest value in the security foremost scenario (an isolationist vision). The biomass demand for food and materials increases over time, while fuelwood demand decreases over time. Global HANPP harv rises to between 8.5 and 10.1 Pg C/yr in 2050 in the four scenarios, 14-35% above its value in 2010, and some 50% of HANPP harv is calculated to be crop residues, wood residues, and food losses in the future. HANPP harv in developing regions (Asia, Africa, and Latin America) increases faster than that in more-developed regions (North America and Europe), due to urbanization, population growth, and increasing income. Decoupling of HANPP harv and socioeconomic development is also discussed in this work.

  11. Biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production in murine macrophages.

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Endo, Yasuo; Muramoto, Koji; Sugawara, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, functions as a cofactor of carboxylases that catalyze an indispensable cellular metabolism. Although significant decreases in serum biotin levels have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, the biological roles of biotin in inflammatory responses are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on TNF-alpha production. Mice were fed a basal diet or a biotin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. Serum biotin levels were significantly lower in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. After i.v. administration of LPS, serum TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. A murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1, was cultured in a biotin-sufficient or -deficient medium for 4 weeks. Cell proliferation and biotinylation of intracellular proteins were decreased significantly in biotin-deficient cells compared with biotin-sufficient cells. Significantly higher production and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha were detected in biotin-deficient J774.1 cells than biotin-sufficient cells in response to LPS and even without LPS stimulation. Intracellular TNF-alpha expression was inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating that biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production at the transcriptional level. However, the expression levels of TNF receptors, CD14, and TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 complex were similar between biotin-sufficient and -deficient cells. No differences were detected in the activities of the NF-kappaB family or AP-1. The TNF-alpha induction by biotin deficiency was down-regulated by biotin supplementation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that biotin deficiency may up-regulate TNF-alpha production or that biotin excess down-regulates TNF-alpha production, suggesting that biotin status may influence inflammatory diseases.

  12. Knowledge Management for Safety Regulators: Cooperation to Achieve a Much Needed Product

    Mallick, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge management (KM) has been identified by a number of IAEA documents as one of the key factors that can contribute to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear facilities in Member States. The IAEA Strategic Approaches to Education and Training in Nuclear and Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety identify and underline KM as an important line of action for effective national and organizational strategies in education and training. The capacity building “umbrella concept”, developed within the Action Plan in Nuclear Safety, also recognizes KM as one of the main four pillars (Education and Training, Human Resource Development, Knowledge Management and Knowledge Networks) of capacity building. Within existing IAEA publications, there is currently no specific practical guidance on how to develop and implement KM programmes for regulators. As such, in 2014, the IAEA Steering Committee on Regulatory Capacity Building and Knowledge Management requested the IAEA to develop a publication providing such practical guidance. The objective of the publication is to provide practical guidance to Member States on how to plan, establish and maintain an effective safety KM programme for regulators of facilities and activities. The report will identify benefits and uses of KM by regulators and will describe how a regulator could use KM in support of its functions. This presentation will provide an overview of the Knowledge Management for Safety Regulators document while highlighting the cross-departmental cooperation (i.e., NS and NE) used in its development. Furthermore, this presentation will provide insight into the challenges currently being faced by safety regulators vis-à-vis KM programmes and present potential paths forward with respect to the definition of efficient and effective KM indicators. (author

  13. FEATURES OF THE STATE REGULATION OF THE PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS IN THE WORLD AND IN UKRAINE

    Viktoriya Bashuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the regulation of the use, consumption, and trade of genetically modified organisms in different countries of the world, as well as in Ukraine. The definition of international approaches to risk assessment of genetically modified products is of particular importance for international trade. Methodology. The study is based on data from different sources, beginning with the first mention of genetically modified organisms, ending with the latest received data from different countries. Purpose. Show how different countries refer differently to the production of genetically modified products, differently perceive it and are guided by different principles. Find ways to solve the problems associated with the introduction of GMOs in Ukraine and compare them with other countries. Results. The study showed that developed countries have developed clear rules for the production, labelling, consumption, and trade of products containing GMOs. Also, the bodies and structures responsible for compliance with all these rules are defined and a large number of legislative acts has been adopted, which cannot be said of Ukraine. In Ukraine, this is a large gap because “on paper” also seems that there are some rules according to GMOs but they are not clear, consistent, and they are not followed due to their observance, as these powers are entrusted to a large number of structures. Due to imperfect legislation and lack of funds, products that are imported are not tested for GMOs content, there are no studies on the safety of their consumption and cultivation, the reliability of information on labels is not followed. Practical implications. In Ukraine, in order to ensure the proper level of state regulation, protection, and use of genetically modified products obtained with the help of modern biotechnologies, it is necessary to adhere strictly to the fulfilment of the main criteria: 1 adoption and further improvement of

  14. Quantitative analysis of investment allocation over various resources of health care systems by using views of product lines

    Tai, Guangfu; Williams, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Hospitals can be viewed as service enterprises, of which the primary function is to provide specific sets of diagnostic and therapeutic medical services to individual patients. Each patient has certain diagnosis and therapeutic attributes in common with some other patients. Thus, patients with similar medical attributes could be 'processed' in one 'product line' of medical services, and individual treatments for patients within one 'product line' can be regarded as incurring identical consumption of health care resources. This article presents a theoretical framing for resource planning and investment allocation of various resources from a macro perspective of costs that demonstrates the need to plan capacity at the disaggregated resource level. The result of a balanced line ('optimal') is compared with an alternative scheme of 'the same ratio composing of resources' under the same monetary constraints. Thus, it is demonstrated that planning at the disaggregated level affords much better use of resources than achieved in common practice of budget control by simple percentage increase/decrease in distributing a financial vote.

  15. Efficient L-Alanine Production by a Thermo-Regulated Switch in Escherichia coli.

    Zhou, Li; Deng, Can; Cui, Wen-Jing; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Zhou, Zhe-Min

    2016-01-01

    L-Alanine has important applications in food, pharmaceutical and veterinary and is used as a substrate for production of engineered thermoplastics. Microbial fermentation could reduce the production cost and promote the application of L-alanine. However, the presence of L-alanine significantly inhibit cell growth rate and cause a decrease in the ultimate L-alanine productivity. For efficient L-alanine production, a thermo-regulated genetic switch was designed to dynamically control the expression of L-alanine dehydrogenase (alaD) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus on the Escherichia coli B0016-060BC chromosome. The optimal cultivation conditions for the genetically switched alanine production using B0016-060BC were the following: an aerobic growth phase at 33 °C with a 1-h thermo-induction at 42 °C followed by an oxygen-limited phase at 42 °C. In a bioreactor experiment using the scaled-up conditions optimized in a shake flask, B0016-060BC accumulated 50.3 g biomass/100 g glucose during the aerobic growth phase and 96 g alanine/100 g glucose during the oxygen-limited phase, respectively. The L-alanine titer reached 120.8 g/l with higher overall and oxygen-limited volumetric productivities of 3.09 and 4.18 g/l h, respectively, using glucose as the sole carbon source. Efficient cell growth and L-alanine production were reached separately, by switching cultivation temperature. The results revealed the application of a thermo-regulated strategy for heterologous metabolic production and pointed to strategies for improving L-alanine production.

  16. RegPrecise 3.0--a resource for genome-scale exploration of transcriptional regulation in bacteria.

    Novichkov, Pavel S; Kazakov, Alexey E; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Leyn, Semen A; Kovaleva, Galina Y; Sutormin, Roman A; Kazanov, Marat D; Riehl, William; Arkin, Adam P; Dubchak, Inna; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2013-11-01

    Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in prokaryotes is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. Bacteria from different taxonomic groups, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different, possess highly diverged transcriptional regulatory networks. The comparative genomics approaches are useful for in silico reconstruction of bacterial regulons and networks operated by both transcription factors (TFs) and RNA regulatory elements (riboswitches). RegPrecise (http://regprecise.lbl.gov) is a web resource for collection, visualization and analysis of transcriptional regulons reconstructed by comparative genomics. We significantly expanded a reference collection of manually curated regulons we introduced earlier. RegPrecise 3.0 provides access to inferred regulatory interactions organized by phylogenetic, structural and functional properties. Taxonomy-specific collections include 781 TF regulogs inferred in more than 160 genomes representing 14 taxonomic groups of Bacteria. TF-specific collections include regulogs for a selected subset of 40 TFs reconstructed across more than 30 taxonomic lineages. Novel collections of regulons operated by RNA regulatory elements (riboswitches) include near 400 regulogs inferred in 24 bacterial lineages. RegPrecise 3.0 provides four classifications of the reference regulons implemented as controlled vocabularies: 55 TF protein families; 43 RNA motif families; ~150 biological processes or metabolic pathways; and ~200 effectors or environmental signals. Genome-wide visualization of regulatory networks and metabolic pathways covered by the reference regulons are available for all studied genomes. A separate section of RegPrecise 3.0 contains draft regulatory networks in 640 genomes obtained by an conservative propagation of the reference regulons to closely related genomes. RegPrecise 3.0 gives access to the transcriptional regulons reconstructed in

  17. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  18. Reproductive toxicity of a mixture of regulated drinking-water disinfection by-products in a multigenerational rat bioassay

    BACKGROUND:Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloaretic acids (HAAs) are regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs); their joint reproductive toxicity in drinking water is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a drinking water mixture of the four regulated THMs and five regulated HAAs ...

  19. Addressing water resources risk in England and Wales: Long term infrastructure planning in a private, regulated industry

    Turner, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Water resources planning is a complex and challenging discipline in which decision makers must deal with conflicting objectives, contested socio-economic values and vast uncertainties, including long term hydrological variability. The task is arguably more demanding in England and Wales, where private water companies must adhere to a rigid set of regulatory planning guidelines in order to justify new infrastructural investments. These guidelines prescribe a "capacity expansion" approach to planning: ensure that a deterministic measure of supply, known as "Deployable Output," meets projected demand over a 25-year planning horizon. Deployable Output is derived using a method akin to yield analysis and is commensurate with the maximum rate of supply that a water resources system can sustain without incurring failure under a simulation of historical recorded hydrological conditions. This study examines whether Deployable Output analysis is fit to serve an industry in which: water companies are seeking to invest in cross-company water transfer schemes to deal with loss of water availability brought about by European environmental legislation and an increase in demand driven by population growth; water companies are expected address potential climate change impacts through their planning activities; and regulators wish to benchmark water resource system performance across the separate companies. Of particular interest, then, is the adequacy of Deployable Output analysis as a means to measuring current and future water shortage risk and comparing across supply systems. Data from the UK National River Flow Archive are used to develop a series of hypothetical reservoir systems in two hydrologically contrasting regions -- northwest England/north Wales and Southeast England. The systems are varied by adjusting the draft ratio (ratio of target annual demand to mean annual inflow), the inflow diversity (covariance of streamflow sequences supplying the system), the strength of

  20. From Oxygen Generation to Metals Production: In Situ Resource Utilization by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    Khetpal, Deepak; Ducret, Andrew C.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    For the exploration of other bodies in the solar system, electrochemical processing is arguably the most versatile technology for conversion of local resources into usable commodities: by electrolysis one can, in principle, produce (1) breathable oxygen, (2) silicon for the fabrication of solar cells, (3) various reactive metals for use as electrodes in advanced storage batteries, and (4) structural metals such as steel and aluminum. Even so, to date there has been no sustained effort to develop such processes, in part due to the inadequacy of the database. The objective here is to identify chemistries capable of sustaining molten oxide electrolysis in the cited applications and to examine the behavior of laboratory-scale cells designed to generate oxygen and to produce metal. The basic research includes the study of the underlying high-temperature physical chemistry of oxide melts representative of lunar regolith and of Martian soil. To move beyond empirical approaches to process development, the thermodynamic and transport properties of oxide melts are being studied to help set the limits of composition and temperature for the processing trials conducted in laboratory-scale electrolysis cells. The goal of this investigation is to deliver a working prototype cell that can use lunar regolith and Martian soil to produce breathable oxygen along with metal by-product. Additionally, the process can be generalized to permit adaptation to accommodate different feedstock chemistries, such as those that will be encountered on other bodies in the solar system. The expected results of this research include: (1) the identification of appropriate electrolyte chemistries; (2) the selection of candidate anode and cathode materials compatible with electrolytes named above; and (3) performance data from a laboratory-scale cell producing oxygen and metal. On the strength of these results it should be possible to assess the technical viability of molten oxide electrolysis for in

  1. The global regulator LaeA controls production of citric acid and endoglucanases in Aspergillus carbonarius

    Linde, Tore; Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The global regulatory protein LaeA is known for regulating the production of many kinds of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species, as well as sexual and asexual reproduction, and morphology. In Aspergillus carbonarius, it has been shown that LaeA regulates production of ochratoxin. We have ...

  2. Thyrotropin (TSH) regulates triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena.

    Csaba, G; Pállinger, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the experiments was to study the regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Untreated and troph-hormone treated specimen were prepared and in different timepoints T3 content was measured and compared by immunocytochemical flow cytometry. 0.1 or 0.001 IU TSH in tryptone-yeast medium stimulated T3 synthesis at 10, 20, 30 min, but does not stimulate after 1 h. The overlapping gonadotropic hormone (GTH) also did it, however only at 10 min. In Losina salt solution (physiological for Tetrahymena) the effect was weaker, however outer amino acid source was not absolutely needed for the production of the hormone. The results show that the TSH regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis (storage, secretion) and troph-hormone overlap can be deduced to a unicellular level. This may allow the hypothesis that the endocrine mechanisms proved at a low level of phylogeny are preserved for the higher ranked organisms.

  3. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    Jé gu, Teddy; Domenichini, Sé verine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Auré lie; Kim, SoonKap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Sté phanie; Mouille, Gré gory; Bourge, Mickaë l; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  4. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    Jégu, Teddy

    2015-10-12

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  5. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology.

    Marcela Montes de Oca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1 cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation.

  6. Managing young upland forests in southeast Alaska for wood products, wildlife, aquatic resources, and fishes: problem analysis and study plan.

    Mark S. Wipfli; Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Adelaide C. Johnson; Toni L. de Santo; Thomas A. Hanley; Mark E. Schultz; Mason D. Bryant; Richard T. Edwards; Ewa H. Orlikowska; Takashi Gomi

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) appears to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and affect the major resources (timber, wildlife, and fisheries) of forested ecosystems in southeast Alaska. We propose an integrated approach to understanding how alder influences trophic links and processes in young-growth ecosystems. The presence...

  7. Asexual sporulation signalling regulates autolysis of Aspergillus nidulans via modulating the chitinase ChiB production.

    Pócsi, I; Leiter, E; Kwon, N-J; Shin, K-S; Kwon, G-S; Pusztahelyi, T; Emri, T; Abuknesha, R A; Price, R G; Yu, J-H

    2009-08-01

    Elucidation of the regulation of ChiB production in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutational inactivation of the A. nidulans chiB gene resulted in a nonautolytic phenotype. To better understand the mechanisms controlling both developmental progression and fungal autolysis, we examined a range of autolysis-associated parameters in A. nidulans developmental and/or autolytic mutants. Investigation of disorganization of mycelial pellets, loss of biomass, extra-/intracellular chitinase activities, ChiB production and chiB mRNA levels in various cultures revealed that, in submerged cultures, initialization of autolysis and stationary phase-induced ChiB production are intimately coupled, and that both processes are controlled by the FluG-BrlA asexual sporulation regulatory pathway. ChiB production does not affect the progression of apoptotic cell death in the aging A. nidulans cultures. The endochitinase ChiB plays an important role in autolysis of A. nidulans, and its production is initiated by FluG-BrlA signalling. Despite the fact that apoptosis is an inseparable part of fungal autolysis, its regulation is independent to FluG-initiated sporulation signalling. Deletion of chiB and fluG homologues in industrial filamentous fungal strains may stabilize the hyphal structures in the autolytic phase of growth and limit the release of autolytic hydrolases into the culture medium.

  8. Evaluation of Loss Resources during Sugarcane Production Process and Provide Solutions to Reduce Waste

    H Zakidizaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction No use of advanced mechanization and weakness in post harvesting technology are the main reasons of agricultural losses. Some of these wastes (agricultural losses are related to crop growing conditions in field and the remaining to processing of sugar in mill. The most useful priority setting methods for agricultural projects are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. So, this study presents an introduction of application manner of the AHP as a mostly common method of setting agricultural projects priorities. The purpose of this work is studying the sugarcane loss during production process using AHP in Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods The resources of sugarcane waste have been defined based on expert’s opinions. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this research. The study was applied to a panel of qualified informants made up of thirty-two experts. Those interviewed were distributed in Sugarcane Development and By-products Company in 2015-2016. Then, with using the analytical hierarchy process, a questionnaire was designed for defining the weight and importance of parameters effecting on sugarcane waste. For this method of evaluation, three main criteria considered, were yield criteria, cost criteria and income criteria. Criteria and prioritizing of them was done by questionnaire and interview with sophisticated experts. This technique determined and ranked the importance of sugarcane waste resources based on attributing relative weights to factors with respect to comments provided in the questionnaires. Analytical Hierarchy Process was done by using of software (Expert choice and the inconsistency rate on expert judgments was investigated. Results and Discussion How to use agricultural implements and machinery during planting and harvesting of sugarcane, can increase or decrease the volume of waste. In planting period, the losses mainly consists of loss of setts during cutting them by machine

  9. Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Evidence from Trade and Production in the Manufacturing Sector

    Yang, Tsung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) have not reached a consistent conclusion. The existing literature is primarily based on anecdotes and scattered case studies. This study analyzes the trade flows and composition change of the most polluting industries in manufacturing sectors among countries in order to offer a more general conclusion. This study finds that stricter environmental regulation stringency decreases the net export and production share of the most p...

  10. Do Environmental Regulations Influence the Competitiveness of Pollution-Intensive Products?

    Yang Lu

    2010-01-01

    According to "Pollution Haven Effect," in order to circumvent stringent environment standards, polluting industries in developed countries will be chosen to locate into developing countries; another way is that developed countries increase imports of pollution-intensive products instead of producing by their own, both of which can contribute to the changes of comparative advantages in the past 30 years. Since 1990s, many scholars have paid special attention on whether environmental regulation...

  11. Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017.

    Klieger, Sarah B; Gutman, Abraham; Allen, Leslie; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott

    2017-12-01

    (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on 1 February 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full data sets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (http://www.pdaps.org/; Archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6qv5CZNaZ on 2 June 2017). Twenty-eight states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All states protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources number of dispensaries per state and restricting proximity to various types of location. The federal ban in the United States on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Regulation of advanced therapy medicinal products in Europe and the role of academia.

    Pearce, Kim F; Hildebrandt, Martin; Greinix, Hildegard; Scheding, Stefan; Koehl, Ulrike; Worel, Nina; Apperley, Jane; Edinger, Matthius; Hauser, Andrea; Mischak-Weissinger, Eva; Dickinson, Anne M; Lowdell, Mark W

    2014-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are gene therapy, somatic cell therapy or tissue-engineered products regulated under (EC) No. 1394/2007 to ensure their free movement within the European Union while guaranteeing the highest level of health protection for patients. Academic good manufacturing practice (GMP) centers are major contributors in the development of ATMPs and this study assessed the impact of regulations on them. European academic and non-industrial facilities (n = 747) were contacted, and a representative sample of 50 replied to a detailed questionnaire. Experienced centres were further selected in every Member State (MS) for semi-structured interviews. Indicators of ATMP production and development success were statistically assessed, and opinions about directive implementation were documented. Facilities experienced in manufacturing cell therapy transplant products are the most successful in developing ATMPs. New centres lacking this background struggle to enter the field, and there remains a shortage of facilities in academia participating in translational research. This is compounded by heterogeneous implementation of the regulations across MS. GMP facilities successfully developing ATMPs are present in all MS. However, the implementation of regulations is heterogeneous between MS, with substantial differences in the definition of ATMPs and in the approved manufacturing environment. The cost of GMP compliance is underestimated by research funding bodies. This is detrimental to development of new ATMPs and commercialization of any that are successful in early clinical trials. Academic GMP practitioners should strengthen their political visibility and contribute to the development of functional and effective European Union legislation in this field. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Deliberative democracy and co-management of natural resources: The case of Funäsdalen snowmobile regulation area

    Anna Karin Elise Zachrisson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to deepen the understanding of how co-management and deliberative democracy relate to one another. Deliberation is an understudied aspect of common-pool resource theory that could be developed by a closer connection to deliberative democratic theory. Co-management studies may also provide needed empirical insights to deliberative democratic theory. A framework is developed to analyze to what degree co-management arrangements incorporate deliberative elements. To test its usefulness, a case study of a co-management process in Sweden is analyzed. In Funäsdalsfjällen, a conflict-ridden situation caused by snowmobiles ended in agreement and the establishment of a municipal regulation area. Central and regional authorities initially failed to resolve the conflict, but when the municipality started working directly with the relevant interest groups, agreement was reached. Deliberative elements are shown central to the success, and it is concluded that co-management and deliberative democratic approaches indeed do cross-fertilize one another.

  14. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  15. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  16. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  17. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  19. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  20. Boundary Conditions of the High-Investment Human Resource Systems-Small-Firm Labor Productivity Relationship

    Chadwick, Clint; Way, Sean A.; Kerr, Gerry; Thacker, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Although a few published, multiindustry, firm-level, empirical studies have linked systems of high-investment or high-performance human resource management practices to enhanced small-firm performance, this stream of strategic human resource management research is underdeveloped and equivocal. Accordingly, in this study, we use a sample of…

  1. Identification, characterisation and composition of scavengeable feed resources for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    Goromela, E.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Katule, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A participatory study was carried out in four villages of central Tanzania to appraise existing and potential scavengeable feed resources available for rural poultry. In addition, proximate analysis of selected scavengeable feed resources including chicken crop and gizzards contents was carried out

  2. Resource use efficiency in small-scale rice production in Nigeria ...

    The production function for rice, elasticity of production, return to scale, marginal productivity and level of efficiency of inputs used in rice production were determined. ... With the exception of fertilizer that was over-utilized, all other inputs were underutilized with ratios of marginal value products to unit prices greater than unity ...

  3. Structure, control and regulation of the formal market for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria.

    Oguntade, Adegboyega E; Oluwalana, Isaac B

    2011-01-01

    There are informal and formal markets for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria. The formal market is subject to the national regulatory framework for Food and Drug Administration and Control. It is relatively new and underdeveloped. This study was designed to appraise this market with special emphasis on the market participants, market structure, marketing functions performed, conduct of sellers in the market and; standards and regulations to which the market is subject. Information used for this study was collected through personal interviews and interactions with key participants in the market; especially the officials of regulatory agency. The market structure was analysed in terms of the share of market controlled by participants and product types. Concentration Ratios (CR2 and CR4) were used to assess the market share. Marketing functions being performed were described in terms of the exchange, physical and facilitating functions while the conduct was described in terms of pricing and promotional strategies. The regulatory framework under which the market operates was appraised. The market was highly concentrated with a CR2 and CR4 of 58.5% and 80.8 %; respectively. Imported products accounted for only 12.3% of the market. The predominant modes of presentation of the product were capsule (41.6%) and liquid (36.2%). About 20.77% of the products were classified as multivitamins, 13.85% were antibiotics while 10.77% addressed sexual dysfunctional problems. These products were regulated under the Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) decrees, 1993-1999. Only 2.3% of the products have received full registration status while the others were only listed.

  4. β-cryptoxanthin regulates bone resorption related-cytokine production in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Nishigaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Ichioka, Hiroaki; Honjo, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Oseko, Fumishige; Kita, Masakazu; Mazda, Osam; Kanamura, Narisato

    2013-07-01

    β-cryptoxanthin (β-cry) is a type of carotenoid found in certain fruits and vegetables. Although it has been shown that β-cry inhibits alveolar bone resorption, the molecular mechanisms for this have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of β-cry on bone resorption related-cytokine production in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. hPDL cells were stimulated with β-cry (1×10(-7)mol/l), mechanical stress (1 or 6MPa), and P. gingivalis. The production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA. The production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was not induced in hPDL cells after stimulation with β-cry, although these cytokines were produced after stimulation with P. gingivalis. On the other hand, IL-6 and IL-8 were produced after exposure to 6MPa of mechanical stress. The production of IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly decreased by the addition of β-cry. Furthermore, β-cry up-regulated the production of OPG, but not RANKL. β-cry inhibited the production of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by mechanical stress and periodontopathogenic bacteria in hPDL cells. Moreover, β-cry up-regulated OPG production. These results suggest that β-cry may prevent bone resorption in periodontitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

    EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

  6. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  7. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPand exemptions to the Regulation 1394/2007: how confident can we be? An exploratory analysis.

    Philippe eVan Wilder

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The market authorisation procedure for medicinal products for human use is relying on their demonstrated efficacy, safety and pharmaceutical quality. This applies to all medicinal products whether of chemical or biological origin. Since October 2009, the first advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP has been authorised through the centralized procedure. ATMPs are gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products or tissue-engineered products.An appropriate ATMP- Regulation is dealing with ATMP requirements.Two exemptions are foreseen to the ATMP-Regulation: a. Products, which were legally on the Community market when the Regulation became applicable, should comply to the Regulation by 30 December 2012. b.the hospital exemption rule for non routine products for an individual patient. In this work we explored whether the actual application of the Regulation on ATMPs is in line with the aim of the Regulation in terms of guaranteeing the highest level of health protection for patients. Based on the analysis of the relative efficacy of the only EC authorized ATMP and its exempted alternatives, there is evidence against this Regulation 1394/2007 assumption.

  8. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products and Exemptions to the Regulation 1394/2007: How Confident Can We be? An Exploratory Analysis.

    Van Wilder, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The market authorization procedure for medicinal products for human use is relying on their demonstrated efficacy, safety, and pharmaceutical quality. This applies to all medicinal products whether of chemical or biological origin. Since October 2009, the first advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) has been authorized through the centralized procedure. ATMPs are gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products or tissue-engineered products. An appropriate ATMP - Regulation is dealing with ATMP requirements. Two exemptions are foreseen to the ATMP Regulation: (a) Products, which were legally on the Community market when the Regulation became applicable, should comply to the Regulation by December 30, 2012. (b) The hospital exemption rule for non-routine products for an individual patient. In this work we explored whether the actual application of the Regulation on ATMPs is in line with the aim of the Regulation in terms of guaranteeing the highest level of health protection for patients. Based on the analysis of the relative efficacy of the only EC authorized ATMP and its exempted alternatives, there is evidence against this Regulation 1394/2007 assumption.

  9. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  10. Tradeable emission permits regulations in the presence of imperfectly competitive product markets. Welfare implications

    Sartzetakis, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyse the interaction of a competitive market for emission permits with an oligopolistic product market. It is well known that a competitive permits market achieves the cost minimizing distribution of abatement effort among the polluting firms for a given reduction in emissions. However, when the product market is oligopolistic, it may redistribute production inefficiently among firms. It has been suggested that this inefficiency can outweigh the gains obtained from using emission permits instead of command and control. Although this argument is clearly correct under full information, it is shown in the present paper that it reverses under incomplete information. In particular, it is shown that when tradeable emission permits are specified according to the standard textbook example, they yield higher social welfare than the command and control regulation. 1 fig., 2 appendices, 11 refs

  11. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Eriksson, Clas [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage.

  12. Regulation of metabolic products and gene expression in Fusarium asiaticum by agmatine addition.

    Suzuki, Tadahiro; Kim, Young-Kyung; Yoshioka, Hifumi; Iwahashi, Yumiko

    2013-05-01

    The metabolic products resulting from the cultivation of F. asiaticum in agmatine were identified using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. Glyoxylic acid was detected from fungal cultures grown in agmatine, while it was absent in control cells. The abundance of other metabolic products of the glycolytic pathway also increased because of agmatine; however, there was no increase in the amounts of pyruvic acid or metabolites from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Moreover, gene expression levels within Fusarium asiaticum exposed to agmatine were analyzed by DNA microarray. Changes in gene expression levels directed the changes in metabolic products. Our results suggest that acetyl coenzyme A, which is a starting substrate for the biosynthesis of deoxynivalenol (DON), was simultaneously produced by activated β-oxidation. Furthermore, the content of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) was increased in the agmatine addition culture medium. GABA can be synthesized from agmatine through putrescine and might influence the regulation of DON-related genes.

  13. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Eriksson, Clas

    2004-01-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage

  14. Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards

    Justyna Górna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

  15. [Analysis of difficult problems on European Union laws and regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. DksA-HapR-RpoS axis regulates haemagglutinin protease production in Vibrio cholerae.

    Basu, Pallabi; Pal, Ritesh Ranjan; Dasgupta, Shreya; Bhadra, Rupak K

    2017-06-01

    DksA acts as a co-factor for the intracellular small signalling molecule ppGpp during the stringent response. We recently reported that the expression of the haemagglutinin protease (HAP), which is needed for shedding of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae during the late phase of infection, is significantly downregulated in V. cholerae ∆dksA mutant (∆dksAVc) cells. So far, it has been shown that HAP production by V. cholerae cells is critically regulated by HapR and also by RpoS. Here, we provide evidence that V. cholerae DksA (DksAVc) positively regulates HapR at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We show that in ∆dksAVc cells the CsrB/C/D sRNAs, required for the maintenance of intracellular levels of hapR transcripts during the stationary growth, are distinctly downregulated. Moreover, the expression of exponential phase regulatory protein Fis, a known negative regulator of HapR, was found to continue even during the stationary phase in ∆dksAVc cells compared to that of wild-type strain, suggesting another layer of complex regulation of HapR by DksAVc. Extensive reporter construct-based and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses supported that RpoS is distinctly downregulated at the post-transcriptional/translational levels in stationary phase-grown ∆dksAVc cells. Since HAP expression through HapR and RpoS is stationary phase-specific in V. cholerae, it appears that DksAVc is also a critical stationary phase regulator for fine tuning of the expression of HAP. Moreover, experimental evidence provided in this study clearly supports that DksAVc is sitting at the top of the hierarchy of regulation of expression of HAP in V. cholerae.

  17. Improving monoterpene geraniol production through geranyl diphosphate synthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Bao, Xiaoming; Li, Chen; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Monoterpenes have wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and medicine industries and have recently received increased attention as advanced biofuels. However, compared with sesquiterpenes, monoterpene production is still lagging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, geraniol, a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol, was synthesized in S. cerevisiae. We evaluated three geraniol synthases in S. cerevisiae, and the geraniol synthase Valeriana officinalis (tVoGES), which lacked a plastid-targeting peptide, yielded the highest geraniol production. To improve geraniol production, synthesis of the precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was regulated by comparing three specific GPP synthase genes derived from different plants and the endogenous farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene variants ERG20 (G) (ERG20 (K197G) ) and ERG20 (WW) (ERG20 (F96W-N127W) ), and controlling endogenous ERG20 expression, coupled with increasing the expression of the mevalonate pathway by co-overexpressing IDI1, tHMG1, and UPC2-1. The results showed that overexpressing ERG20 (WW) and strengthening the mevalonate pathway significantly improved geraniol production, while expressing heterologous GPP synthase genes or down-regulating endogenous ERG20 expression did not show positive effect. In addition, we constructed an Erg20p(F96W-N127W)-tVoGES fusion protein, and geraniol production reached 66.2 mg/L after optimizing the amino acid linker and the order of the proteins. The best strain yielded 293 mg/L geraniol in a fed-batch cultivation, a sevenfold improvement over the highest titer previously reported in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. Finally, we showed that the toxicity of geraniol limited its production. The platform developed here can be readily used to synthesize other monoterpenes.

  18. Cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans

    Atoui, A.; Larey, C.; Thokala, R.; Calvo, A.M.; Kastner, C.; Fischer, R.; Etxebeste, O; Espeso, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. In fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. Light can also affect fungal metabolism, including the biosynthesis of natural products. In this study we show that in Aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (ST) toxin depends on the glucose concentration. In cultures grown with 1% glucose and exposed to light, ST production was lower than when grown in the dark. This lower ST production coincided with an elevated rate of cellular damage with partial loss of nuclear integrity and vacuolated cytoplasm. However, in cultures grown with 2% glucose these effects were reversed and light enhanced ST production. Glucose abundance also affected the light-dependent subcellular localization of the VeA (velvet) protein, a key regulator necessary for normal light-dependent morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in Aspergilli and other fungal gen- era. The role of other VeA-associated proteins, particularly the blue-light-sensing proteins LreA and LreB (WC-1 and WC-2 orthologs), on conidiation could also be modified by the abundance of glucose. We also show that LreA and LreB, as well as the phytochrome FphA, modulate not only the synthesis of sterigmat- ocystin, but also the production of the antibiotic penicillin. (author)

  19. Video Productions as Learning Resources in Students' Knowledge Building in the Ubiquitous Society

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    The chapter investigates how video productions may facilitate students’ knowledge building. The video productions in question may either be existing video productions directly aimed for educational use, video productions created in other contexts, but used in educational settings, or video produc...

  20. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in terpenoid índole alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Pedro J. Rocha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G Don is a medicinal plant that produces a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, some of which display pharmacological activity. C. roseus plants and cell cultures have been used to elucidate the TIAs biosynthetic pathway. A considerable number or enzymes have also been characterised, and their respective genes cloned. TIAs production in C. roseus plant and cell cultures is highly regulated at transcriptional-, develop-mental-, and environmental-level. Studies into TIAs biosynthetic gene regulation have been carried out using cell cultures. However, regulation in plants is almost unknown. Here, biosynthetic genes idc, strl, d4h and dat expres-sion levels are qualitatively examined in a developmental series of C. roseus seedlings. The effect of water- and light-stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJa and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA elicitation is also examined. Comparison between seedlings and cell cultures strongly suggests that TIAs biosynthetic gene transcriptional regulation is different in C.roseus plants and cell cultures.